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Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen
by Wendy Gibson, Lori Peacock, Vanessa Ferris, Katrin Fischer, Jennifer Livingstone, James Thomas, Mick Bailey Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African T...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 27, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Wendy Gibson et al. Source Type: research

Mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor mediated apoptosis in H3N2 swine influenza virus infection is inhibited by viral protein NS1 in vitro
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015 Source:Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Author(s): Jinqiu Zhang , Jinfeng Miao , Jibo Hou , Chengping Lu We investigated the in vitro role of mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor (MAVS) in apoptosis induced by H3N2 swine influenza virus infection and the influence of viral NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) protein on this process. H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV, A/Swine/Shandong/3/2005) was co-cultured with human lung epithelial A549 cells. The relationship of MAVS expression to SIV replication and apoptosis, and the influence of viral proteins on MAVS functions...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 20, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Monoclonal antibody specific to HA2 glycopeptide protects mice from H3N2 influenza virus infection
In this study, seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CIV JS/10 (an H3N2 subtype virus) were produced and characterized. Among them, mAb D7, which is specific for the HA2 glycopeptide (gp), induced the highest neutralization titers. The protection provided by mAb D7 was evaluated in BALB/c mice challenged with homologous or heterologous strains of H3N2 influenza virus, including two strains of CIV and one strain of swine influenza virus (SIV). The data show that mAb D7 protected the mice from infection with the three viral strains, especially the homologous strain, which was indicated by the recovery of body weight, re...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Efficient Isolation of Swine Influenza Viruses by Age-Targeted Specimen Collection [Clinical Veterinary Microbiology]
The control of swine influenza virus (SIV) infection is paramount for increasing the productivity of pig farming and minimizing the threat of pandemic outbreaks. Thus, SIV surveillance should be conducted by region and on a regular basis. Here, we established a microneutralization assay specific for SIV seroprevalence surveillance by using reporter gene-expressing recombinant influenza viruses. Growth-based SIV seroprevalence revealed that most sows and piglets were positive for neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses. In contrast, the 90-day-old growing pigs exhibited limited neutralizing activity in their sera,...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - March 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ozawa, M., Matsuu, A., Yonezawa, K., Igarashi, M., Okuya, K., Kawabata, T., Ito, K., Tsukiyama-Kohara, K., Taneno, A., Deguchi, E. Tags: Clinical Veterinary Microbiology Source Type: research

The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893–2014
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): A. Sally Davis , Jeffery K. Taubenberger , Mike Bray Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - March 15, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Studies on flu like H1NI led to information on homoeopathic medicines: Government
Studies on influenza like H1N1 during swine flu pandemic in 2009 has resulted in identification of specific homoeopathic medicines, LS was informed. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - March 13, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Swine flu outbreak in India raises concern: New strain of H1N1 may carry dangerous mutations
Since December, an outbreak of swine flu in India has killed more than 1,200 people, and a new study suggests that the strain has acquired mutations that make it more dangerous than previously circulating strains of H1N1 influenza. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Influenza Surveillance: 2014-2015 H1N1 "Swine"-Derived Influenza Viruses from India.
Abstract The 2014-15 H1N1 outbreak in India has reportedly led to 800 fatalities. The reported influenza hemagglutinin sequences from India indicate that these viruses contain amino acid changes linked to enhanced virulence and are potentially antigenically distinct from the current vaccine containing 2009 (Cal0709) H1N1 viral hemagglutinin. PMID: 25766285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - March 11, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tharakaraman K, Sasisekharan R Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Influenza A virus plasticity—A temporal analysis of species-associated genomic signatures
Conclusion Analyzing how species-associated signatures are becoming human-like in human-isolated avian influenza A viruses helps in assessing their potential to go pandemic as well as providing insights into host adaptation. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - March 7, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Influenza A virus plasticity-A temporal analysis of species-associated genomic signatures.
CONCLUSION: Analyzing how species-associated signatures are becoming human-like in human-isolated avian influenza A viruses helps in assessing their potential to go pandemic as well as providing insights into host adaptation. PMID: 25754840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J Formos Med Assoc)
Source: J Formos Med Assoc - March 6, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chen GW, Gong YN, Shih SR Tags: J Formos Med Assoc Source Type: research

The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893-2014.
Abstract Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza was established in the early 1930s, studies in NHPs have been supplemented by a much larger number of experiments in mice, ...
Source: Antiviral Research - March 5, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Sally Davis A, Taubenberger JK, Bray M Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in pigs, Togo, 2013
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Mariette F. Ducatez , Félix Awoume , Richard J. Webby We collected 325 nasal swabs from freshly slaughtered previously healthy pigs from October 2012 through January 2014 in a slaughterhouse near Lomé in Togo. Influenza A virus genome was detected by RT-PCR in 2.5% to 12.3% of the pooled samples, and results of hemagglutinin subtyping RT-PCR assays showed the virus in all the positive pools to be A(H1N1)pdm09. Virus was isolated on MDCK cells from a representative specimen, A/swine/Togo/ONA32/2013(H1N1). The isolate was fully sequ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 4, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Researchers monitor for next novel influenza strain
While flu season starts to die down, researchers are diligently monitoring for the next novel influenza virus by monitoring swine influenza viruses. The work is starting with swine in the field. Researchers are surveying for swine influenza viruses as part of a $1 million grant from the National Institutes of Health. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 3, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.
Abstract Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic dri...
Source: Biotechnology Journal - March 2, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Krammer F Tags: Biotechnol J Source Type: research

Avian influenza H9N2 seroprevalence among pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China
Conclusions: These findings revealed that there were H9N2 AIV infections in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to conduct the long-term surveillance of AIV in pig population and the pig farm staff. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - March 1, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Song LiYufa ZhouYuxin ZhaoWenbo LiWengang SongZengmin Miao Source Type: research

World Briefing: India: Swine Flu Prompts City’s Caution
A west Indian city has banned most public gatherings in an attempt to halt the spread of swine flu, which has claimed at least 926 lives nationwide in 11 weeks. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 26, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Tags: India Influenza Swine Influenza Source Type: news

Vaccine Narratives and Public Health: Investigating Criticisms of H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination
Conclusions In order to understand the ways in which individuals make decisions regarding vaccine use, it is important to access the public discourse surrounding vaccination. Such narratives incorporate ideas about vaccinations which, while contrary to medical and scientific viewpoints, underpins the public understanding of vaccines. As such, it is important to see vaccine hesitancy as much a result of public discourse as it is a problem of individual decision-making. The Council of Europe’s criticisms of the use of vaccines during the H1N1 Pandemic reflect many dominant discourses – lay understandings of vaccination a...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 25, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: abeysinghe Source Type: research

Airport screening for viruses misses half of infected travelers but can be improved, says UCLA-led study
In the past decade, the H1N1 virus and Ebola are just two of the diseases whose spread was spurred by international airline travel. Screening passengers at airports, therefore, could be one key method for slowing the global spread of infectious diseases. And although a team lead by UCLA researchers has found that airport screening misses at least half of infected travelers, the scientists say that rate could be improved. Their research was published in eLife, a highly regarded open-access online science journal. The life scientists used a mathematical model to analyze screening for six viruses: the SARS coronavirus, the Eb...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - February 25, 2015 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Swine flu: WHO 'carefully watching' situation in India
A senior WHO official said the seasonal influenza was quite normal at this time of the year and that its India office was closely working with the govt for dealing with the disease. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - February 24, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

India Deploys Expert Teams to Study Rise in Flu Cases
Officials are trying to determine the extent of illness, which has caused 700 deaths since the beginning of the year. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 20, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: By ELLEN BARRY and HARI KUMAR Tags: India Epidemics Influenza Deaths (Fatalities) Swine Influenza World Health Organization Source Type: news

Influenza A viruses of swine circulating in the United States during 2009–2014 are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors but show lineage-dependent resistance to adamantanes
This study defines a drug-susceptibility profile, identifies the frequency of drug-resistant markers, and establishes a phylogenetic approach for continued antiviral-susceptibility monitoring of IAV-S in the U.S. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - February 19, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Influenza A viruses of swine circulating in the United States during 2009-2014 are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors but show lineage-dependent resistance to adamantanes.
This study defines a drug-susceptibility profile, identifies the frequency of drug-resistant markers, and establishes a phylogenetic approach for continued antiviral-susceptibility monitoring of IAV-S in the U.S. PMID: 25701593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - February 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Baranovich T, Bahl J, Marathe BM, Culhane M, Stigger-Rosser E, Darnell D, Kaplan BS, Lowe JF, Webby RJ, Govorkova EA Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Characterization of co-circulating swine influenza A viruses in North America and the identification of a novel H1 genetic clade with antigenic significance.
Abstract Multiple genetically and antigenically distinct hemagglutinin genes of the H1 and H3 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes co-circulate in North American swine. This diversity has evolved by repeated transmission of IAVs from humans to swine and subsequent antigenic drift in swine. To understand the evolutionary dynamics of these diverse HA lineages in North American swine, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of 1576 H1 and 607 H3 HA gene segments, as well as 834 N1 and 1293 N2 NA gene segments, and 2126M gene segments. These data revealed yearly co-circulation of H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 viruses, with three HA cl...
Source: Virus Research - February 18, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Anderson TK, Campbell BA, Nelson MI, Lewis NS, Janas-Martindale A, Killian ML, Vincent AL Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Antibody responses to influenza viruses in paediatric patients and their contacts at the onset of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico
Conclusion: The antibody response to 2009 pandemic influenza virus was widespread in convalescence samples from patients with confirmed pandemic influenza infection but the GMT was below the protective titre. There was no evidence that antibodies to the swine influenza viruses had cross-protective effect against the 2009 pandemic influenza virus. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - February 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The first lack of evidence of H7N9 avian influenza virus infections among pigs in Eastern China
In this study, we sought to examine whether evidence existed suggesting that pigs were being infected with the novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. From November 2012 to November 2013, blood was drawn from 1560 pigs from 100 large farms in 4 provinces of eastern China. Many of these pigs were in close proximity to wild birds or poultry. Swine sera were studied using hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against the H7 antigen derived from the emergent H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV). Only 29 of the 1560 samples had HI titers of 1:20 when using the H7N9 AIV antigens, and none of ...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - February 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Altered splenic miRNA expression profile in H1N1 swine influenza
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated the key regulatory roles played by microRNAs (miRNAs) in influenza virus-host interactions. To gain more insight into the contribution of miRNAs to the host immune response, spleen tissues from mice infected with A/Swine/GD/2/12 (H1N1) virus were harvested 5 days postinfection, and miRNA deep sequencing was performed. The results showed that 50 miRNAs were modulated. Interestingly, pathway analysis of miRNAs and targets showed that upregulated miR-124-3p interacts with innate immune-related pathways such as the Toll-like receptor pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling p...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Assessment of transmission, pathogenesis and adaptation of H2 subtype influenza viruses in ferrets.
Abstract After their disappearance from the human population in 1968, influenza H2 viruses have continued to circulate in the natural avian reservoir. The isolation of this virus subtype from multiple bird species as well as swine highlights the need to better understand the potential of these viruses to spread and cause disease in humans. Here we analyzed the virulence, transmissibility and receptor-binding preference of two avian influenza H2 viruses (H2N2 and H2N3) and compared them to a swine H2N3 (A/swine/Missouri/2124514/2006 [swMO]), and a human H2N2 (A/England/10/1967 [Eng/67]) virus using the ferret model ...
Source: Virology - February 4, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Pappas C, Yang H, Carney PJ, Pearce MB, Katz JM, Stevens J, Tumpey TM Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Emergence of human-like H3N2 influenza viruses in pet dogs in Guangxi, China
Conclusions: These two viruses share the highest homology with swine H3N2, Moscow/99-like viruses, which indicated that these viruses might originate from swine viruses. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - February 3, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ying ChenYan-Ning MoHua-Bo ZhouZu-Zhang WeiGuo-Jun WangQing-Xiong YuXiong XiaoWen-Juan YangWei-Jian Huang Source Type: research

Medicos asked to adhere to Standard Universal Precautions on swine flu
Delhi government directed all 25 designated hospitals to strictly adhere to the Standard Universal Precautions while dealing with H1N1 influenza patients. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - January 30, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT‐PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus
In this study, we describe validation of a new probe‐based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT‐PCR) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on a compact, user‐friendly device (POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer) that does not need data interpretation by the user. The assay accurately detected CSFV RNA from a diverse panel of 33 CSFV strains representing all three genotypes plus an additional in vitro‐transcribed RNA from cloned sequences representing a vaccine strain. No cross‐reactivity was observed with a panel of 18 viruses associated with livestock including eight other ...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - January 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: O. Lung, J. Pasick, M. Fisher, C. Buchanan, A. Erickson, A. Ambagala Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of biological characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from different hosts
In this study, eight H9N2 viruses, isolated from chickens (Ck/F98, Ck/AH and Ck/TX), pigeons (Pg/XZ), quail/(Ql/A39), ducks (Dk/Y33) and swine (Sw/YZ and Sw/TZ) were selected, and their biological characteristics were determined. The results showed that all H9N2 viruses maintained a preference for both the avian- and human-type receptors, except for Sw/TZ, which had exclusive preference for the human-type receptor. The viruses replicated well in DF-1 and MDCK cells, whereas only three isolates, Ck/F98, Ck/TX and Sw/TZ, could replicate in A549 cells and also replicated in mouse lungs, resulting in body weight loss in mice. ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 23, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

'By failing to prepare you are preparing to fail': lessons from the 2009 H1N1 'swine flu' pandemic
Conclusions: Policy makers should prioritize investment in the skills and expertise required to achieve desired behaviour changes. Audience research should be conducted throughout the planning cycle to inform national communications strategies. This should include insights to inform the segmentation of public audiences, targeting of messages and consideration of content and emotional tone most likely to achieve desired behavioural outcomes. (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - January 23, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Crosier, A., McVey, D., French, J. Tags: Infectious diseases Source Type: research

Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants.
Abstract Influenza is an important respiratory disease of pigs, and may lead to novel human pathogens like the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (SoIV). Therefore, improved influenza vaccines for pigs are required. Recently, we demonstrated that single intranasal immunization with a hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing pseudorabies virus recombinant of vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) protected pigs from H1N1 SoIV challenge (Klingbeil et al., 2014). Now we investigated enhancement of efficacy by prime-boost vaccination and/or intramuscular administration. Furthermore, a novel PrV-Ba recombinant expressing codo...
Source: Virus Research - January 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Klingbeil K, Lange E, Blohm U, Teifke JP, Mettenleiter TC, Fuchs W Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Could brain protein help people 'sleep off' the flu?
Conclusion This complex study suggests the AcPb protein is playing a role in regulating normal sleep and the response to flu infection in mice. At this stage, the implications of this research for humans are unclear, as differences between the species may mean the results would not be exactly the same in humans. While The Telegraph suggests this "could finally lead to an effective treatment for the [flu], which until now has eluded experts", we are a long way off knowing whether this is the case. What the researchers have shown – in mice – is if you remove this protein, mice don't fight the virus as we...
Source: NHS News Feed - January 13, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Neurology Medication Heart/lungs Swine flu Source Type: news

Serological evidence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in pigs, West and Central Africa
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Chantal J. Snoeck , Olusoji J. Abiola , Aurélie Sausy , Mbah P. Okwen , Ayoade G. Olubayo , Ademola A. Owoade , Claude P. Muller Besides birds, pigs are another important reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to human, as highlighted by the emergence and spread of the pandemic (H1N1) virus (pdm/09) in 2009. Surveillance in pigs is therefore necessary for public health and influenza pandemic preparedness. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of data on influenza in Africa, especially in swine. We therefore coll...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 7, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.
Abstract The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human vi...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - January 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nelson MI, Vincent AL Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative virulence of wild-type H1N1pdm09 influenza A isolates in swine
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the HA protein can affect pathogenicity and antigenicity of H1N1pdm09 in swine. We compared lung pathology, viral replication and shedding and the antigenic relationships of four wild-type H1N1pdm09 viruses in pigs: one human (CA/09) and three isolated in swine after the pandemic (IL/09, IL/10, and MN/10). The swine strains were selected based upon unique amino acid substitutions in the HA protein. All selected viruses resulted in mild disease and viral shedding through nasal and oral fluids, however, viral replication and the degree of pathology varied bet...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow‐to‐finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil
ConclusionsThe serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - January 1, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: A.S. Dias, E.A. Costa, D.S Rajão, R.M.C Guedes, J.R. Ciacci Zanella, Z.I.P. Lobato Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Identification of putative interactions between swine and human influenza A virus nucleoprotein and human host proteins
Conclusions: Ten human proteins were identified as interacting with IAV NP in a Y2H screen. Some of these human proteins were reported in previous screens aimed at elucidating host proteins relevant to specific viral life cycle processes such as replication. This study extends previous findings by suggesting a mechanism by which these host proteins associate with the IAV, i.e., physical interaction with NP. Furthermore, this study revealed novel host protein-NP interactions in yeast. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - December 30, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Alex GenerousMolly ThorsonJeff BarcusJoseph JacherMarc BuschHeidi Sleister Source Type: research

Identification of putative interactions between swine and human influenza A virus nucleoprotein and human host proteins
Conclusions: Ten human proteins were identified as interacting with IAV NP in a Y2H screen. Some of these human proteins were reported in previous screens aimed at elucidating host proteins relevant to specific viral life cycle processes such as replication. This study extends previous findings by suggesting a mechanism by which these host proteins associate with the IAV, i.e., physical interaction with NP. Furthermore, this study revealed novel host protein-NP interactions in yeast. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - December 30, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Alex GenerousMolly ThorsonJeff BarcusJoseph JacherMarc BuschHeidi Sleister Source Type: research

Roles of p38 MAPK in the regulation of the inflammatory response to swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in mice.
Abstract UNLABELLED: Swine influenza virus (SIV), one of the most important zoonotic agents, is associated with major public health concerns. The current study was conducted to investigate the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the regulation of the inflammatory response to acute lung injury (ALI) induced by SIV of H9N2 subtype (H9N2-SIV) in mice. For this purpose, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with 20 LD50 of H9N2-SIV (infected group), while non-infected mice served as control (control group). To assess the effect of p38 MAPK, its specific inhibitor SB203580 was employed followed ...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wei D, Huang ZH, Zhang RH, Wang CL, Xu MJ, Liu BJ, Wang GH, Xu T Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses in Thai swine farms, 2011–2014
Abstract The pig is known as a “mixing vessel” for influenza A viruses. The co-circulation of multiple influenza A subtypes in pig populations can lead to novel reassortant strains. For this study, swine influenza surveillance was conducted from September 2011 to February 2014 on 46 swine farms in Thailand. In total, 78 swine influenza viruses were isolated from 2,821 nasal swabs, and 12 were selected for characterization by whole genome sequencing. Our results showed that the co-circulation of swine influenza subtypes H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 in Thai swine farms was observable throughout the 3 years of surveilla...
Source: Virus Genes - December 11, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers
Publication date: 15 December 2014 Source:Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Volume 162, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Lasse Eggers Pedersen , Gregers Jungersen , Maria Rathmann Sorensen , Chak-Sum Ho , Dorte Fink Vadekær The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen lea...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 11, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Two different genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in northern China and their pathogenicity in animals
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2014 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Huanliang Yang , Yan Chen , Chuanling Qiao , Chuantian Xu , Minghua Yan , Xiaoguang Xin , Zhigao Bu , Hualan Chen During 2006 and 2007, two swine-origin triple-reassortant influenza A (H1N2) viruses were isolated from pigs in northern China, and the antigenic characteristics of the hemagglutinin protein of the viruses were examined. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated different emergence patterns for the two H1N2 viruses, Sw/Hebei/10/06 and Sw/Tianjin/1/07. Sequences for the other genes encoding the internal protein...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 11, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cultural epidemiology of pandemic influenza in urban and rural Pune, India: a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study
Conclusions Although the term was well known, better recognition of pandemic influenza cases is needed, especially in rural areas. Improved awareness, access to treatment and timely referrals by private practitioners are also required to reduce treatment delays. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - December 8, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sundaram, N., Schaetti, C., Purohit, V., Kudale, A., Weiss, M. G. Tags: Open access, Global health, Infectious diseases, Public health Research Source Type: research

Influenza A Virus Surveillance Based on Pre‐Weaning Piglet Oral Fluid Samples
This study supported the use of oral fluid sampling as a means of conducting IAV surveillance in pig populations and demonstrated the inapparent circulation of IAV in piglets. Future work on IAV oral fluid diagnostics should focus on improved procedures for virus isolation, subtyping and sequencing of HA and NA genes. The role of antibody in IAV surveillance remains to be elucidated, but longitudinal assessment of specific antibody has the potential to provide information regarding patterns of infection, vaccination status and herd immunity. (Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases)
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - December 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Y. Panyasing, C. Goodell, A. Kittawornrat, C. Wang, I. Levis, L. Desfresne, R. Rauh, P. C. Gauger, J. Zhang, X. Lin, S. Azeem, S. Ghorbani‐Nezami, K.‐J. Yoon, J. Zimmerman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from Ontario swine in 2011 and 2012
Conclusions: The characterization of the Ontario H3N2 viruses clearly indicates reassortment of gene segments between the North American swine trH3N2 from cluster IV and the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - November 22, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Helena Grgi¿Marcio CostaRobert FriendshipSusy CarmanÉva NagyGreg WidemanScott WeeseZvonimir Poljak Source Type: research

Enhancement of influenza virus transmission by gene reassortment.
Authors: Li C, Chen H Abstract Influenza A virus is characterized by a genome composed of eight single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments, which allow for reassortment between different strains when they co-infect the same host cell. ReassortmentReassortment is an important driving force for the evolution of influenza virusesInfluenza viruses . The ability of reassortment allows influenza virus to endlessly reinvent itself and pose a constant threat to the health of humans and other animals. Of the four human influenza pandemics since the beginning of the last century, three of them were caused by reassortant vi...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and vaccination of influenza a virus in Swine.
Authors: Rajao DS, Anderson TK, Gauger PC, Vincent AL Abstract Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus (IAV) and characterized by fever followed by lethargy, anorexia, and serous nasal discharge. The disease progresses rapidly and may be complicated when associated with other respiratory pathogens. IAV is one of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens of swine, resulting in substantial economic burden to pork producers. In the past 10-15 years, a dramatic evolution of the IAV in U.S. swine has occurred, resulting in the co-circulation of many antigenically distinct IAV ...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Swine and influenza: a challenge to one health research.
Authors: Kahn RE, Ma W, Richt JA Abstract The challenge of increasing swineSwine production and a rising number of novel and known swine influenzaInfluenza viruses has prompted a considerable boost in research into how and why pigs have become such significant hosts for influenza viruses. The ecology of influenza A viruses is rather complicated, involving multiple host species and a segmented genome. Wild aquatic birds are the reservoir for the majority of influenza A viruses, but novel influenza viruses were recently identified in bats. Occasionally, influenza A viruses can be transmitted to mammals from avian spe...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research