Medicine RSS Search Engine

Urology & Nephrology Urology & Nephrology RSS feedThis is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 12.

Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the combination of etravirine plus raltegravir as novel dual antiretroviral maintenance regimen in HIV-infected patients
In conclusion, a novel dual therapy with ETR plus RAL is effective and well tolerated, and it could be an option to maintain durable viral suppression in hard-to-treat HIV-infected patients. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - November 26, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Vitamin D in primary biliary cirrhosis, a plausible marker of advanced disease
In conclusion, low vitamin D levels are common among patients with PBC and correlate with advanced disease, lack of UDCA therapy and autoimmune comorbidity. This alludes to the plausible roles of vitamin D as a prognostic marker of PBC severity, and as a potential player in this disease pathogenesis. While further studies are awaited, monitoring vitamin D in patients with PBC and use of supplements may be advisable. (Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - November 26, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

S-1 plus oxaliplatin versus capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: updated results from a phase 3 trial
Conclusions: Updated survival analysis shows that SOX is similar to CapeOX, confirming the initial PFS analysis. Therefore, the SOX regimen could be an alternative first-line doublet chemotherapy strategy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Trial registration: NCT00677443 and May 12 2008 (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - November 26, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Seung KimYong HongHo LimJeeyun LeeTae KimKyu-Pyo KimSun KimJi BaekJee KimKeun-Wook LeeIk-Joo ChungSang-Hee ChoKyung LeeSang ShinHye KangDong ShinJae LeeSook JoYoung Park Source Type: research

Surveillance for Stage I Nonseminoma Testicular Cancer: Outcomes and Long-Term Follow-Up in a Population-Based Cohort [Urologic Oncology]
Conclusion A surveillance policy for patients with stage I NSGCC is a safe approach associated with an excellent cure rate and an overall low treatment burden despite a high relapse rate in a small group of patients. We recommend surveillance for patients with stage I NSGCC with immediate systemic treatment at relapse. Clearly defined risk factors for relapse are presented if an option of risk-adapted treatment is preferred. (Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology - November 26, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daugaard, Gundgaard, Mortensen, Agerbaek, Holm, Rorth, von der Maase, Christensen, Lauritsen Tags: Urologic Oncology Source Type: research

Adjuvant and Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement [ASCO SPECIAL ARTICLES]
Purpose To endorse the American Urological Association (AUA)/American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) guideline on adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines developed by other professional organizations. Methods The guideline on adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. An ASCO endorsement panel then reviewed the content and recommendations. Results The panel determined that the guideline recommendations on ad...
Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology - November 26, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Freedland, Rumble, Finelli, Chen, Slovin, Stein, Mendelson, Wackett, Sandler Tags: ASCO Guidelines ASCO SPECIAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

SOX1 Down-regulates beta-catenin and Reverses Malignant Phenotype in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Conclusions: SOX1 decreases the expression of beta-catenin in a proteasome-independent manner and reverses the malignant phenotype in NPC cells. (Source: Molecular Cancer)
Source: Molecular Cancer - November 26, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhong GuanJialiang ZhangJing WangHefei WangFeimeng ZhengJieren PengYaodong XuMin YanBing LiuBai CuiYing HuangQuentin Liu Source Type: research

A chimeric antibody targeting CD147 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell motility via FAK-PI3K-Akt-Girdin signaling pathway
Abstract CD147 is expressed at low levels in normal tissues but frequently highly expressed in a wide range of tumor types such as lung, breast, and liver and therefore it is a potentially unique therapeutic target for these diverse tumor types. We previously generated a murine antibody HAb18 which suppresses matrix met al.loproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion, attenuates cell invasion by blocking the CD147 molecule in tumor cells. Here, we generated a chimeric antibody containing the variable heavy and variable light chains of murine HAb18 and the constant regions of human IgG1γ1 and human κ c...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - November 26, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Active radar guides missile to its target: receptor-based targeted treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by nanoparticulate systems
Abstract Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually present at advanced stages and do not benefit from surgical resection, so drug therapy should deserve a prominent place in unresectable HCC treatment. But chemotherapy agents, such as doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel, frequently encounter important problems such as low specificity and non-selective biodistribution. Recently, the development of nanotechnology led to significant breakthroughs to overcome these problems. Decorating the surfaces of nanoparticulate-based drug carriers with homing devices has demonstrated its potential in concentrating ...
Source: Tumor Biology - November 26, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Short communication: timeline of radiation-induced kidney function loss after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma as evaluated by serial 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT/CT
Conclusions: The pattern of renal functional change in 99mTc-DMSA uptake on SPECT/CT imaging correlates with dose delivered. This study demonstrates a dose effect relationship of SABR with loss of kidney function. (Source: Radiation Oncology)
Source: Radiation Oncology - November 26, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Price JacksonFarshad ForoudiDaniel PhamMichael HofmanNicholas HardcastleJason CallahanTomas KronShankar Siva Source Type: research

In vitro metabolism of bencycloquidium bromide and its inhibitory effects on human P450 isoenzymes: implication of CYP2D6 , CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5
Abstract Bencycloquidium bromide (BCQB) is a novel selective muscarinic M1/M3 receptor antagonist with potent therapeutic effects on rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The metabolism of BCQB has been investigated in human liver microsomes and human recombinant P450 to elucidate the P450 isozymes responsible for its metabolism in human. Also, the metabolism pathway and the potency of BCQB in inhibiting CYP’s various isozymes in humans were investigated. The main biotransformation route of BCQB was NADPH-dependent oxidation. BCQB was metabolized oxidatively to four metabolites that were identified...
Source: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Abdominal injuries involving bicycle handlebars in 219 children: results of 8-year follow-up
Conclusions Trend of bicycle handlebar trauma over this time period was related to the local floating population and economy. The most common abdominal organ injury was liver. Hollow organ injury required emergency exploratory laparotomy and the Roux-y anastomosis applied well in cases whose gastrointestinal tract damaged seriously. Pancreatic injury usually led to secondary pseudocyst. The percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst was really an effective way. The trend in the amylase and lipase levels could reflect the pancreatic injury condition and predict prognosis. Early diagnosis and ...
Source: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery - November 26, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Serotonin receptor expression is dynamic in the liver during the transition period in Holstein dairy cows
Non-neuronal serotonin (5-HT) participates in glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the actions of 5-HT in the liver during the transition period in dairy cattle. Here we explore circulating patterns of 5-HT, and characterize the hepatic 5-HT receptor and glucose transporter profiles around calving in multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 6, average lactation = 4 ± 1.9). Concentrations of serum 5-HT decreased on day -3 compared to -5 and -7 precalving (167.7 ± 80 vs. 1511.1 ± 602 ng/mL). (Source: Domestic Animal Endocrinology)
Source: Domestic Animal Endocrinology - November 26, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: J. Laporta, L.L. Hernandez Source Type: research

Vagus nerve contributes to the development of steatohepatitis and obesity in Phosphatidylethanolamine -Methyltransferase deficient mice
Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), a liver enriched enzyme, is responsible for approximately one third of hepatic phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), Pemt-/- mice are protected from HF-induced obesity; however, they develop steatohepatitis. The vagus nerve relays signals between liver and brain that regulate peripheral adiposity and pancreas function. Here we explore a possible role of the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve in the development of diet induced obesity and steatohepatitis in Pemt-/- mice. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - November 26, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xia Gao, Jelske N. van der Veen, Linfu Zhu, Todd Chaba, Marta Ordoñez, Susanne Lingrell, Debby P.Y. Koonen, Jason R.B. Dyck, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz, Dennis E. Vance, René L. Jacobs Source Type: research

Roles of alcohol consumption in fatty liver: a longitudinal study
Roles of alcohol consumption in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are still controversial, although several cross-sectional studies have suggested the beneficial effect of light to moderate drinking on fatty liver. We analyzed the longitudinal relationship between drinking pattern and fatty liver. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - November 26, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Akio Moriya, Yoshiaki Iwasaki, Souhei Ohguchi, Eizo Kayashima, Tadahiko Mitsumune, Hideaki Taniguchi, Masaharu Ando, Kazuhide Yamamoto Source Type: research

The Association of Liver Enzymes with Biomarkers of Subclinical Myocardial Damage and Structural Heart Disease
Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are thought to be at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relationships NAFLD to subclinical myocardial injury or structural heart disease are unknown. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - November 26, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mariana Lazo, Jonathan Rubin, Jeanne M. Clark, Josef Coresh, Andrea L.C. Schneider, Chiadi Ndumele, Ron C. Hoogeveen, Christie M. Ballantyne, Elizabeth Selvin Source Type: research

Outcomes in Liver Transplantation: Does Sex Matter?
A growing literature has highlighted important differences in transplant-related outcomes between men and women. In the United States there are fewer women than men on the liver transplant waitlist and women are two times less likely to receive a deceased or living-related liver transplant. Sex based differences exist not only in waitlist but also in posttransplant outcomes, particularly in some specific liver diseases, such as hepatitis C. In the era of individualized medicine, recognition of these differences in the approach to pre and post-LT care may impact short and long-term outcomes. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - November 26, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Monika Sarkar, Kymberly D. Watt, Norah Terrault, Marina Berenguer Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hydatid cyst of liver presented as obstructive jaundice in pregnancy; Managed by PAIR: Report of a common procedure in a rare setting from India
We present a case of liver hydatid cyst presented with obstructive jaundice during pregnancy which was managed by Puncture of the cyst under USG guidance; Aspiration of the cystic fluid, Injection of hypertonic saline, and Re-aspiration of solution without drainage (PAIR) and albendazole therapy. Very few cases of liver hydatosis were reported previously which had been managed by PAIR. (Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - November 26, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Potential impact on kidney infection: a whole-genome analysis of Leptospira santarosai serovar Shermani
& Chih-Wei Yang (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)
Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li-Fang ChouTing-Wen ChenYi-Ching KoMing-Jeng PanYa-Chung TianCheng-Hsun ChiuPetrus TangCheng-Chieh HungChih-Wei Yang Tags: hypothetical proteins Leptospira santarosai leptospirosis repetitive genome whole-genome sequencing Source Type: research

Management of Blunt Liver Trauma in 134 severely Injured Patients
In haemodynamic stable patients without an acute abdomen, nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt liver injuries (BLI) has become the standard of care with a reported success rate of between 80-100%. Concern has been expressed about the potential overuse of NOM and the fact that failed NOM is associated with higher mortality rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors that might indicate the need for surgical intervention, and to assess the efficacy of NOM. (Source: Injury)
Source: Injury - November 26, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Martijn Hommes, Pradeep H. Navsaria, Inger B. Schipper, J.E.J. Krige, D. Kahn, Andrew John Nicol Source Type: research

Description of the Sphingolipid Content and Subspecies in the Diabetic Cornea.
Conclusions: Overall, our data indicate major differences in SPL distribution in human diabetic corneas. Information on the sphingolipids role in cornea, corneal cell physiology, and diseases are very limitedwhich highlights the importance of these findings. PMID: 25426847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Eye Research)
Source: Current Eye Research - November 26, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Priyadarsini S, Sarker-Nag A, Allegood J, Chalfant C, Karamichos D Tags: Curr Eye Res Source Type: research

Determination of vitality of liver lesions by alveolar echinococcosis. Comparison of parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound (SonoVue®) with quantified 18F-FDG-PET-CT.
Conclusion: In comparison to FDG PET-CT, the gold standard for detecting viable lesions by depicting metabolism, CEUS detects viable lesions with high specificity and moderate sensitivity by showing vascularization. CEUS must be regarded as an important tool in monitoring HAE. Dimensions of parasitic lesions are displayed more precisely through CEUS than in B-scan. With currently available methods, CEUS quantification has no benefit in monitoring HAE lesions in daily clinical practice. PMID: 25423884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nuklearmedizin)
Source: Nuklearmedizin - November 26, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Kaltenbach TE, Graeter T, Mason RA, Kratzer W, Oeztuerk S, Haenle MM, Gruener B, Gottstein M Tags: Nuklearmedizin Source Type: research

Radioembolization in Patients with Progressive Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Liver Metastases Undergoing Treatment with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) spread frequently to the peritoneum and the liver. If metastasectomy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) fail, interventional ablation techniques are considered. The purpose of this study is to assess the progression-free interval (PFI) of GIST liver metastases after radioembolization (RE). (Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR)
Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR - November 26, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Nils Rathmann, Steffen J. Diehl, Dietmar Dinter, Jochen Schütte, Daniel Pink, Stefan O. Schoenberg, Peter Hohenberger Tags: Clinical Study Source Type: research

SPECT/CT and sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy
Abstract The use of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for sentinel node (SN) detection has been evaluated in the majority of malignancies with predominantly superficial lymphatic drainage. In breast cancer and melanoma, important initial contributions of SPECT/CT were based on the anatomical localisation of SNs already visualised on planar images, the detection of additional SNs in aberrant basins, and the depiction of SNs in cases with no visualisation on planar images. However, more recently, the finding that SPECT/CT use is associated with a higher rate of SN detection, m...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 26, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Management of Symptomatic Polycystic Liver Disease With Hepatic Resection
Polycystic liver disease causes devastating symptoms owing to hepatomegaly. Aspiration or fenestration fails to definitively remove the cyst wall and results in the reaccumulation of cyst fluid. Preserved hepatic function generally precludes consideration of a liver transplant, leaving hepatic resection the best available treatment option for patients with impaired quality of life. This case series outlines a successful outcome using this operative strategy. (Source: JAMA Surgery)
Source: JAMA Surgery - November 26, 2014 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst: a rare cause of ascites
Conclusion: The rupture of hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity is rare but presents a challenge for the radiologist and the surgeon. This condition is included in the differential diagnosis of ascites in endemic areas. (Source: BMC Surgery)
Source: BMC Surgery - November 26, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Manel LimemeSana YahyaouiHouneida ZaghouaniMosaab GhannouchiAbdelmajid KhnissiHabib AmaraRached LetaiefDejla BakirChakib Kraiem Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulphide reduces inflammation following abdominal aortic occlusion in rats.
Remote renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) following infra-renal aortic occlusion leads to acute kidney injury (AKI) and systemic inflammation. Hydrogen sulphide is a mediator of IRI and can ameliorate tissue injury in many organ systems. Its role in vascular surgery has yet to be established. We assessed the role of hydrogen sulphide in a rodent model of aortic occlusion. (Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery)
Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery - November 26, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: J.P. Hunter, S.A. Hosgood, M. Patel, P. Furness, R.D. Sayers, M.L. Nicholson Source Type: research

Prognostic factors in patients receiving third-line targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma
Several prognostic models have been proposed for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) but none has been validated in patients receiving third-line targeted agents. We aim to evaluate the prognostic factors in patients affected by mRCC who received a third-line of targeted agent. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - November 26, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: R. Iacovelli, A. Farcomeni, C.N. Sternberg, G. Carteni’, M. Milella, M. Santoni, L. Cerbone, G. Di Lorenzo, E. Verzoni, C. Ortega, R. Sabbatini, R. Ricotta, C. Messina, V. Lorusso, F. Atzori, F. De Vincenzo, C. Sacco, F. Boccardo, F. Valduga, F. Massari Source Type: research

Combination treatment of renal cell carcinoma with belinostat and 5-fluorouracil: A role for oxidative stress–induced DNA damage and HSP90-regulated thymidine synthase
Despite the availability of several therapeutic options, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether the combination of 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) belinostat would exert a synergistic effect on RCC cells in vitro and in vivo. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - November 26, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mi Joung Kim, Jee Suk Lee, Sang Eun Park, Hye-Jin Yi, In Gab Jeong, Jong Soon Kang, Jieun Yun, Joo-Yong Lee, Seonggu Ro, Jung Shin Lee, Eun Kyung Choi, Jung Jin Hwang, Choung-Soo Kim Source Type: research

Identification and characterisation of eight novel SERPINA1 null mutations
Conclusions: We have added eight more mutations to the list of SERPINA1 Null alleles. This study underlines that the laboratory diagnosis of AATD is not just a matter of degree, because the precise determination of the deficiency and Null alleles carried by an AATD individual may help to evaluate the risk for the lung disease. (Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases)
Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ilaria FerrarottiTomás CarrollStefania OttavianiAnna FraGeraldine O¿BrienKevin MolloyLuciano CordaDaniela MedicinaDavid CurranNoel McElvaneyMaurizio Luisetti Source Type: research

Transplantation of Mouse Ovarian Tissue: Comparison of the Transplantation Sites
Many studies have shown that ischemic injuries during the transplantation process were more detrimental than cryoinjuries for follicle survival and death and it has been reported that transplantation sites can affect the outcomes of grafted ovarian tissue (OT). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different OT transplantation sites on follicular integrity and function of OT grafts. B6D2F1 mice were randomly assigned to control (sham) and 4 experimental groups according to transplantation sites (back muscle [BM], fat pad [FP], kidney capsule [KC], and subcutaneous [SC]). (Source: Theriogenology)
Source: Theriogenology - November 26, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hye Won Youm, Jung Ryeol Lee, Jaewang Lee, Byung Chul Jee, Chang Suk Suh, Seok Hyun Kim Source Type: research

Comparison of the Effects of Transarterial Chemoembolization for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma between Patients with and without Extrahepatic Metastases
by Jeong-Ju Yoo, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Sang Hwan Lee, Minjong Lee, Dong Hyeon Lee, Yuri Cho, Yun Bin Lee, Su Jong Yu, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Chung Yong Kim, Hyo-Suk Lee Background/Aims Sorafenib is a standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer [BCLC] stage C). However, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has also been widely used as a treatment for patients with advanced HCC, even if they have extrahepatic metastases (EHM). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of TACE for advanced HCC patients with EHM upon initial diagnosis, as compared wi...
Source: PLoS One - November 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jeong-Ju Yoo et al. Source Type: research

Exploiting the Hydrophobic Terrain in Fucosidases with Aryl-Substituted Pyrrolidine Iminosugars.
Abstract Fucosidase inhibition shows potential in numerous therapeutic contexts. Substitution of fucose-like iminosugars with hydrophobic "aglycons" yields significant improvements in potency of fucosidase inhibition. Here we have prepared three new 2-aryl-3,4-dihydroxy-5-methylpyrrolidines featuring phenyl substituents in variable orientations with respect to the iminocyclitol core and at various distances from it to explore the key binding interactions that stabilise the enzyme-inhibitor complex. The presence of a triazole linker in one structure resulted in nanomolar inhibition of the fucosidase from bovine kidn...
Source: Chembiochem - November 26, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hottin A, Wright DW, Davies GJ, Behr JB Tags: Chembiochem Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms underlying the reception and transmission of sour taste information.
Abstract Taste enables organisms to determine the properties of ingested substances by conveying information regarding the five basic taste modalities: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami. The sweet, salty, and umami taste modalities convey the carbohydrate, electrolyte, and glutamate content of food, indicating its desirability and stimulating appetitive responses. The sour and bitter modalities convey the acidity of food and the presence of potential toxins, respectively, stimulating aversive responses to such tastes. In recent years, the receptors mediating sweet, bitter, and umami tastes have been identified ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - November 26, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ishimaru Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Drug−drug Interaction between Losartan and Paclitaxel in Human Liver Microsomes with Different CYP2C8 Genotypes
This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of losartan on paclitaxel metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs), and to determine the impact of the CYP2C8*3 polymorphism. HLMs that contained the CYP2C8*1 homozygote (HL60) or CYP2C8*3 heterozygote (HL54) genotype were used for the inhibition study. Losartan, at a concentration of 50 μmol/L, significantly inhibited paclitaxel metabolism by 29% and 57% in the HL60 (p<0.001) and HL54 (p<0.01), respectively. When using HL60, losartan and the CYP3A4 selective inhibitors, erythromycin and ketoconazole, caused a greater inhibition of the paclitaxel metabolis...
Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yuji Mukai, Asuna Senda, Takaki Toda, Toru Hayakawa, Erik Eliasson, Anders Rane, Nobuo Inotsume Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies).
Authors: Anwar Ibrahim D, Noman Albadani R Abstract Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus au...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women.
Authors: Benarba B, Meddah B, Tir Touil A Abstract Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were determined by HPLC. Serum and urinary creatinine...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Authors: Kumar M, Prasad SK, Krishnamurthy S, Hemalatha S Abstract Present study is an attempt to investigate plausible mechanism involved behind antidiabetic activity of standardized Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The plant is used as a medicinal salad for lowering blood sugar level in North-Eastern parts of India. Oral administration of extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level daily for 21 days showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in fasting plasma glucose and also elevated insulin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It also significantly reversed all...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit) Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice.
This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer. PMID: 24696677 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects.
Authors: Adkar P, Dongare A, Ambavade S, Bhaskar VH Abstract Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. The...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats.
Authors: Adaramoye OA, Akanni OO Abstract We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA) on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE) served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.
Authors: Arrey Tarkang P, Nwachiban Atchan AP, Kuiate JR, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Agbor GA Abstract Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and,...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The potential benefits and adverse effects of phytic Acid supplement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We no...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Authors: Mohan Y, Jesuthankaraj GN, Ramasamy Thangavelu N Abstract The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in fasting blo...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats.
Authors: Kannan N, Sakthivel KM, Guruvayoorappan C Abstract The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antiox...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.
Authors: Azmi MB, Qureshi SA Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg) and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg), negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg), positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg) controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids,...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of p-Aminohippuric Acid and Inulin in Rabbits with Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy.
In conclusion, major renal lesions were found on proximal tubules after AANa administration. The PKs of PAH and inulin significantly changed, and kidney functions, including the RPF and GFR, were reduced. PMID: 21738526 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Toxicokinetics of kava.
Authors: Rowe A, Zhang LY, Ramzan I Abstract Kava is traditionally consumed by South Pacific islanders as a drink and became popular in Western society as a supplement for anxiety and insomnia. Kava extracts are generally well tolerated, but reports of hepatotoxicity necessitated an international reappraisal of its safety. Hepatotoxicity can occur as an acute, severe form or a chronic, mild form. Inflammation appears to be involved in both forms and may result from activation of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells), either directly or via kava metabolites. Pharmacogenomics may influence the severity of this inflammato...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Teucrium polium on Glutathione Homeostasis In Vitro: A Possible Mechanism of Its Hepatoprotectant Action.
Conclusion. These data indicate that the mechanism of the hepatoprotective action of aqueous extracts of T. polium may be, in part, due to augmenting intracellular glutathione levels. PMID: 21188245 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research