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Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal
Seroprevalences of Leishmania infantum (4.0%) and Toxoplasma gondii (13.3%) were estimated in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Horses are exposed to and may be infected with these zoonotic protozoa in this geographical region. Image: Carrico and Rebelde, crossbred horses from northern Portugal. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - June 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ana Patrícia LopesSusana SousaJP DubeyAna RibeiroRicardo SilvestreMário CotovioHenk SchalligLuís CardosoAnabela Cordeiro-da-Silva Source Type: research
Antileishmanial activity of amides from Piper amalago and synthetic analogs
Two natural amides isolated from the chloroform extract of Piper amalago L., Piperaceae, leaves, a hydrogenated derivative and seven synthetic analogs were tested against the promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The antileishmanial activity was evaluated in terms of growth inhibitory concentration for 50% of protozoa (IC50). The cytotoxicity toward the J774A1 macrophages was evaluated in terms of the cytotoxic concentrations for 50% of macrophages (CC50). The ability to induce nitric oxide production was also investigated for all compounds. The saturated amide 7-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 15, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Chemo-informatic design of antibiotic geldenamycin analogs to target stress proteins HSP90 of pathogenic protozoan parasites.
Abstract Stress proteins HSP90 (Heat shock proteins) are essential molecular chaperones involved in signal transduction, cell cycle control, stress management, folding and degradation of proteins. HSP90 have been found in a variety of organisms including pathogens suggesting that they are ancient and conserved proteins. Here, using molecular modeling and docking protocols, antibiotic Geldenamycin and its analog are targeted to the HSP90 homolog proteins of pathogenic protozoans Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei and Entamoeba Histolytica. The designed analogs of geldenamycin have shown d...
Source: Bioinformation - June 15, 2013 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Singh C, Atri N Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research
Drug repurposing: mining protozoan proteomes for targets of known bioactive compounds.
CONCLUSIONS: Although proteome-wide screens for drug targets have disadvantages, in-silico methods can be developed that are fast, broad, inexpensive, and effective. In-vitro validation of our results for C parvum indicate that the method presented here can be used to construct a library for more directed small molecule screening, or pipelined into structural modeling and docking programs to facilitate target-based drug development. PMID: 23757409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association)
Source: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association - June 11, 2013 Category: Information Technology Authors: Sateriale A, Bessoff K, Sarkar IN, Huston CD Tags: J Am Med Inform Assoc Source Type: research
T and B lymphocytes in the brains of dogs with concomitant seropositivity to three pathogenic protozoans: Leishmania chagasi, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum
Conclusions: We demonstrate that the peripheral infection by L. chagasi per se can promote the influx of lymphocytes within the nervous milieu as occurs during Toxoplasma and Neospora infections, and the concomitant seropositivity against these pathogens does not exacerbate the inflammatory brain lesions. Therefore, these findings give additional support that the brain should be included in the list of organs affected by visceral leishmaniasis and that even asymptomatic infected dogs may develop brain lesions. (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - June 8, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Keila SakamotoGuilherme de MeloGisele Machado Source Type: research
Probing the Dimerization Interface of Leishmania infantum Trypanothione Reductase with Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Short Peptides.
Abstract Binding at the interface: We tested the inhibitory activity of a set of peptide sequences derived from an α-helix of the dimeric trypanothione reductase from Leishmania infantum. Replacement of a glutamic acid residue with a lysine promoted monomer dissociation and enzyme inhibition. PMID: 23744811 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chembiochem)
Source: Chembiochem - June 6, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Toro MA, Sánchez-Murcia PA, Moreno D, Ruiz-Santaquiteria M, Alzate JF, Negri A, Camarasa MJ, Gago F, Velázquez S, Jiménez-Ruiz A Tags: Chembiochem Source Type: research
The prevention of canine leishmaniasis and its impact on public health.
Abstract Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease of great veterinary and medical significance. Prevention of CanL requires a combined approach including measures focused on dogs and the environment where the vectors perpetuate. Over past decades, considerable effort has been put towards developing novel and cost-effective strategies against CanL. Vaccination is considered among the most promising tools for controlling CanL, and synthetic pyrethroids are useful and cost-effective in reducing risk of L. infantum infection in dogs. The effectiveness of the use of vaccines pl...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 5, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
Multilocus microsatellite signature and identification of specific molecular markers for Leishmania aethiopica
This study was aimed at developing multilocus microsatellite markers for Leishmania aethiopica isolated from human cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Ethiopia which is useful for epidemiological and population genetic studies. Image: Patient with Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (DCL) caused by L. aethiopica. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - June 4, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nigatu KebedeSteve OghumuAlemayehu WorkuAsrat HailuSanjay VarikutiAbhay Satoskar Source Type: research
Inhibition of Leishmania infantum Trypanothione Reductase by Azole-Based Compounds: a Comparative Analysis with Its Physiological Substrate by X-ray Crystallography.
Abstract Herein we report a study aimed at discovering a new class of compounds that are able to inhibit Leishmania donovani cell growth. Evaluation of an in-house library of compounds in a whole-cell screening assay highlighted 4-((1-(4-ethylphenyl)-2-methyl-5-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methyl)thiomorpholine (compound 1) as the most active. Enzymatic assays on Leishmania infantum trypanothione reductase (LiTR, belonging to the Leishmania donovani complex) shed light on both the interaction with, and the nature of inhibition by, compound 1. A molecular modeling approach based on docking studies and on th...
Source: ChemMedChem - June 3, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Baiocco P, Poce G, Alfonso S, Cocozza M, Porretta GC, Colotti G, Biava M, Moraca F, Botta M, Yardley V, Fiorillo A, Lantella A, Malatesta F, Ilari A Tags: ChemMedChem Source Type: research
Structural Insights of SIR2rp3 Proteins as Promising Biotargets to Fight Against Chagas Disease and Leishmaniasis
Mol. BioSyst., 2013, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C3MB70180H, PaperLionel Sacconnay, Despina Smirilis, Emerson Ferreira-Queiroz, Jean-Luc Wolfender Wolfender, Milena Soares, Pierre-alain Carrupt, Alessandra NurissoTrypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are protozoan pathogens responsible for Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, respectively. Current therapies rely only on a very small number of drugs, most of them inadequate...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Mol. BioSyst. latest articles)
Source: RSC - Mol. BioSyst. latest articles - May 30, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Lionel Sacconnay Source Type: research
In Vitro Evaluation of Portuguese Propolis and Floral Sources for Antiprotozoal, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity
Propolis is a beehive product with a very complex chemical composition, used since ancient times in several therapeutic treatments. As a contribution to the improvement of drugs against several tropical diseases caused by protozoa, we screened Portuguese propolis and its potential floral sources Populus x Canadensis and Cistus ladanifer against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania infantum, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. The toxicity against MRC‐5 fibroblast cells was evaluated to assess selectivity. The in vitro assays were performed following the recommendations of WHO Special Programme for Research and Trainin...
Source: Phytotherapy Research - May 30, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Soraia I. Falcão, Nuno Vale, Paul Cos, Paula Gomes, Cristina Freire, Louis Maes, Miguel Vilas‐Boas Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research
A new ABC half-transporter in Leishmania is involved in resistance to antimony.
Abstract The characterization of LABCI4, a new intracellular ATP-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporter in Leishmania major, is described. We show that LABCI4 is involved in heavy metal export, thereby conferring resistance to Pentostam®, Sb(III) and to As(III) and Cd(II). Parasites over-expressing LABCI4 showed a lower mitochondrial toxic effect of antimony by decreasing ROS production, and maintained higher values of both the mitochondrial electrochemical potential and total ATP levels with respect to controls. The LABCI4 half-transporter forms homodimers as determined by a co-immunoprecipitation assay. A combi...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - May 28, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Manzano JI, García-Hernández R, Castanys S, Gamarro F Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Clinco-Epidemiologic Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India.
Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic to the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, Bikaner, India. The present study describes clinico-epidemiologcial data of all cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis CL in this region during 2001-2011. A total of 1,379 patients with 2,730 lesions were reported during the study period. Ages of patients ranged from 3 months to 86 years, and there was a predominance of infections in males. Most patients were from urban areas and lower middle socioeconomic groups. Lesions were dry, ulcerated nodules or plaques of different sizes commonly over face and upper limb. Skin smears were positive for pa...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - May 28, 2013 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Aara N, Khandelwal K, Bumb RA, Mehta RD, Ghiya BC, Jakhar R, Dodd C, Salotra P, Satoskar AR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Recent developments in the antiprotozoal and anticancer activities of the 2-alkynoic fatty acids.
Abstract The 2-alkynoic fatty acids are an interesting group of synthetic compounds that display antimycobacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention until recently. In this review we have summarized our present knowledge of the biomedical potential of the 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA) and 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA) together with several mechanistic pieces of work attesting to the fact that these compounds, and their metabolites, are good fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitors. The antiprotozoal activity of 2-HDA and 2-ODA against Leishmania ...
Source: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids - May 28, 2013 Category: Lipidology Authors: Carballeira NM Tags: Chem Phys Lipids Source Type: research
Evolution and species discrimination according to the Leishmania heat-shock protein 20 gene.
Abstract The Leishmania genus comprises up to 35 species, of which 20 are responsible for human disease. However, the taxonomic status for many of them is under discussion. The small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are physiologically relevant, protecting cellular proteins from aggregation and maintaining cellular viability under intensive stress conditions. In Leishmania, a protein of this class was previously described, the 20-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP20), which is encoded by a single gene. In the present study, we used this target, alone or in combination with hsp70 gene, to investigate the phylogenetic relationsh...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - May 27, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fraga J, Montalvo AM, Van der Auwera G, Maes I, Dujardin JC, Requena JM Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Epidemiologic study and molecular detection of Leishmania and sand fly species responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Foum Jamâa (Azilal, Atlas of Morocco).
In this study, we found also that L. tropica infection mostly caused single lesions (67.90%) that were located in the face (96.30%). Morphological identification was performed on a total of 1152 sand flies (23% females and 77% males) collected by sticky paper traps. 57% of the total collected flies were identified as Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (Parrot). PMID: 23524126 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Arroub H, Hamdi S, Ajaoud M, Habbari K, Lemrani M Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Attraction of phlebotomine sand flies to baited and non-baited horizontal surfaces.
Abstract Female phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmit leishmaniasis as they engorge on vertebrate blood required for egg production. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (Scopoli, 1786), the vector of Leishmania major (Yakimoff & Schokhor, 1914), the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were not attracted to large horizontal sticky traps (LHSTs) unless these were baited with CO2 derived from dry ice or from fermenting sugar/yeast mixture (SYM). Attraction of P. papatasi males by CO2 may indicate their tendency to mate on or near the blood-host. Male P. (Larroussius) orientalis (Parrot...
Source: Acta Tropica - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moncaz A, Gebresilassie A, Kirstein O, Faiman R, Gebre-Michael T, Hailu A, Warburg A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Investigation of in vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Moxifloxacin, Linezolid and Caspofungin on Leishmania tropica Promastigotes.
Conclusion: As a result, moxifloxacin was found to be effective in lower concentrations than the other studied agents against L. tropica promastigotes. (Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2013; 37: 1-3). PMID: 23619036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology)
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - May 23, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Limoncu ME, Eraç B, Gürpınar T, Ozbilgin A, Balcıoğlu IC, Hoşgör-Limoncu M Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
Optimization of single-tube nested PCR for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.
This study not only presents a promising tool for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, but also provides a new tool for the diagnosis of Chagas disease, either in mono-infection by T. cruzi or in co-infection with Leishmania spp. PMID: 23507078 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - May 23, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: da Silva MA, Pedrosa Soares CR, Medeiros RA, Medeiros Z, de Melo FL Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
In Leishmania major-induced inflammation, interleukin-13 reduces hyperalgesia, down-regulates IL-1β and up-regulates IL-6 in an IL-4 independent mechanism.
In this study we correlated the pain thresholds and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-4 with the period of IL-13 treatment and beyond it in mice infected with high and low dose of L. major. The results of both models show that IL-1β plays no direct role in provoking the observed hyperalgesia after stopping the treatment with IL-13 which is in contrary to IL-6 which might be a key player after the treatment period. Furthermore we demonstrate that there is no correlation between the levels of IL-4, hyperalgesia, the decreased IL-1β levels and the increased levels of IL-6 in the paws of IL-13 treated and L. major (high and ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - May 23, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Karam MC, Merckbawi R, El-Kouba JE, Bazzi SI, Bodman-Smith KB Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Molecular characterization of Leishmania infection in sand flies from Al-madinah Al-munawarah province, western Saudi Arabia.
Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by various species of the genus Leishmania. The disease is considered a major health problem in different areas of Saudi Arabia including Al-madinah Al-munawarah province. We aimed to identify Leishmania species isolated from sand fly vectors by molecular analysis. Sand fly sampling was carried out from May 2010 to October 2010 in province of Al-madinah Al-munawarah from four different localities. Female sand flies collected were subjected to DNA extraction followed by molecular analysis using the semi-nested PCR and conventional PCR protocols, respectively, against m...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - May 23, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: El-Beshbishy HA, Al-Ali KH, El-Badry AA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Evaluation of the Fat-Tailed Gerbil, Pachyuromys duprasi (Rodentia: Gerbillidae), As a New Animal Model for Studies of Leishmania major Infection and Transmission
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)
Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases - May 22, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: article Source Type: research
In vitro evaluation of 4-phenyl-5-(4́-X-phenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazolium-2-phenylaminide chlorides and 3[N-4́-X-phenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate derivatives on nitric oxide synthase and arginase activities of Leishmania amazonensis.
Abstract AbstractLeishmaniasis is a spectrum of infectious diseases caused by Leishmaniaprotozoan parasites. The purpose of this study was to perform, in vitro, a comparativeanalysis of the activity amastigotes. Results showed excellent efficacy of all compounds against axenic amastigotes, compared to pentamidine isethionate, the reference drug used. The cytotoxic effect of these mesoionic compounds of six mesoionic compounds (three 1,3,4-thiadiazolium-2-aminide and three 1,2, 3oxadiazolium-5-olate class compounds) against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and axenic expressed, was evaluated in mouse peritoneal ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - May 18, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Soares-Bezerra RJ, Leon LL, Echevarria A, Reis CM, Gomes-Silva L, Agostinho CG, Fernandes RA, Canto-Cavalheiro MM, Genestra MS Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Ecological aspects of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae) of Serra da Cantareira, Greater São Paulo Metropolitan region, state of São Paulo, Brazil
Human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been recorded in Serra da Cantareira, in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Region, where two conservation units are situated, the Parque Estadual da Cantareira and the Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. The present study aimed to identify the sandfly fauna and some of its ecological aspects in these two parks and their surrounding area to investigate Leishmania sp. vectors. The captures were undertaken monthly from January to December 2009, from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m., with automatic light traps installed in forests and peridomicile areas and with modified black/w...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia - May 16, 2013 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
The C-type Lectin Receptors Dectin-1, MR, and SIGNR3 Contribute Both Positively and Negatively to the Macrophage Response to Leishmania infantum
Lise Lefèvre, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Etienne Meunier, Alexis Valentin, David Olagnier, Hélène Authier, Carine Duval, Christophe Dardenne, José Bernad, Jean Loup Lemesre, Johan Auwerx, Olivier Neyrolles, Bernard Pipy, Agnès Coste. Macrophages act as the primary effector cells duringLeishmania infection through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). However, how macrophage-killing mech.... (Source: Immunity)
Source: Immunity - May 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Post‐kala‐azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an immunocompetent patient
(Source: International Journal of Dermatology)
Source: International Journal of Dermatology - May 15, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Begoña Sánchez‐Albisua, Isabel Polimón, Berta Pérez‐Tato, Silvia Marinero, Paloma Fernández‐López Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Gimatecan and other camptothecin derivatives poison Leishmania DNA-topoisomerase IB leading to a strong leishmanicidal effect.
Abstract The aim of this work is the in vitro and ex vivo assessment of the leishmanicidal activity of camptothecin and three analogues used in cancer therapy: topotecan (Hycantim(®)), gimatecan (ST1481) and the pro-drug irinotecan (Camptosar(®)) as well as its active metabolite SN-38 against Leishmania infantum. The activity of camptothecin and its derivatives was studied on extracellular L. infantum infrared-emitting promastigotes and on an ex vivo murine model of infected splenocytes with L. infantum fluorescent amastigotes. In situ formation of SDS/KCl precipitable DNA-protein complexes in Leishmania promasti...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - May 15, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Prada CF, Alvarez-Velilla R, Balaña-Fouce R, Prieto C, Calvo-Álvarez E, Escudero-Martínez JM, Requena JM, Ordóñez C, Desideri A, Pérez-Pertejo Y, Reguera RM Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Expression of Toll-like Receptors 2 and 9 in cells of dog jejunum and colon naturally infected with Leishmania infantum
Conclusions: There was no correlation between clinical signs and pathological changes and immunological and parasitological findings in the gastrointestinal tract in canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, jejunum showed a lower parasite load with increased frequency and expression of CD11b, TLR9, CD14/CD11b/TLR9 receptors and IL-10 and TNF-alpha cytokines. Conversely, the colon showed a higher parasite load along with increased frequency and expression of TLR2, CD11c receptors, and IL-4 cytokine. Thus, Leishmania infantum is able to interfere in jejunum increased expression of TLR2, TLR9, CD11b, CD14, CD14/CD11b/TLR9 rece...
Source: BMC Immunology - May 14, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Maria FigueiredoIzabela AmorimAldair PintoVítor BarbosaLucélia de Jesus PinheiroBeatriz DeotiAna FariaWagner Tafuri Source Type: research
Systematic analysis of proteomes with emphasis on insertions in malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
In conclusion, this bioinformatics based study provides comprehensive knowledge of insertions and residues' preference among pathogen proteins, which can be exploited for further inhibitor studies. PMID: 23688187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Protein and Peptide Letters)
Source: Protein and Peptide Letters - May 14, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kapil C, Hussain T, Jairajpuri MA, Yogavel M, Chatterjee S, Sharma A Tags: Protein Pept Lett Source Type: research
Dual effect of Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva on Leishmania braziliensis infection is mediated by distinct saliva-induced cellular recruitment into BALB/c mice ear
Conclusions: These results indicate that different inocula of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract can markedly modify the cellular immune response, which is reflected in the pattern of susceptibility or resistance to Leishmania braziliensis infection. (Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles - May 8, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vanessa CarregaroDiego CostaClaudia BrodskynAldina BarralManuel Barral-NettoFernando CunhaJoão Silva Source Type: research
Successful substitution of foetal calf serum by human plasma for bulk cultivation of leishmania donovani promastigotes.
SUCCESSFUL SUBSTITUTION OF FOETAL CALF SERUM BY HUMAN PLASMA FOR BULK CULTIVATION OF LEISHMANIA DONOVANI PROMASTIGOTES. J Med Microbiol. 2013 May 8; Authors: Mahamoud A, Osman HA, Mansour D, El Harith A Abstract The potential of human plasma (HP) or serum (HS) as replacement for foetal calf serum (FCS) was evaluated in a liver infusion tryptose (LIT) medium for bulk cultivation of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Comparable with LIT-FCS standard medium combination (0.4-1.8x107/ml), promastigote yields of 0.5-3.4x107 (p=0.527) and 0.4 -2.4x107 (p=0.062) were recorded for two LIT medium variants containing ...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 8, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mahamoud A, Osman HA, Mansour D, El Harith A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
The loss of virulence of histone H1 overexpressing Leishmania donovani parasites is directly associated with a reduction of HSP83 rate of translation
Summary Overexpression of Leishmania histone H1 (LeishH1) was previously found to cause a promastigote‐to‐amastigote differentiation handicap, deregulation of cell‐cycle progression, and loss of parasite infectivity. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the proteome of LeishH1 overexpressing parasites associated with the avirulent phenotype observed. 2D‐gel electrophoresis analysis revealed only a small protein subset of differentially expressed proteins in the LeishH1 overexpressing promastigotes. Among these was the chaperone HSP83, known for its protective role in Leishmania drug‐induced apoptosis,...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - May 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alexandros Alexandratos, Joachim Clos, Martina Samiotaki, Antonia Efstathiou, George Panayotou, Ketty Soteriadou, Despina Smirlis Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
DEAD‐box proteins, like Leishmania eIF4A, modulate interleukin (IL)‐12, IL‐10 and tumour necrosis factor‐alpha production by human monocytes
This study aims to characterize the cytokine‐inducing activity in human monocytes of several proteins belonging to the DEAD‐box family from mammals and yeast. All tested proteins contained the 11 conserved motifs (Q, I, Ia, GG Ib, II, III, IV, QxxR, V and VI) characteristic of DEAD‐box proteins, but they have different biological functions and different percentages of identities with LeIF. We show that these mammalian or yeast recombinant proteins also are able to induce IL‐12, IL‐10 and TNF‐α secretion by monocytes of healthy human subjects. This cytokine‐inducing activity is proteinase K sensitive and poly...
Source: Parasite Immunology - May 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: M. Barhoumi, A. Meddeb‐Garnaoui, N. K. Tanner, J. Banroques, B. Kaabi, I. Guizani Tags: Brief Definitive Report Source Type: research
The interactions and essential effects of intrinsic insulin‐like growth factor‐i on leishmania (leishmania) major growth within macrophages
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Parasite Immunology)
Source: Parasite Immunology - May 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Luiza Campos Reis, Eduardo Milton Ramos‐Sanchez, Hiro Goto Tags: Brief Definitive Report Source Type: research
Different regulatory mechanisms in protozoan parasitic infections.
Abstract The immune response to the protozoan pathogens, Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma spp. and Plasmodium spp., has been studied extensively with particular focus on regulation of the immune response by immunological mechanisms. More specifically, in diseases caused by parasites, immunosuppression frequently prevents immunopathology that can injure the host. However, this allows a small number of parasites to evade the immune response and remain in the host after a clinical cure. The consequences can be chronic infections, which establish a zoonotic or anthroponotic reservoir. This review will highlight some of the...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kling JC, Körner H Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Leishmania aethiopica to miltefosine, paromomycin, amphotericin B and sodium stibogluconate using amastigote-macrophage in vitro model.
Abstract Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania aethiopica is a public health and social problem with a sequel of severe and mutilating skin lesions. It is manifested in three forms: localized CL (LCL), mucosal CL (MCL) and diffuse CL (DCL). Unresponsiveness to sodium stibogluconate (Sb(V)) is common in Ethiopian CL patients. Using the amastigote-macrophage in vitro model the susceptibility of 24 clinical isolates of L. aethiopica derived from untreated patients was investigated. Eight strains of LCL, 9 of MCL, and 7 of DCL patients together with a reference strain (MHOM/ET/82/117/82) were tested against...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - May 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Utaile M, Kassahun A, Abebe T, Hailu A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Alkaloids from Galipea longiflora Krause modify the maturation of human dendritic cells and their ability to stimulate allogeneic CD4(+) T cells.
In this study the effect of an alkaloid extract of Evanta (AEE) or the purified alkaloid 2-phenilquinoline (2Ph) on the activation of human DCs and their ability to stimulate allogeneic CD4(+) T cells was analyzed. The expression of surface activation molecules was not affected on DCs stimulated in the presence of AEE or 2Ph nor did AEE-DCs or 2Ph-CDs affect the expression of activation surface molecules on allogeneic CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, as compared with control, the secretion of IL-12p40, IL-23 and IL-6 was lower from AEE-DCs and 2Ph-CDs and allogeneic CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with these DCs secreted lower leve...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - May 1, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Calla-Magariños J, Fernández C, Troye-Blomberg M, Freysdottir J Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in fuenlabrada, madrid.
CONCLUSIONS: We have presented a large series of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed in the context of an outbreak. Multiple papules were the most common clinical presentation, with histology that showed non-necrotizing granulomatous dermatitis with no evidence of parasites. PCR of skin samples was the test that most frequently provided the diagnosis. PMID: 23567452 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas)
Source: Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas - May 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Aguado M, Espinosa P, Romero-Maté A, Tardío JC, Córdoba S, Borbujo J Tags: Actas Dermosifiliogr Source Type: research
Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles are as efficient as electroporation in DNA vaccination against visceral leishmaniasis in mice
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Parasite Immunology)
Source: Parasite Immunology - May 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: N. Saljoughian, F. Zahedifard, D. Doroud, F. Doustdari, M. Vasei, B. Papadopoulou, S. Rafati Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Imaging host‐Leishmania interactions: significance in visceral leishmaniasis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Parasite Immunology)
Source: Parasite Immunology - May 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Claire‐Lise Forestier Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Cloning, overexpression, purification and crystallization of the CRN12 coiled-coil domain from Leishmania donovani
Leishmania donovani coronin CRN12 is an actin-binding protein which consists of two domains: an N-terminal WD repeat domain and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The coiled-coil domain is 53 residues in length. Helix–helix interactions in general and coiled coils in particular are ubiquitous in the structure of proteins and play a significant role in the association among proteins, including supramolecular assemblies and transmembrane receptors that mediate cellular signalling, transport and actin dynamics. The L. donovani coronin CRN12 coiled-coil domain (5.8 kDa) was cloned, overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and ...
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section F - April 30, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Srivastava, V.K.Rana, A.K.Sahasrabuddhe, A.A.Gupta, C.M.Pratap, J.V. Tags: CRN12 coiled-coil domain Leishmania donovani crystallization communications Source Type: research
Ultrasensitive Real-Time PCR for the Clinical Management of Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-Infected Patients.
Abstract Molecular methods have been proposed as an alternative tool for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), but no data are available regarding use for monitoring clinical outcome. A prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus-(HIV) and VL-coinfected patients was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Leishmania parasite load was monitored using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at baseline and every 3 months. Cutoff values for PCR were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Overall, 37 episodes were analyzed, and 25 of these ep...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 29, 2013 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Molina I, Fisa R, Riera C, Falcó V, Elizalde A, Salvador F, Crespo M, Curran A, Lopez-Chejade P, Tebar S, Perez-Hoyos S, Ribera E, Pahissa A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Improvement in clinical signs and cellular immunity of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis using the immunomodulator P-MAPA.
This study investigated the immunotherapeutic potential of the protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride immuno-modulator (P-MAPA) on canine visceral leishmaniasis. Twenty mongrel dogs presenting clinical symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis and diagnosis confirmed by the detection of anti-leishmania antibodies were studied. Ten dogs received 15 doses of the immunomodulator (2.0mg/kg) intramuscularly, and 10 received saline as a placebo. Skin and peripheral blood samples were collected following administration of the immunomodulator. The groups were followed to observe for clinical sign...
Source: Acta Tropica - April 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Santiago ME, Neto LS, Alexandre EC, Munari DP, Andrade MM, Somenzari MA, Ciarlini PC, V M F DL Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Characterization of the biology and infectivity of Leishmania infantum viscerotropic and dermotropic strains isolated from HIV+ and HIV- patients in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis
Biological parameters of four Leishmania infantum strains were evaluated using infectivity in mouse model as read-out. Progression of visceral leishmaniasis was dependent on intrinsic characteristics of the parasites that did not seem to correlate with immunogenicity. Image: Bone marrow-derived macrophage infected with CFSE-labeled L. infantum. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - April 26, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Joana CunhaEugenia CarrilloCarmen SánchezIsrael CruzJavier MorenoAnabela Cordeiro-da-Silva Source Type: research
5'-Trityl-Substituted Thymidine Derivatives as a Novel Class of Antileishmanial Agents: Leishmania infantum EndoG as a Potential Target.
Abstract Two series of 5'-triphenylmethyl (trityl)-substituted thymidine derivatives were synthesized and tested against Leishmania infantum axenic promastigotes and amastigotes. Several of these compounds show significant antileishmanial activity, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Among these, 3'-O-(isoleucylisoleucyl)-5'-O-(3,3,3-triphenylpropanoyl)thymidine displays particularly good activity against intracellular amastigotes. Assays performed to characterize the nature of parasite cell death in the presence of the tritylthymidines indicated significant alterations in mitochondrial transmembrane pote...
Source: ChemMedChem - April 26, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Casanova E, Moreno D, Gigante A, Rico E, Genes CM, Oliva C, Camarasa MJ, Gago F, Jiménez-Ruiz A, Pérez-Pérez MJ Tags: ChemMedChem Source Type: research
Long‐term efficacy of single‐dose radiofrequency‐induced heat therapy vs. intralesional antimonials for cutaneous leishmaniasis in India
Conclusions A single application of RFHT is safe, cosmetically acceptable and effective in inducing a long‐term cure of CL. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)
Source: British Journal of Dermatology - April 25, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: R.A. Bumb, N. Prasad, K. Khandelwal, N. Aara, R.D. Mehta, B.C. Ghiya, P. Salotra, L. Wei, S. Peters, A.R. Satoskar Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
Abstract : The most important parasitic diseases, malaria, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, and schistosomiasis, are a great burden to mankind, threatening the life of millions of people worldwide and mostly affecting the poorest. Because drug resistance is increasing and vaccines are rarely available, novel chemotherapeutic compounds are necessary in order to treat these devastating diseases. Insects serve as vectors of many human parasitic diseases and have been shown to express a huge variety of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Therefore, research activity on insect-derived AMPs has been increasing in the last 40 ...
Source: Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology - April 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pretzel J, Mohring F, Rahlfs S, Becker K Tags: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Source Type: research
Canine visceral leishmaniasis: diagnostic approaches based on polymerase chain reaction employing different biological samples
In this study, we report the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on samples such as buffy coat, bone marrow, intact skin and cutaneous ulcers fragments, and lymph node aspirate collected from 430 dogs to determine the suitable biological sample for use in CanL diagnosis. The PCR results were correlated with clinical status and other tests previously performed. Leishmania chagasi DNA was detected in 14.6% (n = 63) of the dogs investigated, regardless of the sample analyzed. Our results showed that symptomatic cases were easily diagnosed when compared to asymptomatic animals; however, the PCR proved to be very usefu...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - April 25, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arleana B.P.F. Almeida, Valéria R.F. Sousa, Naiani D. Gasparetto, Givago F.R. da Silva, Fabiano B. Figueiredo, Valéria Dutra, Luciano Nakazato, Maria F. Madeira Tags: Parasitology Source Type: research
Knowledge, attitude and practices related to visceral leishmaniasis among residents in Addis Zemen town, South Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia
Conclusion: In general our findings showed that the residents had good awareness and favourable attitude about the disease, but their overall practice about prevention and control of the disease was low. Therefore, our investigation call for continued and strengthened behavioral change communication and social mobilization related activities. (Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles - April 24, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Agersew AlemuAbebe AlemuNuraini EsmaelYared DessieKedir HamduBiniam MathewosWubet Birhan Source Type: research
7‐Chloro‐4‐quinolinyl Hydrazones: A Promising and Potent Class of Antileishmanial Compounds
In this work, we report the antileishmanial evaluation of twenty 7‐chloro‐4‐quinolinyl hydrazone derivatives (1–20). Firstly, the compounds were tested against promastigotes of four different Leishmania species. After that, all derivatives were assayed against L. braziliensis amastigotes and murine macrophages. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the antiamastigote L. braziliensis effect of the compounds could be associated with nitric oxide production. Compounds 6 and 7 showed a strong leishmanicidal activity against intracellular parasite with IC50 in nanogram levels (30 and 20 ng/mL, respectively). Apprec...
Source: Chemical Biology and Drug Design - April 24, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Elaine S. Coimbra, Luciana M. R. Antinarelli, Adilson D. da Silva, Marcelle L. F. Bispo, Carlos R. Kaiser, Marcus V. N. Souza Tags: Research Article Source Type: research