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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.

Flavoured, non-cigarette tobacco for sale in the USA: an inventory analysis of Internet retailers
Tobacco companies flavour their products in order to recruit new, younger users.1 Flavours like menthol, cherry, grape and chocolate mask the harshness of tobacco, making it easier to become addicted.2 These flavours also appeal to young tobacco users. In Maryland, about four in five underage cigar smokers smoke flavoured cigars.3 Nationally, 57% of young adult (ages 18–24) cigar smokers smoke flavoured cigars.4 Since 2009, menthol and tobacco are the only flavours allowed in cigarettes.5 As of March 2013 the federal government does not restrict flavours in tobacco products other than cigarettes, though federal court...
Source: Tobacco Control - December 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Morris, D. S., Fiala, S. C. Tags: Research letter Source Type: research

Thank you to our reviewers 2014
Abdur Rehman, Karim Abrams, David Agaku, Israel Aghi, Mira Al-alawy, Khamis Al-hamdani, Mohammed Allem, Jon-Patrick Allen, Sharon Allwright, Shane Amos, Amanda Anderson, Stacey Arnott, Deborah Arora, Monika Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan Babb, Stephen Bala, M Balbach, Edith Bansal-Travers, Maansi Barber, Sarah Barnes, Richard Barnoya, Joaquin Beaudoin, Chris Benowitz, Neal Berteletti, Florence Bialous, Stella Bittencourt, Lorna Blanco Marquizo, Adriana Blank, Melissa Blecher, Evan Bloch, Michele Bogdanovica, Ilze Bohac, David Boman-Davis, Marie Bonevski, Billie Borland, Ron Branston, J. Brennan, Emily Breysse, Patrick Britton, John B...
Source: Tobacco Control - December 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Thank you to our reviewers 2014 Source Type: research

Erratum: New GOLD classification: longitudinal data on group assignment
No abstract. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - December 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ciro CasanovaJose MarinCristina Martinez-GonzalezPilar de Lucas-RamosIsabel Mir-ViladrichBorja CosioGerman Peces-BarbaMiryam Calle-RubioIngrid Solanes-GarcíaRamón AgüeroAlfredo de Diego-DamiaNuria Feu-ColladoInmaculada AlfagemeRosa IrigarayEva Balcells Source Type: research

Arabinosylated Lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM) mediated intracellular mechanisms against Tuberculosis infection: Involvement of Protein Kinase C (PKC) Mediated Signaling
Tuberculosis causes severe immunosuppression thereby ensuing the loss of the host protective immune responses. During Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, the pathogen modulates TLR-2 receptor down-stream signaling, indicating the possible involvement of TLR-2 in the regulation of the host immune response. Moreover, different PKC isoforms are also involved in the course of infection. Arabinosylated lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM) possesses immuno-modulatory properties which induce the pro-inflammatory responses via induction of TLR-2-mediated signaling. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - December 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shibali Das, Oindrila Bhattacharjee, Avranil Goswami, Nishith K. Pal, Subrata Majumdar Tags: Immunological Aspects Source Type: research

Montelukast in paediatric asthma: where we are now and what still needs to be done?
Leukotriene receptor antagonists were introduced as an entirely new concept in asthma therapy, which indeed they are. However, although an intellectually new concept, they have largely disappointed in clinical practice. A small minority of school age asthmatics may respond better to these medications as against inhaled corticosteroids as prophylactic therapy. In children not responding to low dose inhaled corticosteroids, the best add-on therapy is salmeterol, but a small number respond better to Montelukast. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - December 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Andrew Bush Tags: Review Source Type: research

Identification of Unexpected Respiratory Abnormalities in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through Electromyographic Analysis Using Intramuscular Electrodes Implanted for Therapeutic Diaphragmatic Pacing
This study analyzes diaphragm electromyographic (dEMG) activity utilizing implanted diaphragm pacing (DP) electrodes. (Source: American Journal of Surgery)
Source: American Journal of Surgery - December 11, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Raymond P. Onders, MaryJo Elmo, Cindy Kaplan, Bashar Katirji, Robert Schilz Tags: Midwest Surgical Association Source Type: research

Results from the French National Esophageal Atresia register: one-year outcome
Conclusions: Digestive and respiratory morbidities remain frequent during the first year of life and are associated with difficult anastomosis and lack of full oral feeding. (Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases)
Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases - December 11, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Anne SchneiderSébastien BlancArnaud BonnardNaziha Khen-DunlopFrédéric AuberAnne BretonGuillaume PodevinRony SfeirVirginie FouquetCatherine JacquierJean-Louis LemelleFrédéric LavrandFrançois BecmeurThierry PetitMarie-Laurence Poli-MerolFrédéric Elb Source Type: research

MERS-CoV PLpro{middle dot}Ub Crystal Structure and Immune Antagonism [Protein Structure and Folding]
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly emerging human pathogen that was first isolated in 2012. MERS-CoV replication depends in part on a virus-encoded papain-like protease (PLpro) that cleaves the viral replicase polyproteins at three sites releasing non-structural protein 1 (nsp1), nsp2, and nsp3. In addition to this replicative function, MERS-CoV PLpro was recently shown to be a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) and to possess deISGylating activity, as previously reported for other coronaviral PLpro domains, including that of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. These activities have be...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - December 11, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Bailey-Elkin, B. A., Knaap, R. C. M., Johnson, G. G., Dalebout, T. J., Ninaber, D. K., van Kasteren, P. B., Bredenbeek, P. J., Snijder, E. J., Kikkert, M., Mark, B. L. Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of rapid ascent to high altitude on sleep
Conclusions Higher AHI did not cause more frequent awakenings and arousals at high altitude. Central sleep apneas were observed in non-AMS but not in AMS group. Subjects unacclimatized to acute hypobaric hypoxia might have delayed and less REM sleep. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - December 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Assessment of respiratory system compliance with electrical impedance tomography using a positive end-expiratory pressure wave maneuver during pressure support ventilation: a pilot clinical study
Conclusion: Analyzing a PEEP wave maneuver with EIT allows calculation of global and regional Crs during assisted spontaneous breathing. In mechanically ventilated patients with spontaneous breathing activity, this might be used for assessment of the global and regional mechanical properties of the respiratory system. (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - December 10, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Tobias BecherSimon BuiGünther ZickDaniel BläserDirk SchädlerNorbert WeilerInéz Frerichs Source Type: research

Air pollution events from forest fires and emergency department attendances in Sydney, Australia 1996-2007: a case-crossover analysis
Conclusion: Smoke events were associated with an immediate increase in presentations for respiratory conditions and a lagged increase in attendances for ischaemic heart disease and heart failure. Respiratory impacts were either absent or considerably attenuated in those (Source: Environmental Health)
Source: Environmental Health - December 10, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Fay JohnstonStuart PurdieBin JalaludinKara MartinSarah HendersonGeoffrey Morgan Source Type: research

Mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines used in piglets
The objective of this study was to provide comparative estimates of changes in average daily gain effect associated with the use of the commercially available PCV2 vaccines. PubMed, CAB Abstracts, AGRICOLA, the USA Department of Agriculture Center for Veterinary Biologics database of licenses and provisions, and the proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians, the Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, the Iowa State University Swine Disease Conference for Swine Practitioners, and the International Pig Veterinary Society Congress were used as the sources of information. Trials of licensed...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - December 10, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of viral acute respiratory tract infections in children presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in the Netherlands
Background: The relative incidence and clinical impact of individual respiratory viruses remains unclear among children presenting to the hospital emergency department with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). Methods: During two winter periods, respiratory virus real-time multiplex PCR results were evaluated from children (< 18?years) presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital with ARTI that had been sampled within 48?hours of hospital presentation. In an attempt to identify virus-specific distinguishing clinical features, single virus infections were correlated with presenting signs and s...
Source: BMC Pediatrics - December 10, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jairo GooskensVishnu van der PloegRam SukhaiAnn VossenEric ClaasAloys Kroes Source Type: research

All That Wheezes Is Not Asthma! A Case of Cavitatory Pediatric Tuberculosis
Chronic wheezing in a child could be attributed to a number of structural and functional abnormalities in the respiratory tract. Although asthma is a common cause of wheezing and chronic cough, this diagnosis is occasionally attributed inappropriately to other causes. A thorough clinical history and physical examination and close follow-up of labeled “asthmatics” can be a useful approach, especially in the subclass of children with moderate-to-severe asthma who do not show good response to treatment (1). (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - December 10, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Shabbir Hussain, Kosar Hussain, Sahar Hussian Tags: Visual Diagnosis in Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

MACVIA-LR, Reference site of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) in Languedoc Roussillon
Publication date: December 2014 Source:European Geriatric Medicine, Volume 5, Issue 6 Author(s): J. Bousquet , C. Bourquin , P. Augé , P. Domy , J. Bringer , M. Aoustin , T. Camuzat , R. Bourret , N. Best , O. Jonquet , J.E. de la Coussaye , J.M. Robine , A. Avignon , H. Blain , N. Giraudeau , D. Hève , C. Jeandel , I. Laffont , D. Larrey , C. Laurent , M. Noguès , J.Y. Pélissier , F. Radier-Pontal , E. Royère , A. Bedbrook , S. Granier , F. Abecassis , S. Albert , P.A. Adnet , B. Alomène , M. Amouyal , S. Arnavieilhe , V. Attalin , P. Aubas , M. Badin , G. Baptista , B. Bardy , M.P. Battesti , O. Bénézet , P.L. ...
Source: European Geriatric Medicine - December 10, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

A local public campaign reduces outpatient antibiotic prescribing in Italy
Commentary on: Formoso G, Paltrinieri B, Marata AM, et al.. Feasibility and effectiveness of a low cost campaign on antibiotic prescribing in Italy: community level, controlled, non-randomised trial. BMJ 2013;347:f5391. Implications for practice and research Public health campaigns can reduce antibiotic prescribing, although the effect is likely to be mediated primarily through changes in clinician behaviour rather than patient-consulting behaviour or expectations for antibiotics. More research is needed on the key components of antimicrobial stewardship activities: the effects on antimicrobial resistance, the cost-effecti...
Source: Evidence-Based Nursing - December 10, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Francis, N. Tags: Editor's choice, General practice / family medicine, Drugs: infectious diseases, TB and other respiratory infections Primary healthcare Source Type: research

Microbiome of the placenta in pre‐eclampsia supports the role of bacteria in the multifactorial cause of pre‐eclampsia
ConclusionsThis study confirms the presence of bacteria in the placental tissues of a subset of women with pre‐eclampsia and supports the role of bacteria in the multifactorial cause of pre‐eclampsia. (Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research)
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research - December 10, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Ranmalee Amarasekara, Rohan W. Jayasekara, Hemantha Senanayake, Vajira H. W. Dissanayake Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Association between the introduction of a new cystic fibrosis inhaled antibiotic class and change in prevalence of patients receiving multiple inhaled antibiotic classes
In 2010, aztreonam for inhalation solution joined aminoglycosides and colistimethate as a new cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic inhaled antimicrobial therapy. We studied how the introduction of this new inhaled antibiotic class changed the management of US CF patients. (Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis)
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - December 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Elliott C. Dasenbrook, Michael W. Konstan, Donald R. VanDevanter Source Type: research

Malignant pleural effusion: Relationship between thoracoscopic findings and type of malignancy
Conclusion Inspecting pleural cavity via medical thoracoscopy and identification of macroscopic appearance of different malignant pleural lesions may give a good prospect about the suspected pathological type of malignancy in malignant pleural effusion. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis)
Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis - December 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

MoSAIC: Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community
Surveillance for acute respiratory infection (ARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) relies primarily on reports of medically attended illness. Community surveillance could mitigate delays in reporting, allow for timely collection of respiratory tract samples, and characterize cases of non–medically attended ILI representing substantial personal and economic burden. Text messaging could be utilized to perform longitudinal ILI surveillance in a community-based sample but has not been assessed. We recruited 161 households (789 people) in New York City for a study of mobile ARI/ILI surveillance, and selected reporters re...
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology - December 10, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Stockwell, M. S., Reed, C., Vargas, C. Y., Camargo, S., Garretson, A. F., Alba, L. R., LaRussa, P., Finelli, L., Larson, E. L., Saiman, L. Tags: RESEARCH-ARTICLE Source Type: research

Impact of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter on emergency ambulance dispatches in Japan
Conclusions Providing further evidence on the short-term health effects of PM2.5 exposure, we found that exposure was associated with an increased number of emergency ambulance dispatches. The effect was, however, relatively small. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - December 10, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Michikawa, T., Ueda, K., Takeuchi, A., Kinoshita, M., Hayashi, H., Ichinose, T., Nitta, H. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Mortality and morbidity, Air pollution, Environmental issues Other topics Source Type: research

Implementation of a multicomponent intervention to optimise patient safety through improved oxygen prescription in a rural hospital
ConclusionsA multicomponent intervention can achieve a significantly increased rate of satisfactory oxygen prescriptions specifying target saturation, including in those who are at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure. (Source: Australian Journal of Rural Health)
Source: Australian Journal of Rural Health - December 10, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Roshan Gunathilake, Deborah Lowe, James Wills, Anne Knight, Peter Braude Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of the oral 13 C-bicarbonate technique for measurements of energy expenditure in dogs before and after body weight reduction
The objective with this study was to validate and evaluate the suitability of the oral 13C-bicarbonate technique (o13CBT) for measuring EE in dog obesity studies. A further objective was to investigate the impact of body weight (BW) reduction and changes in body composition on the EE when measured under conditions corresponding to the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Results: The EE in five privately owned, overweight dogs was measured simultaneously with the o13CBT and indirect calorimetry (IC) for comparison of the results. Two measurements per dog were performed under the same standardised conditions (i.e. fasted and resting...
Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica - December 10, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Caroline LarssonAnne VitgerRasmus JensenPeter JunghansAnne-Helene Tauson Source Type: research

Contemporary outcomes of open repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in young patients
Conclusions: The outcome of open TAAA repair in patients aged less than 60?years is favorable. It is against these results that evolving endovascular interventions must be compared. (Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery)
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery - December 10, 2014 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Neil JohnsRussell JamiesonCarlo CeresaCarl MooresAlastair NimmoOrwa FalahPaul BurnsRoderick Chalmers Source Type: research

Optimizing pain management to facilitate Enhanced Recovery After Surgery pathways
Conclusion There are continuing advancements in multimodal analgesic techniques; however, postoperative pain in general continues to be undermanaged. Furthermore, a continuing challenge in multimodal pain research related to ERAS is the difficulty in carrying out randomized trials to determine the relative importance of any one component, including analgesia. (Source: Canadian Journal of Anesthesia)
Source: Canadian Journal of Anesthesia - December 10, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Oxygen therapy for lower respiratory tract infections in children between 3 months and 15 years of age.
CONCLUSIONS: It appears that oxygen therapy given early in the course of pneumonia via nasal prongs at a flow rate of 1 to 2 L/min does not prevent children with severe pneumonia from developing hypoxaemia. However, the applicability of this evidence is limited as it comes from a small pilot trial.Nasal prongs and nasopharyngeal catheter are similar in effectiveness when used for children with LRTI. Nasal prongs are associated with fewer nasal obstruction problems. The use of a face mask and head box has been poorly studied and it is not superior to a nasopharyngeal catheter in terms of effectiveness or safety in children ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - December 10, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Rojas-Reyes MX, Granados Rugeles C, Charry-Anzola LP Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Plasma Sphingolipids Associated with COPD Phenotypes.
Conclusions: There is evidence of systemic dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism in patients with COPD. Subphenotyping suggests that sphingomyelins are strongly associated with emphysema and glycosphingolipids are associated with COPD exacerbations. PMID: 25494452 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - December 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bowler RP, Jacobson S, Cruickshank C, Hughes GJ, Siska C, Ory DS, Petrache I, Schaffer JE, Reisdorph N, Kechris K Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

The Impact of the Organization of High Dependency Care on Acute Hospital Mortality and Patient Flow for Critically Ill Patients.
Conclusions: Availability of HDC in a geographically separate unit does not impact acute hospital mortality. The potential benefit of decreasing delays in discharge should be weighed against the increased total duration of critical care and greater likelihood of a transfer out of the primary unit at night. PMID: 25494358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - December 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wunsch H, Harrison D, Jones A, Rowan K Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Clinical Features of Childhood Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia By Genotype and Ultrastructural Phenotype.
Conclusions: Lung disease was heterogeneous across all ultrastructural and genotype groups, but worse in those with IDA/CA/MTD ultrastructural defects, most of whom had biallelic mutations in CCDC39 or CCDC40. PMID: 25493340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - December 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Davis SD, Ferkol TW, Rosenfeld M, Lee HS, Dell SD, Sagel SD, Milla C, Zariwala MA, Pittman JE, Shapiro AJ, Carson JL, Krischer JP, Hazucha MJ, Cooper ML, Knowles MR, Leigh MW Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Necrotizing Fasciitis after Central Venous Catheter Placement.
Conclusions: The first report on NF in a critically ill patient due to a subclavian central intravenous line aims to encourage checking for iatrogenic soft tissue condition in sedated intensive care patients. These patients may have a greater risk of developing NF, because they often have predisposing factors such as diabetes, end-stage renal failure, and immune suppression. PMID: 25493536 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hand Surgery)
Source: Hand Surgery - December 10, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Leibig N, Hirche C, Schmidt VJ, Bigdeli AK, Kneser U, Kremer T Tags: Surg Infect (Larchmt) Source Type: research

Specific antibody deficiency with normal immunoglobulin concentration in children with recurrent respiratory infections.
CONCLUSIONS: We propose first ruling out local or systemic causes, then performing serum immunoglobulin IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG subclass levels, and finally measuring response to polysaccharide pneumococcal antigens for detection of SAD. PMID: 25498324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia)
Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia - December 10, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Quezada A, Norambuena X, Inostroza J, Rodríguez J Tags: Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) Source Type: research

Unusual occurrence of cutaneous myxoma in a Caucassian dog: a short communication
This report has shown that cutaneous myxoma could occur in Cuacassian dogs. (Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology)
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - December 9, 2014 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Short training in focused cardiac ultrasound in an Internal Medicine department: what realistic skill targets could be achieved?
This study supports incorporating FCU into Internal Medicine fellowship training programs, and should facilitate the design of other similar training courses. (Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine)
Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Risks and burden of viral respiratory tract infections in patients with multiple myeloma in the era of immunomodulatory drugs and bortezomib: experience at an Australian Cancer Hospital
Conclusion Patients with multiple myeloma and advanced disease managed with multiple lines of therapy are at risk for vRTI, and targeted interventions for prevention/treatment are required. (Source: Supportive Care in Cancer)
Source: Supportive Care in Cancer - December 9, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Disease severity at the first hospitalization as a predictor for mechanical ventilation dependency in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
This study aims to determine the risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), defined as 22 days or more of mechanical ventilation dependency after the first day of hospital admission (index date) in patients diagnosed with COPD. A retrospective cohort was conducted using medical claim data of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Eligible study subjects were those who had a diagnosis of COPD made between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. Patients were then followed until being registered as a PMV case, death, or the end of the study. The comorbidities were measured from January 1, 1997 to the index...
Source: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Liao KM, Lin WC, Lin TC, Li CY, Yang YH Tags: Tohoku J Exp Med Source Type: research

WU Polyomavirus in Respiratory Epithelial Cells from Lung Transplant Patient with Job Syndrome
E. A. Siebrasse et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - December 9, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Effect of Aging on Pulmonary Function: Implications for Monitoring and Support of the Surgical and Trauma Patient.
Abstract Age-related anatomic, physiologic, and immunologic changes to the pulmonary system, as well as a high prevalence of chronic pulmonary diseases, puts the geriatric patient at an especially high risk for postoperative pulmonary complications. Successful perioperative respiratory care of the geriatric patient relies on careful risk assessment and optimization of pulmonary function and support. The success of such efforts aimed at preventing and/or mitigating pulmonary complications in the geriatric patient depends on a thorough, individualized, yet standardized and evidence-based approach to the care of every...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - December 9, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Ramly E, Kaafarani HM, Velmahos GC Tags: Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research

Physiological mechanisms of dyspnea relief following ivacaftor in cystic fibrosis: A case report.
Abstract Ivacaftor is a novel oral pharmacologic agent that specifically targets the genetic defect of cystic fibrosis (CF) by augmenting chloride conductance through the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein. For individuals with CF and at least one copy of the G551D gating mutation, improvements in sweat chloride, nutritional parameters, lung function, respiratory symptoms, and exercise tolerance (i.e., 6-min walk distance) are attained within 2 weeks of initiating ivacaftor. However, there are no reports detailing the physiological and sensory implications of these improvements and their underlying mechanism...
Source: Respiratory Care - December 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Quon BS, Schaeffer MR, Molgat-Seon Y, Wilkie SS, Wilcox PG, Guenette JA Tags: Respir Physiol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Electrical activity of the diaphragm during progressive cycling exercise in endurance-trained men.
Abstract The study aimed to investigate diaphragm respiratory drive modulation through electrical activity of the diaphragm (EADi) during progressive cycling in endurance-trained men (N=7) and to test day-to-day measurement reliability. Normalized EADi increased at exercise intensities from 40% workload (WL) to 70% and 85%WL but plateaued from 70% to 85% (p<0.05). V˙O2, V˙CO2, V˙E, increased at all exercise intensities, where Vt and BF increased from 40% to 55% WL and from 70% to 85% and RER increased at 70% and 85% (p<0.05). Bland-Altman plots of normalized EADi showed bias of 0.9% and -6.4% and limits of...
Source: Respiratory Care - December 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Poulsen MK, Thomsen LP, Mifsud NL, Nielsen NP, Jørgensen RM, Kjærgaard S, Karbing DS Tags: Respir Physiol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Quality of life in relation to the traffic pollution indicators NO2 and NOx: results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN survey.
CONCLUSIONS: At moderate exposure levels traffic pollution appears not to affect quality of life. PMID: 25478186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - December 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sommar JN, Ek A, Middelveld R, Bjerg A, Dahlén SE, Janson C, Forsberg B Tags: BMJ Open Respir Res Source Type: research

Improvement of CRB-65 as a prognostic tool in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
CONCLUSIONS: Modification of CRB-65 by including hypoxaemia and presence of specified underlying diseases increased the scoring system's prognostic accuracy while retaining its independence of laboratory tests. DS CRB-65 may have the potential to further facilitate site of care decision for patients with CAP. PMID: 25478185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - December 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dwyer R, Hedlund J, Henriques-Normark B, Kalin M Tags: BMJ Open Respir Res Source Type: research