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The Biology of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP).
Abstract Originally shown to promote the growth and activation of B cells, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is now known to have wide-ranging impacts on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell lineages, including dendritic cells, basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, CD4(+), CD8(+) and natural killer T cells, B cells and epithelial cells. While TSLP's role in the promotion of TH2 responses has been extensively studied in the context of lung- and skin-specific allergic disorders, it is becoming increasingly clear that TSLP may impact multiple disease states within multiple organ systems, including the blockade...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - February 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ziegler SF, Roan F, Bell BD, Stoklasek TA, Kitajima M, Han H Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
Fine‐needle aspiration of metanephric adenoma of the kidney with clinical, radiographic and histopathologic correlation
We describe two additional cases of metanephric adenoma diagnosed on fine‐needle aspiration biopsy and review the available literature. Our cases showed similar cytology and were composed of cellular smears with numerous clusters of small, oval to round cells arranged in a microfollicular pattern and papillary configurations. The tumor cells had scant cytoplasm, fine chromatin and absent nucleoli. Psamomma bodies, nuclear atypia, cellular cpleomorphism, necrosis, and mitoses were absent. Because of the rarity of this tumor and the common cytologic features it shares with other lesions, including malignant tumors such as ...
Source: Diagnostic Cytopathology - February 28, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Luis Z. Blanco, Caitlin O. Schein, Tushar Patel, Dawn E. Heagley, David J. Cimbaluk, Vijaya Reddy, Paolo Gattuso Tags: Timely Review Source Type: research
Loss of FBP1 by Snail-Mediated Repression Provides Metabolic Advantages in Basal-like Breast Cancer
Chenfang Dong, Tingting Yuan, Yadi Wu, Yifan Wang, Teresa W.M. Fan, Sumitra Miriyala, Yiwei Lin, Jun Yao, Jian Shi, Tiebang Kang, Pawel Lorkiewicz, Daret St Clair, Mien-Chie Hung, B. Mark Evers, Binhua P. Zhou. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enhances cancer invasiveness and confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics. We show that the Snail-G9a-Dnmt1 complex, which i.... (Source: Cancer Cell)
Source: Cancer Cell - February 27, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Sugary food and beverage consumption and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case--control study
Conclusions: Overall, we found little indication that sugar intake played a major role on ovarian cancer development. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - February 27, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Melony KingSara OlsonLisa PaddockUrmila ChandranKitaw DemissieShou-En LuNiyati ParekhLorna Rodriguez-RodriguezElisa Bandera Source Type: research
Dysfunctions at human intestinal barrier by water‐borne protozoan parasites: Lessons from cultured human fully‐differentiated colon cancer cell lines
Summary Some water‐borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane‐associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signaling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this MicroReview we analyze the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia, and Crysptosopridium observed in the human colon carcinoma fully‐differentiated colon cancer cell lines, cell subpopulations, and clones expressing the structural and functional characteristics of highly specialized fully‐differentiat...
Source: Cellular Microbiology - February 26, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vanessa Liévin‐Le Moal Tags: Microreview Source Type: research
Gastrokine 1 regulates NF‐κB signaling pathway and cytokine expression in gastric cancers
In this study, we examined the effect of GKN1 on the expression of inflammatory mediators, including NF‐κB, COX‐2 and cytokines in GKN1‐transfected AGS cells and shGKN1‐transfected HFE‐145 cells. Lymphocyte migration and cell viability were also analyzed after treatment with GKN1 and inflammatory cytokines in AGS cells by transwell chemotaxis and an MTT assay, respectively. In GKN1‐transfected AGS cells, we observed inactivation and reduced expression of NF‐κB and COX‐2, whereas shGKN1‐transfected HFE‐145 cells showed activation and increased expression of NF‐κB and COX‐2. GKN1 expression induced...
Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - February 26, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jung Hwan Yoon, Mi La Cho, Yoo Jin Choi, Ji Yeon Back, Mi Kyung Park, Suk Woo Lee, Byung Joon Choi, Hassan Ashktorab, Duane T. Smoot, Suk Woo Nam, Jung Young Lee, Won Sang Park Tags: Article Source Type: research
Regional differences in prostaglandin E2 metabolism in human colorectal cancer liver metastases
Conclusions: There is significant intra-tumoral heterogeneity in PGE2 content, 15-PGDH activity and NAD+ availability in human CRCLM. Tumour micro-environment (including hypoxia)-driven differences in PGE2 metabolism should be targeted for novel treatment of advanced CRC. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - February 26, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alastair YoungClaire ChalmersGillian HawcroftSarah PerryDarren TreanorGiles ToogoodPamela JonesMark Hull Source Type: research
Expression of Gα12 predicts progression and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas in Taiwan
ConclusionsOur results showed a stepwise and significant elevation in Gα12 protein expression from NOM through OED to OSCCs, suggesting that overexpression of Gα12 protein may be an early event in oral carcinogenesis and may play a pivotal role in oral cancer development. Moreover, the Gα12 protein can be a biomarker for prediction of the progression of OSCCs and the prognosis of patients with OSCC in Taiwan. (Source: Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine)
Source: Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine - February 25, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Shih‐Jung Cheng, Yi‐Ching Liu, Shih‐Lung Cheng, Jang‐Jaer Lee, Hsin‐Ming Chen, Hao‐Hueng Chang, Sang‐Heng Kok, Mark Yen‐Ping Kuo, Chun‐Pin Chiang Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Omega‐3 PUFA ethanolamides DHEA and EPEA induce autophagy through PPARγ activation in MCF‐7 breast cancer cells
Abstract The omega‐3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), elicit anti‐proliferative effects in cancer cell lines and in animal models. Dietary DHA and EPA can be converted to their ethanolamide derivatives, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamine (DHEA), and eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamine (EPEA), respectively; however, few studies are reported on their anti‐cancer activities. Here, we demonstrated that DHEA and EPEA were able to reduce cell viability in MCF‐7 breast cancer cells whereas they did not elicit any effects in MCF‐10A non‐tumorigenic breast epitheli...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - February 25, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Daniela Rovito, Cinzia Giordano, Donatella Vizza, Pierluigi Plastina, Ines Barone, Ivan Casaburi, Marilena Lanzino, Francesca De Amicis, Diego Sisci, Loredana Mauro, Saveria Aquila, Stefania Catalano, Daniela Bonofiglio, Sebastiano Andò Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Tissue transglutaminase as a central mediator in inflammation-induced progression of breast cancer
TGM2 is a stress-responsive gene that encodes a multifunctional and structurally complex protein, called tissue transglutaminase (abbreviated as TG2 or tTG). TGM2 expression is frequently upregulated during inflammation and wounding. Emerging evidence supports that TGM2 expression is aberrantly upregulated in multiple cancer cell types, particularly those selected for resistance to chemo- and radiation therapies and those isolated from metastatic sites. It is becoming increasingly evident that chronic expression of TG2 in epithelial cancer cells initiates a complex series of signaling that contributes to the development of...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 25, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Navneet AgnihotriSantosh KumarKapil Mehta Source Type: research
Downregulation of miR-153 contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis in human epithelial cancer
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in epithelial cancer invasion and metastasis. The aims of this study were to investigate and validate unidentified micro RNAs (miRNAs) that regulate EMT and to reveal their clinical relevance in epithelial cancer patients. By applying miRNA array screening in a natural epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype cell line pair and in a transforming growth factor β-induced EMT cell model, we found miR-153 was markedly downregulated in the cells that underwent an EMT. A close association was confirmed between inhibition of miR-153 and the EMT phenotype, as well as the i...
Source: Carcinogenesis - February 25, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xu, Q., Sun, Q., Zhang, J., Yu, J., Chen, W., Zhang, Z. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research
Targeted expression of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme prevents upper aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis in p53-deficient mice
Upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers of the oral cavity and esophagus are a significant global health burden, and there is an urgent need to develop relevant animal models to identify chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies to combat these diseases. Antizyme (AZ) is a multifunctional negative regulator of cellular polyamine levels, and here, we evaluate the susceptibility of keratin 5 (K5)-AZ transgenic mice to tumor models that combine chemical carcinogenesis with dietary and genetic risk factors known to influence human susceptibility to UADT cancer and promote UADT carcinogenesis in mice. First, p53+/- and K5-AZ/...
Source: Carcinogenesis - February 25, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Feith, D. J., Pegg, A. E., Fong, L. Y. Y. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research
Epigenetic activation of the MiR-200 family contributes to H19-mediated metastasis suppression in hepatocellular carcinoma
In this study, the expression level of H19 was assessed in different regions of HCC patients’ liver samples. Loss- and gain-of-function studies on this lncRNA in the HCC cell lines, SMMC7721 and HCCLM3, were used to characterize its effects on gene expression and to assess its effect on HCC metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that H19 was underexpressed in intratumoral HCC tissues (T), as compared with peritumoral tissues (L). Additionally, low T/L ratio of H19 predicted poor prognosis. H19 suppressed HCC progression metastasis and the expression of markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transi...
Source: Carcinogenesis - February 25, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhang, L., Yang, F., Yuan, J.-h., Yuan, S.-x., Zhou, W.-p., Huo, X.-s., Xu, D., Bi, H.-s., Wang, F., Sun, S.-h. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research
Selective Cox-2 inhibitor celecoxib induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cells via activating MEK-ERK signaling
In this study, we observed that celecoxib treatment at clinically relevant concentrations induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NSCLC cells regardless of Cox-2 status, which, however, was not recapitulated using another Cox-2 inhibitor, etodolac. Celecoxib-stimulated EMT in turn promoted cell invasion and rendered cells resistant to chemotherapy. Further mechanistic investigation by disrupting the integrity of signaling pathways using specific inhibitors or RNA interference revealed that celecoxib-induced EMT in NSCLC cells is indispensable of transforming growth factor-β1/Smad signaling. Instead, the act...
Source: Carcinogenesis - February 25, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang, Z.-l., Fan, Z.-q., Jiang, H.-d., Qu, J.-m. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research
Bisphenol-A-induced inactivation of the p53 axis underlying deregulation of proliferation kinetics, and cell death in non-malignant human breast epithelial cells
Widespread distribution of bisphenol-A (BPA) complicates epidemiological studies of possible carcinogenic effects on the breast because there are few unexposed controls. To address this challenge, we previously developed non-cancerous human high-risk donor breast epithelial cell (HRBEC) cultures, wherein BPA exposure could be controlled experimentally. BPA consistently induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway—accompanied by dose-dependent evasion of apoptosis and increased proliferation—in HRBECs from multiple donors. Here, we demonstrate key molecular changes underlying BPA-induce...
Source: Carcinogenesis - February 25, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dairkee, S. H., Luciani-Torres, M. G., Moore, D. H., Goodson, W. H. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research
MiR-124 targets Slug to regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of breast cancer
In this study, we show that the miR-124 expression is significantly suppressed in human breast cancer specimens, which is reversely correlated to histological grade of the cancer. More intriguingly, ectopic expression of miR-124 in aggressive breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 strongly inhibits cell motility and invasive capacity, as well as the epithelial–mesenchymal transition process. Also, lentivirus-delivered miR-124 endows MDA-MB-231 cells with the ability to suppress cell colony formation in vitro and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Further studies have identified the E-cadherin transcription repress...
Source: Carcinogenesis - February 25, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liang, Y.-J., Wang, Q.-Y., Zhou, C.-X., Yin, Q.-Q., He, M., Yu, X.-T., Cao, D.-X., Chen, G.-Q., He, J.-R., Zhao, Q. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research
Iron chelation: a potential therapeutic strategy in oesophageal cancer
This article is a commentary on Ford et al., pp. 1316–1328 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12045 (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - February 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: BD Keeler, MJ Brookes Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Overexpression of PRMT5 Promotes Tumor Cell Growth and Is Associated with Poor Disease Prognosis in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
In this study, PRMT5 and Ki-67 expression were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in cohorts of normal, benign, and cancerous ovarian tissues. PRMT5 overexpression was observed in 83.1% (98/118) of EOCs, and it was significantly associated with serous type, poor differentiation, advanced tumor stage, lymph node invasion, presence of residual tumor, and high expression of Ki-67 (p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, overexpression of PRMT5 was an independent prognostic marker for decreased overall survival and progression-free survival in univariate survival analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis. In ovarian ca...
Source: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry - February 25, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bao, X., Zhao, S., Liu, T., Liu, Y., Liu, Y., Yang, X. Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Angiopoietin-like protein 1 suppresses SLUG to inhibit cancer cell motility
Angiopoietin-like protein 1 (ANGPTL1) is a potent regulator of angiogenesis. Growing evidence suggests that ANGPTL family proteins not only target endothelial cells but also affect tumor cell behavior. In a screen of 102 patients with lung cancer, we found that ANGPTL1 expression was inversely correlated with invasion, lymph node metastasis, and poor clinical outcomes. ANGPTL1 suppressed the migratory, invasive, and metastatic capabilities of lung and breast cancer cell lines in vitro and reduced metastasis in mice injected with cancer cell lines overexpressing ANGPTL1. Ectopic expression of ANGPTL1 suppressed the epitheli...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 23, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tsang-Chih Kuo, Ching-Ting Tan, Yi-Wen Chang, Chih-Chen Hong, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Min-Wei Chen, Yung-Ming Jeng, Jean Chiou, Pei Yu, Pai-Sheng Chen, Ming-Yang Wang, Michael Hsiao, Jen-Liang Su, Min-Liang Kuo Source Type: research
Histomorphometry and proliferative index in squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vocal cords
CONCLUSION: Dysplastic epithelium occupies larger areas. Nuclear diameter is similar in dysplastic and transition epithelia. However, the latter has uniform nuclei, in contrast with pleomorphism in dysplastic epithelium. The proliferative index (Ki-67) contributes to the differential diagnosis of intraepithelial lesions of the vocal cords, inasmuch as in severe dysplasia/in situ carcinoma there is a higher number of stained nuclei, which are seen in all epithelial layers. (Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial)
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial - February 23, 2013 Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Association between dysplasia and inflammation in actinic cheilitis
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the occurrence of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma are common in actinic cheilitis and the inflammatory process was closely related to the progression of epithelial atypia. (Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial)
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial - February 23, 2013 Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Classification of tumours of the breast: an update based on the new 2012 World Health Organization Classification
A Organização Mundial da Saúde lançou em julho de 2012 a 4Âª edição da Classificação dos Tumores de Mama. Nesta revisão, será realizada uma breve abordagem das principais mudanças da nova classificação, com ênfase nas implicações diagnósticas e terapêuticas. As principais mudanças foram: (i) o fascículo atual é dedicado integralmente aos tumores da mama; (ii) os tumores epiteliais foram agrupados de forma diferente, com o reconhecimento de nove tipos especiais e suas variantes e 11 tipos raros de tumores mamários, além do carcinoma ductal invasivo sem outra especificação. Foram reconhecidos e inc...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial - February 23, 2013 Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Klotho suppresses tumor progression via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/GSK3β/Snail signaling in renal cell carcinoma
Summary Klotho is an anti‐aging protein predominantly expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells. Although Klotho is recently identified as a tumor suppressor gene in a variety of cancers, the potential role and molecular events for Klotho in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains obscure. In our present study, immunohistochemical staining in tissue microarray containing 125 RCC samples showed that intratumoral Klotho levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, TNM stage and nuclear grade. The overall survival rate of RCC patients with high Klotho expression was significantly higher than those patients with low Kloth...
Source: Cancer Science - February 22, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yu Zhu, Le Xu, Jianping Zhang, Wenping Xu, Yujun Liu, Hankun Yin, Tao Lv, Huimin An, Li Liu, Hongyong He, Heng Zhang, Jing Liu, Jiejie Xu, Zongming Lin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Insights into the field carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer based on the nanocytology of endocervical and endometrial epithelial cells
Abstract Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer fatalities among American women. Although curable at early stages with surgery, most women are diagnosed with symptoms of late‐stage metastatic disease. Moreover, none of the current diagnostic techniques are clinically recommended for at‐risk women as they preferentially target low‐grade tumors (which do not affect longevity) and fail to capture early signatures of more lethal serous tumors which originate in the fimbrae region of the fallopian tubes. Hence, the early detection of ovarian cancer is challenging given the current strategy. Recently, our group has developed...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - February 22, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dhwanil Damania, Hemant K. Roy, Dhananja Kunte, Jean A. Hurteau, Hariharan Subramanian, Lusik Cherkezyan, Nela Krosnjar, Maitri Shah, Vadim Backman Tags: Early Detection and Diagnosis Source Type: research
Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of the salivary gland: Case report and review of the literature
We report a case of SMCE in the right submandibular gland of a 79‐year‐old man. Fine needle aspiration cytology revealed cohesive clusters of atypical squamous epithelial cells admixed with cells containing intracytoplasmic mucin and eosinophils. Histologically, the tumor was composed of epithelial nests with keratinizing cells occasionally present at the center, as well as peripherally located atypical basaloid cells, and some mucin‐containing cells embedded in a fibrosclerotic stroma, which were accompanied by a prominent lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. Inflammatory infiltrate and stromal fibrosclero...
Source: Pathology International - February 22, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Takashi Tasaki, Atsuji Matsuyama, Takahisa Tabata, Hideaki Suzuki, Sohsuke Yamada, Yasuyuki Sasaguri, Masanori Hisaoka Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder with squamous cell carcinomatous and osteosarcomatous differentiation: Report of a case
An extremely rare case of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) of the gallbladder is reported, in which the tumor showed diverse differentiation toward neuroendocrine tumor (grade 2), tubular adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and, in addition, osteosarcoma. The patient was an 80‐year‐old man, who underwent cholecystectomy because of a large polypoid tumor filling the gallbladder lumen. The tumor consisted of an intimate admixture of neuroendocrine tumor (grade 2) and tubular adenocarcinoma, and, in many areas, cell nests of neuroendocrine tumor appeared to bud off from tubular structures of the adenocarci...
Source: Pathology International - February 22, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Masayuki Shintaku, Kozo Kataoka, Kenji Kawabata Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
REPORT: N-Glycans Are Essential for rhLOXL2 Secretion [Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices]
Human lysyl oxidase-like 2 (hLOXL2) is highly up-regulated in metastatic breast cancer cells and tissues and induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, the first step of metastasis/invasion. hloxl2 encodes four N-terminal scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains and the highly conserved C-terminal lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalytic domain. Here, we assessed the extent of the post-translational modifications of hLOXL2 using truncated recombinant proteins produced in Drosophila S2 cells. The recombinant proteins are soluble, in contrast to LOX, which is consistently reported to require 2–6 m urea for solubilization. The reco...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - February 22, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Xu, L., Go, E. P., Finney, J., Moon, H., Lantz, M., Rebecchi, K., Desaire, H., Mure, M. Tags: Reports Source Type: research
Genome-wide methylation profiling and the PI3K-AKT pathway analysis associated with smoking in urothelial cell carcinoma.
Abstract Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) is the second most common genitourinary malignant disease in the USA, and tobacco smoking is the major known risk factor for UCC development. Exposure to carcinogens, such as those contained in tobacco smoke, is known to directly or indirectly damage DNA, causing mutations, chromosomal deletion events and epigenetic alterations in UCC. Molecular studies have shown that chromosome 9 alterations and P53, RAS, RB and PTEN mutations are among the most frequent events in UCC. Recent studies suggested that continuous tobacco carcinogen exposure drives and enhances the selection of...
Source: Cell Cycle - February 22, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Brait M, Munari E, Lebron C, Noordhuis MG, Begum S, Michailidi C, Gonzalez-Roibon N, Maldonado L, Sen T, Guerrero-Preston R, Cope L, Parrella P, Fazio VM, Ha PK, Netto GJ, Sidransky D, Hoque MO Tags: Cell Cycle Source Type: research
Restoration of klotho gene expression induces apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cells: Tumor suppressive role of klotho in gastric cancer
Conclusion: Klotho is a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer, which regulates IGF-1R phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy. (Source: Cancer Cell International)
Source: Cancer Cell International - February 21, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Biao XieJianping ZhouGuoshun ShuDong-cai LiuJiapeng ZhouJinhui ChenLianwen Yuan Source Type: research
The relationship between epithelial and stromal TRIM28 expression predicts survival in colorectal cancer patients
ConclusionA high TRIM28 expression ratio between stromal and epithelial compartments in colorectal cancer tissue is an independent predictor of poor prognosis. The pathophysiological role of TRIM28 in carcinogenesis may be dependent on expression levels and cell type within the tumor microenvironment. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - February 21, 2013 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Seán Fitzgerald, Katherine M Sheehan, Anthony O'Grady, Dermot Kenny, Richard O'Kennedy, Elaine W Kay, Gregor S Kijanka Tags: Clinical Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Vascular pseudoinvasion in a solitary Peutz‐Jeghers polyp in the ileum
We report a case of a 22‐year‐old Japanese woman with a solitary PJP in the ileum. The ileal PJP in this patient showed epithelial herniation even into the vascular space. All the herniated epithelium, including the epithelial components invaginated into the vascular space, demonstrated features of pseudoinvasion, that is, presence of normal small intestinal type mucosa accompanied by the lamina propria, absence of any stromal desmoplastic reaction, and retention of the basal‐luminal gradient. Pathologists must be aware of the possibility of vascular pseudoinvasion in small intestinal PJPs to avoid overdiagnosis of c...
Source: Pathology International - February 21, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Haruka Okada, Shingo Itagaki, Kazuaki Enatsu, Takahiro Kiriu, Mitsugu Ishizawa Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Hedgehog signaling regulates drug sensitivity by targeting ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in epithelial ovarian cancer
This study provides new understanding of ABC gene regulation by Hh signaling pathway, which may lead to the identification of new markers to detect and to anticipate ovarian cancer chemotherapy drug sensitivity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Molecular Carcinogenesis)
Source: Molecular Carcinogenesis - February 20, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Yi Chen, Marcia M. Bieber, Nelson N.H. Teng Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Right-sided rhabdoid colorectal tumors might be
related to the Serrated Pathway
Conclusions: Right-sided RCT could be characterized by epigenetic events and molecular features likelysimilar to those occurring in the serrated pathway and associated with epithelialmesenchymaltransition. These extremely rare tumors may benefit from the use of newbiological molecules specific for colorectal carcinoma.Virtual slidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1641385210804556 (Source: Diagnostic Pathology)
Source: Diagnostic Pathology - February 20, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Massimo PancioneAndrea RemoLina SabatinoCaterina ZanellaCarolina VotinoAlessandra FucciArturo Di BlasiGiovanni LeporeBruno DanieleFrancesca FeniziaEnrico MolinariNicola NormannoErminia ManfrinRoberto VendraminelliVittorio Colantuoni Source Type: research
False-positive TUNEL staining observed in SV40 based transgenic murine prostate cancer models.
In this study, we demonstrate false-positive TUNEL staining in frozen prostate tissue from TRAMP and LADY mice, which was not observed in non-transgenic control animals and is not due to non-specific binding of labelled-dUTP substrate. The false-positive signal co-localised with large SV40 T-antigen expression. False-positive signal was apparent using multiple commercial TUNEL kits with different detection systems. These results caution against the use of the TUNEL assay for detection of apoptosis in frozen prostate tissue of large T-antigen based autochthonous transgenic models of prostate cancer. PMID: 23423848 [PubM...
Source: Transgenic Research - February 20, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lawrence MD, Blyth BJ, Ormsby RJ, Tilley WD, Sykes PJ Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research
Overexpression of initiator methionine tRNA leads to global reprogramming of tRNA expression and increased proliferation in human epithelial cells.
Abstract Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are typically considered housekeeping products with little regulatory function. However, several studies over the past 10 years have linked tRNA misregulation to cancer. We have previously reported that tRNA levels are significantly elevated in breast cancer and multiple myeloma cells. To further investigate the cellular and physiological effects of tRNA overexpression, we overexpressed tRNA(i)(Met) in two human breast epithelial cell lines. We then determined tRNA abundance changes and performed phenotypic characterization. Overexpression of tRNA(i)(Met) significantly altered the glo...
Source: RNA - February 19, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pavon-Eternod M, Gomes S, Rosner MR, Pan T Tags: RNA Source Type: research
Control of the epithelial stem cell epigenome: the shaping of epithelial stem cell identity.
Abstract The squamous epithelium covering the skin and oral mucosa relies on epithelial stem cells for tissue renewal. Dynamic changes in DNA methylation, histone methylation and acetylation, and higher order chromatin structure are required to preserve their self-renewal capacity while orchestrating the timely execution of cell differentiation programs. This complex network of epigenetic modifications shapes the epithelial stem cell identity and fate. Pathological alterations can be perceived by aberrant chromatin sensors, such as the INK4/ARF locus, which initiate tumor suppressive cell senescence programs, and c...
Source: Current Opinion in Cell Biology - February 19, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Iglesias-Bartolome R, Callejas-Valera JL, Gutkind JS Tags: Curr Opin Cell Biol Source Type: research
Regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-epithelial transitions by microRNAs.
Abstract Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), are essential during development and in the regulation of stem cell pluripotency, yet these processes are also activated in pathological contexts, such as in fibrosis and cancer progression. In EMT and MET, diverse signaling pathways cooperate in the initiation and progression of the EMT and MET programs, through regulation at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. MicroRNAs recently emerged as potent regulators of EMT and MET, with their abilities to targe...
Source: Current Opinion in Cell Biology - February 19, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Lamouille S, Subramanyam D, Blelloch R, Derynck R Tags: Curr Opin Cell Biol Source Type: research
Prognostic Significance of miR-194 in Endometrial Cancer
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the leading malignant tumor occurring in the female genital tract and some subtypes are highly invasive and metastatic. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have a broad impact on cancer progression. In particular, miR-194 regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by suppressing the expression of BMI-1 in EC. In this retrospective study, the clinical significance of miR-194 was investigated in archival EC specimens. We extracted total RNA from thirty-two EC samples and quantified the expression level of miR-194. We discovered that the expression level of miR-194 was significantly (P =...
Source: BioMed Central - February 18, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Haiyan ZhaiMihriban KaraayvazPeixin DongNoriaki SakuragiJingfang Ju Source Type: research
Convergent mechanisms in pluripotent stem cells and cancer: Implications for stem cell engineering.
Abstract Stem cells and cancer cells share certain characteristics, including the capacity to self-renew, differentiatie, and undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis retain similarities with processes in normal stem cell development. Comprehensive analysis and comparison of cancer cell and stem cell development will advance the study of cancer progression, enabling development of effective strategies for cancer treatment. In this review article, we first examine the convergence of outcome, cellular communication, and signaling pathways active in pluripotent stem c...
Source: Biotechnology Journal - February 18, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mooney BM, Raof NA, Li Y, Xie Y Tags: Biotechnol J Source Type: research
Characterisation of mobile lipid resonances in tissue biopsies from patients with cervical cancer and correlation with cytoplasmic lipid droplets
The aims of this study were to characterise the major saturated and unsaturated lipid peaks in histologically normal cervical epithelium and stroma, dysplastic epithelium (low‐grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN) and cancer‐containing tissue samples from patients with cervical cancer using diffusion‐weighted 1H high‐resolution magic angle spinning MRS, to determine whether mobile lipid resonances (MLRs) distinguish tissue types and to test for a correlation between MLRs and the number of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Diffusion‐weighted spectra of tissue biopsies were acquired using a stimulated echo seque...
Source: NMR in Biomedicine - February 17, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: D. Zietkowski, N. M. deSouza, R. L. Davidson, G. S. Payne Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Lung cancer lymph node micrometastasis detection using real-time polymerase chain reaction: Correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor expression
Conclusions: RT-PCR analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose-avid lymph nodes results in up-staging a patient's cancer. Micrometastases correlate with the expression of VEGF in lymph nodes in patients with NSCLC. This may reflect the role of lymphangiogenesis in promoting metastases. (Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - February 15, 2013 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Chukwumere E. Nwogu, Sai Yendamuri, Wei Tan, Eric Kannisto, Paul Bogner, Carl Morrison, Richard Cheney, Elisabeth Dexter, Anthony Picone, Mark Hennon, Alan Hutson, Mary Reid, Alex Adjei, Todd L. Demmy Tags: General Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Tivantinib: a new promising mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor inhibitor in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma
Future Oncology , February 2013, Vol. 9, No. 2, Pages 153-165. (Source: Future Oncology)
Source: Future Oncology - February 15, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: article Source Type: research
FOXC2 Vital To Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Breast Cancer; FDA-Approved Drug Blocks Its Effect In Preclinical Studies
Protein central to cancer stem cell formation provides new potential target Researchers have identified a pivotal protein in a cellular transformation that makes a cancer cell more resistant to treatment and more capable of growing and spreading, making it an inviting new target for drug development... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - February 15, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Breast Cancer Source Type: news
Radiation therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer brain metastases: clinical outcomes and predictors of survival
Conclusions: Based on our results, RT appears to be an effective treatment modality for brain metastases from EOC and should be routinely offered. Karnofsky performance status less than 70, four or more BM, LMD, and uncontrolled primary tumor predict for worse survival after RT for EOC BM. Whether RT is superior to surgery or chemotherapy for EOC BM remains to be seen in a larger cohort. (Source: Radiation Oncology)
Source: Radiation Oncology - February 15, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sewit TeckieVicky MakkerViviane TabarKaled AlektiarCarol AghajanianMartee HensleyKathryn Beal Source Type: research
LRIG1 regulates cadherin‐dependent contact inhibition directing epithelial homeostasis and pre‐invasive squamous cell carcinoma development
Abstract Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway activation is a frequent event in human carcinomas. Mutations in EGFR itself are, however, rare, and the mechanisms regulating EGFR activation remain elusive. Leucine‐rich immunoglobulin repeats‐1 (LRIG1), an inhibitor of EGFR activity, is one of four genes identified that predict patient survival across solid tumour types including breast, lung, melanoma, glioma, and bladder. We show that deletion of Lrig1 is sufficient to promote murine airway hyperplasia through loss of contact inhibition and that re‐expression of LRIG1 in human lung cancer cells inhibits tu...
Source: The Journal of Pathology - February 15, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Liwen Lu, Vitor H Teixeira, ZhengQiang Yuan, Trevor A Graham, David Endesfelder, Krishna Kolluri, Noura Al‐Juffali, Nicholas Hamilton, Andrew G Nicholson, Mary Falzon, Maik Kschischo, Charles Swanton, Nicholas A Wright, Bernadette Carroll, Fiona M Watt, Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research
The splicing factor SRSF6 is amplified and is an oncoprotein in lung and colon cancers
Abstract An increasing body of evidence connects alterations in the process of alternative splicing with cancer development and progression. However, a direct role of splicing factors as drivers of cancer development is mostly unknown. We analysed the gene copy number of several splicing factors in colon and lung tumours, and found that the gene encoding for the splicing factor SRSF6 is amplified and over‐expressed in these cancers. Moreover, over‐expression of SRSF6 in immortal lung epithelial cells enhanced proliferation, protected them from chemotherapy‐induced cell death and converted them to be tumourigenic in m...
Source: The Journal of Pathology - February 15, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Michal Cohen‐Eliav, Regina Golan‐Gerstl, Zahava Siegfried, Claus L Andersen, Kasper Thorsen, Torben F Ørntoft, David Mu, Rotem Karni Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research
Src-mediated morphology transition of lung cancer cells in three-dimensional organotypic culture
In this study, we utilize a reconstituted basement membrane mimics Matrigel based three-dimensional organotypic culture (rBM 3-D) to investigate the mechanisms that mediate the tumor promoting effects of the fibrogenic mediators TGF-beta1 and type I collagen (Col-1) on lung adenocarcinoma cells. Similar to normal alveolar epithelial cells, the well-differentiated lung adenocarcinoma cells in rBM 3-D culture undergo acinar morphogeneis that features polarized epithelial cell spheres with a single central lumen. Either TGF-beta1 or Col-1 modestly distorts acinar morphogenesis. On the other hand, TGF-beta1 and Col-1 synergist...
Source: Cancer Cell International - February 14, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hong NguyenYan ZhuangLichun SunSteven KantrowJay KollsZongbing YouYing ZhuoBin Shan Source Type: research
Head and neck cancer cells and xenografts are very sensitive to palytoxin: decrease of c-jun n-terminale kinase-3 expression enhances palytoxin toxicity
Conclusions: These results clearly provide evidence that PTX possesses preferential toxicity for head and neck carcinoma cells and therefore it is worth further studying its impact which may extend our knowledge of the biology of head and neck cancer. (Source: Molecular Cancer)
Source: Molecular Cancer - February 14, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tibor GöröghLászló BèressElgar QuabiusPetra AmbroschMarkus Hoffmann Source Type: research
Diagnosis and treatment of the epithelial ovarian cancer at the West African Cancer Center of Dakar.
Conclusion. Prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer is worse in Senegal as like as in the world. To improve the survival of our patients, we must detect the early diagnosis of these tumors and to introduce the neoadjuvant chemotherapy before optimal surgery. PMID: 23407147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bulletin du Cancer)
Source: Bulletin du Cancer - February 14, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dem A, Dieng MM, Ka S, Gaye PM, Diouf D, Gaye-Fall MC Tags: Bull Cancer Source Type: research
Breast cancer: Circulating and dynamic EMT
Nature Reviews Cancer 13, 148 (2013). doi:10.1038/nrc3475 Author: Darren J. Burgess A new study characterizes the epithelial versus mesenchymal properties of circulating tumour cells and identifies an interesting plasticity. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)
Source: Nature Reviews Cancer - February 14, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Darren J. Burgess Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research