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The spectrum of acute bacterial meningitis in elderly patients
Conclusions: Elderly people are at higher risk of having ABM than younger adults. ABM in the elderly presents with co-morbid conditions, is clinically subtler, has a longer interval admission-antibiotic therapy, and has non-meningococcal etiology. It is associated with an earlier and higher mortality rate than in younger patients. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - February 27, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pere DomingoVirginia PomarNatividad de BenitoPere Coll Source Type: research
A Case of Native Aortic Valve Infective Endocarditis and Multiple Organ Septic Emboli Despite Adequate Antibiotic Therapy
We describe a case of endocarditis in a patient who developed endocarditis after dental procedure and further developed septic emboli after 5 weeks of antibiotic treatment. (Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association)
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - February 25, 2013 Category: Health Management Authors: ShrutiI. Datta, Shruti Datta, Paul Y. Takahashi Tags: Poster Abstracts Source Type: research
Pyomyositis associated with chemotherapy for endometrial cancer: a case report
Pyomyositis is a rare complication of chemotherapy for non-hematological malignancies. A 58-year old woman with endometrial carcinoma, in whom pyomyositis developed during adjuvant chemotherapy, was presented in this report. After initiating empiric antibiotic therapy for febrile neutrocytopenia, screening CT showed multiple abscesses in the lower limbs. Operative drainage of the abscess was effective. (Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology)
Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology - February 25, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yoshifumi NakaoMasatoshi YokoyamaSatoshi NishiyamaMariko HashiguchiSatomi AiharaMakio YasunagaMitsuyo NoguchiTsuyoshi Iwasaka Source Type: research
Characteristics of fever, etiologic factors, antibiotic use and prognosis in febrile dermatology inpatients
Conclusions This is the first study to investigate febrile episodes in dermatology inpatients. Fever is a frequently encountered symptom in dermatology inpatients. Febrile episodes resulted from mostly non‐infectious entities, mainly consisting of inflammatory dermatologic disorders. Antibiotics were ordered in a higher percentage of patients in the febrile group. Dermatologists started prophylactic or empiric antibiotic therapy in febrile patients with non‐infectious or inflammatory diagnoses on the assumption that these patients had an increased risk for infection as a result of impaired skin integrity and use of ...
Source: International Journal of Dermatology - February 22, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Fatih Göktay, Nurgu¨l Ceran, İkbal Esen Aydıngo¨z, Ayşe Tu¨lin Mansur Tags: Report Source Type: research
Postoperative Septic Arthritis After Elective Equine Arthroscopy Without Antimicrobial Prophylaxis
ConclusionsJoint infection rate in the horse population that had elective arthroscopy without antimicrobial prophylaxis compares favorably with other reports citing 0.9% sepsis in horses after arthroscopy in which horses received either no antimicrobials or were administered pre or perioperative antimicrobial therapy. (Source: Veterinary Surgery)
Source: Veterinary Surgery - February 21, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Hanna Borg, James L. Carmalt Tags: Original Article: Clinical Source Type: research
The Pharmacology of Infection After Total Joint ArthroplastyThe Pharmacology of Infection After Total Joint Arthroplasty
Learn more on the factors involved in choosing the appropriate antimicrobial therapy for treating prosthetic joint infections. Current Orthopaedic Practice (Source: Medscape Orthopaedics Headlines)
Source: Medscape Orthopaedics Headlines - February 20, 2013 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Orthopaedics Journal Article Source Type: news
Active protein and calcium hydroxyapatite bilayers grown by laser techniques for therapeutic applications.
Abstract Active protein and bioceramic calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) bilayers were grown by combining conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) techniques. A pulsed UV KrF* excimer laser was used for the irradiations. The HA layers were grown by PLD. Proteins with antimicrobial action were attached to the bioceramic layers using MAPLE. The composite MAPLE targets were obtained by dissolving the proteins powder in distilled water. The crystalline status and chemical composition of the obtained structures were studied by X-ray diffractometry and Fourier transform in...
Source: Cell Research - February 20, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Motoc MM, Axente E, Popescu C, Sima LE, Petrescu SM, Mihailescu IN, Gyorgy E Tags: J Biomed Mater Res A Source Type: research
Best laboratory practices for respiratory cultures
This article discusses the evaluation and reporting of results on respiratory samples beginning with the direct specimen Gram stain through culture. It describes a clinically relevant interpretation and reporting scheme for direct specimen Gram stains, reviews the use of the direct Gram stain to guide respiratory culture workup, and provides several logical and easy-to-follow strategies that can be employed in the laboratory to ensure that results are clinically relevant and culture examination and work up are consistent among technologists. (Source: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter - February 19, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yvette S. McCarter, Susan E. Sharp Source Type: news
Global transcriptional responses to the bacteriocin colicin M in Escherichia coli
Conclusion: At subinhibitory concentrations colicin M induces an adaptive response primarily to protect the bacterial cells against envelope stress provoked by peptidoglycan damage. Among the first induced were genes of the CreBC two-component system known to promote increased resistance against colicins M and E2, providing novel insight into the ecology of colicin M production in natural environments. While an adaptive response was induced nevertheless, colicin M application did not increase biofilm formation, nor induce SOS genes, adverse effects that can be provoked by a number of traditional antibiotics, providing supp...
Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles - February 19, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Simona Kamen¿ekDarja ¿gur-Bertok Source Type: research
Successful treatment of an intrathoracic bronchogenic cyst in a Holstein-Friesian calf
A 5-1/2-month-old female Holstein-Friesian calf was presented with a history of recurring ruminal tympany and poor development. The absence of lung sounds on the right hemithorax suggested a right-sided intrathoracic pathology. Radiography and computed tomography revealed a large thin-walled cavernous lesion with a gas-fluid interface which almost completely filled the right thoracic cavity. Fluid aspirated from the lesion was clear, yellowish and odorless. These findings led to the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst. Thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia. The cyst strongly adhered to the adjacent lung tissue. A...
Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica - February 19, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Beat BerchtoldMireille MeylanKarine GendronUte MorathUlrich RytzBeatrice Lejeune Source Type: research
Meta-analysis: Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy reduces treatment failure in acute respiratory infection.
CONCLUSION Procalcitonin-guided initiation and discontinuation of antibiotic therapy reduced treatment failure but not mortality compared with usual care in adults with acute respiratory infection.Individual patient meta-analysis of procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic therapy vs usual care for acute respiratory tract infections in adults*OutcomesNumber of trials (n)Weighted event ratesAt ≤ 1 monthPCT-guidedUsual careRRR (95% CI)NNT (CI)Treatment failure14 (4211)19%22%15% (2 to 24)32 (19 to 194)Mortality14 (4211)5.9%6.3%6% (-21 to 28)Not significant*Abbreviations defined in Glossary. RRR, NNT, and CI calculated from co...
Source: Annals of Internal Medicine - February 19, 2013 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jagminas L Tags: Ann Intern Med Source Type: research
Patterns of Care Before and After the Adult Sinusitis Clinical Practice Guideline
ConclusionsCare patterns for the medical treatment of acute adult sinusitis have changed after guideline publication, with an increase in oral antibiotic prescription rates in cases of acute sinusitis and increase in the use of amoxicillin as the first‐line antimicrobial agent. The latter is strongly in keeping with guideline recommendation. Clinicians' espousal of the analgesic recommendations likely needs improvement to better comply with guideline recommendations. Level of Evidence2b. Laryngoscope, 2013 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - February 16, 2013 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Neil Bhattacharyya, Lynn J. Kepnes Tags: Allergy/Rhinology Source Type: research
Candidaemia in internal medicine departments: the burden of a rising problem
Abstract Although internal medicine wards (IMWs) represent a significant reservoir of patients with candidemia, few investigators have specifically addressed the epidemiological aspects of candidaemia in this population. Of all patients hospitalized during the study period with candidaemia, 133/348 (38%) were admitted to IMWs. Variables associated with IMWs included: antibiotic therapy prior to hospitalization, urinary or central venous catheter, parenteral nutrition, tumour and age >75 years. Overall, 30‐day mortality in IMWs was significantly higher than that in other wards (51.1% vs. 38.2%, p <0.02). Multiple ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - February 15, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: M. Bassetti, M. P. Molinari, M. Mussap, C. Viscoli, E. Righi Tags: Research Note Source Type: research
Bacteraemias in tropical Australia: changing trends over a 10-year period
Abstract: Bacteraemia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This is the largest reported study of bacteraemias in Australia. The presence of organisms endemic to the tropical region and the changing trends described have significant implications for empirical antibiotic therapy. This retrospective study examined 8976 blood cultures from Townsville Hospital, a regional Australian hospital located in the tropics over a 10-year period. The rate of bacteraemic episodes during the study period was 10.12 per 1000 admissions. Intravenous devices (18.7%), immunosuppressive therapy (16.1%), and urinary tract i...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - February 14, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Selina Porter, Natkunam Ketheesan, Robert Norton Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research
Infective Endocarditis with Cerebrovascular Complications: When Is the Optimal Time To Decide the Cardiac Surgery? (P01.247)
CONCLUSIONS: Management of IE with cerebrovascular complications should be based on case-by-case multidisciplinary assessment. Only selected cases with cardiac failure, severe valvular dysfunction or recurrence of embolism can be elegible during the acute period of cerebrovascular event, for surgery without increase of the mortality.Disclosure: Dr. Ramirez Campos has nothing to disclose. Dr. Zurru has nothing to disclose. Dr. Alonzo has nothing to disclose. Dr. Brescacin has nothing to disclose. Dr. Villarroel has nothing to disclose. Dr. Marenchino has nothing to disclose. Dr. Kotowicz has nothing to disclose. Dr. Waisman...
Source: Neurology - February 14, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramirez Campos, V., Zurru, M., Alonzo, C., Brescacin, L., Villarroel, V., Marenchino, R., Kotowicz, V., Waisman, G., Cristiano, E. Tags: P01 Cerebrovascular Disease I Source Type: research
Noninvasive Managment of a Pontomedullary Abscess (P03.254)
CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged use of intravenous antibiotics is an effective tool in non-invasively treating brainstem abscesses. Medical management avoids surgical intervention, which may further introduce pathogens and complicate the potentially fatal condition.Disclosure: Dr. Ahmed has nothing to disclose. Dr. Duggal has nothing to disclose. Dr. Anjum has nothing to disclose. Dr. Kosa has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - February 14, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmed, I., Duggal, N., Anjum, S., Kosa, S. Tags: P03 Infections I Source Type: research
Chicken faecal microbiota and disturbances induced by single or repeated therapy with tetracycline and streptomycin
Conclusions: The changes in microbiota composition induced by the antibiotic therapy were rapid and quite dramatic and only representatives of the genera Enterococcus and Escherichia increased in response to the therapy with both antibiotics in both experiments. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles - February 13, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Petra VidenskaMarcela FaldynovaHelena JuricovaVladimir BabakFrantisek SisakHana HavlickovaIvan Rychlik Source Type: research
Effects of Antibiotics on Bacterial Species Composition and Metabolic Activities in Chemostats Containing Defined Populations of Human Gut Microorganisms.
Abstract The composition and metabolic activities of the human colonic microbiota are modulated by a number of external factors, including diet and antibiotic therapy. Changes in the structure and metabolism of the gut microbiota may have long term consequences for host health. The large intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem comprising several hundreds of different bacterial species, which complicates investigations on intestinal physiology and ecology. To facilitate such studies, a highly simplified microbiota was used in this investigation consisting of 14 anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic organisms...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - February 12, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Newton DF, Macfarlane S, Macfarlane GT Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
What Is the Best Approach to the Nonresponding Patient with Community-Acquired Pneumonia?
Treatment failure in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the failure to normalize the clinical features (eg, fever, cough, sputum production), or nonresolving image in chest radiograph, despite antimicrobial therapy. The incidence of treatment failure in CAP has not been clearly established; according to several studies it ranges between 6% and 15%. The rate of mortality increases significantly, especially in those patients with severe CAP. It is important to be able to identify what patients are at risk for progressive or treatment failure pneumonia that may make them candidates for a more careful monitoring. (Source: I...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - February 11, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Salvador Sialer, Adamantia Liapikou, Antoni Torres Source Type: research
[Necrotizing dermohypodermitis of abdominal wall in obese. About two report cases indicative of abdominopelvic deep infection.]
We report two cases of 50 and 62years old patients whose intra-abdominal infectious pathology (appendicular abscess for one and pyosalpinx for the other) was revealed by a necrotizing dermohypodermitis of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis has been established on the basis of converging clinical arguments (abdominal pain, crackles and necrotic appearance of abdominal wall in a septic shock context), linked with a CT-scan. The treatment consisted of a large excision of the abdominal wall necrosis and surgical eradication of deep infection source, with an intensive care and a broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Both these pati...
Source: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique - February 11, 2013 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Pegot A, Aktouf A, Delpierre V, Milliez PY, Auquit-Auckbur I Tags: Ann Chir Plast Esthet Source Type: research
Inhibitors of Streptococcus pneumoniae Surface Endonuclease EndA Discovered by High-Throughput Screening Using a PicoGreen Fluorescence Assay
The human commensal pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae expresses a number of virulence factors that promote serious pneumococcal diseases, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. These virulence factors may give S. pneumoniae the capacity to escape immune defenses, resist antimicrobial agents, or a combination of both. Virulence factors also present possible points of therapeutic intervention. The activities of the surface endonuclease, EndA, allow S. pneumoniae to establish invasive pneumococcal infection. EndA’s role in DNA uptake during transformation contributes to gene transfer and genetic div...
Source: Journal of Biomolecular Screening - February 8, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Peterson, E. J. R., Kireev, D., Moon, A. F., Midon, M., Janzen, W. P., Pingoud, A., Pedersen, L. C., Singleton, S. F. Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
A prospective randomized controlled multicenter trial comparing antibiotic therapy with appendectomy in the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial)
DiscussionThe APPAC trial aims to provide level I evidence to support the hypothesis that approximately 75--85% of patients with uncomplicated AA can be treated with effective antibiotic therapy avoiding unnecessary appendectomies and the related operative morbidity, also resulting in major cost savings.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01022567 (Source: BMC Surgery)
Source: BMC Surgery - February 8, 2013 Category: Surgery Authors: Hannu PaajanenJuha GrönroosTero RautioPia NordströmMarkku AarnioTuomo RantanenSaija HurmeKirsti DeanAiri JarttiJukka-Pekka MecklinJuhani SandPaulina Salminen Source Type: research
Bacterial membrane disrupting dodecapeptide SC4 improves survival of mice challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
CONCLUSIONS: These data show that combination treatment of SC4 and Zosyn is most effective at killing P. aeruginosa and attenuating inflammatory cytokines levels in vivo. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Combination treatment of SC4 and Zosyn may be useful in the clinic as a more effective antibiotic therapy against Gram-negative infectious diseases. PMID: 23403135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta)
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - February 8, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dings RP, Haseman JR, Leslie DB, Luong M, Dunn DL, Mayo KH Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research
The impact of autophagic processes on the intracellular fate of Helicobacter pylori: More tricks from an enigmatic pathogen?
Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative pathogen that colonizes the gastric epithelium of 50-60% of the world's population. Approximately one-fifth of the infected individuals manifest severe diseases such as peptic ulcers or gastric cancer. H. pylori infection has proven difficult to cure despite intensive antibiotic treatment. One possible reason for the relatively high resistance to antimicrobial therapy is the ability of H. pylori to reside inside host cells. Although considered by most as an extracellular pathogen, H. pylori can invade both gastric epithelial cells and immunocytes to some extent. The i...
Source: Autophagy - February 8, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Deen NS, Huang SJ, Gong L, Kwok T, Devenish RJ Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
A national evaluation of antibiotic expenditures by healthcare setting in the United States, 2009
Conclusions Over $10.7 billion was spent in 2009 on antibiotic therapy in the USA. Differences were observed in antibiotic expenditures by healthcare setting, with the majority in the outpatient setting, 87% of which was in community pharmacies. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - February 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suda, K. J., Hicks, L. A., Roberts, R. M., Hunkler, R. J., Danziger, L. H. Tags: Original research Source Type: research
Enterococcal bacteraemia: factors influencing mortality, length of stay and costs of hospitalization
This study aimed to identify factors associated with mortality, LOS and hospitalization costs in patients with enterococcal bacteraemia and the impact of vancomycin resistance and antibiotic therapy on these outcomes. Data from 116 patients with vancomycin‐resistant Enterococci (VRE), matched 1:1 with patients with vancomycin‐susceptible Enterococcus (VSE), from two Australian hospitals were reviewed for clinical and economic outcomes. Univariable and multivariable logistic and quantile regression analyses identified factors associated with mortality, LOS and costs. Intensive care unit admission (OR, 8.57; 95% CI, 3.99...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - February 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: A. L. Y. Cheah, T. Spelman, D. Liew, T. Peel, B. P. Howden, D. Spelman, M. L. Grayson, R. L. Nation, D. C. M. Kong Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The symbiotic role of Wolbachia in Onchocercidae and its impact on filariasis
Abstract Symbiotic associations between eukaryotes and microorganisms are frequently observed in nature, and range along the continuum between parasitism and mutualism. The genus Wolbachia contains well‐known intracellular bacteria of arthropods that induce several reproductive phenotypes that benefit the transmission of the bacteria. Interestingly, Wolbachia bacteria have been found in the Onchocercidae, a family of filarial nematodes, including species that cause human filarial diseases, e.g. lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. The endosymbiont is thought to be mutualistic in the Onchocercidae, and to provide esse...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - February 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: T. Bouchery, E. Lefoulon, G. Karadjian, A. Nieguitsila, C. Martin Tags: Review Source Type: research
Bacterial inclusion bodies as potential synthetic devices for pathogen recognition and a therapeutic substance release
Conclusions: The tailored inclusion bodies are promising "nanopills" for biomedical applications. They are able to specifically target the pathogen, while a self-cleaving module releases a soluble remedy. Various self-cleaving modules can be enabled to achieve the diverse pace of remedy release. (Source: Microbial Cell Factories)
Source: Microbial Cell Factories - February 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Klaudia TalafováEva HrabárováDu¿an ChorvátJozef Nahálka Source Type: research
Donor‐Derived Bacteremia in Liver Transplant Recipients Despite Antibiotic Prophylaxis
As the disparity between the number of candidates listed for transplant and the number of donors continues to grow, marginal organ donors are increasingly utilized. This includes bacteremic donors which may carry an increased risk of transmission of infection. It is recommended that recipients of organs from bacteremic donors receive antibiotic prophylaxis based on the susceptibilities of the donor isolate to prevent transmission. Here, we present four cases of donor‐derived bacteremia, despite appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis, in four liver transplant recipients. Transmitted pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus...
Source: American Journal of Transplantation - February 7, 2013 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: K. E. Doucette, M. Al‐Saif, N. Kneteman, L. Chui, G. J. Tyrrell, D. Kumar, A. Humar Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Sniff the Plates? Laboratory Exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei
We report a case of melioidosis in a 27-year-old male who presented with localized neck swelling and later developed complications due to the patient's non-compliance with his antibiotic therapy. (Source: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter - February 6, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: S. Knost, M.C. Marroum, T. Nozar, L. Tagle, J. Horton, L.W. Raymond, J. Kase, S. Kilpatrick, W. Boehringer, A.Y. Peng, R.L. Sautter Source Type: news
Community acquired infections in older patients admitted to hospital from care homes versus the community: cohort study of microbiology and outcomes
Conclusions: Older patients admitted with acute infection had high 30 day mortality. Patients from care homes were more likely to have resistant organisms but high levels of antimicrobial resistance were found in both groups. Thus, we recommend that antibiotic therapies active against resistant organisms, guided by local resistance patterns, should be considered for all older patients admitted with severe sepsis regardless of their place of residence. (Source: BMC Geriatrics)
Source: BMC Geriatrics - February 6, 2013 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Charis MarwickVirginia SantiagoColin McCowanJanice BroomhallPeter Davey Source Type: research
Acute respiratory failure caused by organizing pneumonia secondary to antineoplastic therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Doenças difusas do parênquima pulmonar pertencem a um grupo de doenças de evolução geralmente subaguda ou crônica, mas que podem determinar insuficiência respiratória aguda. Paciente masculino, 37 anos, em terapia para linfoma não Hodgkin, admitido com tosse seca, febre, dispneia e insuficiência respiratória aguda hipoxêmica. Iniciadas ventilação mecânica e antibioticoterapia, porém houve evolução desfavorável. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax mostrava opacidades pulmonares em "vidro fosco" bilaterais. Devido ao paciente ter feito uso de três drogas relacionadas à pneumonia em organização (ciclof...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva - February 5, 2013 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
Evaluation of early mini- bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of health-care associated pneumonia: a prospective study
IntroductionHealth care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has been proposed as a new category of respiratory infection to identify patients at risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. The American Thoracic Society's recommendation for HCAP treatment is to use broad-spectrum and multiple antibiotics. However, this strategy may be economically expensive and promote antimicrobial resistance when a multisensible pathogen is not identified. Methods: We prospectively included all patients presenting with HCAP in the emergency department. Blood cultures and fiberoptic bronchoscope-guided distal protected small volume bronchoalveola...
Source: Critical Care - February 5, 2013 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Guillaume LacroixBertrand PrunetJulien BordesNathalie Cabon-AsencioYves AsencioTiphaine GaillardSandrine PonsErwan D'ArandaDelphine KerebelEric MeaudrePhilippe Goutorbe Source Type: research
The safety of cefepime and ceftazidime in pediatric oncology patients
ConclusionsThe use of cefepime in pediatric oncology patients is not associated with increased mortality when compared to ceftazidime, however the small number of deaths in this study limits the strength of this conclusion. Previous associations between antimicrobial therapy and increased all‐cause mortality may have been confounded by patients' demographic characteristics and co‐morbid conditions. All‐cause mortality may be an insensitive outcome for studies examining the efficacy and safety of these agents. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - February 4, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: James M. Hoffman, Jamie Frediani, Michael Herr, Patricia M. Flynn, Elisabeth E. Adderson Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Vascular graft infections.
Abstract Vascular procedures are rarely complicated by infection, but if prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) occurs, morbidity and mortality are high. Several patient-related, surgery-related and postoperative risk factors are reported, but they are not well validated. PVGI is due to bacterial colonisation of the wound and the underlying prosthetic graft, generally as a result of direct contamination during the operative procedure, mainly from the patient's skin or adjacent bowel. There is no consensus on diagnostic criteria or on the best management of PVGI. On the basis of reported clinical studies and our...
Source: Swiss Medical Weekly - February 2, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Hasse B, Husmann L, Zinkernagel A, Weber R, Lachat M, Mayer D Tags: Swiss Med Wkly Source Type: research
New Markers in Pneumonia.
Abstract Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide, and the most common fatal infection acquired in hospitals. Despite advances in prevention strategies, such as antibiotic therapies and intensive care, significant improvement in the mortality rate is still lacking. This high mortality is largely due to the limitations in current clinical practices and laboratory tests, which delay the timing of adequate antibiotic therapy. In recent years, many indicators (biomarkers) are present in scenarios where infectious pathogens invade into the body. These biomarkers, as reflecte...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Chemistry - February 2, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Cheng CW, Chien MH, Su SC, Yang SF Tags: Clin Chim Acta Source Type: research
Drug shortages in the United States: a critical evaluation of root causes and the need for action.
Abstract Every day it is easy to find news articles detailing the impact of drug shortages on patients. Where this was once only a concern of patients with rare, orphan diseases, it is now the concern of patients receiving even the most common chemotherapeutic regimens, the most efficacious antimicrobial therapy, or even the most rapid-acting analgesics, largely as a result of manufacturing quality problems. Unfortunately for many of these patients, there are no efficacious alternatives. PMID: 23337520 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gupta DK, Huang SM Tags: Clin Pharmacol Ther Source Type: research
Antibiotic timing in neonates with suspected hospital-acquired infections.
Abstract There exists general agreement within neonatology that antibiotics should be administered promptly to neonates with possible bacterial sepsis and meningitis. We initiated a series of quality improvement cycles designed to reduce delays in the initiation of antibiotic therapy to less than 2 hours when hospital-acquired infection (HAI) was suspected. All infants in this study were in neonatal intensive care (level II or III) who were started on antibiotics for a suspected HAI (defined as an infection that occurred 72 hours after admission to the NICU) were audited. Through a series of quality improvement cyc...
Source: Advances in Neonatal Care - February 1, 2013 Category: Nursing Authors: Bissinger RL, Mueller M, Cox TH, Cahill J, Garner SS, Irving M, Annibale DJ Tags: Adv Neonatal Care Source Type: research
Haematemesis and melaena
Abstract: Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) haemorrhage is common and carries a significant mortality. Peptic ulcer disease remains the most common aetiology but varices are an important cause. The patient's history, physiology and blood results guide timing of endoscopy and may disclose underlying liver disease. Resuscitation and risk assessment with the Blatchford and Rockall scores are the main priorities in the acute presentation. Haemodynamically unstable patients, and patients with suspected bleeding varices should have urgent endoscopy immediately after resuscitation. Patients with a Blatchford score of 0 may be able to ...
Source: Medicine - February 1, 2013 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Eleanor F. Watson, Nicholas I. Church Tags: Common medical presentations Source Type: research
A rare nonfatal presentation of disseminated Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis.
We present a case of disseminated Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis with multiple liver and splenic abscesses presenting with skin lesions and cardiogenic shock, and later diagnosed to have chronic granulomatous disease. The patient was treated with prolonged antimicrobial therapy, after which she recovered and remained asymptomatic on follow-up. PMID: 23380618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection)
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - February 1, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saboo AR, Vijaykumar R, Save SU, Bavdekar SB Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research
[Streptococcus intermedius: A rare cause of brain abscess in children.]
We report 4 pediatric cases of brain abscess caused by S. intermedius. Three boys and 1 girl, all aged over 2years, were admitted for a febrile meningeal syndrome and seizures, caused by a S. intermedius brain abscess. Diagnosis was obtained by brain imaging combined with culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favorable after antibiotic therapy and abscess puncture. S. intermedius should be considered a potential pathogen involved in the development of brain abscess in children. PMID: 23375710 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives de Pediatrie)
Source: Archives de Pediatrie - January 30, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jouhadi Z, Sadiki H, Hafid I, Najib J Tags: Arch Pediatr Source Type: research
Moxifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin plus co-amoxiclav for fever in low-risk neutropoenic patients with cancer
Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology Area: News According to the results of a double-blind RCT, monotherapy with once daily oral moxifloxacin is associated with similar efficacy to ciprofloxacin plus co-amoxiclav combination therapy in the treatment of fever in adults with cancer and neutropoenia who are deemed to be at low-risk of complications. The authors note that prompt empirical antibiotic therapy for fever in patients with neutropenia has become the standard of care; current guidelines recommend oral ciprofloxacin plus co-amoxiclav as the standard regimen for those who are low-risk. The purpose of the cu...
Source: NeLM - News - January 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news
Prevalence of and risk factors for isolation of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. from dogs with pyoderma in northern California, USA.
Conclusions and clinical importance - The prevalence of meticillin resistance was not different between VMTH and PCC isolates (P = 0.29). Previous antimicrobial therapy was an important risk factor for the isolation of MRS at both sites. PMID: 23331692 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Veterinary Dermatology)
Source: Veterinary Dermatology - January 28, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Eckholm NG, Outerbridge CA, White SD, Sykes JE Tags: Vet Dermatol Source Type: research
Early blood-based microbiological testing is ineffective in severe stroke patients
Conclusions: Very early bacteremia seems not to be a feature of severe stroke in patients despite signs of early immune system depression and frequent subsequent evidence of infection including pneumonia. Consequently our data suggests, that routine early blood-based standard or molecular microbiological assays do not reveal bacteremia, this finding questions the usefulness of their routine performance in this context. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 28, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Christoph Gumbinger, Andreas Hug, Bettina Mürle, Benjamin Berger, Markus Zorn, Klaus-Peter Becker, Stefan Zimmermann, Alexander H. Dalpke, Roland Veltkamp Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Lung Infiltrates in Antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected Children with Chronic Lung Disease: Value of Non-bronchoscopic Bronchoalveolar Lavage in the Detection of Candida albicans
Conclusion: Haemophilus influenzae, C. albicans and Mycobacterium spp. other than tuberculosis are important pathogens in children with HIV and HIV-associated chronic lung disease. (Source: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics)
Source: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics - January 28, 2013 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Singh, R., Thula, S. A., Jeena, P. M. Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research
How long to treat with antibiotics following amputation in patients with diabetic foot infections? Are the 2012 IDSA DFI guidelines reasonable?
ConclusionGiven the general lack of data, we recommend that post‐operative treatment duration be individualized, and, until further studies are done, it seems reasonable to adhere to the recommendation provided by the 2012 IDSA DFI guidelines for a 2–5 day course of antibiotic therapy post‐operatively when no residual infected tissue remains. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics - January 27, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: S. W. Johnson, R. H. Drew, D. B. May Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Candidemia detected on direct blood smears
A one‐year old boy with a history of Hirschsprung disease underwent an elective sigma resection by transverse infraumbilical laparotomy. A subclavian vein catheterization for parenteral nutrition was performed simultaneously. Antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone and metronidazole was begun. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S (Source: European Journal of Haematology)
Source: European Journal of Haematology - January 26, 2013 Category: Hematology Authors: Núria Prim, Ángel Remacha, Ferran Sánchez‐Reus, Sònia Brió, Ramon Ayats, Carme Muñoz Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research
Health care‐associated pneumonia in haemodialysis patients: Clinical outcomes in patients treated with narrow versus broad spectrum antibiotic therapy
Conclusions: This study is the first to our knowledge to describe clinical outcomes in patients with haemodialysis as their only HCAP risk factor. Narrow‐spectrum antibiotics may be safe in haemodialysis patients with no other HCAP risk factors. HCAP therapy delayed de‐escalation to oral antibiotics was associated with increased duration of intravenous antibiotics and length of stay. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - January 25, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: STEPHANIE PARKS TAYLOR, BRICE T. TAYLOR Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Rothia prosthetic knee joint infection.
We describe a 53-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis complicated by prosthetic knee joint infection due to Rothia species, which was successfully treated by surgical removal of prosthesis and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. The issue of antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures among patients with prosthetic joint replacements is discussed. PMID: 23357608 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection)
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - January 25, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Trivedi MN, Malhotra P Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research
Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance among commonly encountered bacteria associated with infections and colonization in intensive care units in a university-affiliated hospital in Shanghai.
CONCLUSION: Because of decreasing susceptibility rates of pathogens (especially ICU-acquired strains) and a significant correlation with the length of ICU stay, intensivists should consider a patient's time of ICU admission and previous microbiological data and should distinguish ICU-acquired strains from non-ICU-acquired strains so as to initiate optimized empirical antibiotic therapy against ICU-acquired infections. PMID: 23357606 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection)
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - January 25, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tan R, Liu J, Li M, Huang J, Sun J, Qu H Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research