Zoology This is an OPML file. It can be used to export all the MedWorm RSS feeds on this topic into your personal RSS reader (usually you have to save this file to your own computer before clicking on an Import OPML command in your own feed reader to upload the file which will then import all the feeds) or it can be used by webmasters to integrate MedWorm feeds with their own website. This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader, such as GoogleReader, or to display this data on your own website or blog. Subscribe to this data using MyMedWorm.Subscribe to this data using GoogleReader.Subscribe to this data using Bloglines.Subscribe to this data using MyYahoo.
Find the best Christmas presents and January Sales in the UK with this simple shopping directory.
This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 19.
Learning to Choose Among Social Foraging Strategies in Adult House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)
We presented to live sparrows an experimental regime, where stuffed adult house sparrows in a feeding position were positioned on a foraging grid that included two reward regimes: a positive one, in which the stuffed models were placed near food, and a negative one, in which the models were placed away from food. There was a significant increase in joining behavior after the positive treatment (exhibited by 84% of the birds), but no change after the negative treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that sparrows more frequently used the strategy with which they were more successful (usually joining) and that differences in...
Source: Ethology - September 12, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Amos Belmaker, Uzi Motro, Marcus W. Feldman, Arnon Lotem Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Woolly mammoth remains may contain living cells
Hair, soft tissues and bone marrow found on Siberian expedition, raising hopes that extinct creature could be clonedA Russian university says scientists have discovered frozen woolly mammoth fragments that may contain living cells deep in Siberia, bringing closer the possibility of cloning the extinct animal.The North-Eastern Federal University said in a statement on Tuesday that an international team had discovered mammoth hair, soft tissues and bone marrow at a depth of 328ft (100m) during a summer expedition.Expedition chief Semyon Grigoryev said a group of Korean scientists with the team had set a goal of finding livin...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 11, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Animal research Russia World news guardian.co.uk Europe Animals Zoology Science Source Type: news
Generalized Optimal Risk Allocation: Foraging and Antipredator Behavior in a Fluctuating Environment
Andrew D. Higginson, Tim W. Fawcett, Pete C. Trimmer, John M. McNamara, and Alasdair I. Houston, The American Naturalist, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 000, Ahead of Print.
Source: The American Naturalist - September 11, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
The 100 most endangered species on the planet – the list in full
The full list of fauna and flora listed as the most endangered species by the IUCN and Zoological Society of LondonPlougshare tortoisePopulation size: 440 - 770 individuals Range: 25-60km2 in Baly Bay region, northwestern Madagascar Primary threats: Illegal collection for international pet trade Action required: Enforcement of legal protection and protected area management Rio Pescado stubfoot toad Population size: Unknown Range: Azuay, Cañar and Guyas provinces, south-western Ecuador Threats: Chytridiomycosis and habitat destruction due to logging and agricultural expansion Action required: Protection of last remaining h...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 11, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Flora Malein Tags: World news guardian.co.uk Endangered species Endangered habitats Animals Plants Editorial Conservation Environment Science Wildlife Source Type: news
Reduced glutathione and Trolox (vitamin E) as extender supplements in cryopreservation of red deer epididymal spermatozoa.
Abstract The use of assisted reproductive techniques in cervids is increasing as the commercial use of these species increase. We have tested the suitability of the antioxidants Trolox and reduced glutathione (GSH) for freezing red deer epididymal spermatozoa, aiming at improving post-thawing quality. Samples from 19 stags were frozen in a TES-Tris-fructose extender (20% egg yolk, 8% glycerol), with 1 or 5mM of antioxidant. Motility (CASA), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde -MDA- production), membrane status, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal status (flow cytometry) and chromatin status (SCSA: %DFI and %HDS; flow c...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - September 11, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Anel-López L, Alvarez-Rodríguez M, García-Álvarez O, Alvarez M, Maroto-Morales A, Anel L, de Paz P, Garde JJ, Martínez-Pastor F Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
In vitro study of effects of emulsified oil on broiler feed quality
Abstract An experiment was conducted to compare effects of emulsified soybean oil and non‐emulsified soybean oil on the quality of broiler feed differing in the feed type and the broiler feeding stage in vitro. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was designed with two fat sources (soybean oil and emulsified oil), two feed types (mash and pellet) and three broiler feeding stages (starter, grower and finisher). Four samples of feeds were collected from each combination of factors at the beginning of the experiment and stored at 20°C. Subsamples were taken at 15‐day intervals to determine the moisture content, pe...
Source: Animal Science Journal - September 11, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Xiao‐Chuan Liu, Zai‐Bin Yang, Wei‐Ren Yang, Shu‐Zhen Jiang, Gui‐Guo Zhang Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Experts Plea for Protection of At-Risk Animals
By Alister DoyleOSLO (Reuters) - Obscure flora and fauna that few people have ever heard of such as the Jamaican rock iguana need to be much better protected if the world is to achieve a goal of preventing species dying out by 2020, a study said on Tuesday.The report, "Priceless or Worthless?", listed the 100 most threatened species and said critically endangered plants and animals such as Tarzan's chameleon in Madagascar merited conservation since they were irreplaceable for the Earth even if they had no economic value for people."Over half (of the 100 most endangered species) are receiving little or no attention," Profes...
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - September 10, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Environment,Evolutionary Biology,Evolution,Society & Policy,Everyday Science Source Type: research
A new N-containing cucurbitacin from Hemsleya endecaphylla
A new cucurbitacin, endecaphyllacin C, was isolated from the tubers of Hemsleya endecaphylla. The structure was elucidated as 2β,16α,20β,25-tetrahydroxy-24-acetylaminocucurbita-5-en-3,11,22-trione (1) on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, HMQC, and NOESY correlations, as well as HR-FAB-MS analysis. Content Type Journal ArticlePages 1-3DOI 10.1007/s10600-012-0319-9Authors Jian-Chao Chen, State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650204 Kunming, P. R. ChinaZhong-Zhi Xu, Research Institute o...
Source: Chemistry of Natural Compounds - September 10, 2012 Category: Chemistry Tags: Chemistry of Natural Compounds Source Type: research
UCLA chemist Steven G. Clarke named to endowed chair in gerontology
(Editors: This release contains information about a member of your community.) Steven G. Clarke (Brentwood, Calif.) a distinguished professor in the department of chemistry and biochemistry in UCLA's College of Letters and Science, has been named to UCLA's Elizabeth and Thomas Plott Chair in Gerontology. The endowed chair, held for a five-year term, is intended for a scholar who conducts research and education activities related to aging and longevity in the areas of molecular biology, neuroscience and immunology. An authority in his field, Clarke focuses on the biochemistry of the...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - September 10, 2012 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Erratum to: Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).
PMID: 22960803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Animal Cognition - September 9, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Garland A, Low J, Burns KC Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Bantams (Gallus gallus domesticus) also perceive a reversed Zöllner illusion.
Abstract Although pigeons have been shown to be susceptible to several size and length illusions, other avian species have not been tested intensively for illusory perception. Here we report how bantams perceive the Zöllner figure, in which parallel lines look nonparallel due to short crosshatches superimposed on the lines. Watanabe et al. (Cognition 119:137-141, 2011) showed that pigeons, like humans, perceived parallel lines as nonparallel but that the orientation of subjective convergence was opposite to that of humans. We trained three bantams to peck at the narrower (or wider) of the two gaps at the end of a ...
Source: Animal Cognition - September 9, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Watanabe S, Nakamura N, Fujita K Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Can domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use referential emotional expressions to locate hidden food?
Abstract Although many studies have investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) use of human communicative cues, little is known about their use of humans' emotional expressions. We conducted a study following the general paradigm of Repacholi in Dev Psychol 34:1017-1025, (1998) and tested four breeds of dogs in the laboratory and another breed in the open air. In our study, a human reacted emotionally (happy, neutral or disgust) to the hidden contents of two boxes, after which the dog was then allowed to choose one of the boxes. Dogs tested in the laboratory distinguished between the most distinct of the expres...
Source: Animal Cognition - September 9, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Buttelmann D, Tomasello M Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
New to Nature No 83: Areca gurita
Areca gurita is one of seven new species of palm discovered by Dr Charlie D HeatubunAbout 50 species of Asian palms belong to the genus Areca and are distributed from India and South China through Malaysia to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. During recent fieldwork in Borneo and visits to several herbaria, Dr Charlie D Heatubun of the Universitas Negeri Papua discovered seven new Areca species. Five are endemic to Borneo and the other two are from Cambodia and Sumatra.The specific epithet for one of the Borneo species, gurita, is from the Malay word for octopus and refers to the truly bizarre and beautiful appearance of...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 8, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Quentin Wheeler Tags: Biology World news Features Plants The Observer Zoology Environment Science Wildlife Source Type: news
Artificially selected human sperm morphology after swim-up processing
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1207-1214, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 8, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Behavioral Plasticity and Variation in Pit Construction of Antlion Larvae in Substrates with Different Particle Sizes
Abstract Behavioral plasticity allows animals to maximize their fitness in a variety of environmental conditions. Trap‐building predators represent case studies in such plasticity as the characteristics of their traps are dependent upon the substrate available. We investigated the effect of sand particle size on pit construction in antlions (Euroleon nostras), sand‐dwelling insect larvae that build pitfall traps to capture prey. The pit construction behavior of the species comprises six stages. When antlions were exposed to different sand particle sizes, their behavior differed in terms of the occurrence and duration o...
Source: Ethology - September 7, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Vesna Klokočovnik, Dušan Devetak, Marina Orlačnik Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Female Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes (Heterodon platirhinos) choose nest sites that produce offspring with phenotypes likely to improve fitness
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1215-1220, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 7, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
The parasite–host interface in the zonetail butterfly ray, Gymnura zonura (Bleeker), infected with Hexacanalis folifer (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea)
Abstract A wild‐caught specimen of the zonetail butterfly ray, Gymnura zonura (Bleeker), harboured numerous specimens of Hexacanalis folifer Cielocha & Jensen, 2011 (Systematic Parasitology, 79, 1–16; Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) within its spiral intestine. The cestodes were primarily attached in single rows along the base of mucosal folds, each associated with a nodular mucosal thickening. Microscopically, the scolex was embedded within the submucosa and muscularis; the attachment sites were marked by ulceration and necro‐proliferative inflammation demarcating the parasite from normal host tissues. Physical attac...
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases - September 7, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: J D Borucinska, J J Cielocha, K Jensen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Flavobacterium columnare isolates collected worldwide from 17 fish species
Abstract Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in diverse fish species worldwide. Although columnaris is an important disease, the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of F. columnare is not well studied. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of 97 F. columnare isolates collected worldwide between 1987 and 2011 from 17 fish species. The broth microdilution technique was utilized for reliable testing of these fastidious organisms. None of the isolates displayed acquired resistance to florfenicol, gentamicin, ormetoprim‐sulfadimethoxine and t...
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases - September 7, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: A M Declercq, F Boyen, W den Broeck, P Bossier, A Karsi, F Haesebrouck, A Decostere Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Functional and evolutionary implications of the cellular composition of the gill epithelium of feeding adults of a freshwater parasitic species of lamprey, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1278-1283, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Long-term memory of hierarchical relationships in free-living greylag geese.
Abstract Animals may memorise spatial and social information for many months and even years. Here, we investigated long-term memory of hierarchically ordered relationships, where the position of a reward depended on the relationship of a stimulus relative to other stimuli in the hierarchy. Seventeen greylag geese (Anser anser) had been trained on discriminations between successive pairs of five or seven implicitly ordered colours, where the higher ranking colour in each pair was rewarded. Geese were re-tested on the task 2, 6 and 12 months after learning the dyadic colour relationships. They chose the correct colo...
Source: Animal Cognition - September 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Weiß BM, Scheiber IB Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Olive baboons communicate intentionally by pointing.
Abstract A pointing gesture creates a referential triangle that incorporates distant objects into the relationship between the signaller and the gesture's recipient. Pointing was long assumed to be specific to our species. However, recent reports have shown that pointing emerges spontaneously in captive chimpanzees and can be learned by monkeys. Studies have demonstrated that both human children and great apes use manual gestures (e.g. pointing), and visual and vocal signals, to communicate intentionally about out-of-reach objects. Our study looked at how monkeys understand and use their learned pointing behaviour,...
Source: Animal Cognition - September 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Meunier H, Prieur J, Vauclair J Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
The male maritime earwig (Anisolabis maritima) possesses an asymmetric weapon. In smaller earwigs, asymmetric forceps increase fighting success. Reproduced by permission of Jonathan Wright
Source: Ethology - September 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: Front Cover Source Type: research
Extra-Mediterranean refugia: The rule and not the exception?
Some decades ago, biogeographers distinguished three major faunal types of high importance for Europe: (i) Mediterranean elements with exclusive glacial survival in the Mediterranean refugia, (ii) Siberian elements with glacial refugia in the eastern Palearctic and only postglacial expansion to Europe and (iii) arctic and/or alpine elements with large zonal distributions in the periglacial areas and postglacial retreat to the North and/or into the high mountain systems. Genetic analyses have unravelled numerous additional refugia both of continental and Mediterranean species, thus strongly modifying the biogeographical vie...
Source: Frontiers in Zoology - September 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Thomas SchmittZoltán Varga Source Type: research
Christopher Potten obituary
Cancer researcher who was fascinated by cellular renewalProfessor Christopher Potten, who has died aged 71, was a pioneer in a topic that, 40 years after his first studies, remains central in human biology: the organisation of cellular renewal in the epithelial tissues that line our body surfaces. The surface of the skin and the lining of the gut shed hundreds of millions of cells each day, cells that must be replaced by the multiplication of the stem cells that lie beneath the surface.Potten was fascinated by this process and its consequences for cancer research. In the early 1970s, following the finding that the epidermi...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 5, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Bruce Ponder Tags: Obituaries Biology guardian.co.uk Human biology University of Manchester Cancer Stem cells Science Source Type: news
Books in brief
Nature 489, 7414 (2012). doi:10.1038/489031a In this provocative look at genetic medicine in the United States, medical historian Nathaniel Comfort argues that eugenics casts a long shadow over the field. He has researched records spanning a century, following the ever-evolving group of geneticists, eugenicists, psychologists, medics, public-health workers, zoologists and
Source: Nature - September 5, 2012 Category: Research Tags: Books and Arts Source Type: research
Picture-object recognition in the tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria.
This study examined picture-object recognition in the red-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis carbonaria). In Experiment 1, five red-footed tortoises were trained to distinguish between food and non-food objects using a two-alternative forced choice procedure. After reaching criterion, they were presented with test trials in which the real objects were replaced with color photographs of those objects. There was no difference in performance between training and test trials, suggesting that the tortoises did see some correspondence between the real object and its photographic representation. Experiment 2 examined the nature of this...
Source: Animal Cognition - September 4, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Wilkinson A, Mueller-Paul J, Huber L Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Same/different discrimination by bumblebee colonies.
Abstract Bumblebees were exposed to a discrimination procedure in which reinforcement was contingent on choice of one of two spatial locations. The correct choice depended on whether a stimulus display contained two identical stimuli or two different stimuli. Some bees were trained with color stimuli and tested with line grating stimuli and others with the opposite arrangement. Four colonies of bumblebees produced more correct than incorrect choices to both identical and different stimuli during the transfer phase. This pattern of results is a signature of choices under control of an identity ("same/different") con...
Source: Animal Cognition - September 4, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Brown MF, Sayde JM Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Zoologists are no longer restricted to publish new species on paper
(Pensoft Publishers) In a highly debated decision, the rules for publication of scientific zoological names have been changed to allow purely digital publications to meet the requirements of the stringent Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) has passed an amendment that considers a publication in a digital scientific journal 'legitimate' if meeting several criteria. The Amendment was published simultaneously in the journals ZooKeys and Zootaxa.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 4, 2012 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Podcast: Wild hopes for conservation
This week Alok Jha meets zoologist Andrew Balmford to discuss his book Wild Hope: On the Front Line of Conservation Success, which celebrates the positive stories in habitat and species conservation. Alok also chatted to Dr Lewis Dartnell about the latest news in his field of astrobiology ahead of the course he will teach at the Royal Institution, starting on 11 September, Astrobiology: the search for alien life. Finally, we hear from Kew Gardens' chief scientist and director Stephen Hopper on the need to preserve the Earth's diverse plant life.Subscribe for free via iTunes to ensure every episode gets delivered. (Here is ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 3, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Alok Jha, Jason Phipps Tags: Astronomy Biodiversity Biology guardian.co.uk Endangered species Endangered habitats Alien life Editorial Zoology Conservation Environment Science and nature Source Type: news
Inhibition of hirame rhabdovirus growth by RNA aptamers
Abstract RNA aptamers are artificial nucleic acids that specifically bind to a wide variety of targets. They are an effective tool for pharmaceutical research and development of antiviral agents. Here, we describe four Hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV)‐RNA aptamers (H1, H2, H3 and H4) that we obtained from an in vitro process called the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The HIRRV‐RNA aptamers specifically bind to HIRRV. Hirame natural embryo (HINAE) cells treated with virus and the RNA aptamer showed a decrease in appearance of cytopathic effect when compared with control (treated only with vi...
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases - September 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: S D Hwang, N Midorikawa, P Punnarak, Y Kikuchi, H Kondo, I Hirono, T Aoki Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The first detections of subtype 2–related salmonid alphavirus (SAV2) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Norway
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases - September 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: M J Hjortaas, H R. Skjelstad, T Taksdal, A B Olsen, R Johansen, B Bang‐Jensen, I Ørpetveit, H Sindre Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Scratching as a Window into the Emotional Responses of Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys
In this study, we investigated the factors affecting anxiety in a wild group of tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) using self‐scratching (hereafter scratching) as its measure. Scratching was more strongly affected by the social context than by individual characteristics. Indeed, inter‐individual variability was not explained by the age, sex and dominance rank of the monkeys. The monkeys scratched themselves more often when being distant from other group members than when in close proximity with them, suggesting that even short‐distance separation from group members may be an important factor affecting ca...
Source: Ethology - September 2, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Eugenia Polizzi di Sorrentino, Gabriele Schino, Barbara Tiddi, Filippo Aureli Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
New to Nature No 82: Eritherium azzouzorum
A newly discovered fossil reveals that the evolutionary march towards elephants began at least 60m years agoThe three living species of the order Proboscidea, the savanna and forest African and Asian elephants, surely rank among the most bizarre and extraordinarily derived placental mammals. They are, however, relics of a long and once species-rich lineage. Thanks to a recently discovered fossil, we now know that this evolutionary march to the elephants began in Africa at least 60m years ago.Dr Emmanuel Gheerbrant of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) in Paris has reported the discovery of an extinct species ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Quentin Wheeler Tags: World news Features Animals The Observer Zoology Environment Science Wildlife Source Type: news
Embryo Genomics: Embryo Genomics meeting, Bonn, September 2011.
PMID: 22980499 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Tesfaye D, Schellander K, Sirard MA Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Changes in the messenger RNA expression levels of Bcl‐2 family members and caspase‐8 and ‐3 in porcine ovarian follicles during follicular atresia
In this study, we used single follicles to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of Bak, Bax, Bid, Bim, Bcl‐xL, Bcl‐2, Mcl‐1, caspase‐8 and caspase‐3 in healthy (H), early atretic (EA), and progressed atretic (PA) porcine follicles by quantitative real‐time RT‐PCR. Follicular atresia was assessed based on morphology and the ratio of progesterone to 17β‐estradiol. Our results indicate weak mRNA expression of Bim, Bid, Mcl‐1 and Bcl‐2 in the H group and significantly increased expression in the EA and PA groups (P < 0.01). The expression levels of Bak, caspase‐3 and Bcl‐xL were lo...
Source: Animal Science Journal - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Yanhui Fu, Fei Lin, Honglin Liu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Conditioned water affects pair formation behaviour in the marine polychaete Neanthes (Nereis) acuminata.
Abstract Assessing cues from conspecifics is paramount during mate choice decisions. Neanthes acuminata is a marine polychaete with a unique life cycle: pair formation, female death following reproduction, male parental care and male ability to mate again after egg care. Males completing such egg care are 'experienced'. Females have been shown to prefer experienced males over all others, including aggressively dominant males. As the female dies following reproduction, the reproductive success of her offspring depends upon successful parental care by the male. It is therefore vital that the female makes a good mate ...
Source: Animal Cognition - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Storey EJ, Reish DJ, Hardege JD Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Predaceous Diving Beetle, Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) Larvae Avoid Cannibalism by Recognizing Prey.
Abstract Larvae of diving beetles such as the various Dytiscus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) are carnivorous and usually prey on other aquatic animals. Cannibalism among larvae of Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Wehncke) was observed to begin when they were starved for more than two days under artificial breeding conditions. However, the 2-day starved larvae did not show cannibalism in the presence of intact, motionless, frozen tadpoles, or frozen shrimps. The beetle larvae attacked and captured intact tadpoles faster (15 sec) than other motionless and frozen tadpoles (120 sec), indicating that prey movement was an impo...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Inoda T Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Skin of Brown Frog, Rana zhenhaiensis.
Abstract Rana zhenhaiensis, a species of brown frog, is widely distributed in central and south China. In the present study, a total of 14 cDNA sequences encoding eight novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were cloned from the synthesized cDNAs of R. zhenhaiensis skin. The eight novel AMPs belong to four families: brevinin-1 (four peptides), brevinin-2 (one peptide), ranatuerin-2 (one peptide) and chensinin-1 (two peptides), five AMPs from the four families (brevinin-1ZHa, brevinin-1ZHb, brevinin-2ZHa, ranatuerin-2ZHa and chensinin-1ZHa) were chemically synthesized, their antimicrobial and hemolytic activities were ...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Xu B, Che H, Kang L, Zheng S, Mu S, Wan F Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Mechanisms of Maternal Inheritance of Dinoflagellate Symbionts in the Acoelomorph Worm Waminoa litus.
In this study, we examined the timing and vertical transmission pathway of algal symbionts in W. litus using light and electron microscopy. The oogenesis of the worm can be divided into three stages: stage I, in which the ovary is absent; stage II, the early vitellogenic zone containing immature oocytes formed in the ovary; and stage III, with both early and late vitellogenic zones in the body. In the early vitellogenic zone at stage II, oocytes are surrounded by accessory-follicle cells (AFCs). Both Symbiodinium and Amphidinium symbionts are not initially observed in the oocytes, but are observed in the AFCs. In the late ...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Hikosaka-Katayama T, Koike K, Yamashita H, Hikosaka A, Koike K Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Color pattern analysis of nymphalid butterfly wings: revision of the nymphalid groundplan.
Abstract To better understand the developmental mechanisms of color pattern variation in butterfly wings, it is important to construct an accurate representation of pattern elements, known as the "nymphalid groundplan". However, some aspects of the current groundplan remain elusive. Here, I examined wing-wide elemental patterns of various nymphalid butterflies and confirmed that wing-wide color patterns are composed of the border, central, and basal symmetry systems. The central and basal symmetry systems can express circular patterns resembling eyespots, indicating that these systems have developmental mechanisms ...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Otaki JM Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Effects of Water Management, Connectivity, and Surrounding Land use on Habitat use by Frogs in Rice Paddies in Japan.
Abstract In Japan, rice paddies play an important role as a substitute habitat for wetland species, and support rich indigenous ecosystems. However, since the 1950s, agricultural modernization has altered the rice paddy environment, and many previously common species are now endangered. It is urgently necessary to evaluate rice paddies as habitats for conservation. Among the species living in rice paddies, frogs are representative and are good indicator species, so we focused on frog species and analyzed the influence of environmental factors on their habitat use. We found four frog species and one subspecies (Hyla...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Naito R, Yamasaki M, Lmanishi A, Natuhara Y, Morimoto Y Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Host specificity and population dynamics of a sponge-endosymbiotic bivalve.
Abstract We assessed the host-use pattern of the sponge-endosymbiotic bivalve Vulsella vulsella and its demographic consequences in an inland sea in Okinawa Island, Japan. Vulsella vulsella utilized only one massive globular sponge species Spongia sp. as a host, and no Spongia sp. without V. vulsella were found. Individual sponges contained 9-248 live bivalves and 0-222 dead bivalves. The densities of live and dead bivalves in individual sponges were approximately constant irrespective of sponge size, indicating that available space is very scarce inside each sponge. The size distribution of bivalves was skewed to ...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Tsubaki R, Kato M Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Modeling Spring Habitat Requirements of the Endangered Brown Eared Pheasant Crossoptilon mantchuricum in the Huanglong Mountains, Shaanxi Province, China.
Abstract A detailed understanding of the habitat needs of brown eared pheasants (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) is essential for conserving the species. We carried out field surveys in the Huanglong Mountains of Shaanxi Province, China, from March to June in 2007 and 2008. We arrayed a total of 206 grid plots (200 × 200 m) along transects in 2007 and 2008 and quantified a suite of environmental variables for each one. In the optimal logistic regression model, the most important variables for brown eared pheasants were slope degree, tree cover, distance to nearest water, cover and depth of fallen leaves. Hosmer and Lew...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Li H, Yue B, Lian Z, Zhao H, Zhao D, Xiao X Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Negative Effects of Deep Roadside Ditches on Pelophylax porosa brevipoda Dispersal and Migration in Comparison with Hyla japonica in a Rice Paddy Area in Japan.
Abstract In Japan, rice paddies have acted as a substitute habitat for pond-breeding frogs. However, since the 1950s, agricultural modernization has altered the rice paddy environment, and pond-breeding frog populations have been decreasing. This agricultural modernization has led to rice paddy fragmentation via roadways and the construction of deep channels. To assess the influences of habitat fragmentation, we compared the distribution of two pond-breeding frogs, a common species, Hyla japonica, and an endangered species, Pelophylax porosa brevipoda, around a deep roadside ditch. In Shiga prefecture, we selected ...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Naito R, Sakai M, Morimoto Y Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Chromosomal Characterization of Armored Catfish Harttia longipinna (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): First Report of B Chromosomes in the Genus.
Abstract The B chromosomes are accessory elements that are widely distributed among eukaryotic genomes and often show non-Mendelian inheritance. They are considered dispensable for the growth, development, and reproduction of organisms. Some studies have suggested that these elements may affect sex determination. Harttia is a small armored catfish genus that shows sexual dimorphism, including hypertrophied odontodes on the pectoral fin spines and along the margins of the snout in mature males. They exhibit considerable karyotypic diversity with diploid number (2n) variation and heteromorphic sex system in H. carval...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Blanco DR, Vicari MR, Artoni RF, Traldi JB, Moreira-Filho O Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Phylogeny of oriental voles (rodentia: muridae: arvicolinae): molecular and morphological evidence.
In this study, we explore the systematics of all species of Oriental voles, except Eothenomys wardi, using a combination of DNA sequences and morphological data. Our molecular phylogeny, based on two mitochondrial genes (COI and cyt b), resolves the Oriental voles as a monophyletic group with strong support. Four distinct lineages are resolved: Eothenomys, Anteliomys, Caryomys, and the new subgenus Ermites. Based on morphology, we consider Caryomys and Eothenomys to be valid genera. Eothenomys, Anteliomys, and Ermites are subgenera of Eothenomys. The molecular phylogeny resolves subgenera Anteliomys and Ermites as sister t...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Liu S, Liu Y, Guo P, Sun Z, Murphy RW, Fan Z, Fu J, Zhang Y Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Immunoreactivity of Gonadotrophs (FSH and LH Cells) and Gonadotropin Subunit Gene Expression in the Male Chub Mackerel Scomber japonicus Pituitary during the Reproductive Cycle.
In this study, we examined immunoreactive changes in FSH and LH cells, and changes in the gene expression of the three gonadotropin subunits in the pituitary of male chub mackerel Scomber japonicus during testicular development. FSHβ-immunoreactive (ir) and LHβ-ir cell area were measured immuno-histochemically based on the FSH and LH cell-occupying area in the proximal pars distalis. The FSHβ-ir cell area increased significantly during spermiation, while FSHβ mRNA levels, already high at the beginning of spermatogenesis, increased further, peaking during spermiation. In contrast, LHβ-ir cell area and LHβ mRNA levels,...
Source: Zoological Science - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Nyuji M, Selvaraj S, Kitano H, Shiraishi T, Yamaguchi A, Shimizu A, Matsuyama M Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Modelling salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, reproduction on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L
Abstract The aim of this study was to model sea lice levels and the effect on reproduction by a stochastic simulation model and to evaluate the uncertainty of lice estimates based upon counts. Two empirical data sets were examined to parameterize the models. An overall fit of the data to the Poisson distribution was found and thus was used as the base of the stochastic models. In the model, salmon lice reproduction is not linear with the number of adult females and at low lice loads a smaller proportion of the adult female lice will reproduce. Depending on the variance structure, it was estimated that between 40% and 60% o...
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: M Stormoen, E Skjerve, A Aunsmo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Study of virulence in field isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus obtained from the northern part of Norway
Abstract In order to study the variety of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) strains involved in outbreaks of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in Atlantic salmon fish farms, samples were collected from 19 different outbreaks of IPN in the northern part of Norway. The main objective of this study was to examine whether IPNV isolates of different virulence were involved in the outbreaks and could explain the variable IPN protection observed in vaccinated post‐smolts in the field. Both the molecular basis of virulence of all field isolates and virulence expressed by mortality after bath challenge of unvaccinate...
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: K Julin, S Mennen, A‐I Sommer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Long‐term dietary supplementation of organic selenium modulates gene expression profiles in leukocytes of adult pigs
This study indicates that a long‐ term dietary supplementation (0.3%) of organic Se improves the expression of genes that are related to enhanced immunity of pigs.
Source: Animal Science Journal - September 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Ki‐Duk Song, Scott E. Dowd, Hak‐Kyo Lee, Sung Woo Kim Tags: Original Article Source Type: research