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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 21.
Female lizards ignore the sweet scent of success: Male characteristics implicated in female mate preference.
Abstract Sexual selection molds the morphology, physiology and behavior of males in many animals. At first glance, it seems reasonable to assume that females would use the same male traits and signals in mate choice as males do during male-male competition. However, intra- and intersexual competition may affect traits in the same or the opposite direction, with differing strength. We investigated which color, morphometric and performance traits are selected for through male-male competition and whether female mate preference is based on these same traits and/or dominance status in the three male color morphs of the...
Source: Zoology - August 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Huyghe K, Vanhooydonck B, Herrel A, Tadić Z, Van Damme R Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Asymmetric learning to avoid heterospecific males in Mesocricetus hamsters.
Abstract If a female mates with a male of a closely related species, her fitness is likely to decline. Consequently, females may develop behavioral mechanisms to avoid mating with heterospecific males. In some species, one such mechanism is for adult females to learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure to such males. We have previously shown that adult, female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against male Turkish hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) after exposure to a single heterospecific male during 8days across a wire-mesh barrier. Here we repeated that experiment ...
Source: Zoology - August 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Delbarco-Trillo J, Johnston RE Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Serotonin as an integrator of leech behavior and muscle mechanical performance.
Abstract The obliquely striated muscle in the leech body wall has a broad functional repertoire; it provides power for both locomotion and suction feeding. It also operates over an unusually high strain range, undergoing up to threefold changes in length. Serotonin (5-HT) may support this functional flexibility, integrating behavior and biomechanics. It can act centrally, promoting motor outputs that drive body wall movements, and peripherally, modulating the mechanical properties of body wall muscle. During isometric contractions 5-HT enhances active force production and reduces resting muscle tone. We therefore h...
Source: Zoology - August 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Gerry SP, Daigle AJ, Feilich KL, Liao J, Oston AL, Ellerby DJ Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Variation in the cranium shape of wall lizards (Podarcis spp.): effects of phylogenetic constraints, allometric constraints and ecology.
Abstract We used geometric morphometrics to explore the influence of phylogenetic and allometric constraints as well as ecology on variation in cranium shape in five species of monophyletic, morphologically similar Podarcis lizards (Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis sicula and Podarcis taurica). These species belong to different clades, they differ in their habitat preferences and can be classified into two distinct morphotypes: saxicolous and terrestrial. We found (i) no phylogenetic signal in cranium shape, (ii) diverging allometric slopes among species, and (iii) a significant...
Source: Zoology - August 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Urošević A, Ljubisavljević K, Jelić D, Ivanović A Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Overlapping patterns of morphometric and genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean goby Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 (Perciformes, Gobiidae) in Tunisian lagoons.
Abstract The genetic and morphological variations of Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 were studied in samples collected from three Tunisian lagoons. The morphological analysis included 18 morphometric measurements and was based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), whereas the genetic analysis was based on the 16S-rRNA and COI mitochondrial genes. Both analyses differentiated the populations and demonstrated consistently a well-supported differentiation between the western Mediterranean samples (Bizerta and Tunis South lagoons) and the eastern Mediterranean sample (El Bibane lagoon). The observed differentia...
Source: Zoology - August 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Mejri R, Lo Brutto S, Hassine N, Arculeo M, Hassine OK Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Selection for increased maternal body volume does not differ between two Scincella lizards with different reproductive modes.
Abstract Body size and shape are among the most important determinants of reproductive output in diverse animal taxa. We compared morphology and reproductive output between two Scincella lizards (Scincidae), Scincella modesta (oviparous) and Scincella reevesii (viviparous), to examine whether viviparous females compensate for their lower reproductive output by modifying maternal body size and/or shape. As predicted, reproductive output was lower in S. reevesii than in S. modesta when corrected for body size. The two lizards differed morphologically, but were similar in three aspects: females were the larger sex, th...
Source: Zoology - August 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Yang J, Sun YY, Fu TB, Xu DD, Ji X Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Morphological respiratory diffusion capacity of the lungs of ball pythons (Python regius).
This study aims at a functional and morphological characterization of the lung of a boid snake. In particular, we were interested to see if the python's lungs are designed with excess capacity as compared to resting and working oxygen demands. Therefore, the morphological respiratory diffusion capacity of ball pythons (Python regius) was examined following a stereological, hierarchically nested approach. The volume of the respiratory exchange tissue was determined using computed tomography. Tissue compartments were quantified using stereological methods on light microscopic images. The tissue diffusion barrier for oxygen t...
Source: Zoology - August 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Matthias Starck J, Aupperle H, Kiefer I, Weimer I, Krautwald-Junghanns ME, Pees M Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Near-infrared orientation of Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.
Abstract Light plays a pivotal role in animal orientation. Aquatic animals face the problem that penetration of light in water is restricted through high attenuation which limits the use of visual cues. In pure water, blue and green light penetrates considerably deeper than red and infrared spectral components. Submicroscopic particles and coloured dissolved organic matter, however, may cause increased scattering and absorption of short-wave components of the solar spectrum, resulting in a relative increase of red and infrared illumination. Here we investigated the potential of near-infrared (NIR) light as a cue fo...
Source: Zoology - August 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Shcherbakov D, Knörzer A, Hilbig R, Haas U, Blum M Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Life in the flow lane: differences in pectoral fin morphology suggest transitions in station-holding demand across species of marine sculpin.
We examined body and pectoral fin morphology of 9 species to determine patterns of body and pectoral fin specialization. Intact specimens and pectoral fins were measured, and multivariate techniques determined the differences among species. Cluster analysis identified 4 groups that likely represent differences in station-holding demand, and this was supported by a discriminant function analysis. Primarily, the high-demand group had increased peduncle depth (specialization for acceleration) and larger pectoral fins with less webbed ventral rays (specialization for mechanical gripping) compared to other groups; secondarily, ...
Source: Zoology - August 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Kane EA, Higham TE Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multidimensional scaling, binary hierarchical cluster tree and selected diagnostic masses improves species identification of Neolithic keratin sequences from furs of the Tyrolean Iceman Oetzi.
Abstract The identification of fur origins from the 5300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman's accoutrement is not yet complete, although definite identification is essential for the socio-cultural context of his epoch. Neither have all potential samples been identified so far, nor there has a consensus been reached on the species identified using the classical methods. Archaeological hair often lacks analyzable hair scale patterns in microscopic analyses and polymer chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are often inapplicable due to the lack of amplifiable ancient DNA. To overcome these drawbacks, a matrix-assisted laser des...
Source: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM - July 31, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hollemeyer K, Altmeyer W, Heinzle E, Pitra C Tags: Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom Source Type: research
The Relationship between Phenotypic and Environmental Variation: Do Physiological Responses Reduce Interindividual Differences?*
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 000, Ahead of Print.
Source: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology - July 31, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
In vivo vs. in vitro models for studying the effects of elevated temperature on the GV-stage oocyte, subsequent developmental competence and gene expression.
Abstract The ovarian pool of follicle-enclosed oocytes is highly susceptible to elevated ambient temperature. It is not clear, however, whether the model of using heat shock in vitro simulates the effects of heat stress that animals experience in vivo. The current study examined the reliability of in vitro models, relative to in vivo models, for studying the effects of elevated temperature on the germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocyte with emphasis on the expression of genes involve in maturation and early embryonic development. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from ovaries arbitrarily collected at the sl...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - July 31, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Gendelman M, Roth Z Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Quantitative proteomic analysis of pregnancy-related proteins from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during pregnancy in pigs.
In this study, a proteomic approach utilizing 2-DE and LC-MS/MS was applied to evaluate specific molecular expression changes during pregnancy compared with non-pregnancy. Together, these data offer new information about the proteome map and factors that are differentially regulated during maintenance of normal pregnancy. PMID: 22917877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - July 31, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Chae JI, Kim J, Lee SG, Koh MW, Jeon YJ, Kim DW, Ko SM, Seo KS, Lee HK, Choi NJ, Cho SK, Ryu J, Kang S, Lee DS, Chung HM, Koo DB Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Gibbons (Hylobates pileatus, H. moloch, H. lar, Symphalangus syndactylus) follow human gaze, but do not take the visual perspective of others.
Abstract We investigated four gibbon species of two different genera (Hylobates pileatus, H. moloch, H. lar, Symphalangus syndactylus) in terms of their looking behavior in response to a human who either looked up or looked at the gibbon. Comparing those two conditions, gibbons as a group looked up more when the human was looking up, but they also performed more looks in other directions and thus generally looked more in this condition. Unlike great apes, gibbons did not respond differently between conditions when only the first look on every trial was considered. Furthermore, they did not perform double looks up t...
Source: Animal Cognition - July 31, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Liebal K, Kaminski J Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Time course of changes in antioxidant activity of milk from dairy cows fed a trehalose‐supplemented diet
This study was to investigate the time course of changes to the antioxidant activity of milk from cows fed a trehalose‐supplemented diet, and to determine possible underlying mechanisms for observed changes. Six Holstein cows were used, and subjected to two experimental feeding periods consisting of a 1% trehalose‐supplemented diet for 10 days, followed by a basal diet only (no trehalose) for 10 days. 1,1‐Diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities in milk were gradually increased during the trehalose supplementation period and were highest at the end of the second period. However, trehalos...
Source: Animal Science Journal - July 31, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Naoto AOKI, Kan SATO, Shuhei KANDA, Kazuhisa MUKAI, Yoshiaki OBARA, Hisao ITABASHI Source Type: research
A zoological catalogue of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil
The variety of interactions between human cultures and herpetofauna is the subject matter of Ethnoherpetology, a subdivision of Ethnozoology. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, many reptiles interact with human communities because of their utility or because of the risks they represent. These interactions have obvious implications for the conservation of reptiles from this region.In this context, ethnoherpetology studies are crucial because they serve as subsidies for guiding strategies for the handling and conservation of reptiles. This paper presents ethnozoological and taxonomic informations of hunted reptiles in the se...
Source: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine - July 30, 2012 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega AlvesGentil Alves Pereira FilhoKleber da Silva VieiraWedson Medeiros Silva SoutoLívia Emanuelle Tavares MendonçasPaulo Fernando Guedes Pereira MontenegroWaltécio de Oliveira AlmeidaWashington Luís da Silva Vieira Source Type: research
Expression of canonical WNT/beta-CATENIN signaling components in the developing human lung
Conclusions: This study of the expression patterns and in vitro activity of the canonical WNT/beta-CATENIN pathways suggests that these components play an essential role in regulation of human lung development.
Source: BMC Developmental Biology - Latest articles - July 30, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Mingfeng ZhangJueping ShiYide HuangLaijun Lai Source Type: research
Time preferences in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and humans (Homo sapiens).
Abstract Rosati et al. (Curr Biol 17(19):1663-1668, 2007) found in a self-control test in which choice was between a smaller, immediately delivered food and a larger, delayed food, that chimpanzees preferred the larger reward (self-control); humans, however, preferred the smaller reward (impulsivity). They attributed their results to a species difference in self-control. In Experiment 1, monkeys (long-tailed macaques) were exposed to a self-control task in two conditions: where the food was hidden under differently colored bowls and where it was visible. When these two conditions were compared, choice shifted from ...
Source: Animal Cognition - July 28, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Genty E, Karpel H, Silberberg A Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Emerging Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) problems in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., associated with grey seal colonization of spawning grounds
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases - July 27, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: K Buchmann, P Kania Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Scent‐Marking Behaviour in a Pack of Free‐Ranging Domestic Dogs
AbstractMost mammals scent‐mark, and a variety of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour. Most of our knowledge about scent marking in domestic dogs comes from studies carried out on laboratory or companion dogs, while few studies have been carried out on free‐ranging dogs. Here, we explored the functional significance of different scent‐marking behavioural patterns in a pack of free‐ranging domestic dogs by testing two non‐exclusive hypotheses: the indirect territorial defence and the dominance/threat hypotheses. Through direct observation, we recorded the locations of dog scent marks (urinat...
Source: Ethology - July 27, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Simona Cafazzo, Eugenia Natoli, Paola Valsecchi Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Changes in diet, body mass and fatty acid composition during pre-hibernation in a subtropical bat in relation to NPY and AgRP expression
Abstract Prior to hibernation, mammals accumulate large amounts of fat in their bodies. In temperate mammalian species, hibernation is improved by increasing the levels of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the body. The saturation of fatty acids (FA) in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and membrane phospholipids of mammals often reflects their diet composition. We found that the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum) accumulates large amounts of fat at the end of summer by gradually shifting to a fat-rich diet (queen carpenter ants, Camponotus felah). PUFA are almost absent in this diet (<1&...
Source: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology - July 27, 2012 Category: Physiology Tags: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology Source Type: research
Delineating genetic groupings in continuously distributed species across largely homogeneous landscapes: a study of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Ontario, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 999-1014, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 27, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in avian semen.
Abstract The present study compared the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in semen of two avian species: chicken and goose. The experiment was conducted on Greenleg Partridge roosters and White Koluda(®) ganders, each represented by 10 mature males. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma. In gander spermatozoa, the amount of MDA was 10 times greater (P<0.01) than in rooster spermatozoa. Each of the investigated antioxidant enzymes had greater (P<0.01) activity in goos...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - July 27, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Partyka A, Lukaszewicz E, Niżański W Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Decision-making and associative color learning in harnessed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).
Abstract In honeybees, the conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) has provided a powerful tool to explore the mechanisms underlying olfactory learning and memory. Unfortunately, PER conditioning does not work well for visual stimuli in intact honeybees, and performance is improved only after antennal amputation, thus limiting the analysis of visual learning and multimodal integration. Here, we study visual learning using the PER protocol in harnessed bumblebees, which exhibit high levels of odor learning under restrained conditions. We trained bumblebees in a differential task in which two colors di...
Source: Animal Cognition - July 27, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Riveros AJ, Gronenberg W Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
The ability of the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi to survive intracellular freezing is dependent upon nutritional status
Abstract The Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi is the best documented example of an animal surviving intracellular freezing and the only animal so far shown to survive such freezing throughout its tissues. However, a recent study found that after exposure to a freezing stress that produced intracellular freezing in a proportion of nematodes, the resulting survival levels could be explained if those nematodes that froze intracellularly had died. We have thus re-examined the survival of intracellular freezing in this nematode. The ability to survive a freezing exposure that is likely to produce intracell...
Source: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology - July 26, 2012 Category: Physiology Tags: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology Source Type: research
Gastrointestinal parasites of coyotes (Canis latrans) in the metropolitan area of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1023-1030, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 26, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Scale and landscape perception: the case of refuge use by Boreal Toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1015-1022, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 26, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
The polycomb group protein EED varies in its ability to access the nucleus in porcine oocytes and cleavage stage embryos.
Abstract Chromatin-modifying complexes serve essential functions during mammalian embryonic development. Polycomb group proteins EED, SUZ12, and EZH2 have been shown to mediate methylation of the lysine 27 residue of histone protein H3 (H3K27), an epigenetic mark that is linked with transcriptional repression. H3K27 trimethylation has been shown to be present on chromatin in mature porcine oocytes, pronuclear and 2-cell stage embryos, with H3K27 trimethylation decreasing at the 4-cell stage and not detectable in blastocyst stage embryos. The goals of this study were to determine the intracellular localization of th...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - July 25, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Foust KB, Li Y, Park K, Wang X, Liu S, Cabot RA Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Target animacy influences chimpanzee handedness.
Abstract We employed a bottom-up, quantitative method to investigate great ape handedness. Our previous investigation of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) demonstrated that contextual information influenced an individual's handedness toward target objects. Specifically, we found a significant right-hand bias for unimanual actions directed toward inanimate target objects but not for actions directed to animate target objects (Forrester et al. in Anim Cogn 14(6):903-907, 2011). Using the identical methodological technique, we investigated the spontaneous hand actions of nine captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) dur...
Source: Animal Cognition - July 25, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Forrester GS, Quaresmini C, Leavens DA, Spiezio C, Vallortigara G Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
A non-mutilating method for marking small wild mammals and reptiles
Sophie Petit, Helen P. Waudby, Ashley T. Walker, Rebecca Zanker, Gina Rau
Source: Australian Journal of Zoology - July 25, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Sophie PetitHelen P. WaudbyAshley T. WalkerRebecca ZankerGina Rau Source Type: research
Clinical and reproductive consequences of using BVDV-contaminated semen in artificial insemination in a beef herd in Argentina.
Abstract The current report was prompted by an atypical outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred in a beef herd in the southwestern part of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, where a total of 9/41 (21.9%) yearling bulls died. Blood samples from 73 bulls and 189 heifers were tested for evidence of persistent BVDV infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). Non-cytopathic BVDV was isolated from 7 (9.6%) 24- to 36-month-old bulls, and 3 (1.6%) 36-month-old heifers. Non-cytopathic BVDV was also detected in the seminal plasma of three of six persistently infected (PI) bulls. Furthermore, a 171bp genomic fragment ...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - July 24, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: González Altamiranda EA, Kaiser GG, Weber N, Leunda MR, Pecora A, Malacari DA, Morán O, Campero CM, Odeón AC Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).
This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very...
Source: Animal Cognition - July 24, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Garland A, Low J, Burns KC Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Habituation and dishabituation during object play in kennel-housed dogs.
Abstract Domestic dogs are reported to show intense but transient neophilia towards novel objects. Here, we examine habituation and dishabituation to manipulable objects by kennel-housed dogs. Labrador retrievers (N = 16) were repeatedly presented with one toy for successive 30-s periods until interaction ceased. At this point (habituation), a different toy was presented that contrasted with the first in both colour and odour (since the dog's saliva would have accumulated on the first), colour alone, or odour alone. No effect of the type of contrast was detected in the number of presentations to habituation, the ...
Source: Animal Cognition - July 24, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Pullen AJ, Merrill RJ, Bradshaw JW Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Testosterone and Partner Compatibility: Evidence and Emerging Questions
This article surveys the major unanswered questions relating to hormonal partner compatibility and previews potential future work for addressing those open issues.
Source: Ethology - July 24, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Katharina Hirschenhauser Tags: Current Issues ‐ Perspectives and Reviews Source Type: research
A Greylag goose pair (Anser anser) along the river Alm in Grünau, Austria. Parental geese moult and are unable to fly while they raise their offspring. The feathers in the foreground indicate that primaries are re‐growing. The parents won't be able to fly again until the goslings are fledging. Photo reproduced by permission of Josef Hemetsberger, Konrad Lorenz Research Station, University of Vienna, Austria
Source: Ethology - July 24, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: Front Cover Source Type: research
CalpB modulates border cell migration in Drosophila egg chambers
Conclusions: The physiological function of CalpB in border cell motility has been demonstrated in vivo. The genetic interaction between the CalpB and the if, mys, as well as rhea genes, the involvement of active talin head-domains in the process, and the fact that CalpB and talin interact with each other collectively suggest that the limited proteolytic cleavage of talin is one of the possible mechanisms through which CalpB regulates cell migration.
Source: BMC Developmental Biology - Latest articles - July 24, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Endre KokaiFerencz PaldyKalman SomogyiAnil ChouguleMargit PalEva KerekesPeter DeakPeter FriedrichViktor DombradiGeza Adam Source Type: research
Leaf litter of invasive Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) negatively affects hatching success of an aquatic breeding anuran, the Southern Leopard Frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 991-998, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 23, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Sex and strain differences in isotope turnover rates and metabolism in house mice (Mus musculus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 984-990, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 23, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Timing of breeding, peak food availability, and effects of mismatch on chick growth in birds nesting in the High Arctic
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 961-971, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 23, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
A category-overshadowing effect in pigeons: Support for the Common Elements Model of object categorization learning.
A model proposing error-driven learning of associations between representations of stimulus properties and responses can account for many findings in the literature on object categorization by nonhuman animals. Furthermore, the model generates predictions that have been confirmed in both pigeons and people, suggesting that these learning processes are widespread across distantly related species. The present work reports evidence of a category-overshadowing effect in pigeons' categorization of natural objects, a novel behavioral phenomenon predicted by the model. Object categorization learning was impaired when a second cat...
Source: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes - July 23, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Soto, Fabian A.; Wasserman, Edward A. Source Type: research
Towards a mathematical model of within-session operant responding.
Operant response rate changes within the course of a typical free-operant experimental session. These changes are orderly, and reliably demonstrated with subjects from different species, responding under different experimental conditions. Killeen (1995) postulated that the response rate changes are a function of the interplay between arousal and satiation and offered a mathematical model for this hypothesis. Here we analyze Killeen's model, demonstrating that, although solid in its principles, it presents some flaws in its implementation. Then, based on the same principles, we build and test a new model of within-session m...
Source: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes - July 23, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Bittar, Estêvão G.; Del-Claro, Kleber; Bittar, Lucas G.; da Silva, Michelle C. P. Source Type: research
Effects of thinning the rate at which the alternative behavior is reinforced on resurgence of an extinguished instrumental response.
Three experiments with rats examined the effects of thinning the rate of reinforcement for the alternative behavior in the resurgence paradigm. In all experiments, pressing one lever (L1) was first reinforced and then extinguished while pressing a second alternative lever (L2) was then reinforced. When L2 responding was then extinguished, L1 responses “resurged.” Resurgence was always observed when L2 was reinforced on an unchanging reinforcement schedule during Phase 2. However, other rats received systematic decreases in the rate of L2 reinforcement before extinction of L2 began. Such a “thinning” procedure was p...
Source: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes - July 23, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Winterbauer, Neil E.; Bouton, Mark E. Source Type: research
Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: Evidence for independent additive controllers.
According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but l...
Source: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes - July 23, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Hogarth, Lee Source Type: research
Generalization decrement and not overshadowing by associative competition among pairs of landmarks in a navigation task.
When they are trained in a Morris water maze to find a hidden platform, whose location is defined by a number of equally spaced visual landmarks round the circumference of the pool, rats are equally able to find the platform when tested with any two of the landmarks (Prados, & Trobalon, 1998; Rodrigo, Chamizo, McLaren, & Mackintosh, 1997). This suggests that none of the landmarks was completely overshadowed by any of the others. In Experiment 1 one pair of groups was trained with four equally salient visual landmarks spaced at equal intervals around the edge of the pool, while a second pair was trained with two landmarks o...
Source: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes - July 23, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Chamizo, Victoria D.; Rodríguez, Clara A.; Espinet, Alfredo; Mackintosh, N. J. Source Type: research
Non-invasive monitoring of male and female numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus: Myrmecobiidae) reproductive activity.
Abstract The reproductive endocrinology of the highly endangered numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus) is described for the first time. Patterns of faecal steroid secretion (progesterone [PM], oestradiol-17β [E2] and testosterone [TM] metabolites) were examined within a captive numbat population over 1 year and revealed a highly synchronized seasonal pattern of reproduction. TM secretion increased progressively from September to November, peaked in December and then decreased in February. All females displayed luteal phases (1-3), between late-November to late-March, in association with pregnant (Pr, n=4), non-productive...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - July 22, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Hogan LA, Lisle AT, Valentine L, Johnston SD, Robertson H Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Wild bearded capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus) select hammer tools on the basis of both stone mass and distance from the anvil.
Wild bearded capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus) select hammer tools on the basis of both stone mass and distance from the anvil. Anim Cogn. 2012 Jul 22; Authors: Massaro L, Liu Q, Visalberghi E, Fragaszy D Abstract Contemporary optimization models suggest that animals optimize benefits of foraging and minimize its costs. For wild bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus), nut-cracking entails cost related to lifting the heavy stone and striking the nut and additional cost to transport the stone if it is not already on the anvil. To assess the role of stone mass and transport distance in capuchi...
Source: Animal Cognition - July 22, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Massaro L, Liu Q, Visalberghi E, Fragaszy D Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Acoustic communication in crocodilians: information encoding and species specificity of juvenile calls.
Abstract In the Crocodylia order, all species are known for their ability to produce sounds in several communication contexts. Though recent experimental studies have brought evidence of the important biological role of young crocodilian calls, especially at hatching time, the juvenile vocal repertoire still needs to be clarified in order to describe thoroughly the crocodilian acoustic communication channel. The goal of this study is to investigate the acoustic features (structure and information coding) in the contact call of juveniles from three different species (Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus, Black caiman...
Source: Animal Cognition - July 21, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Vergne AL, Aubin T, Martin S, Mathevon N Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Ovarian response of prepubertal Murrah heifers to exogenous GnRH.
Abstract The aim of the current study was to evaluate the ovarian follicular response to GnRH at two dose levels in prepubertal Murrah buffalo heifers during hot-humid months. Heifers received 10μg (Group A, n=7) or 20μg (Group B, n=6) of GnRH during the growing phase of the dominant follicle (DF>6mm), as identified by pretreatment regular ultrasound scanning. A similar dose was repeated approximately 30 days later, again coinciding with another growing DF. Post-treatment ovarian activity was studied by alternate day transrectal ultrasonography until 25 days post-second GnRH. In both groups, three types of res...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - July 20, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Sharma RK, Singh JK, Khanna S, Singh I Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in small ruminants.
Abstract Small ruminants are an important component of the global production systems of meat and wool, and their reproductive biology is well known. However, the incorporation of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) in the production systems of small ruminants is not as well developed as for other domestic species. Normally, production systems that incorporate ARTs are restricted to artificial insemination or in vivo embryo transfer. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one of the ARTs techniques reported for small ruminants and consists of the injection of spermatozoa inside an oocyte, bypassing the natura...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - July 20, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: López-Saucedo J, Paramio-Nieto MT, Fierro R, Piña-Aguilar RE Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Epigenetic reprogramming of Yak iSCNT embryos after donor cell pre-treatment with oocyte extracts.
This study aims to evaluate the effect of pre-treatment donor cell with oocyte extracts on the early developmental competence of yak iSCNT embryos. Yak fibroblasts were reversibly permeabilized with streptolysin O, and then treated with yak oocyte extracts (YOE) or bovine oocyte extracts (BOE) prior to iSCNT. The 8-cell and blastocyst formation increased significantly compared with the control group (P<0.05) when donor cells pre-treated with YOE or BOE. The relative expression level of embryo-specific genes TBP1 and Mash2 were also up-regulated both in the blastocysts of the YOE and BOE groups. In addition, the methylat...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - July 20, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Xiong XR, Wang LJ, Zi XD, Ma L, Xu WB, Wang YS, Li J Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research