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Novel approach for influenza vaccination shows promise in early animal testing
(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) A new approach for immunizing against influenza elicited a more potent immune response and broader protection than the currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccines when tested in mice and ferrets. The vaccine concept, which was developed by scientists at NIAID, represents an important step forward in the quest to develop a universal influenza vaccine -- one that would protect against most or all influenza strains without the need for an annual vaccination. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 22, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
Schmallenberg vaccine available to UK farmers this summer
Vaccine will prevent a disease that causes severe birth defects and miscarriages in livestockA new vaccine is being made available to prevent a disease which causes severe birth defects and miscarriages in livestock, it was announced today.Schmallenberg virus, which emerged in the Netherlands and Germany in 2011 and has been seen in cattle and sheep in the UK since early 2012, has been identified on more than 1,700 farms across the country.Adult animals infected during pregnancies in the autumn by virus-carrying midges, thought to have blown across the Channel, have given birth to deformed or stillborn lambs and calves.UK ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - May 21, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Farming World news guardian.co.uk Animals UK news Environment Agriculture Science Source Type: news
Irradiated wild‐type and Spa mutant Staphylococcus aureus induce anti‐S. aureus immune responses in mice which do not protect against subsequent intravenous challenge
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus remains an important human and animal pathogen. Its pathogenicity is determined in part by expression of the Spa‐immune subversion protein, neutralising the activity of which provides partial protection in murine models, as does experimental infection with live S. aureus with Spa gene deletions followed by antibiotic‐mediated cure in mice. Together, these data raise the question of whether Spa mutant S. aureus might represent a viable vaccine. Here, we find that gamma‐irradiated S. aureus strains, both wild‐type and null mutant of spa, are immunogenic in mice when administered intr...
Source: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology - May 20, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pauline M. Diemen, Yuko Yamaguchi, Gavin K. Paterson, Christine S. Rollier, Adrian V.S. Hill, David H. Wyllie Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Better Understanding Of Cells' Development Has Implications In Study Of Inflammatory Diseases
Labs around the world, and a core group at Penn, have been studying recently described populations of immune cells called innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Some researchers liken them to foot soldiers that protect boundary tissues such as the skin, the lining of the lung, and the lining of the gut from microbial onslaught. They also have shown they play a role in inflammatory disease, when the body's immune system is too active. In animal studies, group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) confer immunity during a parasitic infection in mice and are also involved in allergic airway inflammation... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - May 16, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Immune System / Vaccines Source Type: news
Reovirus expression vectors [Microbiology]
We tested a strategy for engineering recombinant mammalian reoviruses (rMRVs) to express exogenous polypeptides. One important feature is that these rMRVs are designed to propagate autonomously and can therefore be tested in animals as potential vaccine vectors. The strategy has been applied so far to three of the 10 MRV... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Demidenko, A. A., Blattman, J. N., Blattman, N. N., Greenberg, P. D., Nibert, M. L. Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research
Immunotherapy for Spontaneous Canine Meningioma
Malignant and atypical meningiomas are resistant to standard therapies and associated with poor prognosis. Despite progress in the treatment of other tumors with therapeutic vaccines, this approach has not been tested preclinically or clinically in these tumors. Spontaneous canine meningioma is a clinically meaningful but underutilized model for preclinical testing of novel strategies for aggressive human meningioma. We treated 11 meningioma-bearing dogs with surgery and vaccine immunotherapy consisting of autologous tumor cell lysate combined with toll-like receptor ligands. Therapy was well tolerated, and only one dog ha...
Source: Cancer Research - May 12, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andersen, B. M., Pluhar, G. E., Seiler, C. E., Goulart, M. R., SantaCruz, K. S., Schutten, M. M., Meints, J. P., O'Sullivan, M. G., Bentley, R. T., Packer, R. A., Thomovsky, S. A., Chen, A. V., Faissler, D., Chen, W., Hunt, M. A., Olin, M. R., Ohlfest, J. Tags: Microenvironment and Immunology Source Type: research
Threat Of Flu Pandemic Is Real, Say MIT Researchers
Many H3N2 virus strains which are circulating in pigs and birds are genetically very similar to the 1968 "Hong Kong" flu, also an H3N2 strain that spread around the world and eventually killed approximately one million people, a new study carried out at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) has found. The researchers added that current flu vaccines may not be effective against these H3N2 strains that currently circulate only in animals. Their study has been published in the journal Scientific Reports (May 10th, 2013 issue)... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - May 10, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Flu / Cold / SARS Source Type: news
Oral immunization with an attenuated salmonella gallinarum mutant as a fowl typhoid vaccine with a live adjuvant strain secreting the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin
Conclusion: Our results suggest that immunization with the LTB-adjuvant strain JOL1229 can significantly increase the immune response, and provide efficient protection against FT with no side effects on body weight, egg production, or egg contamination. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles - May 6, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Byung JeonRahul NandreJohn Lee Source Type: research
Scientists concerned at H7N9 bird flu outbreak that has killed 24 people
• Virus killing a fifth of those infected in China• World Health Organisation considers it a serious threatScientists are seriously concerned about a new bird flu virus that is causing severe disease in China, killing a fifth of all those it infects.So far, the virus, known as H7N9, is being transmitted only to humans from chickens, but there are worries that it could mutate into a form that could be passed from one person to another. Five mutations are known to be necessary for that to happen – H7N9 already has two of them. If that occurred, it could spread worldwide with lethal effect.According to the World Health ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - May 1, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Sarah Boseley Tags: Bird flu Asia Pacific World news Infectious diseases Health guardian.co.uk Medical research Microbiology China Editorial Science Source Type: news
Merck Announces First-Quarter 2013 Financial Results
Dateline City: WHITEHOUSE STATION, N.J. 2013 First-Quarter Non-GAAP EPS of $0.85, Excluding Certain Items; GAAP EPS of $0.52 Worldwide Sales were $10.7 Billion, a Decrease of 9 Percent Primarily as a Result of Patent Expiries, and Including a 2 Percent Unfavorable Impact from Foreign Exchange Growth in Vaccines, Immunology, HIV, Animal Health and Consumer Care Products Received Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Lambrolizumab, an Investigational Candidate for Advanced Melanoma; Five Products Currently Under R...
Source: Merck.com - Corporate News - May 1, 2013 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: hq_site_admin Tags: Corporate News Financial News Source Type: news
Systemic vaccination with anti‐oligomeric monoclonal antibodies improves cognitive function by reducing Aβ deposition and tau pathology in 3xTg‐AD mice
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - May 1, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Suhail Rasool, Hilda Martinez‐Coria, Jessica W. Wu, Frank LaFerla, Charles G Glabe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Eliminating infectious diseases of livestock: a metapopulation model of infection control.
We present a flexible metapopulation model of disease spread that incorporates variation in livestock density and includes occasional high-mixing locations or events, such as markets or race meetings. Using probability generating functions derived from this branching process model, we compare the likely success of reactive control strategies in eliminating disease spread. We find that the optimal vaccine strategy varies according to the disease transmission rate, with homogeneous vaccination most effective for low transmission rates, and heterogeneous vaccination preferable for high levels of transmission. Quarantine combi...
Source: Theoretical Population Biology - May 1, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Glass K, Barnes B Tags: Theor Popul Biol Source Type: research
Effects of dietary yeast supplementation on Serum IgG(T) concentrations in Quarter Horse mares
In this study, sixteen Quarter Horse mares (10.6 ± 5.0 yr) were used to evaluate the effect of dietary yeast supplementation on IgG(T) specific antibody responses. Mares were blocked by reproductive status and diet and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Yeast or Control. Open mares received 0.5% BW of a 12% CP pelleted concentrate while pregnant mares received 0.5% BW of a 16% CP pelleted concentrate. All horses also received mixed grass hay and water ad libitum. Horses in the yeast treatment group were fed a target dose of 1 g/45.4 kg of BW per day of a live culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae throughout t...
Source: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science - April 29, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: K. Koke, J.M. Reddish, E. Share, K. Cole Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research
Development and dietary regulation of the immune system in horses
In preliminary experiments on six Quarter Horse mare/foal pairs, we observed a high percentage of B-cells in neonatal foals, which is different than that observed in other agricultural animals. In the current experiment, our objectives were to 1) further characterize the phenotype of leukocyte populations in foals, and 2) to examine the role of maternal dietary yeast supplementation on the frequency and surface phenotype of B- and T-cell subsets in foals as well as serum immunoglobulin concentrations and functional response to tetanus vaccination. Yeast (14g, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Diamond V) was added to the diets of m...
Source: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science - April 29, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: R.A. Whitlock, A.J. Young, T.K. Carpenter, A.A. Petersen, J. Griffin, G.D. Djira, R.C. Bott Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research
Bluetongue Virus RNA Detection by Real‐Time RT‐PCR in Post‐Vaccination Samples from Cattle
Summary Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV‐8) was responsible for a large outbreak among European ruminant populations in 2006–2009. In spring 2008, a massive vaccination campaign was undertaken, leading to the progressive disappearance of the virus. During surveillance programmes in Western Europe in 2010–2011, a low but significant number of animals were found weakly positive using BTV‐specific real‐time RT‐PCR, raising questions about a possible low level of virus circulation. An interference of the BTV‐8 inactivated vaccine on the result of the real‐time RT‐PCR was also hypothesized. Several studies spe...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - April 25, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: I. Leeuw, M. Garigliany, G. Bertels, T. Willems, D. Desmecht, K. Clercq Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Towards a universal influenza vaccine: Volunteer virus challenge studies in quarantine to speed the development and subsequent licensing
Abstract There are now more than ten experimental vaccine formulations which induce T and B cell immunity towards the internally situated virus proteins matrix (M1 and M2e) and nucleoprotein (NP), and towards stem and stalk regions of the HA which have a shared antigenic structure amongst many of the 17 influenza A virus sub types. Such “universal vaccines” could be used, at least in theory, as a prophylactic stockpile vaccine for newly emerged epidemic and novel pandemic influenza A viruses or as a supplement to conventional HA/NA vaccines. My own laboratory has approached the problem from the clinical viewpoint by id...
Source: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: J.S. Oxford Tags: Review Source Type: research
Modeling effective transmission pathways and control of the world's most successful parasite.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) is a single-celled, intracellular protozoan responsible for the disease toxoplasmosis. The parasite is prevalent worldwide, and it infects all warm-blooded vertebrates. Consumption of meats in which this parasite has encysted confers risk of infection to people and other animals, as does ingestion of water or foods contaminated with environmentally resistant oocysts excreted by cats. Vertical transmission (from mother to offspring) is also possible, leading to disease risk and contributing additional means of ensuring perpetuation of transmission. In this work, we adopt a diffe...
Source: Theoretical Population Biology - April 24, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Turner M, Lenhart S, Rosenthal B, Zhao X Tags: Theor Popul Biol Source Type: research
Optical imaging detection of microscopic mammary cancer in ErbB‐2 transgenic mice through the DA364 probe binding αvβ3 integrins
Despite spontaneous tumor growth in genetically engineered mice being one of the most recognized tools for the in vivo evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer compounds, monitoring early stage lesions in live animals is a goal that has yet to be achieved. A large number of targets for the molecular imaging of various diseases have been identified and many imaging technologies, including optical techniques are emerging. One of the most commonly exploited targets in tumor imaging is αvβ3 integrin, which plays an important role in the expansion, invasiveness and metastatic capability of a number of cancers...
Source: Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging - April 23, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Laura Conti, Stefania Lanzardo, Manuela Iezzi, Monica Montone, Elisabetta Bolli, Chiara Brioschi, Alessandro Maiocchi, Guido Forni, Federica Cavallo Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research
Maternal immunization promotes the immune response of neonates towards hepatitis B vaccine
In conclusion, high maternal anti‐HBs titres can enhance the response to HBV vaccination in infants. (Source: Journal of Viral Hepatitis)
Source: Journal of Viral Hepatitis - April 22, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: W. Zhang, Z. Guo, L. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Li, Z. Ji, R. Xu, N. Zhao, F. Li, X. Chen, Y. Yan, J. Zhang, Q. An, H. Yang, Z. Den, Z. Shao Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Mucosal targeting of therapeutic molecules using genetically modified Lactic Acid Bacteria: an update
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters)
Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters - April 19, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jean Guy LeBlanc, Camille Aubry, Naima G. Cortes‐Perez, Alejandra Moreno de LeBlanc, Nathalie Vergnolle, Philippe Langella, Vasco Azevedo, Jean‐Marc Chatel, Anderson Miyoshi, Luis G. Bermúdez‐Humarán Tags: MiniReview Source Type: research
Comprehensive Assignment of Roles for Salmonella Typhimurium Genes in Intestinal Colonization of Food-Producing Animals
by Roy R. Chaudhuri, Eirwen Morgan, Sarah E. Peters, Stephen J. Pleasance, Debra L. Hudson, Holly M. Davies, Jinhong Wang, Pauline M. van Diemen, Anthony M. Buckley, Alison J. Bowen, Gillian D. Pullinger, Daniel J. Turner, Gemma C. Langridge, A. Keith Turner, Julian Parkhill, Ian G. Charles, Duncan J. Maskell, Mark P. Stevens Chickens, pigs, and cattle are key reservoirs of Salmonella enterica, a foodborne pathogen of worldwide importance. Though a decade has elapsed since publication of the first Salmonella genome, thousands of genes remain of hypothetical or unknown function, and the basis of colonization of reservoir h...
Source: PLoS Genetics - April 18, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Roy R. Chaudhuri et al. Source Type: research
Molecular Characterization of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viruses From Outbreaks Caused by Unrestricted Movements of Small Ruminants in Pakistan
Summary Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic disease of small ruminants, and vaccination has been the method of control but outbreaks are continuously occurring in Pakistan. The following study presents a detailed investigation of an outbreak, suspected to be PPR, probably introduced by PPRV‐infected sheep and goats from Sindh Province (north‐west) to Punjab Province (central) of Pakistan during the flood relief campaign in 2011. A total of 70 serum samples from 28 different flocks were tested with competitive ELISA (H antibodies), which detected 24 (34.2%) samples positive for PPRV antibodies. Nasal swabs an...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - April 17, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: M. Munir, A. Saeed, M. Abubakar, S. Kanwal, M. Berg Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Infant baboons infected with respiratory syncytial virus develop clinical and pathological changes that parallel those of human infants
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of the lower respiratory tract is the leading cause of respiratory failure among infants in the United States of America and annually results in >300,000 deaths worldwide. Despite the importance of RSV, there is no licensed vaccine, and no specific form of therapy. This is largely due to the absence of an appropriate animal model for the evaluation of vaccines and therapeutic agents. We inoculated anesthetized infant (4 wk) baboons (Papio anubis) with a human strain of RSV intranasally or intratracheally. Baboons were monitored daily for clinical changes. Anesthetized baboons ...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Papin, J. F., Wolf, R. F., Kosanke, S. D., Jenkins, J. D., Moore, S. N., Anderson, M. P., Welliver, R. C. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research
Irradiated wild type and Spa mutant Staphylococcus aureus induce anti‐S. aureus immune responses in mice which do not protect against subsequent intravenous challenge
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology)
Source: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology - April 15, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pauline M. Diemen, Yuko Yamaguchi, Gavin K. Paterson, Christine S. Rollier, Adrian V.S. Hill, David H. Wyllie Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Databases and In Silico Tools for Vaccine Design
In vaccine design, databases and in silico tools play different but complementary roles. Databases collect experimentally verified vaccines and vaccine components, and in silico tools provide computational methods to predict and design new vaccines and vaccine components. Vaccine-related databases include databases of vaccines and vaccine components. In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maintains a database of licensed human vaccines, and the US Department of Agriculture keeps a database of licensed animal vaccines. Databases of vaccine clinical trials and vaccines in research also exist. The important vaccin...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Pharmacology/Toxicology - April 13, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news
Postdoctoral position in pharmaceutical immunology, Taipei city, Taiwan
Added via Nature Jobs. A postdoctoral position is currently available at National Taiwan University in Taipei City, TAIWAN to study the immune response to vaccine adjuvants and ligands of nuclear hormone receptors. Research is focused on transcriptional regulation of the development of hematopoietic stem cells, employing the techniques of immunology, molecular and cellular biology in the animal models. Particular interest is focused on the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and leukocyte trafficking. Extensive experiences on animal experiments are required. Applicants must have a PhD and/or MD degree with a...
Source: Society for Endocrinology - April 12, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news
Human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits distributed for wildlife rabies management - ohio, 2012.
Abstract Baits laden with oral rabies vaccines are important for the management of wildlife rabies in the United States. In August 2012, the Wildlife Services program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service began a field trial involving limited distribution of a new oral rabies vaccine bait in five states, including Ohio. The vaccine consisted of live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (AdRG1.3) (Onrab). A previously used oral rabies vaccine consisting of a live recombinant vaccinia vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - April 12, 2013 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Hepatitis Research Aided By New Rodent Viruses
Newly discovered mouse viruses could pave the way for future progress in hepatitis research, enabling scientists to study human disease and vaccines in the ultimate lab animal. In a study to be published in mBio®, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, scientists describe their search for viruses related to the human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegiviruses (HPgV) in frozen stocks of wild mice... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - April 11, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Liver Disease / Hepatitis Source Type: news
Development of a recombinant antibody to target peptides and proteins to sialoadhesin-expressing macrophages
Conclusions: A recombinant antibody allowing targeted delivery of peptides and proteins to Sn-expressing macrophages was developed. Production and purification of antibody fusion constructs was possible without major optimization and with batch to batch consistency, confirming the development of a versatile antibody vector to evaluate Sn-directed targeting strategies in a porcine animal model. (Source: BMC Biotechnology - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Biotechnology - Latest articles - April 10, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Karen OomsHanne Van GorpTim Van GaeverHans NauwynckPeter Delputte Source Type: research
A virosomal respiratory syncytial virus vaccine adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A provides protection against viral challenge without priming for enhanced disease in cotton rats
ConclusionThese results show that RSV‐MPLA virosomes represent a safe and immunogenic vaccine candidate that warrants evaluation in a clinical setting. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - April 10, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tobias Kamphuis, Toon Stegmann, Tjarko Meijerhof, Jan Wilschut, Aalzen Haan Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
New mouse viruses could aid hepatitis research
(American Society for Microbiology) Newly discovered mouse viruses could pave the way for future progress in hepatitis research, enabling scientists to study human disease and vaccines in the ultimate lab animal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 9, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
Immunological characterization of peripheral blood leukocytes using vaccine for mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) in swine line selected for resistance to MPS
This study was conducted to evaluate immunological changes in peripheral blood leukocytes in pigs that were genetically selected for their improved resistance to mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS), using MPS vaccine as an antigen. Twelve castrated MPS‐selected Landrace pigs were compared with the same number of pigs from a nonselected line by using a time‐course analysis at the hematological level. After the second sensitization with MPS vaccine, the percentages of B cells, CD4+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells in total leukocytes were lower in the selected line than in the nonselected line, whereas the percent...
Source: Animal Science Journal - April 7, 2013 Category: Zoology Authors: Tomoyuki Shimazu, Liushiqi Borjigin, Yuki Katayama, Meihua Li, Takumi Satoh, Kouichi Watanabe, Haruki Kitazawa, Sang‐gun Roh, Hisashi Aso, Kazuo Katoh, Yoshihito Suda, Akiko Sakuma, Mituru Nakajo, Keiichi Suzuki Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Oral immunization with Lactococcus lactis secreting attenuated recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin B induces a protective immune response in a murine model
Conclusions: These findings show the vaccine efficacy of L. lactis carrying an attenuated SEB, in a murine model, following lethal S. aureus challenge. (Source: Microbial Cell Factories)
Source: Microbial Cell Factories - April 5, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Giselli AsensiNathalia de SalesFabiano DutraDaniel FeijóMarcelo BozzaRobert UlrichAnderson MiyoshiKatia de MoraisVasco AzevedoJoab SilvaYves LoirVânia Paschoalin Source Type: research
NIH-Funded Scientists Map Possible Path to an HIV Vaccine
“In an advance for HIV vaccine research, scientists have for the first time determined how both the virus and a resulting strong antibody response co-evolved in one HIV-infected individual. The findings could help researchers identify which proteins to use in investigational vaccines to induce antibodies capable of preventing infection from an array of HIV strains. … “In the current study, scientists identified one of the roughly 20 percent of HIV-infected individuals who naturally develop broadly neutralizing antibodies to the virus after several years of infection. This person in Africa was a volunteer...
Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) - April 5, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
HPV16 synthetic long peptide (HPV16-SLP) vaccination therapy of patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma, a phase II trial
Conclusions: The HPV16-SLP vaccine was well tolerated and induced a broad IFNγ-associated T-cell response in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma but neither induced tumor regression nor prevented progressive disease. We, therefore, plan to use this vaccine in combination with chemotherapy and immunomodulation. (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - April 4, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Mariette I E van PoelgeestMarij J P WeltersEdith M G van EschLinda F M StynenboschGijs KerpershoekEls van Persijn van MeertenMuriel van den HendeMargriet J G LöwikDorien M A Berends-van der MeerLorraine FathersA Rob P M ValentijnJaap OostendorpGert Jan F Source Type: research
Bovine viral diarrhea virus fetal persistent infection after immunization with a contaminated modified-live virus vaccine
In conclusion, vaccination of pregnant heifers with a contaminated modified-live BVDV vaccine resulted in development of BVDV-2 persistently infected fetuses in all tested vaccinated animals. Furthermore, BVDV was apparently shed to unvaccinated heifers causing fetal infections from which only BVDV-1 was detected. (Source: Theriogenology)
Source: Theriogenology - April 4, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Roberto A. Palomares, Shonda M. Marley, M. Daniel Givens, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Kenny V. Brock Tags: Research articles Source Type: research
Brucella melitensis 16MΔhfq Attenuation to Confer Protection Against Wild‐Type Challenge in BALB/c Mice
Abstract Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease that causes animal and human diseases. The current Brucella vaccines (Rev.1 and M5‐90) are efficient, but continue to have several drawbacks. The first one involves residual virulence for animals and humans, and the second is the inability to differentiate natural from vaccinated infection. Therefore, Brucella melitensis 16M hfq mutant (16MΔhfq) was constructed to overcome these drawbacks. Similar to Rev.1 and M5‐90, 16MΔhfq reduces survival in macrophages and mice and induces high protective immunity in BALB/c. Moreover, these vaccines elicit an anti‐...
Source: Microbiology and Immunology - April 1, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Junbo Zhang, Fei Guo, Chuangfu Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Hui Zhang, Yuanzhi Wang, Ke Zhang, Guoqing Du, Yuefeng li, Jiangde Wang, Tong Jian, Zhen Wang Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Assessment of Human Exposures to Animal Vaccines Using Poison Control Records, 2000–2009
Summary To characterize human exposures to vaccines intended for animals, evaluate the human risk due to these exposures and determine whether there is sufficient surveillance in place to monitor them. Retrospective analysis of surveillance data (2000–2009). Information collected by poison specialists during calls reporting human exposure to an animal vaccine product, made to one of the 57 United States Poison Control Centers. Data from the National Poison Data System were analysed to determine the number of calls due to human exposures to animal vaccines, and descriptive statistics were generated to characterize the exp...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - March 31, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: L. Edison, J. Schulte, J. Schauben, R. Kay, C. Rubin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
A pathogenic picornavirus acquires an envelope by hijacking cellular membranes
Nature advance online publication 31 March 2013. doi:10.1038/nature12029 Authors: Zongdi Feng, Lucinda Hensley, Kevin L. McKnight, Fengyu Hu, Victoria Madden, LiFang Ping, Sook-Hyang Jeong, Christopher Walker, Robert E. Lanford & Stanley M. Lemon Animal viruses are broadly categorized structurally by the presence or absence of an envelope composed of a lipid-bilayer membrane, attributes that profoundly affect stability, transmission and immune recognition. Among those lacking an envelope, the Picornaviridae are a large and diverse family of positive-strand RNA viruses that includes hepatitis A virus (HAV), an an...
Source: Nature AOP - March 31, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Zongdi FengLucinda HensleyKevin L. McKnightFengyu HuVictoria MaddenLiFang PingSook-Hyang JeongChristopher WalkerRobert E. LanfordStanley M. Lemon Tags: Letter Source Type: research
A pathogenic picornavirus acquires an envelope by hijacking cellular membranes
& Stanley M. Lemon Animal viruses are broadly categorized structurally by the presence or absence of an envelope composed of a lipid-bilayer membrane, attributes that profoundly affect stability, transmission and immune recognition. Among those lacking an envelope, the Picornaviridae are a large and diverse family of positive-strand RNA viruses that includes hepatitis A virus (HAV), an ancient human pathogen that remains a common cause of enterically transmitted hepatitis. HAV infects in a stealth-like manner and replicates efficiently in the liver. Virus-specific antibodies appear only after 3–4 ...
Source: Nature - March 31, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Zongdi FengLucinda HensleyKevin L. McKnightFengyu HuVictoria MaddenLiFang PingSook-Hyang JeongChristopher WalkerRobert E. LanfordStanley M. Lemon Tags: Letter Source Type: research
Diagnosis and management of Q fever--United States, 2013: recommendations from CDC and the Q Fever Working Group.
This report provides the first national recommendations issued by CDC for Q fever recognition, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, treatment, management, and reporting for health-care personnel and public health professionals. The guidelines address treatment of acute and chronic phases of Q fever illness in children, adults, and pregnant women, as well as management of occupational exposures. These recommendations will be reviewed approximately every 5 years and updated to include new published evidence. PMID: 23535757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: MMWR Recomm Rep)
Source: MMWR Recomm Rep - March 29, 2013 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Anderson A, Bijlmer H, Fournier PE, Graves S, Hartzell J, Kersh GJ, Limonard G, Marrie TJ, Massung RF, McQuiston JH, Nicholson WL, Paddock CD, Sexton DJ Tags: MMWR Recomm Rep Source Type: research
New Vaccine For Foot And Mouth Safer, Cheaper To Make Thanks To Synthetic Virus Shell
UK scientists have developed a new vaccine against foot and mouth disease that is cheaper and safer to manufacture thanks to the fact it doesn't rely on inactivating live infectious virus but uses a synthetic virus shell to provoke an immune response. The new vaccine is also more stable and easier to store than current ones. The scientists who developed the new vaccine report their work in the 27 March online issue of PLoS Pathogens... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - March 28, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Veterinary Source Type: news
Newly Designed Vaccine Blocks H5 Avian Influenza In Animal Models
Until now most experimental vaccines against the highly lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus have lacked effectiveness. But a new vaccine has proven highly effective against the virus when tested in both mice and ferrets. It is also effective against the H9 subtype of avian influenza. The research is published online ahead of print in the Journal of Virology. The strength of the new vaccine is that it uses attenuated, rather than "killed" virus. (Killed viruses are broken apart with chemicals or heat, and they are used because they are safer than attenuated viruses... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - March 27, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Bird Flu / Avian Flu Source Type: news
Reverse vaccinology in the 21st century: improvements over the original design
Reverse vaccinology (RV), the first application of genomic technologies in vaccine research, represented a major revolution in the process of discovering novel vaccines. By determining their entire antigenic repertoire, researchers could identify protective targets and design efficacious vaccines for pathogens where conventional approaches had failed. Bexsero, the first vaccine developed using RV, has recently received positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency. The use of RV initiated a cascade of changes that affected the entire vaccine development process, shifting the focus from the identification of a list of...
Source: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences - March 25, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Claudio Donati, Rino Rappuoli Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Mycobacterium bovis Δmce2 double deletion mutant protects cattle against challenge with virulent M. bovis
Summary: A Mycobacterium bovis strain deleted in mce2A and mce2B genes (M. bovis Δmce2) was tested as an experimental vaccine in cattle challenged with a virulent M. bovis strain. Three-and-a-half-month old calves (n = 5 to 6 per group) were vaccinated and challenged with a virulent strain of M. bovis by the intratracheal route 9 weeks after vaccination. A non-vaccinated group and a group vaccinated with BCG were included as controls. Blood samples were collected to measure IFN-γ by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), cytometry and cytokine responses of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) restimulated per...
Source: Tuberculosis - March 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Federico Carlos Blanco, María Verónica Bianco, Sergio Garbaccio, Virginia Meikle, María José Gravisaco, Valeria Montenegro, Edgar Alfonseca, Mahavir Singh, Soledad Barandiaran, Ana Canal, Lucas Vagnoni, Bryce Malcom Buddle, Fabiana Bigi, Angel Cataldi Tags: Bovine Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Relevance of Rift Valley fever to public health in the European Union
Abstract Rift Valley fever (RVF), a vector‐borne zoonotic disease caused by a phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae), is considered to be one of the most important viral zoonoses in Africa. It is also a potential bioterrorism agent. Transmitted by mosquitoes or by direct contact with viraemic products, RVF affects both livestock and humans, causing abortion storms in pregnant ruminants and sudden death in newborns. The disease provokes flu syndrome in most human cases, but also severe encephalitic or haemorrhagic forms and death. There is neither a treatment nor a vaccine for humans. The disease, historically confined to the ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - March 20, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: V. Chevalier Tags: Review Source Type: research
Interpretation of Odds and Risk Ratios
Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceProblems arise for clinicians or authors when they interpret the odds ratio as a risk ratio. In the example provided, the efficacy of protective interventions was overestimated. In the case of disease determinates that increase the occurrence of disease, the interpretation of the odds ratio as a risk ratio would also lead to overestimation of the effect. It is important not to use the terms risk or probability of disease when the odds are the measure of disease frequency. (Source: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine)
Source: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine - March 20, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: A.M. O'Connor Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research
Identification of novel tumour‐associated antigens in canine mammary gland tumour
In this study, we have primarily identified 13 different TAAs of canine MGT by serological immunoscreening of cDNA expression library. The results of serological mini‐arrays of identified antigens showed that CCDC41 antigen specially reacted with 35% of sera from MGT‐dogs and did not react with control sera. We also found that HSPH1 mRNA expression levels increased significantly in MGT tissues. These findings will contribute to the development of diagnostic technologies and translational target therapies for dogs. Clinical relevance: HSPH1, which is strongly expressed in the tumour tissue, will be a possible vaccine an...
Source: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology - March 20, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: M. Furuya, M. Funasaki, H. Tani, K. Sasai Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Dynamics of antibody response and viraemia following natural infection of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV‐2) in a conventional pig herd
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV‐2) is a primary agent of post‐weaning multi‐systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), ubiquitous in pig herds. The course of viraemia and seroconversion in naturally infected pigs were investigated in piglets from the 2nd week of their life. Piglets were divided into seropositive (Ab+) and seronegative (Ab−) groups. Subsequently, after vaccination against PCV‐2 (Ingelvac® CIRCOFLEX™, Böehringer Ingelheim), they were further divided into non‐vaccinated seronegative (NVAC/Ab−) and seropositive (NVAC/Ab+), and vaccinated seronegative (VAC/Ab−) and seropositive (VAC/Ab+). PCV‐2 colostr...
Source: APMIS - March 20, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Tomáš Csank, Juraj Pistl, Jana Polláková, Katarína Bhide, Robert Herich, Mikuláš Levkut Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The Global Availability of Rabies Immune Globulin and Rabies Vaccine in Clinics Providing Direct Care to Travelers
ConclusionThe availability of RV and RIG varied by geographic region. All travelers should be informed that RIG and RV might not be readily available at their destination and that travel health and medical evacuation insurance should be considered prior to departure. Travelers should be educated to avoid animal exposures; to clean all animal bites, licks, and scratches thoroughly with soap and water; and to seek medical care immediately, even if overseas. (Source: Journal of Travel Medicine)
Source: Journal of Travel Medicine - March 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emily S. Jentes, Jesse D. Blanton, Katherine J. Johnson, Brett W. Petersen, Mark J. Lamias, Kis Robertson, Richard Franka, Deborah Briggs, Peter Costa, Irene Lai, Doug Quarry, Charles E. Rupprecht, Nina Marano, Gary W. Brunette Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research