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This page shows you the latest news and research items in this category.
New swine influenza project to better understand virus transmission and develop new control strategies
The Pirbright Institute in Surrey has been awarded £4.4 million to work with researchers from the universities of Bristol, Cambridge and Oxford as well as the AHVLA (Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, TGAC (The Genome Analysis Centre) and industry partners Merial, on a long-term study on the transmission of swine influenza. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - December 11, 2013 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: news_text Tags: Press releases Source Type: news
Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Isolated from Swine, Japan, 2012.
Abstract We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time. PMID: 24274745 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - November 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kobayashi M, Takayama I, Kageyama T, Tsukagoshi H, Saitoh M, Ishioka T, Yokota Y, Kimura H, Tashiro M, Kozawa K Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
Seroprevalence of a Novel Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus in the Japanese Population.
Abstract Antibody distribution to a novel swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) variant virus among different age groups in Japan was determined by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. Japanese children in the age group 1-14 years were at a higher risk than those in older age groups. PMID: 24270150 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kishida N, Imai M, Xu H, Taya K, Fujisaki S, Takashita E, Tashiro M, Odagiri T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
Vaccination 'a civic duty' according to new report
This report provides useful information about adult immunisations in the UK as well as useful recommendations for increasing immunisation coverage, particularly among social care workers. However, it does not replace current guidelines for recommended vaccines. Currently recommended vaccines for adults in the UK are described below. Who produced the report? This report, titled ‘Immune response. Adult immunisation in the UK’ was written by the UK’s International Longevity Centre (ILC-UK). According its website, the ILC-UK is a registered charity and independent think tank dedicated to addressing issues of longev...
Source: NHS News Feed - November 19, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medical practice Medication Older people QA articles Source Type: news
Comparison of influenza A virus infection in high‐ and low‐birth‐weight pigs using morphometric analysis
ConclusionsLung lesion severity and influenza staining intensity were significantly lower in LBW compared with HBW pigs (P < 0·05). Additionally, examining just the LBW group, the significant difference between lobes (P = 0·009) showed that the mean score for the right cranial lung lobe was higher compared with the other three lobes. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Susan E. Detmer, Rayna E. Gunvaldsen, John C. Harding Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Swine influenza: clinical, serological, pathological, and virological cross‐sectional studies in nine farms in Argentina
ConclusionsBecause vaccines against IAV are not licensed in Argentina, these results reflect the situation of IAV infection in non‐vaccinated herds. This study provides more information about the circulation and characteristics of IAV in a poorly surveyed region. This study provides more data that will be used to evaluate the tools necessary to control this disease. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marina Dibárbora, Javier Cappuccio, Valeria Olivera, Maria Quiroga, Mariana Machuca, Carlos Perfumo, Daniel Pérez, Ariel Pereda Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Epidemiological survey of swine influenza A virus in the wild boar population of two Italian provinces
ConclusionsThis study suggests that SIV actively circulates in the wild boar population in the investigated. area. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emanuela Foni, Chiara Garbarino, Chiara Chiapponi, Laura Baioni, Irene Zanni, Paolo Cordioli Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Swine influenza in Norway: a distinct lineage of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus
ConclusionsA(H1N1)pdm09 virus detected in Norwegian pigs by the end of 2011 formed a distinct genetic lineage. Also, our findings indicate that reverse‐zoonotic transmission from humans to pigs of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus is still important. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hilde Forberg, Anna G. Hauge, Britt Gjerset, Olav Hungnes, Anette Kilander Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Awareness and practices regarding zoonotic influenza prevention in Romanian swine workers
ConclusionsDespite awareness and concern regarding zoonotic influenza, Romanian swine workers report low rates of influenza vaccine or respiratory protection. As part of global pandemic influenza preparedness, enhanced prevention programs for swine workers should address such gaps. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter M. Rabinowitz, Eileen Huang, Blanca Paccha, Sally Vegso, Anca Gurzau Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Swine influenza virus vaccine serologic cross‐reactivity to contemporary US swine H3N2 and efficacy in pigs infected with an H3N2 similar to 2011–2012 H3N2v
ConclusionsSwine IAV in the United States is complex and dynamic. Vaccination to minimize virus shedding can help limit transmission of virus among pigs and people. However, vaccines must be updated. A critical review of the use of WIV in sows is required in the context of the current IAV ecology and vaccine application in pigs with MDA. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pravina Kitikoon, Phillip C. Gauger, Tavis K. Anderson, Marie R. Culhane, Sabrina Swenson, Crystal L. Loving, Daniel R. Perez, Amy L. Vincent Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Population dynamics of cocirculating swine influenza A viruses in the United States from 2009 to 2012
ConclusionsSurveillance and reporting of IAV in US swine have increased since 2009, and we demonstrate a period of expanded viral diversity. These data may be used to inform intervention strategies of vaccine and diagnostic updates and changes in swine health management. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 14, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tavis K. Anderson, Martha I. Nelson, Pravina Kitikoon, Sabrina L. Swenson, John A. Korslund, Amy L. Vincent Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus antibodies in pigs and residents of swine farms, southern China
This study provides the first data regarding antibodies against H5N1 AIV in humans and pigs on swine farms in China. The findings of this study can serve as a baseline for additional serologic studies to assess transmission of H5N1 viruses between avian species, pigs and swine workers. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - November 14, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Nan Cao, Wanjun Zhu, Ye Chen, Likai Tan, Pei Zhou, Zhenpeng Cao, Changwen Ke, Yugu Li, Jie Wu, Wenbao Qi, Peirong Jiao, Guihong Zhang Tags: Full length articles Source Type: research
Experts with links to drugs industry 'hyped swine flu'
Conclusion This was a well-conducted study, albeit based on a small sample of articles. The finding that academics with ties to the drugs industry were more likely to make a higher assessment of risk from swine flu, and those promoting the use of antiviral drugs were more likely to have industry links, is worrying. The general issue of academics with undisclosed links to the pharmaceutical industry being interviewed by journalists is of concern. That said, the study does not prove that media coverage either fuelled public anxiety about swine flu or the policy decisions made about drug or vaccine funding. Similarly, the...
Source: NHS News Feed - November 12, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medical practice Medication Swine flu Source Type: news
Academics linked to drug industry 'exaggerated' swine flu risk
New research published in the BMJ has suggested that academics with links to the pharmaceutical industry were more likely to give increased risk assessments of the swine flu pandemic of 2009/10 when talking to the media, compared with academics who were not linked to the pharmaceutical industry. Swine flu is a highly contagious respiratory disease found in pigs. The H1N1 influenza subtype is the type that has been known to infect humans, with outbreaks occurring worldwide throughout 2009 and 2010... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - November 12, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Swine Flu Source Type: news
Antibodies against avian‐like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus among swine farm residents in eastern China
This study provides the first data on avian‐like A (H1N1) SIV infections in humans in China; the potential for avian‐like A (H1N1) SIV entering the human population should also be taken into consideration. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - November 8, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Xiuchen Yin, Xin Yin, Baizhong Rao, Chunfang Xie, Pengchao Zhang, Xian Qi, Ping Wei, Huili Liu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Analysis of the acute‐phase protein response in pigs to clinical and subclinical infection with H3N2 swine influenza virus
ConclusionsNo relevant clinical signs were observed in intranasally infected pigs. In contrast, coughing, nasal discharge, and fever were observed in pigs infected intratracheally. All infected pigs exhibited specific antibodies in the serum at 10 dpi, and viral shedding was confirmed. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were significantly increased after infection. The level of Pig‐MAP remained constant during subclinical and clinical infection. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were higher in pigs with clinical disease. Although not specific, strategic APP measurements may reveal ongoing clinical and subclinical...
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Małgorzata Pomorska‐Mól, Kwit Krzysztof, Zygmunt Pejsak, Iwona Markowska‐Daniel Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Probiotic pickled turnip touted as ‘flu wonder cure’
Conclusion This simple experiment showed that giving a bacterial extract found in Japanese pickled turnip to mice, as a preventative treatment for flu, reduced some of the symptomatic effects of flu upon subsequent infection. Specifically, it lessened body weight loss and reduced declines in general health during a seven-day flu period. While the results are encouraging, it is too soon to roll out the red carpet and welcome a “new wonder cure” as both the headlines in the Daily Express and Mail Online suggest. For instance, mice given the Japanese pickle extract still experienced declines in body weight of approximate...
Source: NHS News Feed - November 6, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Food/diet Medical practice Medication Swine flu Source Type: news
Molecular Phylogeny and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza A Nonstructural (NS) Gene.
In this study, the phylogenetic analysis of 7,581 NS sequences revealed ten distinct lineages within alleles A and B: three host-specific (human, classical swine and equine), two reassortment-originated (A(H1N1)pdm09 and triple reassortment swine), one transmission-originated (Eurasian swine), and two geographically isolated avian (Eurasian/Oceanian and North American) for allele A and two geographically isolated avian (Eurasian/Oceanian and North American) for allele B. The average nucleotide substitution rates of the lineages range from 1.24×10(-3) (equine) to 4.34×10(-3) (A(H1N1)pdm09) substitutions per site per year....
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - October 22, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xu J, Zhong HA, Madrahimov A, Helikar T, Lu G Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Simultaneous Detection of Influenza Viruses A, B, and Swine Origin Influenza A Using Multiplex One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR Assay.
Abstract Every year, seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses are causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Also infrequent novel and rearranged strains of influenza viruses have caused quick, acute universal pandemics resulting in millions of mortalities. The usage of efficient and accurate detection is superior for infection control, effective treatment, and epidemiological supervision. Therefore, evaluation of useful real-time PCR molecular tests for the detection of pandemic viruses is important before the next wave of the pandemic. A novel quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase ch...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - October 19, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Monavari SH, Mollaie HR, Fazlalipour M Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research
Population susceptibility to North American and Eurasian swine influenza viruses in England, at three time points between 2004 and 2011.
PMID: 24079379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - October 5, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hoschler K, Thompson C, Casas I, Ellis J, Galiano M, Andrews N, Zambon M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
Virological and serological study of human infection with swine influenza A H1N1 virus in China.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the importance of performing surveillance on swine influenza to monitor new virus emergence in humans. PMID: 24074566 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - October 3, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Zu R, Dong L, Qi X, Wang D, Zou S, Bai T, Li M, Li X, Zhao X, Xu C, Huo X, Xiang N, Yang S, Li Z, Xu Z, Wang H, Shu Y Tags: Virology Source Type: research
Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses.
This study suggests that the R189K mutation plays a vital role in the antigenicity of swine and human H3N2 IAVs and identification of this antigenic determinant will help us rapidly identify antigenic variants in influenza surveillance. PMID: 24074585 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - October 3, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Ye J, Xu Y, Harris J, Sun H, Bowman AS, Cunningham F, Cardona C, Yoon KJ, Slemons RD, Wan XF Tags: Virology Source Type: research
Understanding Of and Possible Strategies to Avian Influenza Outbreak.
Abstract Swine flu and avian flu outbreaks have occurred in recent years in addition to seasonal flu. As mortality rate records are not available at the early stage of an outbreak, two parameters may be useful to assess the viral virulence: 1. the time required for the first domestic case in a newly involved region, and 2. the doubling time of new infected cases. Viral virulence is one of the most important factors in guiding short term and immediate responses. Although routine surveillance and repeated vaccination are useful efforts, some novel strategies that may be relevant to prevent and control the spread of i...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - October 2, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shen J, Zhang A, Xu H, Sirois P, Zhang J, Li K Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research
For A Price, Volunteers Endure Scientists' Flu Spritzes
Even though influenza is one of the most common illnesses, researchers say they still have a lot to learn about it. In a recent study, dozens of volunteers agreed to be infected with the swine flu so doctors could see observe what happened.» E-Mail This » Add to Del.icio.us (Source: NPR Health and Science)
Source: NPR Health and Science - September 26, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Flu research may lead to universal vaccine
Conclusion This research has identified that CD8+ T-cells are linked with protection against different strains of influenza. They are also linked with reduced severity of flu. The authors note that current vaccines that use inactivated forms of the flu virus protect against specific strains, and do not induce a strong maintained T-cell response. They suggest that, in light of their findings, this may be the reason why they produce limited protection across different subtypes of influenza virus. They say that further testing is needed to see if the live vaccines being used are better at producing cross-subtype protection, ...
Source: NHS News Feed - September 23, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Heart/lungs Medication Medical practice Source Type: news
Development of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against the pandemic H1N1 virus (2009) using plasmid DNA immunogen.
Abstract Reported here is the development and characterization of eighteen mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009). To our knowledge, this is the first report on pandemic (pH1) H1N1 MAbs developed using plasmid DNA encoding the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA). All eighteen MAbs were specific for A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009 HA. Ten MAbs were found to cross-react with A/Swine/Indiana/81 using a dot blot assay. However, there was no cross-reactivity detected against any other strains of influenza A viruses despite screening against all 16 h...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - September 20, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Cabral TM, Baig A, Berhane Y, Schmidt L, Hole K, Leith M, Kobasa D, Corbett CR Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
New Choices For Seasonal Flu Vaccines
WebMD Health News By Brenda Goodman, MA Reviewed by Michael W. Smith, MD Sept. 17, 2013 — It’s fall. The kids are back at school, college football rivalries are in high gear, and — oh, yeah — it’s time to get a flu vaccine. In the past, flu protection basically boiled down to a choice between a shot or a sniff of a nasal spray. But this year there are new options. Some may protect you from additional strains of flu, while others make getting vaccinated a little easier. Read on to find out which may be best for you and your family. Trivalent Vaccines These are the traditional flu shots. They pr...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - September 18, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: mreal197 Tags: WebMD News Source Type: news
The first detection of influenza in the Finnish pig population: a retrospective study
Conclusions: Based on our study, swine influenza of avian-like H1N1 virus was introduced into the Finnish pig population in 2008 and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. The source of avian-like H1N1 infection could not be determined. Cases of pandemic H1N1 in pigs coincided with the period when the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was spread in humans in Finland. (Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica)
Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica - September 18, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tiina NokirekiTaina LaineLaura LondonNiina IkonenAnita Huovilainen Source Type: research
Genetic and biological characterisation of an avian-like H1N2 swine influenza virus generated by reassortment of circulating avian-like H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in Denmark
Conclusions: The "avian-like" H1N2 subtype, which has been established in the Danish pig population at least since 2003, is a reassortant between circulating swine "avian-like" H1N1 and H3N2. The Danish H1N2 has an "avian-like" H1 and differs from most other reported H1N2 viruses in Europe and North America/Asia, which have H1-genes of human or "classical-swine" origin, respectively. The variant seems, however, also to be circulating in countries like Sweden and Italy. The infection dynamics of the reassorted "avian-like" H1N2 is similar to the older "avian-like" H1N1 subtype. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - September 18, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Ramona TrebbienKaroline BragstadLars LarsenJens NielsenAnette BøtnerPeter HeegaardAnders FomsgaardBirgitte ViuffCharlotte Hjulsager Source Type: research
Chart-Confirmed Guillain-Barre Syndrome After 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccination Among the Medicare Population, 2009-2010
Given the increased risk of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) found with the 1976 swine influenza vaccine, both active surveillance and end-of-season analyses on chart-confirmed cases were performed across multiple US vaccine safety monitoring systems, including the Medicare system, to evaluate the association of GBS after 2009 monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccination. Medically reviewed cases consisted of H1N1-vaccinated Medicare beneficiaries who were hospitalized for GBS. These cases were then classified by using Brighton Collaboration diagnostic criteria. Thirty-one persons had Brighton level 1, 2, or 3 GBS or Fisher S...
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology - September 17, 2013 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Polakowski, L. L., Sandhu, S. K., Martin, D. B., Ball, R., MaCurdy, T. E., Franks, R. L., Gibbs, J. M., Kropp, G. F., Avagyan, A., Kelman, J. A., Worrall, C. M., Sun, G., Kliman, R. E., Burwen, D. R. Tags: RESEARCH-ARTICLE Source Type: research
Effects of the Q223R mutation in the hemagglutinin (HA) of egg-adapted pandemic 2009 (H1N1) influenza A virus on virus growth and binding of HA to human- and avian-type cell receptors.
In this study, the Q223R mutation was shown to change the viral HA binding preference from the human-type receptor, α2,6-linked sialic acid, to the avian-type receptor, α2,3-linked sialic acid; and to enhance the viral growth in embryonated eggs but not in cell culture. Keywords: influenza A virus; hemagglutinin; mutation Q223R; cell receptors; sialic acid. PMID: 24020758 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - September 16, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suptawiwat O, Jeamtua W, Boonarkart Ch, Kongchanagul A, Puthawathana P, Auewarakul P Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
Reduced susceptibility to all neuraminidase inhibitors of influenza H1N1 viruses with haemagglutinin mutations and mutations in non-conserved residues of the neuraminidase
Conclusions Neither Y155 nor V114 is conserved across neuraminidase subtypes. Furthermore, Y155 is not conserved even among avian and swine N1 viruses. Structurally, both residues reside far from the neuraminidase active site. D225 forms part of the receptor binding site of the haemagglutinin. We believe this is the first demonstration of a specific haemagglutinin mutation correlating with reduced drug susceptibility in plaque assays in both Madin Darby Canine Kidney and SIAT cells. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - September 13, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: McKimm-Breschkin, J. L., Williams, J., Barrett, S., Jachno, K., McDonald, M., Mohr, P. G., Saito, T., Tashiro, M. Tags: Original research Source Type: research
Influenza Vaccination in India Position Paper of Indian Academy of Pediatrics, 2013.
Abstract Burden of Influenza is significantly higher in developing countries as compared to developed countries, but the data on the disease burden is less well defined in most of the developing countries including India, and consequently, constraints evolving strategies for prioritization of measures to prevent and control it. The swine flu or A(H1N1) pandemic is on the wane but the virus continues to circulate causing sporadic outbreaks even in 2013. The A(H1N1)pdm09 has replaced the previous circulating seasonal A (H1N1) virus and acquired the status of a seasonal virus. Limited influenza activity is usually see...
Source: Indian Pediatrics - September 8, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vashishtha VM, Kalra A, Choudhury P Tags: Indian Pediatr Source Type: research
Population susceptibility to North American and Eurasian swine influenza viruses in England, at three time points between 2004 and 2011
(Source: Eurosurveillance latest news)
Source: Eurosurveillance latest news - September 4, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Emergence of H3N2pM‐like and novel reassortant H3N1 swine viruses possessing segments derived from the A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, Korea
ConclusionsWe report here for the first time the isolation of H3N2pM‐like viruses outside North America and of novel reassortant swine H3N1 viruses with A(H1N1)pdm09‐derived genes. Apart from further complicating the genetic diversity of influenza A viruses circulating in domestic pigs, our data also indicate that these strains could potentially pose threat to public health asserting the need for continuous virus monitoring in these ecologically important hosts. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - August 30, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philippe Noriel Q. Pascua, Gyo‐Jin Lim, Hyeok‐il Kwon, Su‐Jin Park, Eun‐Ha Kim, Min‐Suk Song, Chul Joong Kim, Young‐Ki Choi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Infection of swine ex vivo tissues with avian viruses including H7N9 and correlation with glycomic analysis
ConclusionsIn contrast to previous studies we found that there was not as much expression of Siaα2‐3 glycans on the surface of the trachea. Infection of Siaα2‐3 binding avian viruses was restricted to the lower respiratory tract bronchioles. This finding may diminish the ability of the swine to act as an intermediary in the transmission of avian viruses to humans. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - August 27, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Renee W. Y. Chan, Rositsa Karamanska, Sjouke Van Poucke, Kristien Van Reeth, Icarus W. W. Chan, Michael C. W. Chan, Anne Dell, Joseph S. M. Peiris, Stuart M. Haslam, Yi Guan, John M. Nicholls Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Novel bioinformatics strategies for prediction of directional sequence changes in influenza virus genomes and for surveillance of potentially hazardous strains
Conclusions: Basing on the host-dependent oligonucleotide composition, we proposed a strategy for prediction of directional changes of virus sequences and for surveillance of potentially hazardous strains when introduced into human populations from non-human sources. Millions of genomic sequences from infectious microbes and viruses have become available because of their medical and social importance, and BLSOM can characterize the big data and support efficient knowledge discovery. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - August 21, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuki IwasakiTakashi AbeYoshiko WadaKennosuke WadaToshimichi Ikemura Source Type: research
Influenza B virus has global ordered RNA structure in (+) and (-) strands but relatively less stable predicted RNA folding free energy than allowed by the encoded protein sequence
Conclusions: These results reveal fundamental molecular similarities and differences between Influenza A and B and suggest a rational basis for choosing segments to target with therapeutics and for viral attenuation for live vaccines by altering RNA folding stability. (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - August 19, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Salvatore PrioreWalter MossDouglas Turner Source Type: research
In hospitalized adults the combined presence of leukocytosis, relative lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia is predictive of swine influenza (H1N1)
I read with interest the report by Drs. Shimoni, Glick and Flume regarding the complete blood count (CBC) in predicting swine influenza (H1N1), but there are several aspects of their report that deserve comment. Firstly, their patients were evaluated/tested in the emergency department (ED) for H1N1. In contrast, our report excluded adults (children were also excluded) with ILIs that were evaluated/discharged from the ED. Laboratory test results in our report were limited to admitted adults with an influenza like illness (ILI) which defines a level of severity very different from discharged ambulatory adults with ILIs. As t...
Source: Journal of Infection - August 2, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Burke A. Cunha Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research
Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission.
Abstract Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection followin...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - August 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amorim AR, Fornells LA, Reis Fda C, Rezende DJ, Mendes Gda S, Couceiro JN, Santos NS Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research
A Combinatorial approach: To design inhibitory molecules on Hemagglutinin protein of H1N1 virus (Swine Flu).
Abstract The Hemagglutinin (HA) is a protein of influenza A virus. It is present on the surface of influenza A virus and it is a glycoprotein. The HA is identified as potential drug target. H1N1 thiazolides, proved to be a potent drug in the inhibition of H1N1 replication. It is also known as inhibitor of other strains of influenza A virus. Thiazolide drug represses viral HA's maturation at a level which exists just before the resistance from digestion of endoglycosidase-H and thereby it hampers, HA insertion in host membrane. Blocking the appropriate active site of hemagglutinin protein helps in the disease contro...
Source: Bioinformation - July 31, 2013 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Prasad CV, Chaudhary KK, Dinkar P Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research
Distinction of subtype-specific antibodies against European porcine influenza viruses by indirect ELISA based on recombinant hemagglutinin protein fragment-1
Conclusions: Bacterially expressed recombinant NP and HA1 swine influenza virus proteins served as antigens in indirect ELISAs and provided an alternative to commercial blocking NP ELISA and HI assays concerning generic (NP-specific) and HA subtype-specific sero-diagnostics, respectively, on a herd basis. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - July 30, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Na ZhaoElke LangeSybille KubaldChristian GrundMartin BeerTimm Harder Source Type: research
Selection of H3 avian influenza viruses with SAα2,6Gal receptor specificity in pigs.
Abstract Avian influenza viruses possess hemagglutinin (HA) which preferentially bind to the sialic acid α2,3-galactose sialyloligosaccharides (SAα2,3Gal) receptor. In contrast, human influenza viruses bind to sialic acid α2,6-galactose sialyloligosaccharides (SAα2,6Gal). The A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) virus preferentially binds to SAα2,6Gal, although its HA gene was derived from an avian influenza virus strain. To elucidate the mechanisms behind acquisition of binding specificity for the human-type receptor, the avian influenza virus, A/duck/Hokkaido/5/77 (H3N2), which carries the HA with SAα2,3Gal receptor speci...
Source: Virology - July 25, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Shichinohe S, Okamatsu M, Sakoda Y, Kida H Tags: Virology Source Type: research
Swine influenza and vaccines: an alternative approach for decision making about pandemic prevention
Conclusions: The need for an effective influenza pandemic prevention program, coupled with an efficient use of public funding, calls for a rethinking of the Precautionary Principle. The non-extensive maximum entropy principle, which incorporates vague and incomplete information available to decision makers, produces a more coherent forecast of possible influenza pandemic and a conservative spending in public funding. (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - July 23, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Basili, M., Ferrini, S., Montomoli, E. Tags: Infectious diseases Source Type: research
Epidemiology of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus during 2009-2010 in Taiwan.
This study evaluates prevalence, HA phylogenetic relationship, and transmission dynamic of influenza A and B viruses in Taiwan in 2009-2010. Respiratory tract specimens were analyzed for influenza A and B viruses. The pdmH1N1 peaked in November 2009, was predominant from August 2009 to January 2010, then sharply dropped in February 2010. Significant prevalence peaks of influenza B in April-June of 2010 and H3N2 virus in July and August were observed. Highest percentage of pdmH1N1- and H3N2-positive cases appeared among 11-15-year-olds; influenza B-positive cases were dominant among those 6-10 years old. Maximum Likelihood ...
Source: Virus Research - July 22, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Lan YC, Su MC, Chen CH, Huang SH, Chen WL, Tien N, Lin CW Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Mitochondrial proteomic analysis of human host cells infected with H3N2 swine influenza virus.
In this study, we analyzed the differential mitochondrial proteomes of H3N2 SIV-infected human lung A549 cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis. In the comparative analysis, 24 altered proteins (13 upregulated and 11 downregulated) were identified in the mitochondria of H3N2 SIV-infected cells; these proteins were involved in cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular movement, and post-translational modification. Moreover, the transcriptional profiles of 16 genes corresponding to the identif...
Source: Journal of Proteomics - July 12, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wu X, Wang H, Lu B, Yang Y, Sun Z, Yan Y, Zhou J Tags: J Proteomics Source Type: research
80 years ago today: MRC researchers discover viral cause of flu | Michael Bresalier
Forget bird flu and swine flu, it was ferret flu and The Field magazine that helped MRC scientists discover the influenza virus, after eleven years of dedicated research.In the spring of 1933 a team of Medical Research Council (MRC) staff gathered nasal fluids and throat garglings from a sick researcher, filtered them, and dripped them into ferrets. Within forty-eight hours the ferrets would start sneezing and displaying signs of an influenza-like disease. This research formed the basis of an extraordinarily important Lancet paper by Wilson Smith, Christopher H Andrewes and Patrick Laidlaw, published on 8 July 1933, identi...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - July 8, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Blogposts guardian.co.uk Medical research History of science Source Type: news
Swine Influenza in Sub‐Saharan Africa – Current Knowledge and Emerging Insights
Summary Pigs have been associated with several episodes of influenza outbreaks in the past and are considered to play a significant role in the ecology of influenza virus. The recent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus originated from swine and not only did it cause widespread infection in humans, but was also transmitted back to swine in Asia, Europe and America. What may be the prevailing situation in Africa, particularly in sub‐Saharan Africa, with respect to the circulation of classical swine or pandemic influenza? The ecology of influenza viruses, as well as the epidemiology of human or animal influenza, is poorly ...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - July 5, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: C. Meseko, D. Olaleye, I. Capua, G. Cattoli Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Homeopathic treatment of patients with influenza-like illness during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in India.
CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in India was characterised by several prominent symptoms and symptom/medicine associations, particularly temperature >38°C + cough + runny nose, associated with Arsenicum album. Future studies should collect additional keynote prescribing symptoms that influence the choice of homeopathic medicine. PMID: 23870378 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Homeopathy)
Source: Homeopathy - July 1, 2013 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Mathie RT, Baitson ES, Frye J, Nayak C, Manchanda RK, Fisher P Tags: Homeopathy Source Type: research
A Novel Reassortant H3N8 Influenza Virus Isolated from Drinking Water for Duck in a Domestic Duck Farm in Poyang Lake Area.
CONCLUSION: The finding of novel genotype of H3N8 virus in drinking water in this duck farm near Poyang Lake highlighted the importance of strengthening the surveillance of avian influenza in this region, which could contribute to pinpointing the influenza ecological relations among avian, swine, and human. PMID: 23895699 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)
Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES - July 1, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dong BB, Xu CL, Dong LB, Cheng HJ, Yang L, Zou SM, Chen M, Bai T, Zhang Y, Gao RB, Li XD, Shi JH, Yuan H, Yang J, Chen T, Zhu Y, Xiong Y, Yang S, Shu YL Tags: Biomed Environ Sci Source Type: research