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Genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses in Thai swine farms, 2011–2014
Abstract The pig is known as a “mixing vessel” for influenza A viruses. The co-circulation of multiple influenza A subtypes in pig populations can lead to novel reassortant strains. For this study, swine influenza surveillance was conducted from September 2011 to February 2014 on 46 swine farms in Thailand. In total, 78 swine influenza viruses were isolated from 2,821 nasal swabs, and 12 were selected for characterization by whole genome sequencing. Our results showed that the co-circulation of swine influenza subtypes H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 in Thai swine farms was observable throughout the 3 years of surveilla...
Source: Virus Genes - December 11, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers
Publication date: 15 December 2014 Source:Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Volume 162, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Lasse Eggers Pedersen , Gregers Jungersen , Maria Rathmann Sorensen , Chak-Sum Ho , Dorte Fink Vadekær The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen lea...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 11, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Two different genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in northern China and their pathogenicity in animals
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2014 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Huanliang Yang , Yan Chen , Chuanling Qiao , Chuantian Xu , Minghua Yan , Xiaoguang Xin , Zhigao Bu , Hualan Chen During 2006 and 2007, two swine-origin triple-reassortant influenza A (H1N2) viruses were isolated from pigs in northern China, and the antigenic characteristics of the hemagglutinin protein of the viruses were examined. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated different emergence patterns for the two H1N2 viruses, Sw/Hebei/10/06 and Sw/Tianjin/1/07. Sequences for the other genes encoding the internal protein...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 11, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cultural epidemiology of pandemic influenza in urban and rural Pune, India: a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study
Conclusions Although the term was well known, better recognition of pandemic influenza cases is needed, especially in rural areas. Improved awareness, access to treatment and timely referrals by private practitioners are also required to reduce treatment delays. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - December 8, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sundaram, N., Schaetti, C., Purohit, V., Kudale, A., Weiss, M. G. Tags: Open access, Global health, Infectious diseases, Public health Research Source Type: research

Influenza A Virus Surveillance Based on Pre‐Weaning Piglet Oral Fluid Samples
This study supported the use of oral fluid sampling as a means of conducting IAV surveillance in pig populations and demonstrated the inapparent circulation of IAV in piglets. Future work on IAV oral fluid diagnostics should focus on improved procedures for virus isolation, subtyping and sequencing of HA and NA genes. The role of antibody in IAV surveillance remains to be elucidated, but longitudinal assessment of specific antibody has the potential to provide information regarding patterns of infection, vaccination status and herd immunity. (Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases)
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - December 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Y. Panyasing, C. Goodell, A. Kittawornrat, C. Wang, I. Levis, L. Desfresne, R. Rauh, P. C. Gauger, J. Zhang, X. Lin, S. Azeem, S. Ghorbani‐Nezami, K.‐J. Yoon, J. Zimmerman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from Ontario swine in 2011 and 2012
Conclusions: The characterization of the Ontario H3N2 viruses clearly indicates reassortment of gene segments between the North American swine trH3N2 from cluster IV and the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - November 22, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Helena Grgi¿Marcio CostaRobert FriendshipSusy CarmanÉva NagyGreg WidemanScott WeeseZvonimir Poljak Source Type: research

Enhancement of influenza virus transmission by gene reassortment.
Authors: Li C, Chen H Abstract Influenza A virus is characterized by a genome composed of eight single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments, which allow for reassortment between different strains when they co-infect the same host cell. ReassortmentReassortment is an important driving force for the evolution of influenza virusesInfluenza viruses . The ability of reassortment allows influenza virus to endlessly reinvent itself and pose a constant threat to the health of humans and other animals. Of the four human influenza pandemics since the beginning of the last century, three of them were caused by reassortant vi...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and vaccination of influenza a virus in Swine.
Authors: Rajao DS, Anderson TK, Gauger PC, Vincent AL Abstract Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus (IAV) and characterized by fever followed by lethargy, anorexia, and serous nasal discharge. The disease progresses rapidly and may be complicated when associated with other respiratory pathogens. IAV is one of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens of swine, resulting in substantial economic burden to pork producers. In the past 10-15 years, a dramatic evolution of the IAV in U.S. swine has occurred, resulting in the co-circulation of many antigenically distinct IAV ...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Swine and influenza: a challenge to one health research.
Authors: Kahn RE, Ma W, Richt JA Abstract The challenge of increasing swineSwine production and a rising number of novel and known swine influenzaInfluenza viruses has prompted a considerable boost in research into how and why pigs have become such significant hosts for influenza viruses. The ecology of influenza A viruses is rather complicated, involving multiple host species and a segmented genome. Wild aquatic birds are the reservoir for the majority of influenza A viruses, but novel influenza viruses were recently identified in bats. Occasionally, influenza A viruses can be transmitted to mammals from avian spe...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Temporal insight into the natural generation of a new reassortant porcine influenza virus in a swine holding
Publication date: 7 November 2014 Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 174, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Chiara Chiapponi , Laura Baioni , Andrea Luppi , Ana Moreno , Alberto Castellan , Emanuela Foni The influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine in Italy. Reassortant influenza A viruses subtypes in swine appeared in European pig population. In particular reassortant viruses carrying genome segment from the pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) are reported in many European countries, including Italy. In a 1000 sows farrow-to feeder farm, in Northern Italy, we isolated 10 IAVs from recu...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - November 8, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cross-Reactive Influenza-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Intravenous Immunoglobulin as a Potential Therapeutic Against Emerging Influenza Viruses
Conclusions. IVIG preparations contain broadly cross-reactive ADCC mediating antibodies. IVIG may provide at least some level of protection for individuals at high risk of severe influenza disease, especially during influenza pandemics prior to the development of effective vaccines. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jegaskanda, S., Vandenberg, K., Laurie, K. L., Loh, L., Kramski, M., Winnall, W. R., Kedzierska, K., Rockman, S., Kent, S. J. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus among Humans and Swine, Sri Lanka
H. Perera et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - November 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Media, M.D.
After almost two months of screaming newspaper headlines and wall-to-wall cable television coverage about the Ebola outbreak, a calm descended over the media in late October. On Oct. 30, the Washington Post's front page carried the headline, "New Cases of Ebola Declining, WHO Says." The next day, the same real estate carried stories about the war in Syria and the CEO of Apple, Inc. Over the same two days, Ebola was nowhere to be found on the front page of the New York Times. It was 23 days after the death of Thomas Eric Duncan, the first and only confirmed Ebola fatality in the United States. Barring another victim arri...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - November 4, 2014 Category: Science Source Type: news

Analysis of codon usage preference in hemagglutinin genes of the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus
Conclusion This study proposes a new and effective way to gain a better understanding of the features of the S-OIV genome and evolutionary processes based on the codon usage pattern. It is useful to trace influenza viral origins and cross-species virus transmission. (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection)
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - November 3, 2014 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Detection of Novel Reassortant Influenza A (H3N2) and H1N1 2009 Pandemic Viruses in Swine in Hanoi, Vietnam
Summary From May to September 2013, monthly samples were collected from swine in a Vietnamese slaughterhouse for influenza virus isolation and serological testing. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and a novel H3N2 originating from reassortment between A(H1N1)pdm09 and novel viruses of the North American triple reassortant lineage were isolated. Serological results showed low seroprevalence for the novel H3N2 virus and higher seroprevalence for A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In addition, serology suggested that other swine influenza viruses are also circulating in Vietnamese swine. (Source: Zoonoses and Public Health)
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - November 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: E. Baudon, L. L. Poon, T. D. Dao, N. T. Pham, B. J. Cowling, M. Peyre, K. V. Nguyen, M. Peiris Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Analysis of codon usage preference in hemagglutinin genes of the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus.
CONCLUSION: This study proposes a new and effective way to gain a better understanding of the features of the S-OIV genome and evolutionary processes based on the codon usage pattern. It is useful to trace influenza viral origins and cross-species virus transmission. PMID: 25442859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection)
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - October 31, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang SF, Su MW, Tseng SP, Li MC, Tsao CH, Huang SW, Chu WC, Liu WT, Chen YM, Huang JC Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research

Viral M2 Ion Channel Protein: A Promising Target for Anti-influenza Drug Discovery.
Abstract Influenza virus is an important RNA virus causing pandemics (Spanish Flu (1918), Asian Flu (1957), Hong Kong Flu (1968) and Swine Flu (2009)) over the last decades. Due to the spontaneous mutations of these viral proteins, currently available antiviral and anti-influenza drugs quickly develop resistance. To account this, only limited antiinfluenza drugs have been approved for the therapeutic use. These include amantadine and rimantadine (M2 proton channel blockers), zanamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir (neuraminidase inhibitors), favipravir (polymerase inhibitor) and laninamivir. This review provides an ou...
Source: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry - October 28, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Moorthy NS, Poongavanam V, Pratheepa V Tags: Mini Rev Med Chem Source Type: research

Novel triple reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses bearing six internal genes of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 influenza virus were detected in pigs in China
At present, three predominant influenza virus subtypes, H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2, circulate among pigs worldwide. The wholly avian-like H1N1 virus, known as Eurasian avian-like H1N1, was first isolated from pigs in Italy in 1979, and appeared in China in the 1990s [1]. H1N2 viruses, first reported in Japan in 1978, which contained a variety of gene combinations or reassortment patterns between the H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses also concurrently circulate among swine herds in various counties [2]. In 1999, North American triple-reassortant H1N2 viruses, which resulted from human-, swine-, and avian-origin genes of influenza v...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - October 28, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Chuanling Qiao, Liping Liu, Huanliang Yang, Yan Chen, Huiyang Xu, Hualan Chen Source Type: research

Live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine protects against A(H1N1)pdm09 heterologous challenge without vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease.
Abstract Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines may provide cross-protection against contemporary influenza A virus (IAV) in swine. Conversely, whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines have the potential risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) when challenged with IAV of substantial antigenic drift. A temperature sensitive, intranasal H1N2 LAIV was compared to wild type exposure (WT) and an intramuscular WIV vaccine in a model shown to induce VAERD. WIV vaccinated swine challenged with pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) were not protected from infection and demonstrated severe respiratory di...
Source: Virology - October 28, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Gauger PC, Loving CL, Khurana S, Lorusso A, Perez DR, Kehrli ME, Roth JA, Golding H, Vincent AL Tags: Virology Source Type: research

[Series] Emerging novel and antimicrobial-resistant respiratory tract infections: new drug development and therapeutic options
The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens for which diminishing treatment options are available is of major global concern. New viral respiratory tract infections with epidemic potential, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, swine-origin influenza A H1N1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, require development of new antiviral agents. The substantial rise in the global numbers of patients with respiratory tract infections caused by pan-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alimuddin Zumla, Ziad A Memish, Markus Maeurer, Matthew Bates, Peter Mwaba, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, David W Denning, Frederick G Hayden, David S Hui Tags: Series Source Type: research

[Series] Emerging viral respiratory tract infections—environmental risk factors and transmission
The past decade has seen the emergence of several novel viruses that cause respiratory tract infections in human beings, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, an H7N9 influenza A virus in eastern China, a swine-like influenza H3N2 variant virus in the USA, and a human adenovirus 14p1 also in the USA. MERS-CoV and H7N9 viruses are still a major worldwide public health concern. The pathogenesis and mode of transmission of MERS-CoV and H7N9 influenza A virus are poorly understood, making it more difficult to implement intervention and preventive measures. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philippe Gautret, Gregory C Gray, Remi N Charrel, Nnanyelugo G Odezulu, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Alimuddin Zumla, Ziad A Memish Tags: Series Source Type: research

Diseases at the livestock–wildlife interface: Status, challenges, and opportunities in the United States
In this study, we conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature to evaluate the status of diseases at the livestock–wildlife interface in the United States. Specifically, the goals of the literature review were three fold: first to evaluate domestic animal diseases currently found in the United States where wildlife may play a role; second to identify critical issues faced in managing these diseases at the livestock–wildlife interface; and third to identify potential technical and policy strategies for addressing these issues. We found that of the 86 avian, ruminant, swine, poultry, and lagomorph diseases th...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - October 17, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Tumefactive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating human swine influenza (H1N1).
This report illustrates an adult patient presenting with tumefactive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating human swine influenza. Its presentation, diagnosis, investigation findings, course, and response to treatment are discussed herein. PMID: 25307074 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Hong Kong Med J)
Source: Hong Kong Med J - October 1, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chan AC, Ng SH Tags: Hong Kong Med J Source Type: research

Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus
Abstract Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were ...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 25, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification of four genotypes of H3N2 swine influenza virus in pigs from southern China
Abstract In 2011, four H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were isolated from nasal swabs of four pigs (800 nasal swabs were collected from pigs showing influenza-like symptoms) in Guangdong province, China. Four different genotypes of H3N2 appeared among pigs in southern China, including wholly human-like H3N2 viruses, intermediate (1975) double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses (resulting from reassortment between an early human lineage and a recent human lineage), recent double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses, and avian-like H3N2 viruses. Because pigs can support the reassortment of human and avian influenza virus...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 25, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses
Conclusions: We demonstrated that Korean SIV subtypes had different pulmonary pathologic patterns. The Korean H3N2 rapidly induced acute lung lesions such as broncho-interstitial pneumonia, while the Korean H1N1 showed longer course of infection as compared to other strains. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - September 24, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Kwang-Soo LyooJeong-Ki KimKwonil JungBo-Kyu KangDaesub Song Source Type: research

One‐Health Simulation Modelling: Assessment of Control Strategies Against the Spread of Influenza between Swine and Human Populations Using NAADSM
In conclusion, our study suggests that the early detection (and therefore effective surveillance) and effective quarantine had the largest impact in the control of the influenza spread, consistent with earlier studies. To our knowledge, no study had previously assessed the impact of the combination of different intervention strategies involving the simultaneous spread of influenza between swine and human populations. (Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases)
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - September 15, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: S. Dorjee, C. W. Revie, Z. Poljak, W. B. McNab, J. T. McClure, J. Sanchez Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Identification of swine influenza virus epitopes and analysis of multiple specificities expressed by cytotoxic T cell subsets
Conclusions: This study describes a timely and cost-effective approach for viral epitope identification in livestock animals. Analysis of T cell subsets showed multiple specificities suggesting SLA-bound epitope recognition of different conformations. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - September 6, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lasse Eggers PedersenSolvej Ø BreumUlla RiberLars E LarsenGregers Jungersen Source Type: research

Influenza A viruses of avian origin circulating in pigs and other mammals.
Abstract Influenza A viruses are zoonotic agents, capable of crossing the species barriers. Nowadays, they still constitute a great challenge worldwide. The natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses are wild aquatic birds, despite the fact they have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species, including humans. Even when influenza A viruses are able to get into another than waterfowl population, they are often unable to efficiently adapt and transmit between individuals. Only in rare cases, these viruses are capable of establishing a new lineage. To succeed a complete adaptation and further transm...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - September 4, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Urbaniak K, Kowalczyk A, Markowska-Daniel I Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research

The comparative profile of lymphoid cells and the T and B cell spectratype of germ-free piglets infected with viruses SIV, PRRSV or PCV2
Abstract Lymphocyte subsets isolated from germ-free piglets experimentally infected with swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were studied and the profile of these subsets among these three infections was monitored. Germ-free piglets were used since their response could be directly correlated to the viral infection. Because SIV infections are resolved even by colostrum-deprived neonates whereas PRRSV and PCV2 infections are not, SIV was used as a benchmark for an effectively resolved viral infection. PRRSV caused a large incre...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 4, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vivo reassortment of influenza viruses.
Abstract The genetic material of influenza A virus consists of eight negative-sense RNA segments. Under suitable conditions, the segmented structure of the viral genome allows an exchange of the individual gene segments between different strains, causing formation of new reassorted viruses. For reassortment to occur, co-infection with two or more influenza virus strains is necessary. The reassortment is an important evolutionary mechanism which can result in antigenic shifts that modify host range, pathology, and transmission of the influenza A viruses. In this process, the influenza virus strain with epidemic and/...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - September 3, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Urbaniak K, Markowska-Daniel I Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research

Electrical Immunosensor based on Dielectrophoretically-deposited Carbon Nanotubes for Detection of Influenza Virus H1N1
Analyst, 2014, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C4AN01335B, PaperRenu Singh, Abhinav Sharma, Seongkyeol Hong, Jaesung JangThe influenza virus has received extensive attention due to the recent swine-origin H1N1 pandemics. This paper reports a label-free, highly sensitive and selective electrical immunosensor for detection of influenza virus...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles)
Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles - September 2, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Renu Singh Source Type: research

An efficient genome sequencing method for equine influenza [H3N8] virus reveals a new polymorphism in the PA-X protein
Conclusions: These methods can be used to determine the genome sequences of EIV, including the NCRs, from both clade 1 and clade 2 of the Florida sublineage. Full genomes were covered efficiently using fewer PCR products than previously reported methods for influenza A viruses, the techniques used are affordable and the equipment required is available in most research laboratories. The adoption of these methods will hopefully allow for an increase in the number of full genomes available for EIV, leading to improved surveillance and a better understanding of EIV evolution. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - September 2, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Adam RashAlana WoodwardNeil BryantJohn McCauleyDebra Elton Source Type: research

Serological report of influenza a (H7N9) infections among pigs in Southern China
Conclusions: Pigs in southern China have been shown to be infected with multiple avian influenza viruses. As the prevalence of novel influenza A viruses (e.g., H7N9 avian influenza virus) may be increasing among poultry in China, similar seroepidemiological studies of pigs should be conducted in the future. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles - September 2, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pei ZhouMalin HongMary MerrillHuamei HeLingshuang SunGuihong Zhang Source Type: research

Heterogeneous pathological outcomes after experimental pH1N1 influenza infection in ferrets correlate with viral replication and host immune responses in the lung
In conclusion, this study confirmed that the clinicopathological outcomes of pH1N1 infection in ferrets were not only due to viral replication abilities but also depended on the hosts’ capacities to mount efficient immune responses to control viral infection of the lung. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 28, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

An Epidemic: Top 10 Outbreaks In U.S. History
Throughout the years, epidemics and plagues have shaken up societies and cultures around the world. The latest outbreak that Americans seem to be concerned about is the Ebola epidemic occurring in the African countries of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria.  With experts and doctors saying that the outbreak has the potential to become a full-blown pandemic that will become increasingly more difficult to control, the general public is scared. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continuously keep an eye on public health and any immediate health dangers, the American public still worries about how muc...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - August 7, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: cbskapost Tags: Health Africa avian flu Ebola Guinea Health Scare History Measles Nigeria Source Type: news

Performance of a rapid test versus real-time PCR for diagnosis of H1N1 swine flu
ConclusionCerTest Swine Flu card rapid test was found to have reliable sensitivity and specificity compared with the gold-standard RT-PCR. (Source: The Journal Of The Egyptian Public Health Association)
Source: The Journal Of The Egyptian Public Health Association - August 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Original articles Source Type: research

Genetic evolution of PB1 in the zoonotic transmission of influenza A(H1) virus.
The objective of this study was to identify whether PB1 retains genetic traces of interspecies transmission and adaptation. We have found that the evolutionary history of PB1 is traceable. Lineage appears to be distinguished by amino acid changes between the conserved motifs of the viral polymerase, which can have major impact in PB1 protein folding, and by changes in the expression of the Mitochondrial Targeting Sequence and in the predicted helical region, that putatively affect induction of cellular apoptosis by PB1-F2. Furthermore, we found genomic markers that possibly relate to viral adaptation to new hosts and to ne...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - August 1, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gíria M, de Andrade HR Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

The Eurasian genes of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus: an integrative perspective on their conveyance to and assimilation in America.
This study explores whether there is a particular interhemispheric system underlying such divergence, and its properties. Unlike the assumption that transport of live pigs from Eurasia to America facilitated the formation of the 2009 H1N1 PS in America, it is suggested that conveyance of Eurasian swine genes to America, and their assimilation therein, took place through a distinct, perfectly natural ecophylogenetic machinery. The latter conjunctively involves, foremost, a native Asian duck-swine-man interface, a Holarctic chain of certain migratory Anas ducks, a native American turkey-swine-man interface, and two specific ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - July 24, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shoham D Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Toward a Method for Tracking Virus Evolutionary Trajectory Applied to the Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus.
Abstract In 2009 a novel pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) emerged as the first official influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Early genomic sequence analysis pointed to the swine origin of the virus. Here we report a novel computational approach to determine the evolutionary trajectory of viral sequences that uses data-driven estimations of nucleotide substitution rates to track the gradual accumulation of observed sequence alterations over time. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments show that sequences belonging to the resulting evolutionary trajectory of the H1N1pdm09 lineage exhibit a...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - July 23, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Burke Squires R, Pickett BE, Das S, Scheuermann RH Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Genetic Characterization and Evolution of H1N1pdm09 after Circulation in a Swine Farm.
In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus identified in pigs reared in a single herd. Nasal swabs taken from pigs showing respiratory distress were tested for influenza type A and A(H1N1)pdm09 by real-time RT-PCR assays. Virus isolation from positive samples was attempted by inoculation of nasal swabs samples into specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and complete genome sequencing was performed on virus strains after replication on ECE or from original swab sample. The molecular analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) showed, in four of the swine influenza viruses under study, a un...
Source: Biomed Res - July 19, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Boni A, Vaccari G, Di Trani L, Zaccaria G, Alborali GL, Lelli D, Cordioli P, Moreno AM Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Divergent immune responses and disease outcomes in piglets immunized with inactivated and attenuated H3N2 swine influenza vaccines in the presence of maternally-derived antibodies.
This study was aimed at identifying immune correlates of cross-protection. Piglets with and without MDA received intramuscular adjuvanted WIV or intranasal LAIV, and were challenged with heterologous H3N2. WIV induced cross-reactive IgG, inhibited by MDA, and a moderate T cell response. LAIV elicited mucosal antibodies and T cells cross-reactive to the heterologous challenge strain. The presence of MDA at LAIV vaccination blocked lung and nasal antibody production, but did not interfere with T cell priming. Even without mucosal antibodies, MDA-positive LAIV vaccinates were protected, indicating a likely role for T cells. B...
Source: Virology - July 17, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Sandbulte MR, Platt R, Roth JA, Henningson JN, Gibson KA, Rajão DS, Loving CL, Vincent AL Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Humanized antibody neutralizing 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.
We describe here the humanization of MA2077 and its expression in a mammalian cell line. Six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of MA2077 were grafted onto the human germline variable regions; along with 6 and 8 back mutations in the framework of heavy and light chains respectively, pertaining to the vernier zone and interchain packing residues to promote favorable CDR conformation and facilitate antigen binding. The full length humanized antibody, 2077Hu2, expressed in CHO-K1 cells, showed high affinity to hemagglutinin protein (KD = 0.75 ± 0.32 nM) and potent neutralization of pandemic H1N1 virus (IC50 = 0.17 μ...
Source: Biotechnology Journal - July 7, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shembekar N, Mallajosyula VV, Chaudhary P, Upadhyay V, Varadarajan R, Gupta SK Tags: Biotechnol J Source Type: research

New analysis of 'swine flu' pandemic conflicts with accepted views on how diseases spread
(University of Cambridge) New analysis of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in the US shows that the pandemic wave was surprisingly slow, and that its spread was likely accelerated by school-age children. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - July 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Healthcare workers under a mandated H1N1 vaccination policy with employment termination penalty: A survey to assess employee perception.
Abstract The ethical debate over mandatory healthcare worker (HCW) influenza vaccination is a heated one. Our study hospital instituted a mandatory employee influenza vaccination policy for the 2009-2010 influenza season during the highly publicized pandemic of the H1N1 "Swine Flu." Under this mandate there was no informed declination option, and termination of employment was the consequence for noncompliance. Our objective was to examine HCW perceptions of the H1N1 influenza virus, the vaccine, and the strict mandated vaccination policy. A survey was designed, distributed, and anonymously collected. In total, 202 ...
Source: Vaccine - July 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Winston L, Wagner S, Chan S Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Utility of snout wipe samples for influenza A virus surveillance in exhibition swine populations
ConclusionsViral recoveries from potential snout wipe materials ranged from 0·26 to 1·59 log10 TCID50/ml less than that of the positive control in which no substrate was included; rayon/polyester gauze performed significantly worse than the other materials. In the field, snout wipes and nasal swabs had high levels of agreement for both rRT‐PCR detection and virus isolation. Although further investigation and refinement of the sampling method is needed, results indicate that snout wipes will facilitate convenient and undisruptive IAV surveillance in pigs at agricultural fairs. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - July 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jody L. Edwards, Sarah W. Nelson, Jeffrey D. Workman, Richard D. Slemons, Christine M. Szablewski, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Andrew S. Bowman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A flow-through chromatography process for influenza A and B virus purification.
This study focused on the development of an economic flow-through chromatographic process avoiding virus strain sensitive capture steps. Therefore, a three-step process consisting of anion exchange chromatography (AEC), Benzonase(®) treatment, and size exclusion chromatography with a ligand-activated core (LCC) was established, and tested for purification of two influenza A virus strains and one influenza B virus strain. The process resulted in high virus yields (≥68%) with protein contamination levels fulfilling requirements of the European Pharmacopeia for production of influenza vaccines for human use. DNA was deplet...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - July 1, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Weigel T, Solomaier T, Peuker A, Pathapati T, Wolff MW, Reichl U Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

N-acetyl-l-cystine (NAC) protects against H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury.
Abstract The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) had been shown to inhibit replication of seasonal human influenza A viruses. Here, the effects of NAC on H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI) were investigated in mice. BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of A/swine/HeBei/012/2008/(H9N2) viruses with or without NAC treatments to induce ALI model. The result showed that pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and CXCL-10 in BALF were attenuated by NAC. Moreover,...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - June 23, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhang RH, Li CH, Wang CL, Xu MJ, Tong X, Dong W, Liu BJ, Wang GH, Tian SF Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research

Immunotherapies influence the influenza vaccination response in multiple sclerosis patients: an explorative study
Conclusions: These findings suggest that MS patients receiving immunomodulatory therapies other than interferon beta should be considered for a vaccine response analysis and perhaps be offered a second dose of the vaccine, in cases of insufficient protection. (Source: Multiple Sclerosis)
Source: Multiple Sclerosis - June 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Olberg, H. K., Cox, R. J., Nostbakken, J. K., Aarseth, J. H., Vedeler, C. A., Myhr, K.-M. Tags: Research Papers Source Type: research

Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009
ABSTRACT In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)—two H1N2 and one H3N2—were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human‐like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic ...
Source: Microbiology and Immunology - June 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Katsushi Kanehira, Nobuhiro Takemae, Yuko Uchida, Hirokazu Hikono, Takehiko Saito Tags: Original Article Source Type: research