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Swine alveolar macrophage cell model allows optimal replication of influenza A viruses regardless of their origin.
Abstract The importance of pigs in interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last century. Eleven influenza A viruses from avian, human and swine hosts were evaluated for replication phenotypes at three physiologically relevant temperatures (41°C, 37°C, 33°C) in an immortalized swine pulmonary alveolar macrophage cell line (IPAM 3D4/31) to determine whether this system would allow for their efficient replication. All isolates replicated well in IPAMs at 37°C while clear distinctions were observed at 41°C and 33°C, correlating to species of origin of the PB2, re...
Source: Virology - February 5, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Kasloff SB, Weingartl HM Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Three in hospital with influenza strain responsible for swine flu
Two other cases suspected in Wexford hospital, as HSE says H1N1 virus is circulating (Source: The Irish Times - Health)
Source: The Irish Times - Health - January 28, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Two in hospital with influenza strain responsible for swine flu
Patients being treated at Wexford hospital, HSE says H1N1 strain is circulating this year (Source: The Irish Times - Health)
Source: The Irish Times - Health - January 28, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Detection of Influenza D Virus among Swine and Cattle, Italy.
PMID: 26812282 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - January 27, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chiapponi C, Faccini S, De Mattia A, Baioni L, Barbieri I, Rosignoli C, Nigrelli A, Foni E Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Two patients in hospital in Scotland after contracting SWINE FLU
The patients, who have been diagnosed with the H1N1 strain of influenza, are being kept under observation at Wishaw General Hospital in North Lanarkshire, hospital officials confirmed today. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - January 19, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus
In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 16, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Avian-like H1N1 swine influenza in China [Microbiology]
Pigs are important intermediate hosts for generating novel influenza viruses. The Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses (SIVs) have circulated in pigs since 1979, and human cases associated with EAH1N1 SIVs have been reported in several countries. However, the biologic properties of EAH1N1 SIVs are largely unknown. Here, we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 12, 2016 Category: Science Authors: Yang, H., Chen, Y., Qiao, C., He, X., Zhou, H., Sun, Y., Yin, H., Meng, S., Liu, L., Zhang, Q., Kong, H., Gu, C., Li, C., Bu, Z., Kawaoka, Y., Chen, H. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v (‘swine flu’) pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom
Conclusions Interventions that target these factors may be effective in improving uptake in a future pandemic. (Source: Preventive Medicine)
Source: Preventive Medicine - January 11, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Prevalence of Influenza A Virus in Exhibition Swine during Arrival at Agricultural Fairs
Summary The exhibition swine at agricultural fairs provides a critical human–swine interface that allows for the bidirectional transmission of influenza A virus (IAV). Previous IAV surveillance at the end of fairs has resulted in frequent detection of IAV‐infected swine; little is known, however, about the frequency with which swine arrive at fairs already infected with IAV. We investigated the IAV prevalence among exhibition swine entering fairs to better understand the epidemiology of IAV in this unique human–swine interface. In 2014, snout wipes were collected from 3547 swine during the first day of nine agricultu...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - January 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: N. Bliss, S. W. Nelson, J. M. Nolting, A. S. Bowman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Virus susceptibility and clinical effectiveness of anti-influenza drugs during the 2010–2011 influenza season in Russia
Influenza A and B viruses are the most common human respiratory pathogens that cause annual epidemics with high morbidity and significant mortality. Occasionally influenza A viruses have caused pandemic outbreaks affecting millions of people worldwide. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised the global pandemic alert level to phase 6, the pandemic phase, in response to the emergence and global spread of a novel influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that contained a previously unseen combination of genes of swine origin. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 8, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: I.A. Leneva, E.I. Burtseva, S.B. Yatsyshina, I.T. Fedyakina, E.S. Kirillova, E.P. Selkova, E. Osipova, V.V. Maleev Source Type: research

Intradermal vaccination with un-adjuvanted sub-unit vaccines triggers skin innate immunity and confers protective respiratory immunity in domestic swine.
Abstract Intradermal (ID) vaccination constitutes a promising approach to induce anti-infectious immunity. This route of immunization has mostly been studied with influenza split-virion vaccines. However, the efficacy of ID vaccination for sub-unit vaccines in relation to underlying skin innate immunity remains to be explored for wider application in humans. Relevant animal models that more closely mimic human skin immunity than the widely used mouse models are therefore necessary. Here, we show in domestic swine, which shares striking anatomic and functional properties with human skin, that a single ID delivery of...
Source: Vaccine - January 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Le Luduec JB, Debeer S, Piras F, Andréoni C, Boudet F, Laurent P, Kaiserlian D, Dubois B Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation.
R, Wang C, Main R, Zimmerman JJ Abstract The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 assays based on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 assays based on virus isolation (VI). The OF specimens were inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially diluted 10-fold (10(-1) to 10(-8)). Eight participating laboratories received 180 randomized OF samples (10 replicates × 8 dilutions × 2 IAV subtypes plus 20 IAV-negative samples) and performed the rRT-PCR and VI procedure(s) of their choice. Analysis of the results with...
Source: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - January 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Goodell CK, Zhang J, Strait E, Harmon K, Patnayak D, Otterson T, Culhane M, Christopher-Hennings J, Clement T, Leslie-Steen P, Hesse R, Anderson J, Skarbek K, Vincent A, Kitikoon P, Swenson S, Jenkins-Moore M, McGill J, Rauh R, Nelson W, O'Connell C, Shah Tags: Can J Vet Res Source Type: research

Influenza A Virus Diversity and Transmission in Exhibition Swine
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Baranovich, T., Bahl, J. Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza A Viruses in US Exhibition Swine
The role of exhibition swine in influenza A virus transmission was recently demonstrated by >300 infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses among individuals who attended agricultural fairs. Through active influenza A virus surveillance in US exhibition swine and whole-genome sequencing of 380 isolates, we demonstrate that exhibition swine are actively involved in the evolution of influenza A viruses, including zoonotic strains. First, frequent introduction of influenza A viruses from commercial swine populations provides new genetic diversity in exhibition pigs each year locally. Second, genomic reassortment bet...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nelson, M. I., Wentworth, D. E., Das, S. R., Sreevatsan, S., Killian, M. L., Nolting, J. M., Slemons, R. D., Bowman, A. S. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses in pigs in Tianjin, Northern China
In this study, for the first time, we report the isolation and genetic analyses of three novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses from pigs in Tianjin, Northern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these novel viruses contained genes from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (PB2, PB1, PA and NP), Eurasian swine (HA, NA and M) and triple-reassortant swine (NS) lineages. This indicated that the reassortment among the 2009 pandemic H1N1, Eurasian swine and triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in Tianjin and resulted in the generation of new viruses. Furthermore, three human-like H1N1, two cla...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

World Briefing: Iran: Deadly Swine Flu Outbreak Is Likely to Spread, Official Warns
At least 33 people have died from a swine flu virus outbreak in two provinces of southwestern Iran in the past three weeks. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - December 8, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: RICK GLADSTONE Tags: Epidemics Iran Swine Influenza Source Type: news

Permissive growth of human adenovirus type 4 vaccine strain-based vector in porcine cell lines
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015 Source:Research in Veterinary Science Author(s): Dong-sheng Gao, Xiao-jing Li, Wen-yan Wan, Hong-jie Li, Xiao-xue Wang, Xia Yang, Yong-tao Li, Hong-tao Chang, Lu Chen, Chuan-qing Wang, Jun Zhao In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using adenoviruses as live vectors to develop recombinant vaccines. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of HIV/SIV and influenza vaccine candidates based on human adenovirus type 4 (Ad4) replication-competent vectors in rhesus macaque and human model. To explore the possibility of human...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - December 8, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of an electrostatic particle ionization technology for decreasing airborne pathogens in pigs
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the EPI system on the quantity and viability of IAV, PRRSV, PEDV and S. aureus in experimentally generated aerosols and in aerosols generated by infected animals. Efficiency at removing airborne particles was evaluated as a function of particle size (ranging from 0.4 to 10 µm), distance from the source of ions (1, 2 and 3 m) and relative air humidity (RH 30 vs. 70 %). Aerosols were sampled with the EPI system “off” and “on.” Removal efficiency was significantly greater for all pathogens when the EPI line was the closest to the source of aerosols. Ther...
Source: Aerobiologia - December 8, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

[Simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses and influenza A virus subtypes using multiplex PCR].
In conclusion, the identification and surveillance of influenza virus types and subtypes circulating in populations have importance both for epidemiological data and selection of vaccine strains. PMID: 25492660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni)
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - December 2, 2015 Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research

Multiplex PCR and Microarray for Detection of Swine Respiratory Pathogens
In this study, a novel prototype automated microarray that integrates and automates all steps of post‐PCR microarray processing for the simultaneous detection and typing of eight bacteria and viruses commonly associated with PRDC is described along with associated multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR. The user‐friendly assay detected and differentiated between four viruses [porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), influenza A virus, porcine circovirus type 2, porcine respiratory corona virus], four bacteria (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, St...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - December 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: O. Lung, S. Ohene‐Adjei, C. Buchanan, T. Joseph, R. King, A. Erickson, S. Detmer, A. Ambagala Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus
Conclusions Differentiated air–liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium–influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 25, 2015 Category: Research Source Type: research

'Rhyme or reason? Saying no to mass vaccination: subjective re-interpretation in the context of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in Sweden 2009-2010
This article explores written responses to a questionnaire from a Swedish folk life archive as an unconventional source for analysing vaccine decisions. The aim is to investigate how laypersons responded to and re-interpreted the message about the recommended vaccination in their answers. The answers show the confusion and complex circumstances and influences in everyday life that people reflect on when making such important decisions. The issue of confusion is traced back to the initial communications about the vaccination intervention in which both autonomy and solidarity were expected from the population. Common narrati...
Source: Medical Humanities - November 24, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Lundgren, B. Tags: Open access Original article Source Type: research

A Newly Emerged Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Dampens Host Antiviral Immunity but Induces Potent Inflammasome Activation
We compared the innate immune response to a newly emerged swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant containing the M gene from 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), termed "A(H3N2)vpM," to the immune responses to the 2010 swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant and seasonal influenza A(H3N2). Our results demonstrated that A(H3N2)vpM-induced myeloid dendritic cells secreted significantly lower levels of type I interferon (IFN) but produced significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and induced potent inflammasome activation. The reduction in antiviral immunity with increased inflammatory responses upon A(H3N2)vpM infec...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cao, W., Mishina, M., Ranjan, P., De La Cruz, J. A., Kim, J. H., Garten, R., Kumar, A., Garcia-Sastre, A., Katz, J. M., Gangappa, S., Sambhara, S. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Replication Capacity of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus in Pet Birds and Mammals, Bangladesh.
Abstract Avian influenza A(H9N2) is an agricultural and public health threat. We characterized an H9N2 virus from a pet market in Bangladesh and demonstrated replication in samples from pet birds, swine tissues, human airway and ocular cells, and ferrets. Results implicated pet birds in the potential dissemination and zoonotic transmission of this virus. PMID: 26583371 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - November 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lenny BJ, Shanmuganatham K, Sonnberg S, Feeroz MM, Alam SM, Hasan MK, Jones-Engel L, McKenzie P, Krauss S, Webster RG, Jones JC Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of Influenza D Virus among Swine and Cattle, Italy
C. Chiapponi et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - November 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influenza Virus Surveillance in US Swine Production SystemsInfluenza Virus Surveillance in US Swine Production Systems
This study investigates the prevalence of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - November 17, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases Journal Article Source Type: news

Illness representation on H1N1 influenza and preventive behaviors in the Hong Kong general population
This study examined illness representations of new influenza Human Swine Influenza A (H1N1) and association with H1N1 preventive behaviors among 300 Chinese adults using a population-based randomized telephone survey. Results showed that relatively few participants thought H1N1 would have serious consequences (12%–15.7%) and few showed negative emotional responses toward H1N1 (9%–24.7%). The majority of the participants thought H1N1 could be controlled by treatment (70.4%–72.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that treatment control (odds ratio = 1.78) and psychological attribution (odds rat...
Source: Journal of Health Psychology - November 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mo, P. K., Lau, J. T. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Seroprevalence against selected pathogens involved in porcine respiratory disease complex in free-range fattening pigs in Spain
DOMESTIC pigs reared in free-range systems are exposed to continuous contact with wild boar population, which may act as reservoir of different pathogens responsible for important economic losses, such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Closa-Sebastià and others 2011, Boadella and others 2012, Fabisiak and others 2013, Foni and others 2013, Cano-Manuel and others 2014). To date, the knowledge about the epidemiological situation of these diseases in pigs reared in fr...
Source: Veterinary Record - November 5, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Galan-Relano, A., Luque, I., Gomez-Gascon, L., Morales-Partera, A., Tarradas, C., Carrasco, L., Gomez-Laguna, J. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Increased risk of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection in UK pig industry workers compared to a general population cohort
ConclusionThe results indicate that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was common in UK pigs during the pandemic and subsequent period of human A(H1N1)pdm09 circulation, and occupational exposure to pigs was a risk factor for human infection. Influenza immunization of pig industry workers may reduce transmission and the potential for virus reassortment.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 1, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ellen Fragaszy, David A Ishola, Ian H Brown, Joanne Enstone, Jonathan S Nguyen‐Van‐Tam, Robin Simons, Alexander W Tucker, Barbara Wieland, Susanna M Williamson, Andrew C Hayward, , James L N Wood, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Investigation of an Outbreak of Variant Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection Associated With an Agricultural Fair--Ohio, August 2012
Conclusions. In this (H3N2)v outbreak, no evidence of sustained human-to-human (H3N2)v transmission was found. Our risk factor analysis contributed to the development of the recommendation that people at increased risk of influenza-associated complications, including children aged <5 years, avoid swine barns at fairs during the 2012 fair season. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - October 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Greenbaum, A., Quinn, C., Bailer, J., Su, S., Havers, F., Durand, L. O., Jiang, V., Page, S., Budd, J., Shaw, M., Biggerstaff, M., de Fijter, S., Smith, K., Reed, C., Epperson, S., Brammer, L., Feltz, D., Sohner, K., Ford, J., Jain, S., Gargiullo, P., Wei Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Who is sceptical about emerging public health threats? Results from 39 national surveys in the United Kingdom
Members of the public are often sceptical about warnings of an impending public health crisis. Breaking through this scepticism is important if we are to convince people to take urgent protective action. In this paper we explored correlates of perceiving that ‘too much fuss’ was being made about the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v (‘swine flu’) pandemic. (Source: Public Health)
Source: Public Health - October 22, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: G.J. Rubin, Y. Finn, H.W.W. Potts, S. Michie Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Ceftiofur hydrochloride affects the humoral and cellular immune response in pigs after vaccination against swine influenza and pseudorabies
Conclusions: The effect of an antibiotic therapy with ceftiofur hydrochloride on the humoral and cellular post-vaccinal immune responses in pigs was investigated. Ceftiofur hydrochloride was given in therapeutic doses. The results of the present study indicate that both, humoral and cell-mediated post-vaccinal immune responses can be modulated by treatment with ceftiofur hydrochloride. The results of our study point out that caution should be taken when administered this antibiotic during vaccination of pigs. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - October 22, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ma¿gorzata Pomorska-MólEwelina Czy¿ewska-DorsKrzysztof KwitKarol Wierzchos¿awskiZygmunt Pejsak Source Type: research

Serological Evidence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections in Greek Swine
In this study, we examined and compared haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against previously established IAVs and pH1N1 in 908 swine sera from 88 herds, collected before and after the 2009 pandemic. While we confirmed the historic presence of the three IAVs established in European swine, we also found that 4% of the pig sera examined after 2009 had HI antibodies only against the pH1N1 virus. Our results indicate that pH1N1 is circulating in Greek pigs and stress out the importance of a vigorous virological surveillance programme. (Source: Zoonoses and Public Health)
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - October 19, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: C. S. Kyriakis, V. G. Papatsiros, L. V. Athanasiou, G. Valiakos, I. H. Brown, G. Simon, K. Van Reeth, S. Tsiodras, V. Spyrou, C. Billinis Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Swine flu vaccine far more dangerous than swine flu itself
(NaturalNews) A closer look at the overall infection and death rate from confirmed cases of H1N1 influenza during the 2009–2010 "pandemic," as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO), has revealed that the widely administered vaccine for swine flu is far more deadly... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - October 18, 2015 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Diagnosing swine influenza
Hysolv Animal Health is offering veterinary surgeons in the UK and Ireland a free laboratory diagnostic testing service for swine influenza. It says it will supply vets with kits to enable them to take nasal or blood samples from pig herds that they suspect are infected with the virus. The samples will then be sent to Germany for testing by the Institute for Virus Diagnostics, which is part of the Federal Research Institute for Animal Health. The testing is being sponsored by the vaccine and biologicals company IDT Biologika. The tests will include PCR and will look for antibody titres against H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, panH1N1 and...
Source: Veterinary Record - October 16, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Products and Services Source Type: research

Site-Specific Amino Acid Preferences Are Mostly Conserved in Two Closely Related Protein Homologs
Evolution drives changes in a protein’s sequence over time. The extent to which these changes in sequence lead to shifts in the underlying preference for each amino acid at each site is an important question with implications for comparative sequence-analysis methods, such as molecular phylogenetics. To quantify the extent that site-specific amino acid preferences shift during evolution, we performed deep mutational scanning on two homologs of human influenza nucleoprotein with 94% amino acid identity. We found that only a modest fraction of sites exhibited shifts in amino acid preferences that exceeded the noise in ...
Source: Molecular Biology and Evolution - October 16, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Doud, M. B., Ashenberg, O., Bloom, J. D. Tags: Discoveries Source Type: research

Live Animal Markets in Minnesota: A Potential Source for Emergence of Novel Influenza A Viruses and Interspecies Transmission
Conclusions. At markets where swine and persons are in close contact, swine-origin IAVs are prevalent and potentially provide conditions for novel IAV emergence. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - October 9, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Choi, M. J., Torremorell, M., Bender, J. B., Smith, K., Boxrud, D., Ertl, J. R., Yang, M., Suwannakarn, K., Her, D., Nguyen, J., Uyeki, T. M., Levine, M., Lindstrom, S., Katz, J. M., Jhung, M., Vetter, S., Wong, K. K., Sreevatsan, S., Lynfield, R. Tags: ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Intranasal administration of poly-gamma glutamate induced antiviral activity and protective immune responses against H1N1 influenza A virus infection
Conclusions: These results suggest that γ-PGA protects mice against H1N1 influenza A virus by enhancing antiviral immune responses. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - October 6, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Eun-Ha KimYoung-Ki ChoiChul-Joong KimMoon-Hee SungHaryoung Poo Source Type: research

Bioinformatics Analysis of Proteome Changes in Calu-3 Cell Infected by Influenza A Virus (H5N1)
Conclusions: By referring to the previous studies, we suggest that proteins including FAN, CPSF2, AGO1, AGO2, PAX5, STAT1 and PDGFB can be used as therapeutic targets of IAV infection.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2015;25:311-319 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Detection and Isolation of Swine Influenza A Virus in Spiked Oral Fluid and Samples from Individually Housed, Experimentally Infected Pigs: Potential Role of Porcine Oral Fluid in Active Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Swine
Conclusions Our data indicate that porcine oral fluid has the potential to replace nasal swabs for molecular diagnostic purposes. The difficulty to isolate swIAV from oral fluid could pose a drawback for its use in active surveillance programs. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Inge Decorte et al. Source Type: research

Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States.
Abstract To clarify the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems to which no animals from outside the system are introduced, we conducted virologic surveillance during September 2012-September 2013. Animal age, geographic location, and farm type were found to affect the prevalence of these viruses. PMID: 26402228 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - September 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kaplan BS, DeBeauchamp J, Stigger-Rosser E, Franks J, Crumpton JC, Turner J, Darnell D, Jeevan T, Kayali G, Harding A, Webby RJ, Lowe JF Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Jidang Chen, Jun Ma, Sarah K. White, Zhenpeng Cao, Yun Zhen, Shuyi He, Wanjun Zhu, Changwen Ke, Yongbiao Zhang, Shuo Su, Guihong Zhang Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinaria...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - September 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cross-protection against European swine influenza viruses in the context of infection immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus: studies in the pig model of influenza
In conclusion, infection with a live, wild type influenza virus may offer substantial cross-lineage protection against viruses of the same HA and/or NA subtype. True heterosubtypic protection, in contrast, appears to be minimal in natural influenza virus hosts. We discuss our findings in the light of the zoonotic and pandemic risks of SIVs. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Improved universal cloning of influenza A virus genes by LacZα-mediated blue/white selection.
Abstract Reverse genetics of influenza A viruses facilitates both basic research and vaccine development. However, efficient cloning of virus gene segments was cumbersome in established systems due to the necessary cleavage of amplicons with outside cutter restriction enzymes followed by ligation. Occasionally, virus genes may contain cleavage sites for those enzymes. To circumvent that problem, we previously established target-primed plasmid amplification using the negative selection marker ccdB cloned into the plasmid pHW2000, flanked by the highly conserved gene segment termini. Here, we further introduced the L...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - September 22, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Wessels U, Stech O, Abdelwhab EM, Judel A, Mettenleiter TC, Stech J Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu
We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. (Source: Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals)
Source: Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals - September 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Padhy, A. K., Gupta, A., Aiyer, P., Jhajhria, N. S., Grover, V., Gupta, V. K. Tags: Thoracic Source Type: research

Alert for klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia in piglets
Outbreaks of piglet septicaemia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae could continue this summer Texel microphthalmia Botulism in sheep Swine influenza outbreak in late finishers Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pheasant chicks These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for May 2015 (Source: Veterinary Record)
Source: Veterinary Record - September 18, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surveillance Source Type: research

Influenza D virus infection in Mississippi beef cattle.
This study aims to extend our knowledge on the IDV epidemiology and to determine the impact of bovine production systems on virus spread. A total of 15 isolates were recovered from surveillance of bovine herds in Mississippi, and two genetic clades of viruses co-circulated in the same herd. Serologic assessment from neonatal beef cattle showed 94% seropositive, and presumed maternal antibody levels were substantially lower in animals over six months of age. Active IDV transmission was shown to occur at locations where young, weaned, and comingled calves were maintained. Serological characterization of archived sera suggest...
Source: Virology - September 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ferguson L, Eckard L, Epperson WB, Long LP, Smith D, Huston C, Genova S, Webby R, Wan XF Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Development and validation of an epitope prediction tool for swine (PigMatrix) based on the pocket profile method
Conclusion: Overall, the pocket profile method combined with binding preferences from HLA binding data shows significant promise for developing T cell epitope prediction tools for pigs. When combined with existing vaccine design algorithms, PigMatrix will be useful for developing genome-derived vaccines for a range of pig pathogens for which no effective vaccines currently exist (e.g. porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, influenza and porcine epidemic diarrhea). (Source: BMC Bioinformatics)
Source: BMC Bioinformatics - September 15, 2015 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Andres GutiérrezWilliam MartinChris Bailey-KelloggFrances TerryLeonard MoiseAnne De Groot Source Type: research

Thromboembolic events in patients with severe pandemic influenza A/H1N1.
CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonitis and respiratory failure be administered DVT prophylaxis in particular if there are additional risk factors for TVE. Further prospective studies on the relationship of influenza A/H1N1 and VTE are needed. PMID: 26365372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine)
Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine - September 10, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Avnon LS, Munteanu D, Smoliakov A, Jotkowitz A, Barski L Tags: Eur J Intern Med Source Type: research

Population susceptibility to a variant swine-origin influenza virus A(H3N2) in Vietnam, 2011–2012
Brief Report L. N. M. HOA, J. E. BRYANT, M. CHOISY, L. A. NGUYET, N. T. BAO, N. H. TRANG, N. T. K. CHUC, T. K. TOAN, T. SAITO, N. TAKEMAE, P. HORBY, H. WERTHEIM, A. FOX, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 14, pp 2959-2964Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - September 9, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research