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Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin
In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - May 17, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.
In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. PMID: 25986248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - May 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Stoppani E, Bassi I, Dotti S, Lizier M, Ferrari M, Lucchini F Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Magnitude and kinetics of multifunctional CD4 + and CD8β + T cells in pigs infected with swine influenza A virus
Abstract Although swine are natural hosts for influenza A viruses, the porcine T-cell response to swine influenza A virus (FLUAVsw) infection has been poorly characterized so far. We have studied Ki-67 expression and FLUAVsw-specific production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in CD4+ and CD8β+ T cells isolated from piglets that had been intratracheally infected with a H1N2 FLUAVsw isolate. IFN-γ+TNF-α+IL-2+ multifunctional CD4+ T cells were present in the blood of all infected animals at one or two weeks after primary infection and their frequency increased in four out of six animals after homologous secondary infe...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 14, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vitro antiviral activity of germacrone against porcine parvovirus
In this report, the antiviral activity of germacrone on PPV in swine testis (ST) cells was investigated. Here, we show for the first time that germacrone protects cells from PPV infection and suppresses the synthesis of viral mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we show that germacrone inhibits PPV replication at an early stage in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that germacrone is a potential candidate for anti-PPV therapy. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 12, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Man, Italy, 2014
A. Piralla et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Confidence in government and vaccination willingness in the USA
The most recent internationally widespread disease outbreak occurred during the flu season of 2009 and 2010. On April 2009, the first cases of influenza A (H1N1) (Popularly called, Swine Flu) were confirmed in the USA and UK following a novel virus that was first identified in Mexico. As the virus spread rapidly, the risk of morbidity and mortality increased in several countries. In this paper, we rely on the social cognitive theory of risk to assess the willingness of the US public to comply with vaccination and reduce the risk of sickness and death from the flu. We conduct a secondary data analysis of the Pew Research fo...
Source: Health Promotion International - May 11, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Mesch, G. S., Schwirian, K. P. Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS Source Type: research

A Review of the Current Status of Relevant Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Swine (Sus scrofa) Populations: Changes Modulating the Risk of Transmission to Humans
Summary Many wild swine populations in different parts of the World have experienced an unprecedented demographic explosion that may result in increased exposure of humans to wild swine zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between humans and wild swine leading to pathogen transmission could come from different ways, being hunters and game professionals the most exposed to acquiring infections from wild swine. However, increasing human settlements in semi‐natural areas, outdoor activities, socio‐economic changes and food habits may increase the rate of exposure to wild swine zoonotic pathogens and to potentially emerging pa...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - May 8, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: F. Ruiz‐Fons Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

How to reach the poor? Surveillance in low-income countries, lessons from experiences in Cambodia and Madagascar
Publication date: 1 June 2015 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 120, Issue 1 Author(s): F.L. Goutard , A. Binot , R. Duboz , H. Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo , M. Pedrono , D. Holl , M.I. Peyre , J. Cappelle , V. Chevalier , M. Figuié , S. Molia , F.L. Roger Surveillance of animal diseases in developing countries faces many constraints. Innovative tools and methods to enhance surveillance in remote and neglected areas should be defined, assessed and applied in close connection with local farmers, national stakeholders and international agencies. The authors performed a narrative synthesis of their own publication...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - May 6, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature
This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV‐infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV‐positive and IAV‐negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs im...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - April 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. S. Bowman, J. M. Nolting, J. D. Workman, M. Cooper, A. E. Fisher, B. Marsh, T. Forshey Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba
In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with bo...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - April 17, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Intra-host viral variability in children clinically infected with H1N1 (2009) pandemic influenza.
Abstract Recent in-depth genetic analyses of influenza A virus samples have revealed patterns of intra-host viral genetic variability in a variety of relevant systems. These have included laboratory infected poultry, horses, pigs, chicken eggs and swine respiratory cells, as well as naturally infected poultry and horses. In humans, next generation sequencing techniques have enabled the study of genetic variability at specific positions of the viral genome. The present study investigated how 454 pyrosequencing could help unravel intra-host genetic diversity patterns on the full-length viral hæmagglutinin and neuram...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - April 16, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bourret V, Croville G, Mansuy JM, Mengelle C, Mariette J, Klopp C, Genthon C, Izopet J, Guérin JL Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices
Conclusions Although our study design was sub-optimal for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention, we provided suggestive evidence that H1N1pdm-targeted vaccination in sows/gilts, enhanced biosecurity, lengthening of weaning cycles, and constrains in cross-fostering of piglets may prove useful in controlling a reassortant H1N1pdm outbreak in an intensive swine breeding farm without possibility of applying an all-in/all-out system. Maternally-derived immunity was elicited and further virus circulation in piglets dropped to undetectable levels, while keeping farm productivity at full. The present field study also su...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - April 13, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lapo Mughini-Gras Source Type: research

Lower seroreactivity to European than to North American H3N2 swine influenza viruses in humans, Luxembourg, 2010.
PMID: 25860393 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qiu Y, Muller CP, Van Reeth K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Reflections on New York City’s 1947 Smallpox Vaccination Program and Its 1976 Swine Influenza Immunization Program
This article examines in detail the epidemiology of this outbreak and the measures employed to contain it. In 1976, a swine influenza strain was isolated among a few recruits at a US Army training camp at Fort Dix, New Jersey. It was concluded at the time that this virus possibly represented a re-appearance of the 1918 influenza pandemic influenza strain. As a result, a mass national immunization program was launched by the federal government. From its inception, the program encountered a myriad of challenges ranging from doubts that it was even necessary to the development of Guillain-Barré paralysis among some vaccine r...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 7, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The repeated introduction of the H3N2 virus from human to swine during 1979-1993 in China.
Abstract Limited data are available regarding the swine influenza viruses (SIVs) that circulated in Mainland China prior to the 1990s. Eleven H3N2 virus strains were isolated from swine populations from 1979 to 1992. To determine the origin and tendency of these SIVs, the phylogenetic and antigenic properties of these viruses were analyzed based on the whole genome sequenced and the HI titrations with post-infection ferret antisera against influenza A (H3N2) virus isolates of swine and human origin. The results revealed that these 11 SIVs originated from humans and were not maintained in swine populations, indicati...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - April 6, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhu W, Yang S, Dong L, Yang L, Tang J, Zou X, Chen T, Yang J, Shu Y Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Lower seroreactivity to European than to North American H3N2 swine influenza viruses in humans, Luxembourg, 2010
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 2, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vaccines against influenza A viruses in poultry and swine: Status and future developments.
Abstract Influenza A viruses are important pathogens with a very broad host spectrum including domestic poultry and swine. For preventing clinical disease and controlling the spread, vaccination is one of the most efficient tools. Classical influenza vaccines for domestic poultry and swine are conventional inactivated preparations. However, a very broad range of novel vaccine types ranging from (i) nucleic acid-based vaccines, (ii) replicon particles, (iii) subunits and virus-like particles, (iv) vectored vaccines, or (v) live-attenuated vaccines has been described, and some of them are now also used in the field. ...
Source: Vaccine - March 30, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rahn J, Hoffmann D, Harder TC, Beer M Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen
by Wendy Gibson, Lori Peacock, Vanessa Ferris, Katrin Fischer, Jennifer Livingstone, James Thomas, Mick Bailey Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African T...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 27, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Wendy Gibson et al. Source Type: research

Vaccination-challenge studies with a Port Chalmers/73 (H3N2)-based swine influenza virus vaccine: Reflections on vaccine strain updates and on the vaccine potency test.
Abstract The human A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) influenza virus strain, the supposed ancestor of European H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs), was used in most commercial SIV vaccines in Europe until recently. If manufacturers want to update vaccine strains, they have to perform laborious intratracheal (IT) challenge experiments and demonstrate reduced virus titres in the lungs of vaccinated pigs. We aimed to examine (a) the ability of a Port Chalmers/73-based commercial vaccine to induce cross-protection against a contemporary European H3N2 SIV and serologic cross-reaction against H3N2 SIVs from Europe and North Am...
Source: Vaccine - March 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: De Vleeschauwer A, Qiu Y, Van Reeth K Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor mediated apoptosis in H3N2 swine influenza virus infection is inhibited by viral protein NS1 in vitro
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015 Source:Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Author(s): Jinqiu Zhang , Jinfeng Miao , Jibo Hou , Chengping Lu We investigated the in vitro role of mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor (MAVS) in apoptosis induced by H3N2 swine influenza virus infection and the influence of viral NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) protein on this process. H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV, A/Swine/Shandong/3/2005) was co-cultured with human lung epithelial A549 cells. The relationship of MAVS expression to SIV replication and apoptosis, and the influence of viral proteins on MAVS functions...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 20, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Monoclonal antibody specific to HA2 glycopeptide protects mice from H3N2 influenza virus infection
In this study, seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CIV JS/10 (an H3N2 subtype virus) were produced and characterized. Among them, mAb D7, which is specific for the HA2 glycopeptide (gp), induced the highest neutralization titers. The protection provided by mAb D7 was evaluated in BALB/c mice challenged with homologous or heterologous strains of H3N2 influenza virus, including two strains of CIV and one strain of swine influenza virus (SIV). The data show that mAb D7 protected the mice from infection with the three viral strains, especially the homologous strain, which was indicated by the recovery of body weight, re...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Efficient Isolation of Swine Influenza Viruses by Age-Targeted Specimen Collection [Clinical Veterinary Microbiology]
The control of swine influenza virus (SIV) infection is paramount for increasing the productivity of pig farming and minimizing the threat of pandemic outbreaks. Thus, SIV surveillance should be conducted by region and on a regular basis. Here, we established a microneutralization assay specific for SIV seroprevalence surveillance by using reporter gene-expressing recombinant influenza viruses. Growth-based SIV seroprevalence revealed that most sows and piglets were positive for neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses. In contrast, the 90-day-old growing pigs exhibited limited neutralizing activity in their sera,...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - March 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ozawa, M., Matsuu, A., Yonezawa, K., Igarashi, M., Okuya, K., Kawabata, T., Ito, K., Tsukiyama-Kohara, K., Taneno, A., Deguchi, E. Tags: Clinical Veterinary Microbiology Source Type: research

The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893–2014
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): A. Sally Davis , Jeffery K. Taubenberger , Mike Bray Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - March 15, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Studies on flu like H1NI led to information on homoeopathic medicines: Government
Studies on influenza like H1N1 during swine flu pandemic in 2009 has resulted in identification of specific homoeopathic medicines, LS was informed. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - March 13, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Swine flu outbreak in India raises concern: New strain of H1N1 may carry dangerous mutations
Since December, an outbreak of swine flu in India has killed more than 1,200 people, and a new study suggests that the strain has acquired mutations that make it more dangerous than previously circulating strains of H1N1 influenza. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Influenza Surveillance: 2014-2015 H1N1 "Swine"-Derived Influenza Viruses from India.
Abstract The 2014-15 H1N1 outbreak in India has reportedly led to 800 fatalities. The reported influenza hemagglutinin sequences from India indicate that these viruses contain amino acid changes linked to enhanced virulence and are potentially antigenically distinct from the current vaccine containing 2009 (Cal0709) H1N1 viral hemagglutinin. PMID: 25766285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - March 11, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tharakaraman K, Sasisekharan R Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Influenza A virus plasticity—A temporal analysis of species-associated genomic signatures
Conclusion Analyzing how species-associated signatures are becoming human-like in human-isolated avian influenza A viruses helps in assessing their potential to go pandemic as well as providing insights into host adaptation. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - March 7, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Influenza A virus plasticity-A temporal analysis of species-associated genomic signatures.
CONCLUSION: Analyzing how species-associated signatures are becoming human-like in human-isolated avian influenza A viruses helps in assessing their potential to go pandemic as well as providing insights into host adaptation. PMID: 25754840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J Formos Med Assoc)
Source: J Formos Med Assoc - March 6, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chen GW, Gong YN, Shih SR Tags: J Formos Med Assoc Source Type: research

The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893-2014.
Abstract Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza was established in the early 1930s, studies in NHPs have been supplemented by a much larger number of experiments in mice, ...
Source: Antiviral Research - March 5, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Sally Davis A, Taubenberger JK, Bray M Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in pigs, Togo, 2013
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Mariette F. Ducatez , Félix Awoume , Richard J. Webby We collected 325 nasal swabs from freshly slaughtered previously healthy pigs from October 2012 through January 2014 in a slaughterhouse near Lomé in Togo. Influenza A virus genome was detected by RT-PCR in 2.5% to 12.3% of the pooled samples, and results of hemagglutinin subtyping RT-PCR assays showed the virus in all the positive pools to be A(H1N1)pdm09. Virus was isolated on MDCK cells from a representative specimen, A/swine/Togo/ONA32/2013(H1N1). The isolate was fully sequ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 4, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Researchers monitor for next novel influenza strain
While flu season starts to die down, researchers are diligently monitoring for the next novel influenza virus by monitoring swine influenza viruses. The work is starting with swine in the field. Researchers are surveying for swine influenza viruses as part of a $1 million grant from the National Institutes of Health. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 3, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.
Abstract Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic dri...
Source: Biotechnology Journal - March 2, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Krammer F Tags: Biotechnol J Source Type: research

Avian influenza H9N2 seroprevalence among pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China
Conclusions: These findings revealed that there were H9N2 AIV infections in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to conduct the long-term surveillance of AIV in pig population and the pig farm staff. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - March 1, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Song LiYufa ZhouYuxin ZhaoWenbo LiWengang SongZengmin Miao Source Type: research

Computational Study of Interdependence Between Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase of Pandemic 2009 H1N1
Influenza type A viruses are classified into subtypes based on their two surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA protein facilitates the viral binding and entering a host cell and the NA protein helps the release of viral progeny from the infected cell. The complementary roles of HA and NA entail their collaboration, which has important implications for viral replication and fitness. The HA protein from early strains of pandemic 2009 H1N1 of swine origin preferentially binds to human type receptors with a weak binding to avian type receptors. This virus caused several human deaths in December 20...
Source: IEE Transactions on NanoBioscience - March 1, 2015 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

World Briefing: India: Swine Flu Prompts City’s Caution
A west Indian city has banned most public gatherings in an attempt to halt the spread of swine flu, which has claimed at least 926 lives nationwide in 11 weeks. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 26, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Tags: India Influenza Swine Influenza Source Type: news

Vaccine Narratives and Public Health: Investigating Criticisms of H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination
Conclusions In order to understand the ways in which individuals make decisions regarding vaccine use, it is important to access the public discourse surrounding vaccination. Such narratives incorporate ideas about vaccinations which, while contrary to medical and scientific viewpoints, underpins the public understanding of vaccines. As such, it is important to see vaccine hesitancy as much a result of public discourse as it is a problem of individual decision-making. The Council of Europe’s criticisms of the use of vaccines during the H1N1 Pandemic reflect many dominant discourses – lay understandings of vaccination a...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 25, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: abeysinghe Source Type: research

Airport screening for viruses misses half of infected travelers but can be improved, says UCLA-led study
In the past decade, the H1N1 virus and Ebola are just two of the diseases whose spread was spurred by international airline travel. Screening passengers at airports, therefore, could be one key method for slowing the global spread of infectious diseases. And although a team lead by UCLA researchers has found that airport screening misses at least half of infected travelers, the scientists say that rate could be improved. Their research was published in eLife, a highly regarded open-access online science journal. The life scientists used a mathematical model to analyze screening for six viruses: the SARS coronavirus, the Eb...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - February 25, 2015 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Swine flu: WHO 'carefully watching' situation in India
A senior WHO official said the seasonal influenza was quite normal at this time of the year and that its India office was closely working with the govt for dealing with the disease. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - February 24, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

India Deploys Expert Teams to Study Rise in Flu Cases
Officials are trying to determine the extent of illness, which has caused 700 deaths since the beginning of the year. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 20, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: By ELLEN BARRY and HARI KUMAR Tags: India Epidemics Influenza Deaths (Fatalities) Swine Influenza World Health Organization Source Type: news

Influenza A viruses of swine circulating in the United States during 2009–2014 are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors but show lineage-dependent resistance to adamantanes
This study defines a drug-susceptibility profile, identifies the frequency of drug-resistant markers, and establishes a phylogenetic approach for continued antiviral-susceptibility monitoring of IAV-S in the U.S. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - February 19, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Influenza A viruses of swine circulating in the United States during 2009-2014 are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors but show lineage-dependent resistance to adamantanes.
This study defines a drug-susceptibility profile, identifies the frequency of drug-resistant markers, and establishes a phylogenetic approach for continued antiviral-susceptibility monitoring of IAV-S in the U.S. PMID: 25701593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - February 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Baranovich T, Bahl J, Marathe BM, Culhane M, Stigger-Rosser E, Darnell D, Kaplan BS, Lowe JF, Webby RJ, Govorkova EA Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Characterization of co-circulating swine influenza A viruses in North America and the identification of a novel H1 genetic clade with antigenic significance.
Abstract Multiple genetically and antigenically distinct hemagglutinin genes of the H1 and H3 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes co-circulate in North American swine. This diversity has evolved by repeated transmission of IAVs from humans to swine and subsequent antigenic drift in swine. To understand the evolutionary dynamics of these diverse HA lineages in North American swine, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of 1576 H1 and 607 H3 HA gene segments, as well as 834 N1 and 1293 N2 NA gene segments, and 2126M gene segments. These data revealed yearly co-circulation of H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 viruses, with three HA cl...
Source: Virus Research - February 18, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Anderson TK, Campbell BA, Nelson MI, Lewis NS, Janas-Martindale A, Killian ML, Vincent AL Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Antibody responses to influenza viruses in paediatric patients and their contacts at the onset of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico
Conclusion: The antibody response to 2009 pandemic influenza virus was widespread in convalescence samples from patients with confirmed pandemic influenza infection but the GMT was below the protective titre. There was no evidence that antibodies to the swine influenza viruses had cross-protective effect against the 2009 pandemic influenza virus. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - February 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The first lack of evidence of H7N9 avian influenza virus infections among pigs in Eastern China
In this study, we sought to examine whether evidence existed suggesting that pigs were being infected with the novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. From November 2012 to November 2013, blood was drawn from 1560 pigs from 100 large farms in 4 provinces of eastern China. Many of these pigs were in close proximity to wild birds or poultry. Swine sera were studied using hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against the H7 antigen derived from the emergent H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV). Only 29 of the 1560 samples had HI titers of 1:20 when using the H7N9 AIV antigens, and none of ...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - February 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Altered splenic miRNA expression profile in H1N1 swine influenza
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated the key regulatory roles played by microRNAs (miRNAs) in influenza virus-host interactions. To gain more insight into the contribution of miRNAs to the host immune response, spleen tissues from mice infected with A/Swine/GD/2/12 (H1N1) virus were harvested 5 days postinfection, and miRNA deep sequencing was performed. The results showed that 50 miRNAs were modulated. Interestingly, pathway analysis of miRNAs and targets showed that upregulated miR-124-3p interacts with innate immune-related pathways such as the Toll-like receptor pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling p...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Assessment of transmission, pathogenesis and adaptation of H2 subtype influenza viruses in ferrets.
Abstract After their disappearance from the human population in 1968, influenza H2 viruses have continued to circulate in the natural avian reservoir. The isolation of this virus subtype from multiple bird species as well as swine highlights the need to better understand the potential of these viruses to spread and cause disease in humans. Here we analyzed the virulence, transmissibility and receptor-binding preference of two avian influenza H2 viruses (H2N2 and H2N3) and compared them to a swine H2N3 (A/swine/Missouri/2124514/2006 [swMO]), and a human H2N2 (A/England/10/1967 [Eng/67]) virus using the ferret model ...
Source: Virology - February 4, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Pappas C, Yang H, Carney PJ, Pearce MB, Katz JM, Stevens J, Tumpey TM Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Emergence of human-like H3N2 influenza viruses in pet dogs in Guangxi, China
Conclusions: These two viruses share the highest homology with swine H3N2, Moscow/99-like viruses, which indicated that these viruses might originate from swine viruses. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - February 3, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ying ChenYan-Ning MoHua-Bo ZhouZu-Zhang WeiGuo-Jun WangQing-Xiong YuXiong XiaoWen-Juan YangWei-Jian Huang Source Type: research

Medicos asked to adhere to Standard Universal Precautions on swine flu
Delhi government directed all 25 designated hospitals to strictly adhere to the Standard Universal Precautions while dealing with H1N1 influenza patients. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - January 30, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT‐PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus
In this study, we describe validation of a new probe‐based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT‐PCR) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on a compact, user‐friendly device (POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer) that does not need data interpretation by the user. The assay accurately detected CSFV RNA from a diverse panel of 33 CSFV strains representing all three genotypes plus an additional in vitro‐transcribed RNA from cloned sequences representing a vaccine strain. No cross‐reactivity was observed with a panel of 18 viruses associated with livestock including eight other ...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - January 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: O. Lung, J. Pasick, M. Fisher, C. Buchanan, A. Erickson, A. Ambagala Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of biological characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from different hosts
In this study, eight H9N2 viruses, isolated from chickens (Ck/F98, Ck/AH and Ck/TX), pigeons (Pg/XZ), quail/(Ql/A39), ducks (Dk/Y33) and swine (Sw/YZ and Sw/TZ) were selected, and their biological characteristics were determined. The results showed that all H9N2 viruses maintained a preference for both the avian- and human-type receptors, except for Sw/TZ, which had exclusive preference for the human-type receptor. The viruses replicated well in DF-1 and MDCK cells, whereas only three isolates, Ck/F98, Ck/TX and Sw/TZ, could replicate in A549 cells and also replicated in mouse lungs, resulting in body weight loss in mice. ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 23, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research