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One‐Health Simulation Modelling: A Case Study of Influenza Spread between Human and Swine Populations using NAADSM
Summary The circulation of zoonotic influenza A viruses including pH1N1 2009 and H5N1 continue to present a constant threat to animal and human populations. Recently, an H3N2 variant spread from pigs to humans and between humans in limited numbers. Accordingly, this research investigated a range of scenarios of the transmission dynamics of pH1N1 2009 virus at the swine–human interface while accounting for different percentages of swine workers initially immune. Furthermore, the feasibility of using NAADSM (North American Animal Disease Spread Model) applied as a one‐health simulation model was assessed. The study popul...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - March 24, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: S. Dorjee, C. W. Revie, Z. Poljak, W. B. McNab, J. Sanchez Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Three-quarters of people with flu have no symptoms
ConclusionThis large, community-based study found that most people with influenza in England don’t have symptoms, and even if they do, only a small proportion go to a doctor.Approximately 20% of people had an increase in antibodies against influenza in their blood after an influenza “season”. However, about three-quarters of infections were symptom-free, or so mild they weren't identified through weekly questioning about whether participants had a cough, cold, sore throat, or a “flu-like illness”.People who reported being ill were asked to take a nasal swab to test for the influenza virus. Among those with illnes...
Source: NHS News Feed - March 17, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Swine flu Medical practice Source Type: news

Within-host influenza dynamics: A small-scale mathematical modeling approach.
Abstract The emergence of new influenza viruses like the pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus in 2009 (A(H1N1)pdm09) with unpredictable difficulties in vaccine coverage and established antiviral treatment protocols emphasizes the need of new murine models to prove the activity of novel antiviral compounds in vivo. The aim of the present study was to develop a small-scale mathematical model based on easily attainable experimental data to explain differences in influenza kinetics induced by different virus strains in mice. To develop a three-dimensional ordinary differential equation model of influenza dynamics, the follo...
Source: Biosystems - March 10, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Manchanda H, Seidel N, Krumbholz A, Sauerbrei A, Schmidtke M, Guthke R Tags: Biosystems Source Type: research

Spillover of pH1N1 to swine in Cameroon: an investigation of risk factors
Conclusions: Results suggest that the practice of allowing swine to roam freely is a significant risk factor for spillover of influenza from humans into swine populations. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - March 4, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Brenda LarisonKevin Y NjaboAnthony ChasarTrevon FullerRyan J HarriganThomas B Smith Source Type: research

Strategies for developing new antiviral flu drugs
New analysis of the influenza A virus by scientists at the University of Hertfordshire shows potential for developing new anti-viral drugs which are more likely to be universally effective against the flu virus originating from avian, swine or human virus strains. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - March 3, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Flu / Cold / SARS Source Type: news

Prevalence of influenza a viruses in livestock and free-living waterfowl in Uganda
Conclusions: The study has demonstrated occurrence of influenza A viruses in animals in Uganda. The results suggest that increase in volumes of migratory waterfowl in the country could be associated with increased prevalence of these viruses in free-living waterfowl and poultry. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles - February 27, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Halid KirundaBernard ErimaAgnes TumushabeJocelyn KiconcoTitus TugumeSophia MuleiDerrick MimbeEdison MworoziJosephine BwogiLukwago LuswaHannah KibuukaMonica MillardAchilles ByaruhangaMariette DucatezScott KraussRichard WebbyRobert WebsterKofi WurapaDenis B Source Type: research

Prevalence of influenza A viruses in livestock and free-living waterfowl in Uganda
Conclusions: The study has demonstrated occurrence of influenza A viruses in animals in Uganda. The results suggest that increase in volumes of migratory waterfowl in the country could be associated with increased prevalence of these viruses in free-living waterfowl and poultry. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles - February 27, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Halid KirundaBernard ErimaAgnes TumushabeJocelyn KiconcoTitus TugumeSophia MuleiDerrick MimbeEdison MworoziJosephine BwogiLukwago LuswaHannah KibuukaMonica MillardAchilles ByaruhangaMariette DucatezScott KraussRichard WebbyRobert WebsterKofi WurapaDenis B Source Type: research

Bat-derived influenza-like viruses H17N10 and H18N11.
Abstract Shorebirds and waterfowls are believed to be the reservoir hosts for influenza viruses, whereas swine putatively act as mixing vessels. The recent identification of two influenza-like virus genomes (designated H17N10 and H18N11) from bats has challenged this notion. A crucial question concerns the role bats might play in influenza virus ecology. Structural and functional studies of the two major surface envelope proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), demonstrate that neither has canonical HA or NA functions found in influenza viruses. However, putative functional modules and domains in other ...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - February 26, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wu Y, Wu Y, Tefsen B, Shi Y, Gao GF Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Thanks to the FDA, Biocryst eyes finish line with peramivir
Durham drug developer BioCryst Pharmaceuticals announced encouraging news Tuesday morning when it said it successfully submitted a new drug application with federal regulators. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration accepted the BioCryst (Nasdaq: BCRX) application, called an NDA for short, for the drug peramivir, which would treat influenza strains including H7N9 and pandemic H1N1 swine flu viral strains. When the FDA agrees to accept an NDA, it essentially brings drug development of that new product… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines - February 25, 2014 Category: American Health Authors: Jason deBruyn Source Type: research

A synchronized global sweep of the internal genes of modern avian influenza virus
Nature advance online publication 16 February 2014. doi:10.1038/nature13016 Authors: Michael Worobey, Guan-Zhu Han & Andrew Rambaut Zoonotic infectious diseases such as influenza continue to pose a grave threat to human health. However, the factors that mediate the emergence of RNA viruses such as influenza A virus (IAV) are still incompletely understood. Phylogenetic inference is crucial to reconstructing the origins and tracing the flow of IAV within and between hosts. Here we show that explicitly allowing IAV host lineages to have independent rates of molecular evolution is necessary for reliable phylogenetic...
Source: Nature AOP - February 16, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Michael WorobeyGuan-Zhu HanAndrew Rambaut Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Development of latex agglutination test with nucleoprotein as antigen for detection of antibodies to swine influenza virus.
Abstract As pigs are susceptible to infection with both avian and human influenza A viruses, they have been proposed to be an intermediate host for the generation of pandemic virus through reassortment. The broad susceptibility of pigs to influenza viruses emphasizes the importance of surveillance of swine influenza virus. Thus, A latex agglutination test (LAT) was developed for rapid detection of antibodies to swine influenza virus. The nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the H9N2 swine influenza virus isolated from local farms was cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Reactivity of the expressed protein was confirmed...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - February 6, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhang RH, Li CH, He WX, Wang CL, Xu T, Jin ML, Chen HC Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research

New deadly strain of bird flu may have emerged
“Experts are concerned about the spread of a new strain of bird flu that has already killed one woman in China,” BBC News reports. The new strain, which has evolved from an existing bird flu virus called H10N8, has infected two people in China. A case report in The Lancet medical journal warns that potential for a new pandemic “should not be underestimated”. Their genetic tests of the strain suggests it has adapted to infect humans more easily.  That said, experts suggest there is currently no cause for alarm. There is no evidence that the new strain can pass between humans. Also, the woman who died of the ne...
Source: NHS News Feed - February 5, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Swine flu QA articles Medical practice Source Type: news

Evaluation of Screening Assays for the Detection of Influenza A Virus Serum Antibodies in Swine
The objective of this research was to compare the performance of influenza serum antibody assays using samples collected from pigs (vaccinated or unvaccinated) inoculated with either A/Swine/OH/511445/2007 γ H1N1 virus or A/Swine/Illinois/02907/2009 Cluster IV H3N2 virus and followed for 42 days. Weekly serum samples were tested for anti‐IAV antibodies using homologous and heterologous haemagglutination‐inhibition (HI) assays, commercial swine influenza H1N1 and H3N2 indirect ELISAs, and a commercial influenza nucleoprotein (NP)‐blocking ELISA. The homologous HIs showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity, but largely fail...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - February 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: C. K. Goodell, J. Prickett, A. Kittawornrat, J. Johnson, J. Zhang, C. Wang, J. J. Zimmerman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Researchers discover swine flu vaccine causes narcolepsy
A team of Swedish clinicians have clinically linked a 2009 swine flu vaccine to increased risk of narcolepsy in young adults, and a group of Danish researchers now understand how and why. Pandemrix, an influenza vaccine unleashed in 2009, was widely administered to... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - January 27, 2014 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Determinants of individuals' risks to 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection at household level amongst Djibouti city residents - A CoPanFlu cross-sectional study
In this study, the indicator of positive infection status was set at an HI titre of >= 80, which was a relevant surrogate to the seroconversion criterion. All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. An overall sero-prevalence of 29.1% and a geometrical mean titre (GMT) of 39.5% among the residents was observed. Youths, =65 years had the highest titres, with values of 35.9% and 29.5%, respectively. Significantly, risk was high amongst youths (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - January 27, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Fred AndayiPascal CrepeyAlexia KiefferNicolas SalezAmmar AbdoFabrice CarratAntoine FlahualtXavier de Lamballerie Source Type: research

L.A. hospitals gird for rise in flu cases
With statewide deaths outpacing last year's and being blamed in part on a 'swine flu' strain, L.A. facilities worry about its spread.Despite a statewide drop in reported influenza cases, Los Angeles hospitals are preparing for this year's season to worsen in the coming weeks, fearful of the deadly H1N1 "swine flu" virus strain that is to blame for most of this year's flu deaths. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)
Source: Los Angeles Times - Science - January 25, 2014 Category: Science Source Type: news

Anti-swine flu vaccination linked to increased risk of narcolepsy in young adults
(Wiley) Pandemrix is an influenza vaccination, created in 2009 to combat H1N1, known as Swine Flu. Now, a team of Swedish clinicians testing the vaccine for links to immune-related or neurological diseases have linked Pandemrix to an increased risk of narcolepsy in young adults. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - January 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Comparative Dynamics and Distribution of Influenza Drug Resistance Acquisition to Protein M2 and Neuraminidase Inhibitors
This study demonstrates the power of large-scale analyses to uncover and monitor the emergence dynamics of drug resistance. (Source: Molecular Biology and Evolution)
Source: Molecular Biology and Evolution - January 21, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Garcia, V., Aris-Brosou, S. Tags: Discoveries Source Type: research

[Personal View] A possible outbreak of swine influenza, 1892
Influenza A viruses are globally enzootic in swine populations. Swine influenza has been recognised only since 1918, but an anecdotal report suggests that a swine-influenza epizootic might have occurred in England in 1892, at the same time as an explosive epidemic (or pandemic recurrence) of human influenza. This outbreak suggests that the ecobiological association between human and swine influenza could extend to before 1918. By contrast with the recent documentation of swine influenza, influenza in horses has been well documented for hundreds of years, and was often linked temporally and geographically to epidemics of hu...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - January 20, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: David M Morens, Jeffery K Taubenberger Tags: Personal View Source Type: research

Accurate classification and hemagglutinin amino acid signatures for influenza A virus host-origin association and subtyping.
Abstract Host-origin classification and signatures of influenza A viruses were investigated based on the HA protein for tracking of the HA host of origin. Hidden Markov models (HMMs), decision trees and associative classification for each influenza A virus subtype and its major hosts (human, avian, swine) were generated. Features of the HA protein signatures that were host-and subtype-specific were sought. Host-associated signatures that occurred in different subtypes of the virus were identified. Evaluation of the classification models based on ROC curves and support and confidence ratings for the amino acid class...
Source: Virology - January 18, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Elhefnawi M, Sherif FF Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Avian influenza H9N2 seroprevalence among swine farm residents in China
In parts of southern China, some large‐scale swine farms are adjacent to lakes and ponds that are home to many types of birds. Some swine farms will also raise poultry for consumption and sale. Swine farms in rural China may be the source of the AIV outbreak. A seroepidemiological study was conducted among swine farm residents to understand the prevalence of antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 in southern China. A total of 2,006 swine farm residents were sampled. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against H9N2 AIV by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays. A ...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - January 4, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Pei Zhou, Wanjun Zhu, Honglang Gu, Xinliang Fu, Lifang Wang, Yun Zheng, Shuyi He, Changwen Ke, Heng Wang, Ziguo Yuan, Zhangyong Ning, Wenbao Qi, Shoujun Li, Guihong Zhang Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

A Historical Perspective of Influenza A(H1N2) Virus.
We report on the differing histories of A(H1N2) viruses among humans and animals. PMID: 24377419 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Komadina N, McVernon J, Hall R, Leder K Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

JEPM January 2014—Abstracts
Recent outbreaks of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) have involved humans and a wide variety of animal species, including swine, cats, ferrets, dogs, turkeys, and cheetahs. The recent H1N1 pandemic was first recognized in children in California in 2009, from which it spread around the globe in 2 major waves. However, by 2010, little or no pH1N1 had been identified in humans in the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania. In October 2010, a 2.5-month-old previously healthy male ferret (index ferret) presented to a veterinary clinic in the Lehigh Valley region with a 5-day history of sneezing, coughing, anorexia, and lethargy....
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Connie Orcutt Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

Flu Activity Now Widespread In Mass.; H1N1 Dominant Strain
BOSTON (CBS/AP) –Flu season appears to be in full swing in Massachusetts, with health officials reporting cases statewide. Health care providers are seeing an uptick in the H1N1 strain that was prevalent in 2009. H1N1 or “Swine Flu” typically causes more illness in children and young adults, compared to older adults, although severe illness is possible in all age groups. The Center for Disease Control says hardest hit areas include Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania. Flu is usually the worst in January or February, although last year the illness hit the U.S. very hard in early December. According to...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - December 29, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Kckatzman Tags: Health Healthwatch Local News Syndicated Local CBS Boston flu season H1N1 Swine Flu WBZ Source Type: news

Flu Activity Now Widespread In Mass.; H1N1 Dominant Strain
BOSTON (CBS/AP) –Flu season appears to be in full swing in Massachusetts, with health officials reporting 860 cases statewide. Health care providers are seeing an uptick in the H1N1 strain that was prevalent in 2009. H1N1 or “Swine Flu” typically causes more illness in children and young adults, compared to older adults, although severe illness is possible in all age groups. The CDC says this year’s vaccine does protect against the H1N1 strain. The Center for Disease Control says hardest hit areas include Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania. Flu is usually the worst in January or February, alth...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - December 29, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Kckatzman Tags: Health Healthwatch Local News Syndicated Local CBS Boston flu season H1N1 Swine Flu WBZ Source Type: news

Influenza and other emerging respiratory viruses
Abstract: Acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major worldwide health problem, particularly in childhood. About 30–50% of acute LRTIs are viral in origin with influenza A infection a key cause of explosive community outbreaks. Many different influenza A viruses occur naturally in animal reservoirs and present a constant threat of zoonotic infections and global pandemics. Since 2009, when pandemic (H1N1) influenza A emerged from a swine origin, there have been a number of different zoonotic influenza A transmissions into the human population, including H1N1 and H3N2 variant viruses in North America and H...
Source: Medicine - December 23, 2013 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Maria Zambon Tags: Viral infections Source Type: research

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross‐protective immunity against Eurasian ‘avian‐like’ H1N1 swine viruses in mice
ConclusionsSystemic immunization of mice with CA/09‐derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross‐protective immunity against recent EA‐like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross‐reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA‐like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - December 23, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria R. Castrucci, Marzia Facchini, Giuseppina Di Mario, Bruno Garulli, Ester Sciaraffia, Monica Meola, Concetta Fabiani, Maria A. Marco, Paolo Cordioli, Antonio Siccardi, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Isabella Donatelli Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

New swine influenza project to better understand virus transmission and develop new control strategies
The Pirbright Institute in Surrey has been awarded £4.4 million to work with researchers from the universities of Bristol, Cambridge and Oxford as well as the AHVLA (Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, TGAC (The Genome Analysis Centre) and industry partners Merial, on a long-term study on the transmission of swine influenza. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - December 11, 2013 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: news_text Tags: Press releases Source Type: news

Cross‐Sectional Serosurvey of Avian Influenza Antibodies Presence in Domestic Ducks of Kathmandu, Nepal
The objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the prevalence of seroconversion to AIV in domestic ducks in major duck‐raising areas of Kathmandu and (ii) to assess the effect of age, sex, presence of swine and the number of ducks on the farm on the carriage of antibodies to AIV in these ducks. From April through July of 2011, a cross‐sectional study was conducted and a total of 310 ducks in the major duck‐raising areas of Kathmandu were sampled. The estimated prevalence of AIV antibodies was 27.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 24.6–29.5]. Of 62 enrolled farms, 42% had at least one seropositive duck. Half of th...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - December 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: S. Karki, B. Lupiani, C. M. Budke, S. Manandhar, R. Ivanek Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Isolated from Swine, Japan, 2012.
Abstract We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time. PMID: 24274745 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - November 30, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kobayashi M, Takayama I, Kageyama T, Tsukagoshi H, Saitoh M, Ishioka T, Yokota Y, Kimura H, Tashiro M, Kozawa K Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of a Novel Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus in the Japanese Population.
Abstract Antibody distribution to a novel swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) variant virus among different age groups in Japan was determined by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. Japanese children in the age group 1-14 years were at a higher risk than those in older age groups. PMID: 24270150 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 30, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kishida N, Imai M, Xu H, Taya K, Fujisaki S, Takashita E, Tashiro M, Odagiri T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Vaccination 'a civic duty' according to new report
This report provides useful information about adult immunisations in the UK as well as useful recommendations for increasing immunisation coverage, particularly among social care workers. However, it does not replace current guidelines for recommended vaccines. Currently recommended vaccines for adults in the UK are described below.    Who produced the report? This report, titled ‘Immune response. Adult immunisation in the UK’ was written by the UK’s International Longevity Centre (ILC-UK). According its website, the ILC-UK is a registered charity and independent think tank dedicated to addressing issues of longev...
Source: NHS News Feed - November 19, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medical practice Medication Older people QA articles Source Type: news

Comparison of influenza A virus infection in high‐ and low‐birth‐weight pigs using morphometric analysis
ConclusionsLung lesion severity and influenza staining intensity were significantly lower in LBW compared with HBW pigs (P < 0·05). Additionally, examining just the LBW group, the significant difference between lobes (P = 0·009) showed that the mean score for the right cranial lung lobe was higher compared with the other three lobes. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Susan E. Detmer, Rayna E. Gunvaldsen, John C. Harding Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Swine influenza: clinical, serological, pathological, and virological cross‐sectional studies in nine farms in Argentina
ConclusionsBecause vaccines against IAV are not licensed in Argentina, these results reflect the situation of IAV infection in non‐vaccinated herds. This study provides more information about the circulation and characteristics of IAV in a poorly surveyed region. This study provides more data that will be used to evaluate the tools necessary to control this disease. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marina Dibárbora, Javier Cappuccio, Valeria Olivera, Maria Quiroga, Mariana Machuca, Carlos Perfumo, Daniel Pérez, Ariel Pereda Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Epidemiological survey of swine influenza A virus in the wild boar population of two Italian provinces
ConclusionsThis study suggests that SIV actively circulates in the wild boar population in the investigated. area. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emanuela Foni, Chiara Garbarino, Chiara Chiapponi, Laura Baioni, Irene Zanni, Paolo Cordioli Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Swine influenza in Norway: a distinct lineage of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus
ConclusionsA(H1N1)pdm09 virus detected in Norwegian pigs by the end of 2011 formed a distinct genetic lineage. Also, our findings indicate that reverse‐zoonotic transmission from humans to pigs of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus is still important. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hilde Forberg, Anna G. Hauge, Britt Gjerset, Olav Hungnes, Anette Kilander Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Awareness and practices regarding zoonotic influenza prevention in Romanian swine workers
ConclusionsDespite awareness and concern regarding zoonotic influenza, Romanian swine workers report low rates of influenza vaccine or respiratory protection. As part of global pandemic influenza preparedness, enhanced prevention programs for swine workers should address such gaps. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter M. Rabinowitz, Eileen Huang, Blanca Paccha, Sally Vegso, Anca Gurzau Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Swine influenza virus vaccine serologic cross‐reactivity to contemporary US swine H3N2 and efficacy in pigs infected with an H3N2 similar to 2011–2012 H3N2v
ConclusionsSwine IAV in the United States is complex and dynamic. Vaccination to minimize virus shedding can help limit transmission of virus among pigs and people. However, vaccines must be updated. A critical review of the use of WIV in sows is required in the context of the current IAV ecology and vaccine application in pigs with MDA. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pravina Kitikoon, Phillip C. Gauger, Tavis K. Anderson, Marie R. Culhane, Sabrina Swenson, Crystal L. Loving, Daniel R. Perez, Amy L. Vincent Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Population dynamics of cocirculating swine influenza A viruses in the United States from 2009 to 2012
ConclusionsSurveillance and reporting of IAV in US swine have increased since 2009, and we demonstrate a period of expanded viral diversity. These data may be used to inform intervention strategies of vaccine and diagnostic updates and changes in swine health management. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tavis K. Anderson, Martha I. Nelson, Pravina Kitikoon, Sabrina L. Swenson, John A. Korslund, Amy L. Vincent Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus antibodies in pigs and residents of swine farms, southern China
This study provides the first data regarding antibodies against H5N1 AIV in humans and pigs on swine farms in China. The findings of this study can serve as a baseline for additional serologic studies to assess transmission of H5N1 viruses between avian species, pigs and swine workers. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - November 14, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Nan Cao, Wanjun Zhu, Ye Chen, Likai Tan, Pei Zhou, Zhenpeng Cao, Changwen Ke, Yugu Li, Jie Wu, Wenbao Qi, Peirong Jiao, Guihong Zhang Tags: Full length articles Source Type: research

Experts with links to drugs industry 'hyped swine flu'
Conclusion This was a well-conducted study, albeit based on a small sample of articles. The finding that academics with ties to the drugs industry were more likely to make a higher assessment of risk from swine flu, and those promoting the use of antiviral drugs were more likely to have industry links, is worrying. The general issue of academics with undisclosed links to the pharmaceutical industry being interviewed by journalists is of concern. That said, the study does not prove that media coverage either fuelled public anxiety about swine flu or the policy decisions made about drug or vaccine funding. Similarly, the...
Source: NHS News Feed - November 12, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medical practice Medication Swine flu Source Type: news

Academics linked to drug industry 'exaggerated' swine flu risk
New research published in the BMJ has suggested that academics with links to the pharmaceutical industry were more likely to give increased risk assessments of the swine flu pandemic of 2009/10 when talking to the media, compared with academics who were not linked to the pharmaceutical industry. Swine flu is a highly contagious respiratory disease found in pigs. The H1N1 influenza subtype is the type that has been known to infect humans, with outbreaks occurring worldwide throughout 2009 and 2010... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - November 12, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Swine Flu Source Type: news

Antibodies against avian‐like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus among swine farm residents in eastern China
This study provides the first data on avian‐like A (H1N1) SIV infections in humans in China; the potential for avian‐like A (H1N1) SIV entering the human population should also be taken into consideration. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - November 8, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Xiuchen Yin, Xin Yin, Baizhong Rao, Chunfang Xie, Pengchao Zhang, Xian Qi, Ping Wei, Huili Liu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Analysis of the acute‐phase protein response in pigs to clinical and subclinical infection with H3N2 swine influenza virus
ConclusionsNo relevant clinical signs were observed in intranasally infected pigs. In contrast, coughing, nasal discharge, and fever were observed in pigs infected intratracheally. All infected pigs exhibited specific antibodies in the serum at 10 dpi, and viral shedding was confirmed. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were significantly increased after infection. The level of Pig‐MAP remained constant during subclinical and clinical infection. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were higher in pigs with clinical disease. Although not specific, strategic APP measurements may reveal ongoing clinical and subclinical...
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Małgorzata Pomorska‐Mól, Kwit Krzysztof, Zygmunt Pejsak, Iwona Markowska‐Daniel Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Probiotic pickled turnip touted as ‘flu wonder cure’
Conclusion This simple experiment showed that giving a bacterial extract found in Japanese pickled turnip to mice, as a preventative treatment for flu, reduced some of the symptomatic effects of flu upon subsequent infection. Specifically, it lessened body weight loss and reduced declines in general health during a seven-day flu period. While the results are encouraging, it is too soon to roll out the red carpet and welcome a “new wonder cure” as both the headlines in the Daily Express and Mail Online suggest. For instance, mice given the Japanese pickle extract still experienced declines in body weight of approximate...
Source: NHS News Feed - November 6, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Food/diet Medical practice Medication Swine flu Source Type: news

Molecular Phylogeny and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza A Nonstructural (NS) Gene.
In this study, the phylogenetic analysis of 7,581 NS sequences revealed ten distinct lineages within alleles A and B: three host-specific (human, classical swine and equine), two reassortment-originated (A(H1N1)pdm09 and triple reassortment swine), one transmission-originated (Eurasian swine), and two geographically isolated avian (Eurasian/Oceanian and North American) for allele A and two geographically isolated avian (Eurasian/Oceanian and North American) for allele B. The average nucleotide substitution rates of the lineages range from 1.24×10(-3) (equine) to 4.34×10(-3) (A(H1N1)pdm09) substitutions per site per year....
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - October 22, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xu J, Zhong HA, Madrahimov A, Helikar T, Lu G Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Simultaneous Detection of Influenza Viruses A, B, and Swine Origin Influenza A Using Multiplex One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR Assay.
Abstract Every year, seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses are causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Also infrequent novel and rearranged strains of influenza viruses have caused quick, acute universal pandemics resulting in millions of mortalities. The usage of efficient and accurate detection is superior for infection control, effective treatment, and epidemiological supervision. Therefore, evaluation of useful real-time PCR molecular tests for the detection of pandemic viruses is important before the next wave of the pandemic. A novel quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase ch...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - October 19, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Monavari SH, Mollaie HR, Fazlalipour M Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Population susceptibility to North American and Eurasian swine influenza viruses in England, at three time points between 2004 and 2011.
PMID: 24079379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - October 5, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hoschler K, Thompson C, Casas I, Ellis J, Galiano M, Andrews N, Zambon M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Virological and serological study of human infection with swine influenza A H1N1 virus in China.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the importance of performing surveillance on swine influenza to monitor new virus emergence in humans. PMID: 24074566 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - October 3, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Zu R, Dong L, Qi X, Wang D, Zou S, Bai T, Li M, Li X, Zhao X, Xu C, Huo X, Xiang N, Yang S, Li Z, Xu Z, Wang H, Shu Y Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses.
This study suggests that the R189K mutation plays a vital role in the antigenicity of swine and human H3N2 IAVs and identification of this antigenic determinant will help us rapidly identify antigenic variants in influenza surveillance. PMID: 24074585 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - October 3, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Ye J, Xu Y, Harris J, Sun H, Bowman AS, Cunningham F, Cardona C, Yoon KJ, Slemons RD, Wan XF Tags: Virology Source Type: research