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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 6.
Adaptation of ostriches to transport‐induced stress: Physiometabolic response
This study assessed the effects of five different transport periods on physiometabolic responses and gas exchange in ostriches. It included 138 ostriches that were assigned to five experimental groups. G1 included 78 birds that were set aside as a reference group (RG). Each one of the four remaining experimental groups included 20 ostriches, which were transported in the following manner: G1 on one occasion for a period of 1 h; G2 on one occasion for 2 h; and G3 on one occasion for 3 h; G4a was made up of the ostriches from G1 but they were shipped on a second occasion, for 2 h (making a total of 3 h); finally, G...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 17, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Giovanni Vazquez‐Galindo, Aline S. Aluja, Isabel Guerrero‐Legarreta, Hector Orozco‐Gregorio, Fernando Borderas‐Tordesillas, Patricia Mora‐Medina, Patricia Roldan‐Santiago, Salvador Flores‐Peinado, Daniel Mota‐Rojas Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
A Japanese Black breeding herd exhibiting low blood urea nitrogen: A metabolic profile study examining the effect on reproductive performance
In conclusion, routine examination of serum biochemical parameters in Japanese Black breeding cattle may be a useful strategy for determining subclinical metabolic failure of cattle herds, and consequently, its effect on reproductive performance of the herd.
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 17, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Urara Watanabe, Koji Okamoto, Akio Miyamoto, Takeshige Otoi, Osamu Yamato, Chenga Tshering, Mitsuhiro Takagi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Effects of meat species on the postprandial thermic effect in rats
We examined animal species differences in the postprandial thermic effect of meat and investigated the postprandial thermic effect of mutton in rats. After intake of experimental diets containing each meat, body temperatures of rats fed mutton or venison were significantly higher than that of rats fed rabbit meat. After intake of experimental diets containing fractionized mutton, the body temperatures of rats fed diets containing lean mutton protein were higher than those of rats fed diets without lean mutton protein. In a two‐dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis study of brown adipose tissue, it was s...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 17, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Jun‐ichi Wakamatsu, Ryoji Fujii, Kimikazu Yamaguchi, Syouhei Miyoshi, Takanori Nishimura, Akihito Hattori Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Satellite cells produce neural chemorepellent semaphorin 3A upon muscle injury
Abstract Regenerative mechanisms that regulate intramuscular motor innervation. including configuration of the neuromuscular connections are thought to reside in the spatiotemporal expression of axon‐guidance molecules. Our previous studies proposed a heretofore unexplored role of satellite cells as a key source of a secreted neural chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) expression. In order to verify this concept, there is still a critical need to provide direct evidence to show the up‐regulation of Sema3A protein in satellite cells in vivo upon muscle injury. The present study employed a Sema3A/MyoD double‐immunohis...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 17, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Yusuke Sato, Mai‐Khoi Q. Do, Takahiro Suzuki, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Ryuichi Tatsumi Tags: Rapid Communication Source Type: research
Selection for testis size and correlated responses of female reproductive traits in golden hamsters
Abstract Golden hamsters were selected for large (high selection direction: H) and small (low selection direction: L) testis size, as measured in live males at age 13 weeks over six generations. The selection response and correlated responses in female reproductive traits were evaluated in terms of the divergence between H and L lines for testis size. In males, the differences in testis size at 13 weeks, testis weight at 19 weeks, and body weight at 13 and 19 weeks were significant at the 1% level from generation 1 onward. The realized heritability of testis size, as estimated from regression of the selection responses on ...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 17, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Tsutomu Furukawa, Takashi Awata, Masahiro Satoh Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
L‐carnitine improves hydrogen peroxide‐induced impairment of nuclear maturation in porcine oocytes
Abstract We investigated the effect of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on lipid peroxide (LPO) level and nuclear maturation in porcine oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells. After 22 h of pre‐culture, oocytes with attached cumulus cells (COC group) or denuded oocytes (DO group) were cultured with H2O2, and intra‐oocyte H2O2 and LPO levels were quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence. This is the first report evaluating LPO levels in porcine oocytes. After H2O2 supplementation, the DO group showed severe accumulation of H2O2 and LPO in the oocytes. Similarly, while inhibition of ...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 17, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Takako Yazaki, Yuki Hiradate, Yumi Hoshino, Kentaro Tanemura, Eimei Sato Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Pax4 is not essential for beta-cell differentiation in zebrafish embryos but modulates alpha-cell generation by repressing arx gene expression
Conclusions: In zebrafish, pax4 is not required for the generation of the first beta- and delta-cells deriving from the dorsal pancreatic bud, unlike its crucial role in the differentiation of these cell types in mouse. On the other hand, the mutual repression between Arx and Pax4 is observed in both mouse and zebrafish. These data suggests that the main original function of Pax4 during vertebrate evolution was to modulate the number of pancreatic alpha-cells and its role in beta-cells differentiation appeared later in vertebrate evolution.
Source: BMC Developmental Biology - Latest articles - December 17, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Joachim DjiotsaVincianne VerbruggenJean GiacomottoMinaka IshibashiElisabeth ManningSilke RinkwitzIsabelle ManfroidMarianne LVozBernard Peers Source Type: research
Mole Rats Promote Biodiversity
Mole rats--known for their small eyes, grublike bodies and sometimes naked skin--mostly live underground. Yet they seem to dramatically affect aboveground ecological processes. A recent report in the Journal of Zoology showed that the burrowing activity of mole rats strongly influences the composition of plant communities in one of Africa's biodiversity hotspots, the Cape fynbos region in South Africa.In the process of excavating their burrows, mole rats churn soil together with vegetation, uneaten food, and their own urine and feces. They then eject this blend of organic and inorganic matter from their burrow, formin...
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - December 14, 2012 Category: Science Tags: More Science Source Type: research
Facultative sex allocation and sex‐specific offspring survival in Barrow's goldeneyes
Abstract Sex allocation theory predicts that females should bias their reproductive investment towards the sex generating the greatest fitness returns. The fitness of male offspring is often more dependent upon maternal investment, and therefore, high‐quality mothers should invest in sons. However, the local resource competition hypothesis postulates that when offspring quality is determined by maternal quality or when nest site and maternal quality are related, high‐quality females should invest in the philopatric sex. Waterfowl – showing male‐biased size dimorphism but female‐biased philopatry – are ideal for...
Source: Ethology - December 14, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Kim Jaatinen, Markus Öst, Phillip Gienapp, Juha Merilä Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Social learning in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana africana).
Abstract Social learning is a more efficient method of information acquisition and application than trial and error learning and is prevalent across a variety of animal taxa. Social learning is assumed to be important for elephants, but evidence in support of that claim is mostly anecdotal. Using a herd of six adult female African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) at the San Diego Zoo's Safari Park, we evaluated whether viewing a conspecific's interactions facilitated learning of a novel task. The tasks used feeding apparatus that could be solved in one of two distinct ways. Contrary to our hypothesis, t...
Source: Animal Cognition - December 14, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Greco BJ, Brown TK, Andrews JR, Swaisgood RR, Caine NG Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
The discovery of a new class of synaptic transmitters in smooth muscle 50 years ago and amelioration of coronary artery thrombosis
Abstract Clopidogrel and ticagrelor, antagonists to P2Y12 receptor molecules on platelet membranes, significantly ameliorate acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery thrombosis, the most common cause of death in the developed world. A personal account is given here of the foundational research that lead to the identification of P2Y receptors, carried out 50 years ago in the Melbourne University Zoology Department headed by Geoffrey Burnstock. In Christmas 1962, I made the serendipitous observation of large hyperpolarizing changes across the membranes of smooth muscle cells in the taenia coli of the intestine on ...
Source: Acta Physiologica - December 14, 2012 Category: Physiology Authors: M. R. Bennett Tags: Review Source Type: research
Structure of the male reproductive system of the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus (Decapoda: Portunidae)
Abstract An attempt was made here to study the structure of the male reproductive system of Portunus pelagicus, which would improve the knowledge base on the reproductive biology of the species and also help in the maintenance of broodstock under controlled conditions. Male P. pelagicus of different sizes were collected from the Palk Bay off Mandapam (9°17′ N, 79°9′ E) and maintained under controlled conditions for the study. Tissues from testis, anterior vas deferens (AVD), median vas deferens (MVD), posterior vas deferens (PVD), ejaculatory duct and penis were fixed in Bouin's fluid and 2.5% buffered glutaraldeh...
Source: Acta Zoologica - December 13, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Raghunath Ravi, Mary Kurian Manisseri, Nandiath Karayi Sanil Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in Boulder Creek, Colorado: environmental factors associated with fecundity of a parthenogenic invader
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 30-36, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 13, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Interindividual Variation in Complex I Activity in Fundulus heteroclitus along a Steep Thermocline
Samuel J. Loftus and Douglas L. Crawford Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 000, Ahead of Print.
Source: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology - December 12, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Metabolism of Brain Cortex and Cardiac Muscle Mitochondria in Hibernating 13-Lined Ground Squirrels Ictidomys tridecemlineatus
Kirsten Gallagher and James F. Staples Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 000, Ahead of Print.
Source: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology - December 12, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Thermal preference and hibernation period of Hodgson’s bats (Myotis formosus) in the temperate zone: how does the phylogenetic origin of a species affect its hibernation strategy?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 47-55, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 11, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Generalization of Mimics Imperfect in Colour Patterns: The Point of View of Wild Avian Predators
Abstract Current research of imperfect mimicry brings ambiguous results. Experiments simulating more natural conditions rather than laboratory experiments show lower willingness of avian predators to attack less perfect mimics. We decided to simulate a natural situation by testing responses of wild‐caught adult avian predators (Great tit – Parus major) to variously perfect mimics of the red firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus), which were in previous studies shown to elicit avoidance in Great tits. Presented mimics were perfect in all traits (firebug with its own colour pattern), imperfect in colour pattern (firebug with modi...
Source: Ethology - December 11, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Petr Veselý, Dana Luhanová, Michaela Prášková, Roman Fuchs Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Description of a new species of Reteporella (Bryozoa: Phidoloporidae) from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and the possible functional morphology of avicularia
Abstract Figuerola, B., Ballesteros, M. and Avila, C. 2013. Description of a new species of Reteporella (Bryozoa: Phidoloporidae) from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and the possible functional morphology of avicularia. —Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 94: 66–73. A new species of cheilostome bryozoan, Reteporella rosjoarum sp. n., belonging to the family of Phidoloporidae is described from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and illustrated with binocular microscope and SEM micrographs. SEM has been used to observe the essential characters to describe the new species and to compare it to similar species. Three samples from three dif...
Source: Acta Zoologica - December 11, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Blanca Figuerola, Manuel Ballesteros, Conxita Avila Source Type: research
Altered Oceanic pH Impairs Mating Propensity in a Pipefish
This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that mating propensity is impaired by an increase in pH, suggesting that anthropogenic nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems may change the processes of sexual selection and population dynamics solely on the basis of altered water pH.
Source: Ethology - December 10, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Josefin Sundin, Gunilla Rosenqvist, Anders Berglund Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Flexible Spatial Orientation and Navigational Strategies in Chambered Nautilus
Abstract Nautilus is a remnant of an externally shelled cephalopod lineage that flourished between 450 and 60 million years ago. It is a deep‐water scavenger that lacks the complex brain and behavioural repertoire of its soft‐bodied relatives, the coleoid cephalopods. Nautilus makes repeated, nightly migrations from deep to shallow water along coral reef slopes to forage, thus an ability to navigate to known locations may be selectively advantageous. Alternatively, drifting passively with the current may be sufficient to locate food and mates distributed randomly over a large area. The derived neural structures that su...
Source: Ethology - December 10, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Robyn J. Crook, Jennifer A. Basil Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Selective Eavesdropping Behaviour in Three Neotropical Bat Species
Abstract Knowledge of interspecies information transfer in mammals is scarce compared with other taxa. We investigated whether eavesdropping on echolocation calls of bats may be used by sympatric bats with similar feeding ecology. We performed playback experiments with three free‐ranging neotropical bat species, broadcasting search phase calls or feeding buzzes of conspecifics and heterospecifics belonging either to the same or to another bat family. Both the greater fishing bat Noctilio leporinus and the lesser bulldog bat Noctilio albiventris (Noctilionidae) reacted with repeated approaches in response to playbacks of ...
Source: Ethology - December 10, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Kirstin Übernickel, Marco Tschapka, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Condition‐Dependent Choosiness For Highly Attractive Songs In Female Canaries
Abstract Partner choice in animals has evolved under the effects of intra‐ and inter‐sexual selection. Even if a consensus between females is often observed towards some males, certain females can drastically change their mating decision. Different conditions such as early learning, mate‐choice copying, prior experience or subtle intrinsic factors can interfere with the decision. One of them is body condition of the females at the time of choosing. In this experiment, the flight feathers of female canaries Serinus canaria were cut, thus decreasing their flight ability. After a short period in a flight room, two types...
Source: Ethology - December 10, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Alexandre Lerch, Lauriane Rat‐Fischer, Laurent Nagle Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Defence Cheats Can Degrade Protection of Chemically Defended Prey
We presented mealworm larvae that were either edible (‘cheats’) or unpalatable (bitter tasting), and varied the proportion of cheats from 0 to 1 by increments of 0.25. We found strong frequency‐dependent effects on the birds' foraging behaviour, with the proportion of prey attacked increasing nonlinearly with the frequency of cheats. We did not, however, observe that birds taste‐rejected defended prey at the site of capture. One explanation is that wild birds may not assess prey palatability at the site of capture, but do this elsewhere. If so, defended and undefended prey may pay high costs of initial attack and r...
Source: Ethology - December 10, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Rebecca S. Jones, Sian C. Davis, Michael P. Speed Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
A meerkat (Suricata suricatta) acting as sentinel, warning foraging group members via functionally referential alarm calls whether a predator is approaching from the air or on the ground. Photo reproduced by permission of Stephan Reber, University of Zurich, Switzerland and the Kalahari Meerkat Project,
Source: Ethology - December 10, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: Front Cover Source Type: research
Born to be bee, fed to be worker? The caste system of a primitively eusocial insect
Queen bees manipulate food provision of their daughters in order to channel first brood daughters to become workers, and second brood daughters to become future foundresses of new nest sites. Photo credit: Francis Ratnieks
Source: Frontiers in Zoology - December 10, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Nayuta BrandMichel Chapuisat Source Type: research
Environmental enrichment affects suboptimal, risky, gambling-like choice by pigeons.
Abstract Pigeons prefer a risky option with a low probability of a high payoff over a less risky option that results in more food. This finding is analogous to suboptimal human monetary gambling because in both cases there appears to be an overemphasis of the occurrence of the winning event and an underemphasis of the losing event. In the present research, we found that pigeons that were exposed to an enriched environment (a large cage with three other pigeons for 4 h a day) were less likely to show this suboptimal choice behavior compared with typically housed laboratory pigeons in a control group. These results ...
Source: Animal Cognition - December 7, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Pattison KF, Laude JR, Zentall TR Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
R-spondins are involved in the ovarian differentiation in a teleost, medaka (Oryzias latipes)
Conclusions: These results suggest that the Rspo-activating signaling pathway is involved in the ovarian differentiation and maintenance in medaka.
Source: BMC Developmental Biology - Latest articles - December 7, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Linyan ZhouTapas CharkrabortyXiangguo YuLimin WuGang LiuSipra MohapatraDeshou WangYoshitaka Nagahama Source Type: research
Dogs' attention towards humans depends on their relationship, not only on social familiarity.
Abstract Both in humans and non-human animals, it has been shown that individuals attend more to those they have previously interacted with and/or they are more closely associated with than to unfamiliar individuals. Whether this preference is mediated by mere social familiarity based on exposure or by the specific relationship between the two individuals, however, remains unclear. The domestic dog is an interesting subject in this line of research as it lives in the human environment and regularly interacts with numerous humans, yet it often has a particularly close relationship with its owner. Therefore, we inves...
Source: Animal Cognition - December 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Horn L, Range F, Huber L Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Recognition of Young in A Colonially Nesting Bird
Abstract Parents ought to restrict costly parental care to their genetic offspring and, particularly when the risk of misdirecting care is high, parent‐offspring recognition may evolve. I tested whether adult cave swallows, which nest in dense colonies and feed fledglings in mixed‐family groups, discriminate against unrelated young, using temporary chick transfers at two nestling ages and a cross‐fostering experiment. Temporary chick transfers indicated that parents bias feedings toward their own offspring near fledging (18 d) but not at about halfway through the nesting period (10 d). I also examined how parents l...
Source: Ethology - December 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Stephanie A. Strickler Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Function of the Hemolymph Nuptial Gift in the Ground Cricket, Allonemobius socius
Abstract Nuptial feeding, although common in the insect world, varies greatly in its form and function. Here, we test the function of the hemolymph nuptial gift in the southern ground cricket, Allonemobius socius, and attempt to determine if it functions as parental investment or mating effort. We manipulated the number of gifts a female received during courtship (one vs. none). We also recorded other aspect of courtship, such as feeding duration and spermatophore attachment duration. Female fecundity was measured for 7 d post‐mating. Our results indicate that female egg laying is significantly higher when a gift is pro...
Source: Ethology - December 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Nicholas DiRienzo, Jeremy L. Marshall Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Cues from Introduced Fish Alter Shelter Use and Feeding Behaviour in Adult Alpine Newts
Abstract Amphibians are particularly affected by alien fish introductions and are declining worldwide. However, the behavioural mechanisms behind the observed cases of coexistence and exclusion patterns between adult amphibians and fish are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that adult newts display different feeding and space use behaviour in the presence of fish cues (i.e. access less food resources and use more shelters than when fish cues are absent). To achieve this we measured behavioural patterns in 100 adult Alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris) in a replicated laboratory desi...
Source: Ethology - December 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Laurane Winandy, Mathieu Denoël Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
A Comparison of the Sensory Development of Wolves (Canis lupus lupus) and Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
Abstract Little is known about the development of the sensory systems of wolves. The timing of sensory development in wolves is usually extrapolated from studies on dogs, since they are members of the same species. However, early developmental differences between these two subspecies have already been identified. For example, wolves tend to approach and investigate objects in their environment 2 wk before dogs. These changes in developmental timing may play an important role in the behavioral differences between adult wolves and dogs. The purpose of this study is to compare the development of the sensory systems in wolves...
Source: Ethology - December 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Kathryn Lord Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Sexual dimorphism of sonic apparatus and extreme intersexual variation of sounds in Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae): first evidence of a tight relationship between morphology and sound characteristics in Ophidiidae
Conclusions: Although it is not possible to distinguish externally male from female in O. rochei, they show a sonic apparatus and sounds that are dramatically different. This difference is likely due to their nocturnal habits that may have favored the evolution of internal secondary sexual characters that helps to distinguish males from females and that could facilitate mate choice by females. Moreover, the comparison of different morphotypes in this study shows that these morphological differences result from a peramorphosis that takes place during the development of the gonads.
Source: Frontiers in Zoology - December 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Loïc KéverKelly BoyleBranko Dragi¿evi¿Jakov Dul¿i¿Margarida CasadevallEric Parmentier Source Type: research
The lack of autophagy triggers precocious activation of Notch signaling during Drosophila oogenesis
Conclusion: Our findings point to an unexpected function for autophagy in the modulation of the Notch signaling pathway during Drosophila oogenesis and suggest a function for autophagy in proper receptor activation. Egg development is affected by an imbalance of autophagy between signal sending (germline) and signal receiving cell (FC), thus the lack of autophagy in the germline is likely to decrease the amount of active ligand and accordingly compensates for increased signaling in autophagy-defective follicle cells.
Source: BMC Developmental Biology - Latest articles - December 5, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Julia BarthErnst HafenKatja Köhler Source Type: research
Independent regulation of physiological and behavioral maturation of reproduction in female sand crickets (Gryllus firmus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 90, Issue 12, Page 1370-1377, December 2012.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 4, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
FMRF-amide immunoreactivity pattern in the planula and colony of the hydroid Gonothyraea loveni.
Abstract Gonothyraea loveni (Allman, 1859) is a colonial thecate hydrozoan with a life cycle that lacks a free-swimming medusa stage. The development from zygote to planula occurs within meconidia attached to the female colony. The planula metamorphosis results in the formation of a primary hydranth. The colony then grows by development of new colony elements. In the present work, we studied the temporal pattern of the formation of FMRF-amide-positive cells during embryogenesis, in larvae and during early colony ontogeny. FMRF-amide-positive cells appear in the planula only after its maturation. However, they disap...
Source: Zoology - December 4, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Mayorova T, Kosevich I Tags: Zoology (Jena) Source Type: research
Cell proliferation is necessary for the regeneration of oral structures in the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis
Conclusions: The study has found that high levels of cell proliferation characterize the regeneration of oral structures in Nematostella, and that this cell proliferation is necessary for the proper progression of regeneration. Thus, while cell proliferation contributes to regeneration of oral structures in both Nematostella and Hydra, Nematostella lacks the ability to undergo the compensatory morphallactic mode of regeneration that characterizes Hydra. Our results are consistent with amputation activating a quiescent population of mitotically competent stem cells in spatial proximity to the wound site, which form the regenerated structures.
Source: BMC Developmental Biology - Latest articles - December 4, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Yale PassamaneckMark Martindale Source Type: research
Spontaneous object recognition memory is maintained following transformation of global geometric properties.
We examined whether object-location memory was maintained following global, but not local, changes to the geometric shape of an arena. Rats explored two trial-unique objects in a distinctively shaped arena before being exposed to two identical copies of one of these objects in a different shape in a different physical location. Rats preferentially explored objects that were novel in relation to their local geometric context rather than identifying both locations as novel in the global geometric context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Source: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes - December 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Poulter, Steven L.; Kosaki, Yutaka; Easton, Alexander; McGregor, Anthony Source Type: research
The effects of the previous outcome on probabilistic choice in rats.
This study examined the effects of previous outcomes on subsequent choices in a probabilistic-choice task. Twenty-four rats were trained to choose between a certain outcome (1 or 3 pellets) versus an uncertain outcome (3 or 9 pellets), delivered with a probability of .1, .33, .67, and .9 in different phases. Uncertain outcome choices increased with the probability of uncertain food. Additionally, uncertain choices increased with the probability of uncertain food following both certain-choice outcomes and unrewarded uncertain choices. However, following uncertain-choice food outcomes, there was a tendency to choose the unce...
Source: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes - December 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Marshall, Andrew T.; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly Source Type: research
Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer: Paradoxical effects of the Pavlovian relationship explained.
Four experiments with rats examined the origin of outcome-selective Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT). Experiment 1 used a standard procedure, where outcomes were embedded within extended conditioned stimuli (CSs), to demonstrate the basic effect: Pavlovian stimuli augmented instrumental lever presses that had been paired with the same outcomes. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that after instrumental conditioning, whereas a conditioned stimulus (CS) trained using a backward conditioning procedure produced outcome-selective PIT, forward conditioning with a CS did not. These results are consistent with the idea that backwa...
Source: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes - December 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Cohen-Hatton, Sabrina R.; Haddon, Josephine E.; George, David N.; Honey, R. C. Source Type: research
Improvement of conception rate in postpartum flaxseed supplemented buffalo with Ovsynch+CIDR protocol.
Abstract The present study was conducted on lactating Murrah buffalo to assess the effect of crushed flaxseed (a source of omega-3 fatty acids) supplementation (300g/100kg bwt/day for 60 days), over and above the routine feed, on luteolytic signal (PGF(2α)), luteal function (progesterone) and conception rate. In first experiment, on day 50 post-calving, six non-supplemented buffalo were treated to synchronize time of ovulation using an Ovsynch+Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) protocol followed by intravenous oxytocin treatment (OT; 100IU) on day 15 post-ovulation. Blood samples were collected at 15min inter...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - December 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Nazir G, Ghuman SP, Singh J, Honparkhe M, Ahuja CS, Dhaliwal GS, Sangha MK, Saijpaul S, Agarwal SK Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Inbreeding depression on production and reproduction traits of buffaloes from Brazil
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of inbreeding depression on traits of buffaloes from Brazil. Specifically, the traits studied were body weight at 205 and 365 days of age, average daily gain from birth to 205 days (ADG_205), average daily gain between 205 and 365 days (ADG205_365) in Mediterranean buffaloes, and milk yield, lactation length, age of first calving and calving intervals in Murrah buffaloes. Inbreeding effects on the traits were determined by fitting four regression models (linear, quadratic, exponential and Michaelis‐Menten) about the errors generated by the animal model. The linear...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado, Ana Claudia Mendes Malhado, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro, Alcides Amorim Ramos, José Adrián Carrillo, Akin Pala Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on immunoblogulin A‐secreting cells in mammary glands
Abstract Mortality and morbidity of neonates continue to be major problems in humans and animals, and immunoblogulin A (IgA) provides protection against microbial antigens at mucosal surfaces. The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on IgA antibody‐secreting cells (ASC) in mammary glands in lactating mice. From 6.5 to 16.5 days post coitus and 1 to 13 days post partum (dpp), maternal mice were administered coumestrol at 200 μg/kg body weight/day. Coumestrol administration increased the number of IgA ASC and the messenger RNA ex...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Mengdong Wang, Miki Sugimoto, Shuntaro Ikeda, Shinichi Kume Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Comparison of cadherin and integrin localization in bovine cystic and healthy follicles
Abstract As stage progresses in the cystic follicle, granulosa cells are lost. We hypothesized that the granulosa and theca interna layers are detached in association with weakened expression of cell adhesion molecules such as cadherin (cell–cell adhesion) and integrin (cell–extracellular matrix adhesion) in cystic follicles. To elucidate this hypothesis, we immunolocalized these molecules in the granulosa and theca interna and compared them between cystic and small healthy follicles. Sections were immunostained with cadherin and integrin β1 antibodies and their localizations were compared. Cadherin‐positive reactio...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Tomomi Ohira, Chiaki Murayama, Takashi Shimizu, Yukinori Yoshimura, Naoki Isobe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Effect of fructo‐oligosaccharide on nitrogen utilization in guinea pigs
Abstract The present study was conducted to determine the effects of fructo‐oligosaccharide (FOS) on the nitrogen (N) utilization and digestibilities of dietary nutrients through cecotrophy in guinea pigs. Adult male guinea pigs that were housed or not housed in wooden frames to prevent cecotrophy were fed a commercial pellet diet (50 g/day) with 3% and 5% glucose or FOS for 8 days in individual metabolism cages. In the guinea pigs allowed cecotrophy, addition of FOS to the diet had no significant effects on body weight gain or apparent digestibility of N, but showed significantly lower value for the urinary N excretio...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Kiyonori Kawasaki, Xiao Min, Ai Nishiyama, Ei Sakaguchi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Cranial osteology of Picini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae)
Abstract The Picini is composed of 26 species of woodpeckers from the old world that are grouped into seven genera. Given the absence of detailed studies on the cranial osteology of the Picini, the purpose of this study is to describe the cranial osteology of 14 species of Picini from six genera and to compare these species with each other, with other species of woodpeckers and with other bird groups. The results of the analysis of the bone structures of the skull of the Picini indicate that there are seven outstanding characteristic of bones involved in the functional mechanistics of the jaw apparatus. In the ossa cranii,...
Source: Acta Zoologica - December 3, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Reginaldo J. Donatelli Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Greenhouse gas reduction and improved sustainability of animal husbandry using amino acids in swine, poultry feeds
Abstract In Annex 1 countries, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from swine and poultry excreta have been calculated and the N2O reduction potential of each country by using amino acids in feed could also be calculated, then a comparison made among the countries. The N2O reduction rates were approximately 25% for these Annex 1 countries and amino acids were able to make a large contribution to that reduction. Greenhouse gases (GHG) which are N2O combined with methane (CH4) were estimated to reduce by 24.8% in Japan when amino acids were introduced into the feed, but only a 7.2% reduction was estimated in France. Purification, ...
Source: Animal Science Journal - December 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Susumu Tsujimoto, Tomo Takagi, Takashi Osada, Akifumi Ogino Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The seminiferous cycle of the rhinoceros.
Abstract The seminiferous cycle of the rhinoceros was investigated for the first time using testicular tissue from captive white (Ceratotherium simum, n=2) and black (Diceros bicornis, n=1) rhinoceroses. Stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle were characterised using the tubular morphology method and relative frequencies of each stage determined. This method allowed for the identification of eight stages of cellular associations characteristic of the seminiferous cycle in white and black rhinoceroses. The eight stages of the seminiferous cycle observed closely approximated the stages previously described for t...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - December 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Portas T, Evans G, de Graaf S Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
Effect of extenders on sperm mitochondrial membrane, plasma membrane and sperm kinetics during liquid storage of canine semen at 5°C.
In conclusion, the addition of 0.4% SL extender enhanced sperm preservation based on the variables evaluated in the present study compared to EYE and 0.04% SL extenders and plausibly preserves sperm quality longer. PMID: 23182466 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - December 1, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Kasimanickam VR, Kasimanickam RK, Memon MA, Rogers HA Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research