Respiratory Medicine This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.
This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.
Should COPD stand for "comorbidity-related obstructive pulmonary disease"?
The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is enormous and growing. Currently, COPD affects 300 million people worldwide and kills more than 3 million people each year . COPD exacts a large financial toll on society because it is the leading cause of hospitalisation in many jurisdictions in the Western world. In the USA, for example, which has a very robust population-based data, COPD accounts for 650 000 hospital admissions and 1.7 million emergency visits per year . Because hospital-based care is very expensive, the costs of COPD care are staggering, estimated to be $101 billion per year in the USA ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sin, D. D. Tags: COPD and smoking Editorials Source Type: research
2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: The Joint Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) * Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC), International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT)
Guidelines summarize and evaluate all available evidence on a particular issue at the time of the writing process, with the aim of assisting health professionals in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient with a given condition, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk–benefit ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Guidelines and recommendations should help health professionals to make decisions in their daily practice. However, the final decisions concerning an individual patient must be made by the responsible health professional(s) in consultation with...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Galie, N., Humbert, M., Vachiery, J.-L., Gibbs, S., Lang, I., Torbicki, A., Simonneau, G., Peacock, A., Vonk Noordegraaf, A., Beghetti, M., Ghofrani, A., Gomez Sanchez, M. A., Hansmann, G., Klepetko, W., Lancellotti, P., Matucci, M., McDonagh, T., Pierard Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease ESC/ERS Guidelines Source Type: research
An official European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society research statement: interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features
Many patients with an idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) have clinical features that suggest an underlying autoimmune process but do not meet established criteria for a connective tissue disease (CTD). Researchers have proposed differing criteria and terms to describe these patients, and lack of consensus over nomenclature and classification limits the ability to conduct prospective studies of a uniform cohort. The "European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society Task Force on Undifferentiated Forms of Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease" was formed to create consensus regarding the n...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fischer, A., Antoniou, K. M., Brown, K. K., Cadranel, J., Corte, T. J., du Bois, R. M., Lee, J. S., Leslie, K. O., Lynch, D. A., Matteson, E. L., Mosca, M., Noth, I., Richeldi, L., Strek, M. E., Swigris, J. J., Wells, A. U., West, S. G., Collard, H. R., C Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease ERS/ATS Task Force Source Type: research
The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised, two-way cross-over, multicentre study using PROactive draft questionnaires (daily and clinical visit versions) and two activity monitors. Item reduction followed an iterative process including classical and Rasch model analyses, and input from patients and clinical experts. 236 COPD patients from five European centres were incl...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gimeno-Santos, E., Raste, Y., Demeyer, H., Louvaris, Z., de Jong, C., Rabinovich, R. A., Hopkinson, N. S., Polkey, M. I., Vogiatzis, I., Tabberer, M., Dobbels, F., Ivanoff, N., de Boer, W. I., van der Molen, T., Kulich, K., Serra, I., Basagana, X., Troost Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: COPD Source Type: research
Molecular and clinical diseasome of comorbidities in exacerbated COPD patients
The frequent occurrence of comorbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suggests that they may share pathobiological processes and/or risk factors. To explore these possibilities we compared the clinical diseasome and the molecular diseasome of 5447 COPD patients hospitalised because of an exacerbation of the disease. The clinical diseasome is a network representation of the relationships between diseases, in which diseases are connected if they co-occur more than expected at random; in the molecular diseasome, diseases are linked if they share associated genes or interaction between proteins...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Faner, R., Gutierrez-Sacristan, A., Castro-Acosta, A., Grosdidier, S., Gan, W., Sanchez-Mayor, M., Lopez-Campos, J. L., Pozo-Rodriguez, F., Sanz, F., Mannino, D., Furlong, L. I., Agusti, A. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: COPD Source Type: research
Gender differences in adult-onset asthma: results from the Swiss SAPALDIA cohort study
A higher incidence of asthma is reported in women compared with men, but evidence in later adulthood is limited. We aimed to determine the 20-year cumulative incidence of adult asthma in Switzerland and its relation to sex, taking into account age and allergic sensitisation. We assessed incidence of self-report of doctor-diagnosed asthma between 1991/1992 and 2010/2011 in 5128 subjects without asthma, aged 18–60 years at baseline. The age-related probability of asthma onset was analysed by logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders and stratified by sex and allergic sensitisation at baseline. Over 2...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hansen, S., Probst-Hensch, N., Keidel, D., Dratva, J., Bettschart, R., Pons, M., Burdet, L., Bridevaux, P.-O., Schikowski, T., Schindler, C., Rochat, T., Zemp, E. Tags: Epidemiology, occupational and environmental lung disease, Asthma and allergy Original Articles: Asthma Source Type: research
A randomised, placebo-controlled study of the CXCR2 antagonist AZD5069 in bronchiectasis
This randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group multicentre phase IIa study evaluated the effect of the CXCR2 antagonist AZD5069 on sputum neutrophil counts in adults with bronchiectasis. Patients were randomised 1:1 to receive AZD5069 80 mg or placebo orally twice daily for 28 days. Assessments included blood cell counts, inflammatory markers in blood, morning spontaneous sputum, lung function, safety and tolerability and patients completed daily BronkoTest diary cards. The primary outcome measure was the change in absolute sputum neutrophil count. Of 52 randomised patients, 45 completed treatment...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: De Soyza, A., Pavord, I., Elborn, J. S., Smith, D., Wray, H., Puu, M., Larsson, B., Stockley, R. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis Original Articles: Bronchiectasis Source Type: research
Short-chain fatty acids affect cystic fibrosis airway inflammation and bacterial growth
The hypoxic environment of cystic fibrosis airways allows the persistence of facultative anaerobic bacteria, which can produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) through fermentation. However, the relevance of SCFAs in cystic fibrosis lung disease is unknown. We show that SCFAs are present in sputum samples from cystic fibrosis patients in millimolar concentrations (mean±sem 1.99±0.36 mM). SCFAs positively correlated with sputum neutrophil count and higher SCFAs were predictive for impaired nitric oxide production. We studied the effects of the SCFAs acetate, propionate and butyrate on airway inflammatory r...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ghorbani, P., Santhakumar, P., Hu, Q., Djiadeu, P., Wolever, T. M. S., Palaniyar, N., Grasemann, H. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis Original Articles: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research
Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing molecules correlate with clinical status in cystic fibrosis
In conclusion, quorum sensing signal molecules are detectable in cystic fibrosis patients with pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection and are positively correlated with quantitative measures of P. aeruginosa. NHQ correlates with clinical status and has potential as a novel biomarker for P. aeruginosa infection. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Barr, H. L., Halliday, N., Camara, M., Barrett, D. A., Williams, P., Forrester, D. L., Simms, R., Smyth, A. R., Honeybourne, D., Whitehouse, J. L., Nash, E. F., Dewar, J., Clayton, A., Knox, A. J., Fogarty, A. W. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis Original Articles: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research
Lung clearance index in cystic fibrosis subjects treated for pulmonary exacerbations
Pulmonary exacerbations are important clinical events for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Studies assessing the ability of the lung clearance index (LCI) to detect treatment response for pulmonary exacerbations have yielded heterogeneous results. Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of pooled LCI data to assess treatment with intravenous antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbations and to understand factors explaining the heterogeneous response. A systematic literature search was performed to identify prospective observational studies. Factors predicting the relative change in LCI and spirometry were evaluated while adjusti...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sonneveld, N., Stanojevic, S., Amin, R., Aurora, P., Davies, J., Elborn, J. S., Horsley, A., Latzin, P., O'Neill, K., Robinson, P., Scrase, E., Selvadurai, H., Subbarao, P., Welsh, L., Yammine, S., Ratjen, F. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis Original Articles: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research
Biomarkers of oxidative stress following continuous positive airway pressure withdrawal: data from two randomised trials
There is conflicting evidence whether intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) influences oxidative stress. We hypothesised that withdrawal of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from patients with OSA would raise markers of oxidative stress. 59 patients with CPAP-treated moderate-to-severe OSA (oxygen desaturation index (ODI) >20 events·h–1) were randomised 1:1 to either stay on CPAP (n=30) or change to sham CPAP (n=29) for 2 weeks. Using samples from two similar studies at two sites, we measured early morning blood malondialdehyde (MDA, a primary outcome in one study and a s...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stradling, J. R., Schwarz, E. I., Schlatzer, C., Manuel, A. R., Lee, R., Antoniades, C., Kohler, M. Tags: Sleep medicine Original Articles: Sleep Source Type: research
Human intermittent hypoxia-induced respiratory plasticity is not caused by inflammation
Ventilatory instability, reflected by enhanced acute hypoxic (AHVR) and hypercapnic (AHCVR) ventilatory responses is a fundamental component of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) pathogenesis. Intermittent hypoxia-induced inflammation is postulated to promote AHVR enhancement in OSA, although the role of inflammation in intermittent hypoxia-induced respiratory changes in humans has not been examined. Thus, this study assessed the role of inflammation in intermittent hypoxia-induced respiratory plasticity in healthy humans. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover study design, 12 males were exposed to 6 ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Beaudin, A. E., Waltz, X., Pun, M., Wynne-Edwards, K. E., Ahmed, S. B., Anderson, T. J., Hanly, P. J., Poulin, M. J. Tags: Sleep medicine Original Articles: Sleep Source Type: research
Chymase: a multifunctional player in pulmonary hypertension associated with lung fibrosis
Limited literature sources implicate mast-cell mediator chymase in the pathologies of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary fibrosis. However, there is no evidence on the contribution of chymase to the development of pulmonary hypertension associated with lung fibrosis, which is an important medical condition linked with increased mortality of patients who already suffer from a life-threatening interstitial lung disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of chymase in this particular pulmonary hypertension form, by using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary hypertension model. Chymase inhibition resulted in attenua...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kosanovic, D., Luitel, H., Dahal, B. K., Cornitescu, T., Janssen, W., Danser, A. H. J., Garrelds, I. M., De Mey, J. G. R., Fazzi, G., Schiffers, P., Iglarz, M., Fischli, W., Ghofrani, H. A., Weissmann, N., Grimminger, F., Seeger, W., Reiss, I., Schermuly, Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease, Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Pulmonary vascular disease Source Type: research
Biomarkers for risk of developing active tuberculosis in contacts of TB patients: a prospective cohort study
Identifying those Mycobacterium tuberculosis latent-infected individuals most at risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) using routine clinical and laboratory tests remains a huge challenge in TB control efforts. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of clinical and laboratory markers associated with the risk of developing active TB in contacts with latent M. tuberculosis infection. HIV-negative household contacts (n=296) of pulmonary TB patients underwent monitoring of clinical features, full blood cell counts, tuberculin skin text (TST) and chest radiography performed regularly during 18 months of follow...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rakotosamimanana, N., Richard, V., Raharimanga, V., Gicquel, B., Doherty, T. M., Zumla, A., Rasolofo Razanamparany, V. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Tuberculosis associates with both airflow obstruction and low lung function: BOLD results
The objective of the present study was to assess the association between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric abnormalities in adults. The study was performed in adults, aged 40 years and above, who took part in the multicentre, cross-sectional, general population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study, and had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on a history of tuberculosis. The associations between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction were assessed within each participating centre, and estimates ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Amaral, A. F. S., Coton, S., Kato, B., Tan, W. C., Studnicka, M., Janson, C., Gislason, T., Mannino, D., Bateman, E. D., Buist, S., Burney, P. G. J., the BOLD Collaborative Research Group Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Comorbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: a systematic literature review
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated with a fatal prognosis and manifests in patients over 60 years old who may have comorbidities. The prevalence and impact of comorbidities on the clinical course of IPF is unclear. This systematic literature review examined the prevalence of comorbidities and mortality associated with comorbidities in IPF patients. Relevant observational studies published in English from January 1990 to January 2015 identified via MEDLINE and EMBASE were included; bibliographies of articles were also searched. Among the 126 studies included, prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) was...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Raghu, G., Amatto, V. C., Behr, J., Stowasser, S. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Source Type: research
Time trends in surgery for lung cancer in France from 2005 to 2012: a nationwide study
The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of survival in patients treated surgically for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between 2005 and 2012. From January 2005 to December 2012, 34 006 patients underwent pulmonary resection for NSCLC and were included in the French national database Epithor. Patients' characteristics, procedures and survival were analysed. Survival according to the management was evaluated for each 2-year period separately: 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010 and 2011–2012. The proportions of early-stage cancers and adenocarcinomas increased significantly over the periods. ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Morgant, M.-C., Pages, P.-B., Orsini, B., Falcoz, P.-E., Thomas, P.-A., Barthes, F. L. P., Dahan, M., Bernard, A., for the Epithor project (French Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery) Tags: COPD and smoking, Lung cancer Original Articles: Lung cancer Source Type: research
Simulator training for endobronchial ultrasound: a randomised controlled trial
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is very operator dependent and has a long learning curve. Simulation-based training might shorten the learning curve, and an assessment tool with solid validity evidence could ensure basic competency before unsupervised performance. A total of 16 respiratory physicians, without EBUS experience, were randomised to either virtual-reality simulator training or traditional apprenticeship training on patients, and then each physician performed EBUS-TBNA procedures on three patients. Three blinded, independent assessor assessed the video recordings of t...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Konge, L., Clementsen, P. F., Ringsted, C., Minddal, V., Larsen, K. R., Annema, J. T. Tags: Original Articles: Endobronchial ultrasound Source Type: research
Preclinical validation and imaging of Wnt-induced repair in human 3D lung tissue cultures
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a progressive loss of lung tissue. Inducing repair processes within the adult diseased lung is of major interest and Wnt/β-catenin signalling represents a promising target for lung repair. However, the translation of novel therapeutic targets from model systems into clinical use remains a major challenge. We generated murine and patient-derived three-dimensional (3D) ex vivo lung tissue cultures (LTCs), which closely mimic the 3D lung microenvironment in vivo. Using two well-known glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and C...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Uhl, F. E., Vierkotten, S., Wagner, D. E., Burgstaller, G., Costa, R., Koch, I., Lindner, M., Meiners, S., Eickelberg, O., Konigshoff, M. Tags: Lung biology and experimental studies Original Articles: Mechanisms of lung disease Source Type: research
Potassium channels in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating cardiopulmonary disorder with various origins. All forms of PAH share a common pulmonary arteriopathy characterised by vasoconstriction, remodelling of the pre-capillary pulmonary vessel wall, and in situ thrombosis. Although the pathogenesis of PAH is recognised as a complex and multifactorial process, there is growing evidence that potassium channels dysfunction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is a hallmark of PAH. Besides regulating many physiological functions, reduced potassium channels expression and/or activity have significant effects on PAH establishme...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Boucherat, O., Chabot, S., Antigny, F., Perros, F., Provencher, S., Bonnet, S. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Review Source Type: research
Pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance relationship in pulmonary hypertension
Right ventricular adaptation to the increased pulmonary arterial load is a key determinant of outcomes in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total arterial compliance (C) quantify resistive and elastic properties of pulmonary arteries that modulate the steady and pulsatile components of pulmonary arterial load, respectively. PVR is commonly calculated as transpulmonary pressure gradient over pulmonary flow and total arterial compliance as stroke volume over pulmonary arterial pulse pressure (SV/PApp). Assuming that there is an inverse, hyperbolic relationship between PVR and C, recent stud...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chemla, D., Lau, E. M. T., Papelier, Y., Attal, P., Herve, P. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Series Source Type: research
End-of-life care in oxygen-dependent COPD and cancer: a national population-based study
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of mortality worldwide , and is associated with high morbidity and poor symptom control for long periods of time as the disease progresses . At the end of life, COPD patients have a symptom burden comparable to, and often greater than, that associated with cancer . Comparison between COPD and cancer is relevant because cancer patients have well-established palliative care programmes. Despite having extensive and similar end-of-life (EOL) needs to cancer patients, studies report unrelieved symptoms and low referral rates to palliative care in a...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ahmadi, Z., Lundstrom, S., Janson, C., Strang, P., Emtner, M., Currow, D. C., Ekstrom, M. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research
Effects of ageing and smoking on pulmonary computed tomography scans using parametric response mapping
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstructive lung disease often caused by cigarette smoke, and characterised by inflammation and abnormalities of the large and small airways (i.e. those with an internal diameter <2 mm), as well as by alveolar destruction (emphysema). Recent evidence suggests that small airway disease precedes emphysema  and, therefore, it may be useful to identify the presence and extent of small airway disease and emphysema in early COPD, or preferably, even before the onset of disease. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Boudewijn, I. M., Postma, D. S., Telenga, E. D., ten Hacken, N. H. T., Timens, W., Oudkerk, M., Ross, B. D., Galban, C. J., van den Berge, M. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research
Accuracy of chest high-resolution computed tomography in diagnosing diffuse cystic lung diseases
The diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a group of pathophysiologically heterogeneous processes characterised by the presence of multiple, thin-walled, air-filled spaces within the pulmonary parenchyma . The differential diagnosis of DCLDs includes lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), follicular bronchiolitis (FB), lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP), Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome (BHD), pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH), amyloidosis, light chain deposition disease, cystic metastases, infectious entities such as Pneumocystis, and other aetiologies . Bronchiectasis and bullous changes se...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gupta, N., Meraj, R., Tanase, D., James, L. E., Seyama, K., Lynch, D. A., Akira, M., Meyer, C. A., Ruoss, S. J., Burger, C. D., Young, L. R., Almoosa, K. F., Veeraraghavan, S., Barker, A. F., Lee, A. S., Dilling, D. F., Inoue, Y., Cudzilo, C. J., Zafar, M Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research
Blood stem cell transplantation to treat cystic lung light chain deposition disease
Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare disease resulting from non-amyloid immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain deposition in tissue. In systemic LCDD, plasma cell dyscrasia is common and renal involvement is almost always present, sometimes with damage to other organ systems (cardiac, hepatic and neurological systems). LCDD can be limited to the lungs, presenting as multiple cystic lung disease, nodules or bronchiectasis. Cystic lung related to LCDD (CL-LCDD) was recently described in patients referred for lung transplantation to treat end-stage multiple cystic lung disease . In the reported cases, blood and bone ma...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Borgne, A. L., Prevot, G., Rouquette, I., Huynh, A., Tetu, L., Projetti, F., Carreiro, M., Borie, R., Jaccard, A., Recher, C., Didier, A. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research