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A Newly Emerged Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Dampens Host Antiviral Immunity but Induces Potent Inflammasome Activation
We compared the innate immune response to a newly emerged swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant containing the M gene from 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), termed "A(H3N2)vpM," to the immune responses to the 2010 swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant and seasonal influenza A(H3N2). Our results demonstrated that A(H3N2)vpM-induced myeloid dendritic cells secreted significantly lower levels of type I interferon (IFN) but produced significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and induced potent inflammasome activation. The reduction in antiviral immunity with increased inflammatory responses upon A(H3N2)vpM infec...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cao, W., Mishina, M., Ranjan, P., De La Cruz, J. A., Kim, J. H., Garten, R., Kumar, A., Garcia-Sastre, A., Katz, J. M., Gangappa, S., Sambhara, S. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Replication Capacity of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus in Pet Birds and Mammals, Bangladesh.
Abstract Avian influenza A(H9N2) is an agricultural and public health threat. We characterized an H9N2 virus from a pet market in Bangladesh and demonstrated replication in samples from pet birds, swine tissues, human airway and ocular cells, and ferrets. Results implicated pet birds in the potential dissemination and zoonotic transmission of this virus. PMID: 26583371 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - November 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lenny BJ, Shanmuganatham K, Sonnberg S, Feeroz MM, Alam SM, Hasan MK, Jones-Engel L, McKenzie P, Krauss S, Webster RG, Jones JC Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of Influenza D Virus among Swine and Cattle, Italy
C. Chiapponi et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - November 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influenza Virus Surveillance in US Swine Production SystemsInfluenza Virus Surveillance in US Swine Production Systems
This study investigates the prevalence of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - November 17, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases Journal Article Source Type: news

Illness representation on H1N1 influenza and preventive behaviors in the Hong Kong general population
This study examined illness representations of new influenza Human Swine Influenza A (H1N1) and association with H1N1 preventive behaviors among 300 Chinese adults using a population-based randomized telephone survey. Results showed that relatively few participants thought H1N1 would have serious consequences (12%–15.7%) and few showed negative emotional responses toward H1N1 (9%–24.7%). The majority of the participants thought H1N1 could be controlled by treatment (70.4%–72.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that treatment control (odds ratio = 1.78) and psychological attribution (odds rat...
Source: Journal of Health Psychology - November 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mo, P. K., Lau, J. T. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Seroprevalence against selected pathogens involved in porcine respiratory disease complex in free-range fattening pigs in Spain
DOMESTIC pigs reared in free-range systems are exposed to continuous contact with wild boar population, which may act as reservoir of different pathogens responsible for important economic losses, such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Closa-Sebastià and others 2011, Boadella and others 2012, Fabisiak and others 2013, Foni and others 2013, Cano-Manuel and others 2014). To date, the knowledge about the epidemiological situation of these diseases in pigs reared in fr...
Source: Veterinary Record - November 5, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Galan-Relano, A., Luque, I., Gomez-Gascon, L., Morales-Partera, A., Tarradas, C., Carrasco, L., Gomez-Laguna, J. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Investigation of an Outbreak of Variant Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection Associated With an Agricultural Fair--Ohio, August 2012
Conclusions. In this (H3N2)v outbreak, no evidence of sustained human-to-human (H3N2)v transmission was found. Our risk factor analysis contributed to the development of the recommendation that people at increased risk of influenza-associated complications, including children aged <5 years, avoid swine barns at fairs during the 2012 fair season. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - October 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Greenbaum, A., Quinn, C., Bailer, J., Su, S., Havers, F., Durand, L. O., Jiang, V., Page, S., Budd, J., Shaw, M., Biggerstaff, M., de Fijter, S., Smith, K., Reed, C., Epperson, S., Brammer, L., Feltz, D., Sohner, K., Ford, J., Jain, S., Gargiullo, P., Wei Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Who is sceptical about emerging public health threats? Results from 39 national surveys in the United Kingdom
Members of the public are often sceptical about warnings of an impending public health crisis. Breaking through this scepticism is important if we are to convince people to take urgent protective action. In this paper we explored correlates of perceiving that ‘too much fuss’ was being made about the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v (‘swine flu’) pandemic. (Source: Public Health)
Source: Public Health - October 22, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: G.J. Rubin, Y. Finn, H.W.W. Potts, S. Michie Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Ceftiofur hydrochloride affects the humoral and cellular immune response in pigs after vaccination against swine influenza and pseudorabies
Conclusions: The effect of an antibiotic therapy with ceftiofur hydrochloride on the humoral and cellular post-vaccinal immune responses in pigs was investigated. Ceftiofur hydrochloride was given in therapeutic doses. The results of the present study indicate that both, humoral and cell-mediated post-vaccinal immune responses can be modulated by treatment with ceftiofur hydrochloride. The results of our study point out that caution should be taken when administered this antibiotic during vaccination of pigs. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - October 22, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ma¿gorzata Pomorska-MólEwelina Czy¿ewska-DorsKrzysztof KwitKarol Wierzchos¿awskiZygmunt Pejsak Source Type: research

Serological Evidence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections in Greek Swine
In this study, we examined and compared haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against previously established IAVs and pH1N1 in 908 swine sera from 88 herds, collected before and after the 2009 pandemic. While we confirmed the historic presence of the three IAVs established in European swine, we also found that 4% of the pig sera examined after 2009 had HI antibodies only against the pH1N1 virus. Our results indicate that pH1N1 is circulating in Greek pigs and stress out the importance of a vigorous virological surveillance programme. (Source: Zoonoses and Public Health)
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - October 19, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: C. S. Kyriakis, V. G. Papatsiros, L. V. Athanasiou, G. Valiakos, I. H. Brown, G. Simon, K. Van Reeth, S. Tsiodras, V. Spyrou, C. Billinis Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Swine flu vaccine far more dangerous than swine flu itself
(NaturalNews) A closer look at the overall infection and death rate from confirmed cases of H1N1 influenza during the 2009–2010 "pandemic," as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO), has revealed that the widely administered vaccine for swine flu is far more deadly... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - October 18, 2015 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Diagnosing swine influenza
Hysolv Animal Health is offering veterinary surgeons in the UK and Ireland a free laboratory diagnostic testing service for swine influenza. It says it will supply vets with kits to enable them to take nasal or blood samples from pig herds that they suspect are infected with the virus. The samples will then be sent to Germany for testing by the Institute for Virus Diagnostics, which is part of the Federal Research Institute for Animal Health. The testing is being sponsored by the vaccine and biologicals company IDT Biologika. The tests will include PCR and will look for antibody titres against H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, panH1N1 and...
Source: Veterinary Record - October 16, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Products and Services Source Type: research

Site-Specific Amino Acid Preferences Are Mostly Conserved in Two Closely Related Protein Homologs
Evolution drives changes in a protein’s sequence over time. The extent to which these changes in sequence lead to shifts in the underlying preference for each amino acid at each site is an important question with implications for comparative sequence-analysis methods, such as molecular phylogenetics. To quantify the extent that site-specific amino acid preferences shift during evolution, we performed deep mutational scanning on two homologs of human influenza nucleoprotein with 94% amino acid identity. We found that only a modest fraction of sites exhibited shifts in amino acid preferences that exceeded the noise in ...
Source: Molecular Biology and Evolution - October 16, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Doud, M. B., Ashenberg, O., Bloom, J. D. Tags: Discoveries Source Type: research

Live Animal Markets in Minnesota: A Potential Source for Emergence of Novel Influenza A Viruses and Interspecies Transmission
Conclusions. At markets where swine and persons are in close contact, swine-origin IAVs are prevalent and potentially provide conditions for novel IAV emergence. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - October 9, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Choi, M. J., Torremorell, M., Bender, J. B., Smith, K., Boxrud, D., Ertl, J. R., Yang, M., Suwannakarn, K., Her, D., Nguyen, J., Uyeki, T. M., Levine, M., Lindstrom, S., Katz, J. M., Jhung, M., Vetter, S., Wong, K. K., Sreevatsan, S., Lynfield, R. Tags: ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Intranasal administration of poly-gamma glutamate induced antiviral activity and protective immune responses against H1N1 influenza A virus infection
Conclusions: These results suggest that γ-PGA protects mice against H1N1 influenza A virus by enhancing antiviral immune responses. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - October 6, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Eun-Ha KimYoung-Ki ChoiChul-Joong KimMoon-Hee SungHaryoung Poo Source Type: research

Bioinformatics Analysis of Proteome Changes in Calu-3 Cell Infected by Influenza A Virus (H5N1)
Conclusions: By referring to the previous studies, we suggest that proteins including FAN, CPSF2, AGO1, AGO2, PAX5, STAT1 and PDGFB can be used as therapeutic targets of IAV infection.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2015;25:311-319 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Detection and Isolation of Swine Influenza A Virus in Spiked Oral Fluid and Samples from Individually Housed, Experimentally Infected Pigs: Potential Role of Porcine Oral Fluid in Active Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Swine
Conclusions Our data indicate that porcine oral fluid has the potential to replace nasal swabs for molecular diagnostic purposes. The difficulty to isolate swIAV from oral fluid could pose a drawback for its use in active surveillance programs. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Inge Decorte et al. Source Type: research

Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States.
Abstract To clarify the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems to which no animals from outside the system are introduced, we conducted virologic surveillance during September 2012-September 2013. Animal age, geographic location, and farm type were found to affect the prevalence of these viruses. PMID: 26402228 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - September 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kaplan BS, DeBeauchamp J, Stigger-Rosser E, Franks J, Crumpton JC, Turner J, Darnell D, Jeevan T, Kayali G, Harding A, Webby RJ, Lowe JF Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Jidang Chen, Jun Ma, Sarah K. White, Zhenpeng Cao, Yun Zhen, Shuyi He, Wanjun Zhu, Changwen Ke, Yongbiao Zhang, Shuo Su, Guihong Zhang Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinaria...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - September 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cross-protection against European swine influenza viruses in the context of infection immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus: studies in the pig model of influenza
In conclusion, infection with a live, wild type influenza virus may offer substantial cross-lineage protection against viruses of the same HA and/or NA subtype. True heterosubtypic protection, in contrast, appears to be minimal in natural influenza virus hosts. We discuss our findings in the light of the zoonotic and pandemic risks of SIVs. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Improved universal cloning of influenza A virus genes by LacZα-mediated blue/white selection.
Abstract Reverse genetics of influenza A viruses facilitates both basic research and vaccine development. However, efficient cloning of virus gene segments was cumbersome in established systems due to the necessary cleavage of amplicons with outside cutter restriction enzymes followed by ligation. Occasionally, virus genes may contain cleavage sites for those enzymes. To circumvent that problem, we previously established target-primed plasmid amplification using the negative selection marker ccdB cloned into the plasmid pHW2000, flanked by the highly conserved gene segment termini. Here, we further introduced the L...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - September 22, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Wessels U, Stech O, Abdelwhab EM, Judel A, Mettenleiter TC, Stech J Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Alert for klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia in piglets
Outbreaks of piglet septicaemia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae could continue this summer Texel microphthalmia Botulism in sheep Swine influenza outbreak in late finishers Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pheasant chicks These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for May 2015 (Source: Veterinary Record)
Source: Veterinary Record - September 18, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surveillance Source Type: research

Influenza D virus infection in Mississippi beef cattle.
This study aims to extend our knowledge on the IDV epidemiology and to determine the impact of bovine production systems on virus spread. A total of 15 isolates were recovered from surveillance of bovine herds in Mississippi, and two genetic clades of viruses co-circulated in the same herd. Serologic assessment from neonatal beef cattle showed 94% seropositive, and presumed maternal antibody levels were substantially lower in animals over six months of age. Active IDV transmission was shown to occur at locations where young, weaned, and comingled calves were maintained. Serological characterization of archived sera suggest...
Source: Virology - September 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ferguson L, Eckard L, Epperson WB, Long LP, Smith D, Huston C, Genova S, Webby R, Wan XF Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Development and validation of an epitope prediction tool for swine (PigMatrix) based on the pocket profile method
Conclusion: Overall, the pocket profile method combined with binding preferences from HLA binding data shows significant promise for developing T cell epitope prediction tools for pigs. When combined with existing vaccine design algorithms, PigMatrix will be useful for developing genome-derived vaccines for a range of pig pathogens for which no effective vaccines currently exist (e.g. porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, influenza and porcine epidemic diarrhea). (Source: BMC Bioinformatics)
Source: BMC Bioinformatics - September 15, 2015 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Andres GutiérrezWilliam MartinChris Bailey-KelloggFrances TerryLeonard MoiseAnne De Groot Source Type: research

Thromboembolic events in patients with severe pandemic influenza A/H1N1.
CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonitis and respiratory failure be administered DVT prophylaxis in particular if there are additional risk factors for TVE. Further prospective studies on the relationship of influenza A/H1N1 and VTE are needed. PMID: 26365372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine)
Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine - September 10, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Avnon LS, Munteanu D, Smoliakov A, Jotkowitz A, Barski L Tags: Eur J Intern Med Source Type: research

Population susceptibility to a variant swine-origin influenza virus A(H3N2) in Vietnam, 2011–2012
Brief Report L. N. M. HOA, J. E. BRYANT, M. CHOISY, L. A. NGUYET, N. T. BAO, N. H. TRANG, N. T. K. CHUC, T. K. TOAN, T. SAITO, N. TAKEMAE, P. HORBY, H. WERTHEIM, A. FOX, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 14, pp 2959-2964Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - September 9, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Unravelling the genetic components involved in the immune response of pigs vaccinated against influenza virus.
In this study, 103 pigs vaccinated with an inactivated H1N1 pandemic virus were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60V2 BeadChip for the identification of genetic markers associated with immune response efficacy to influenza A virus vaccination. Immune response was measured based on the presence or absence of HA (hemagglutinin) and NP (nucleoprotein) antibodies induced by vaccination and detected in swine sera by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and ELISA assays, respectively. The ELISA test was also used as a measurement of antibody levels produced following the FLUAV vaccination. Associations were tested with x(2)...
Source: Virus Research - September 8, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Zanella R, Gava D, Peixoto JO, Schaefer R, Ciacci-Zanella JR, Biondo N, Silva MV, Cantão ME, Ledur MC Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Persistence of lymphocytopenia with CT abnormalities among patients with critical H7N9 swine-origin influenza A virus infection
Conclusions We have shown the presence of radiographic abnormalities among H7N9 patients. Monitoring of the variation of lymphocytes for H7N9 patients has important clinical significance, especially for prediction of the resolution of pneumonitis. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 7, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Novel Reassortant Influenza Viruses between Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and other influenza viruses Pose a Risk to Public Health
This study summarized the status of the reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses of different species origins in natural and experimental conditions. The aim of this summarization is to facilitate us to further understand the potential threats of novel reassortant influenza viruses to public health and to make effective prevention and control strategies for these pathogens. (Source: Microbial Pathogenesis)
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - September 5, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influenza a virus infection in brazilian swine herds following the introduction of pandemic 2009 h1n1
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): JANICE REIS CIACCI-ZANELLA, REJANE SCHAEFER, DANIELLE GAVA, VANESSA HAACH, MAURÍCIO EGÍDIO CANTÃO, ARLEI COLDEBELLA Influenza A virus (FLUAV) infections are endemic in pork producing countries worldwide but in Brazil it was not considered an important pathogen in pigs. Since the emergence of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) FLUAV, many outbreaks of respiratory disease were observed in pig herds. The aim of this study was to evaluate FLUAV infection in swine in 48 pig farms located in seven Brazilian states with previous rep...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - September 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Scientists Take Huge Step Toward Universal Flu Vaccine
A universal flu vaccine -- one that provides immunity against every strain of the influenza virus for multiple years -- is the holy grail of flu research. It would be a medical breakthrough on the order of penicillin, with the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives every year. And scientists just got one crucial step closer to making it a reality. Two separate groups of scientists published papers this week demonstrating that a new type of flu vaccine can provide protection against multiple strains of the disease, rather than just one. Though a truly universal flu vaccine that could be given to humans remain...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - August 28, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Scientists Take Huge Step Toward Universal Flu Vaccine
A universal flu vaccine -- one that provides immunity against every strain of the influenza virus for multiple years -- is the holy grail of flu research. It would be a medical breakthrough on the order of penicillin, with the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives every year. And scientists just got one crucial step closer to making it a reality. Two separate groups of scientists published papers this week demonstrating that a new type of flu vaccine can provide protection against multiple strains of the disease, rather than just one. Though a truly universal flu vaccine that could be given to humans remain...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - August 28, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States
B. S. Kaplan et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - August 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Researchers 'a step closer' to universal flu vaccine
Conclusion These studies have developed two different flu vaccines that could potentially offer broader protection against a variety of flu strains than current vaccines. As yet, this research has only been conducted in animals, with one study showing an effect against different flu strains in mice and monkeys, and the other showing an effect in mice and ferrets. As monkeys are more similar to humans than mice or ferrets, the results from these experiments are likely to be the most representative of what would happen in humans. While the results are encouraging, it is likely that additional lab and animal research on bo...
Source: NHS News Feed - August 25, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medical practice Medication Heart/lungs Swine flu Source Type: news

Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil
Summary Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real‐time reverse tr...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - August 25, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: C. Schmidt, S. P. Cibulski, C. P. Andrade, T. F. Teixeira, A. P. M. Varela, C. M. Scheffer, A. C. Franco, L. L. Almeida, P. M. Roehe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Oral fluids as a live-animal sample for evaluating cross-reactivity and cross-protection following intranasal influenza A virus vaccination in pigs.
Abstract In North American swine there are numerous antigenically distinct H1 influenza A virus (IAV) variants currently circulating, making vaccine development difficult due to the inability to formulate a vaccine that provides broad cross-protection. Experimentally, live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines demonstrate increased cross-protection compared to inactivated vaccines. However, there is no standardized assay to predict cross-protection following LAIV vaccination. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody in serum is the gold standard correlate of protection following IAV vaccination. LAIV vaccinat...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - August 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hughes HR, Vincent AL, Brockmeier SL, Gauger PC, Pena L, Santos J, Braucher DR, Perez DR, Loving CL Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of H1N1 virus
Conclusion The molecular testing of H1N1 patients helped the clinicians in timely diagnosis and treatment of these patients during the pandemic surveillance. The RT-PCR test has higher sensitivity and specificity; hence it is considered to be the best tool to use during the pandemic surveillance, as compared to the any other commercial antigen-based tests, which show a variable performance, with the sensitivities of tests from different manufacturers ranging from 9 to 77%. (Source: Apollo Medicine)
Source: Apollo Medicine - August 18, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Genetic and biological characterization of two novel reassortant H5N6 swine influenza viruses in mice and chickens.
In this study, we reported the biological characterization of two H5N6 influenza viruses isolated from healthy pigs in Guangdong province. Genetic analysis indicates that the two viruses are reassortants of H5N1 and H6N6 avian influenza viruses with a high similarity to duck and human H5N6 influenza viruses isolated from Guangdong province. The data from chicken and mouse experiments show that the viruses are highly pathogenic in chickens and result in a systemic infection, and replicate in the mouse lung accompanying with a clinical inflammatory pathology. The results of the study demonstrate the two H5N6 influenz...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - August 18, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Li X, Fu Y, Yang J, Guo J, He J, Guo J, Weng S, Jia Y, Liu B, Li X, Zhu Q, Chen H Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Novel Human-like Influenza A Viruses Circulate in Swine in Mexico and Chile
Discussion Through new surveillance efforts and phylogenetic analysis of IAV-S in Mexico and Chile, we have expanded our understanding of the extensive IAV-S diversity that circulates in swine in Latin America. Most notably, we have identified multiple novel clades of H3N2 and H1N1 viruses of human origin in Mexico and Chile that have not been identified in swine previously, highlighting the importance of the human-swine interface in the evolution of IAV-S diversity in Latin America. The presence of two different IAV-S lineages in Mexico that are related to North American IAV-S (classical H1N1 and H3-cluster IV) also demon...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - August 13, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: minelson22 Source Type: research

Bifunctional siRNA containing immunostimulatory motif 2 enhances protection against pandemic H1N1 virus infection.
CONCLUSIONS: This study paves the way for broad-spectrum RNAi-based therapeutics using immunostimulatory motif towards improved antiviral effect. Hence this approach will be useful to confront the sudden emergence of pandemic strains. PMID: 26264705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Gene Therapy)
Source: Current Gene Therapy - August 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Joshi G, Dash PK, Agarwal A, Sharma S, Parida M Tags: Curr Gene Ther Source Type: research

Simultaneous detection of eight swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyser-based multiplex PCR assay.
This study demonstrated that the GeXP assay is a new method with high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of these swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens. The GeXP assay may be adopted for molecular epidemiological surveys of these reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine populations. PMID: 26259690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Virological Methods)
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - August 7, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Zhang M, Xie Z, Xie L, Deng X, Xie Z, Luo S, Liu J, Pang Y, Khan MI Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Practical use of povidone‐iodine antiseptic in the maintenance of oral health and in the prevention and treatment of common oropharyngeal infections
ConclusionThe link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognised. The high rates of antibiotic misuse and subsequent development of bacterial resistance (e.g. increasing vancomycin‐resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) in large parts of the world, especially across Asia Pacific, highlight the need for identifying alternative antimicrobials that would minimise the use of these medications. This, together with recent large‐scale outbreaks of, for example, avian and swine influenza virus, further underline the importanc...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Practice - August 1, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: J. Kanagalingam, R. Feliciano, J. H. Hah, H. Labib, T. A. Le, J.‐C. Lin Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Disease risks associated with free-ranging wild boar in Saskatchewan.
This study investigated the disease status of Saskatchewan's feral wild boar population. Whole carcasses, tissue samples, and/or serum from 81 hunter-killed boars from Saskatchewan were submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) between 2009 and 2014. Serological tests were negative for PRRS, H1N1, and H3N2 swine influenza, PCV-2, and TGE/PRCV in 22/22 boars and for Toxoplasma gondii and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in 20/20 boars. Of 20 boars whose sera were tested 20 were positive for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, with 7 positive for, among other strains, serotype 14; 16 were positive for Lawsonia intrac...
Source: The Canadian Veterinary Journal - August 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: McGregor GF, Gottschalk M, Godson DL, Wilkins W, Bollinger TK Tags: Can Vet J Source Type: research

Development of Framework for Assessing Influenza Virus Pandemic Risk.
Abstract Although predicting which influenza virus subtype will cause the next pandemic is not yet possible, public health authorities must continually assess the pandemic risk associated with animal influenza viruses, particularly those that have caused infections in humans, and determine what resources should be dedicated to mitigating that risk. To accomplish this goal, a risk assessment framework was created in collaboration with an international group of influenza experts. Compared with the previously used approach, this framework, named the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool, provides a systematic and transparent...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Trock SC, Burke SA, Cox NJ Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.
Abstract The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nelson MI, Schaefer R, Gava D, Cantão ME, Ciacci-Zanella JR Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Novel Ranking System for Identifying Efficacious Anti-Influenza PB2 Inhibitors.
Abstract Through antigenic drift and shift, influenza (flu) viral infections continue to be an annual cause of morbidity in healthy populations and mortality among the elderly and at risk patients. The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses like H5N1 and H7N9 and the rapid spread of the swine origin H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 demonstrate the continued need for effective influenza therapeutics. While several neuraminidase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of influenza virus infections, these have shown a limited start-to-treat window and resistant variants have shown up in the popula...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tsai AW, McNeil CF, Leeman JR, Bennett HB, Nti-Addae K, Huang C, Germann UA, Byrn RA, Berlioz-Seux F, Rijnbrand R, Clark MP, Charifson PS, Jones SM Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Pregnancy outcome and clinical status of gilts following experimental infection by H1N2, H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 influenza A viruses during the last month of gestation
Abstract The present study was planned to study the effect of various subtypes of swine influenza virus (SIV) circulating among pigs (H1N2, H3N2 and emerging pandemic strain of H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1pdm09) on the course of pregnancy in naïve gilts experimentally infected during the last month of pregnancy. In addition, the clinical course of infection, distribution of viruses in various tissues (blood, placenta, fetal lung), and selected immunological, reproductive and productive parameters were also investigated. All SIV-inoculated gilts became infected. No abortions, stillbirths, intrauterine deaths or mu...
Source: Archives of Virology - July 11, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Profile of the porcine acute-phase proteins response following experimental co-infection with H3N2 swine influenza virus and Pasteurella multocida
Biomarkers, Ahead of Print. (Source: Biomarkers)
Source: Biomarkers - July 10, 2015 Category: Research Tags: article Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of porcine acute phase proteins in meat juice for detecting disease at abattoir
The aim of this work was to evaluate whether acute phase protein (APP) determinations could assist Official Veterinarians carrying out work in slaughterhouses. To test this hypothesis, the diagnostic accuracy of APP determinations in meat juice of pigs was analysed to differentiate between healthy and diseased pigs. One hundred and one pigs of two different origins were classified into two groups according to their health status (healthy and diseased pigs), which was determined by a veterinary clinical examination on the farm. To assess the pigs’ immune status, against the main porcine diseases, serological analyses ...
Source: Veterinary Record - July 2, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gutierrez, A. M., Martinez-Subiela, S., Ceron, J. J. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Molecular docking of selected phytocompounds with H1N1 Proteins.
Abstract The H1N1 influenza virus is a serious threat to human population. Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are known antiviral drugs for swine flu with observed side effects. These drugs are viral neuraminidase and hemagglutinin inhibitor prevents early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. Therefore, it is of interest to identify naturally occurring novel compounds to control viral growth. Thus, H1N1 proteins (neuraminidase and hemagglutinin) were screened with phytocompounds isolated from Tulsi plant (Ocimum sanctum L.) using molecular docking tools. This identified Apigenin as an alterna...
Source: Bioinformation - July 1, 2015 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Alhazmi MI Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research