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Development of Framework for Assessing Influenza Virus Pandemic Risk.
Abstract Although predicting which influenza virus subtype will cause the next pandemic is not yet possible, public health authorities must continually assess the pandemic risk associated with animal influenza viruses, particularly those that have caused infections in humans, and determine what resources should be dedicated to mitigating that risk. To accomplish this goal, a risk assessment framework was created in collaboration with an international group of influenza experts. Compared with the previously used approach, this framework, named the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool, provides a systematic and transparent...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Trock SC, Burke SA, Cox NJ Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.
Abstract The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nelson MI, Schaefer R, Gava D, Cantão ME, Ciacci-Zanella JR Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Novel Ranking System for Identifying Efficacious Anti-Influenza PB2 Inhibitors.
Abstract Through antigenic drift and shift, influenza (flu) viral infections continue to be an annual cause of morbidity in healthy populations and mortality among the elderly and at risk patients. The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses like H5N1 and H7N9 and the rapid spread of the swine origin H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 demonstrate the continued need for effective influenza therapeutics. While several neuraminidase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of influenza virus infections, these have shown a limited start-to-treat window and resistant variants have shown up in the popula...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tsai AW, McNeil CF, Leeman JR, Bennett HB, Nti-Addae K, Huang C, Germann UA, Byrn RA, Berlioz-Seux F, Rijnbrand R, Clark MP, Charifson PS, Jones SM Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Pregnancy outcome and clinical status of gilts following experimental infection by H1N2, H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 influenza A viruses during the last month of gestation
Abstract The present study was planned to study the effect of various subtypes of swine influenza virus (SIV) circulating among pigs (H1N2, H3N2 and emerging pandemic strain of H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1pdm09) on the course of pregnancy in naïve gilts experimentally infected during the last month of pregnancy. In addition, the clinical course of infection, distribution of viruses in various tissues (blood, placenta, fetal lung), and selected immunological, reproductive and productive parameters were also investigated. All SIV-inoculated gilts became infected. No abortions, stillbirths, intrauterine deaths or mu...
Source: Archives of Virology - July 11, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Profile of the porcine acute-phase proteins response following experimental co-infection with H3N2 swine influenza virus and Pasteurella multocida
Biomarkers, Ahead of Print. (Source: Biomarkers)
Source: Biomarkers - July 10, 2015 Category: Research Tags: article Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of porcine acute phase proteins in meat juice for detecting disease at abattoir
The aim of this work was to evaluate whether acute phase protein (APP) determinations could assist Official Veterinarians carrying out work in slaughterhouses. To test this hypothesis, the diagnostic accuracy of APP determinations in meat juice of pigs was analysed to differentiate between healthy and diseased pigs. One hundred and one pigs of two different origins were classified into two groups according to their health status (healthy and diseased pigs), which was determined by a veterinary clinical examination on the farm. To assess the pigs’ immune status, against the main porcine diseases, serological analyses ...
Source: Veterinary Record - July 2, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gutierrez, A. M., Martinez-Subiela, S., Ceron, J. J. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Molecular docking of selected phytocompounds with H1N1 Proteins.
Abstract The H1N1 influenza virus is a serious threat to human population. Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are known antiviral drugs for swine flu with observed side effects. These drugs are viral neuraminidase and hemagglutinin inhibitor prevents early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. Therefore, it is of interest to identify naturally occurring novel compounds to control viral growth. Thus, H1N1 proteins (neuraminidase and hemagglutinin) were screened with phytocompounds isolated from Tulsi plant (Ocimum sanctum L.) using molecular docking tools. This identified Apigenin as an alterna...
Source: Bioinformation - July 1, 2015 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Alhazmi MI Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research

Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review
CONCLUSIONS Based on the articles archived and selected, behavioral theories and models are applied to disasters and emergencies preparedness more commonly in developed countries (USA and Europe). In Asia, where the annual number of disasters events and victims exceed those in other continents, only 3 studies applying behavioral theories and models to disasters and emergencies were identifies. This identified a need for additional research to target the use of behavioral change theories in the Asian countries that bear the brunt of disasters and their consequences. This does not, however, mean that these theories have not ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 1, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Luche Tadesse Ejeta Source Type: research

Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications
Conclusions Twitter is but one of many electronic communication tools available today and used by a worldwide population. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a possible communications tool for disasters and as an essential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level. By understanding how these various factors contribute to superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as a potential risk communication and disaster risk reduction tool. Parts II, III, and IV of this study further detail the technological and scientific base necessary for the community...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - June 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Guy Paul Cooper Jr. Source Type: research

Co-infection of influenza A viruses of swine contributes to effective shuffling of gene segments in a naturally reared pig.
Abstract Following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, surveillance activities have been accelerated globally to monitor the emergence of novel reassortant viruses. However, the mechanism by which influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) acquire novel gene constellations through reassortment events in natural settings remains poorly understood. To explore the mechanism, we collected 785 nasal swabs from pigs in a farm in Thailand from 2011 to 2014. H3N2, H3N1, H1N1 and H1N2 IAVs-S were isolated from a single co-infected sample by plaque purification and showed a high degree of diversity of the genome. In particular, the H1N1 isola...
Source: Virology - June 23, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Abe H, Mine J, Parchariyanon S, Takemae N, Boonpornprasert P, Ubonyaem N, Patcharasinghawut P, Nuansrichay B, Tanikawa T, Tsunekuni R, Saito T Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil
M. I. Nelson et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - June 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Man, Italy, 2014.
We report a immunocompromised hematologic patient with swine influenza A(H3N2) virus in 2014 in Italy. Local pigs were the source of this human infection. PMID: 26079745 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Piralla A, Moreno A, Orlandi ME, Percivalle E, Chiapponi C, Vezzoli F, Baldanti F, Influenza Surveillance Study Group Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Four out of ten Brits may naturally show fewer flu symptoms
ConclusionA study of 1,414 unvaccinated people showed those with T cells targeting virus nucleoprotein still got infected by flu, but had fewer symptoms. The logic is that people with fewer symptoms are less likely to spread the virus through coughs and sneezes, which may slow the spread of both seasonal and pandemic flu strains.This is plausible, but was not directly tested in this study, so we don't know if it's true in real life. The research team suggested vaccines that boost T cell numbers might be worth exploring, as an alternative to those that try to stop virus infection altogether. An added potential benefit of th...
Source: NHS News Feed - June 16, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Heart/lungs Medical practice Medication Swine flu Source Type: news

Dynamic Virus-Bacterium Interactions in a Porcine Precision-Cut Lung Slice Coinfection Model: Swine Influenza Virus Paves the Way for Streptococcus suis Infection in a Two-Step Process [Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions]
In conclusion, the PCLS coinfection model established here revealed novel insights into the dynamic interactions between SIV and S. suis during infection of the respiratory tract. It showed that at least two different mechanisms contribute to the beneficial effects of SIV for S. suis, including capsule-mediated bacterial attachment to SIV-infected cells and capsule-independent effects involving virus-mediated damage of ciliated epithelial cells. (Source: Infection and Immunity)
Source: Infection and Immunity - June 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Meng, F., Wu, N. H., Nerlich, A., Herrler, G., Valentin-Weigand, P., Seitz, M. Tags: Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions Source Type: research

Seropositivity to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza A (H3N2) and risk of infection in health care workers
Conclusion Regardless of sociodemographic, professional and vaccination status, most health care workers had seroprotective antibody titers against influenza A viruses, indicating that they are not at an increased risk of infection. (Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health)
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - June 13, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 20, Pages 10415-10434: Molecular Characterisation of the Haemagglutinin Glycan-Binding Specificity of Egg-Adapted Vaccine Strains of the Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Swine Influenza A Virus
This study integrates glycan binding data with structure-recognition models to examine the impact of the K123N, D225G and Q226R mutations (as seen in the HA of vaccine strains of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 swine influenza A virus). The glycan-binding selectivity of three A/California/07/09 vaccine production strains, and purified recombinant A/California/07/09 HAs harboring these mutations was examined via a solid-phase ELISA assay. Wild-type A/California/07/09 recombinant HA bound specifically to α2,6-linked sialyl-glycans, with no affinity for the α2,3-linked sialyl-glycans in the array. In contrast, the vaccine virus stra...
Source: Molecules - June 5, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Vincenzo CarboneElena SchneiderSteve RockmanMark BakerJohnny HuangChi OngMatthew CooperElizabeth YurievJian LiTony Velkov Tags: Article Source Type: research

The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic: what have we learned in the past 6 months.
Authors: del Rio C, Guarner J Abstract The present review describes how the first influenza pandemic of the XXI century occurred, the characteristics of the virus that produced it, its epidemiology, clinical and pathological presentation, and the treatment and prevention methods that have been instituted. The lessons that have been learned in the first 6 months of the pandemic include: 1) predictions were not fulfilled (it was not an avian virus but a swine virus that caused the pandemic, it started in the American continent not in Asia), 2) international cooperation was critical, 3) mass media played a key role co...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - June 4, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research

Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of a novel reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus with gene constellation derived from multiple viral sources.
Abstract In 2011-2012, contemporary North American-like H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) possessing the 2009 pandemic H1N1 matrix gene (H3N2pM-like virus) were detected in domestic pigs of South Korea where H1N2 SIV strains are endemic. More recently, we isolated novel reassortant H1N2 SIVs bearing the Eurasian avian-like swine H1-like hemagglutinin and Korean swine H1N2-like neuraminidase in the internal gene backbone of the H3N2pM-like virus. In the present study, we clearly provide evidence on the genetic origins of the novel H1N2 SIVs virus through genetic and phylogenetic analyses. In vitro studies demonstr...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - June 4, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lee JH, Pascua PN, Decano AG, Kim SM, Park SJ, Kwon HI, Kim EH, Kim YI, Kim H, Kim SY, Song MS, Jang HK, Park BK, Choi YK Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Antigenic Detection of Human Strain of Influenza Virus A (H3N2) in Swine Populations at Three Locations in Nigeria and Ghana during the Dry Early Months of 2014
Summary Since the first detection of human H3N2 influenza virus in Taiwanese pigs in 1970, infection of pigs with wholly human viruses has been known to occur in other parts of the world. These viruses, referred to as human‐like H3N2 viruses, have been known to cause clinical and subclinical infections of swine populations. Due to the paucity and complete unavailability of information on transmission of influenza viruses from other species, especially humans, to swine in Nigeria and Ghana, respectively, this study was designed to investigate the presence and prevalence of a human strain of influenza A (H3N2) in swine pop...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - June 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: O. A. Adeola, B. O. Olugasa, B. O. Emikpe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Serological Evidence and Risk Factors for Swine Influenza Infections among Chinese Swine Workers in Guangdong Province
by Mengmeng Ma, Benjamin D. Anderson, Tao Wang, Yingan Chen, Dingmei Zhang, Gregory C. Gray, Jiahai Lu During July to September 2014, we performed a controlled, cross-sectional, seroepidemiologic study among 203 swine workers and 115 control subjects in Guangdong Province. Sera were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against locally-isolated swine H3N2 and H1N1 viruses and commercially-obtained human influenza viral antigens. We found swine workers had a greater prevalence and odds of seropositivity against the swine H3N2 virus (17.3% vs. 7.0%; adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1 -10.7). Younger age, self-report o...
Source: PLoS One - May 27, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mengmeng Ma et al. Source Type: research

Egg-adaptive mutations in H3N2v vaccine virus enhance egg-based production without loss of antigenicity or immunogenicity.
Abstract The recently detected zoonotic H3N2 variant influenza A (H3N2v) viruses have caused 343 documented cases of human infection linked to contact with swine. An effective vaccine is needed for these viruses, which may acquire easy transmissibility among humans. However, viruses isolated from human cases do not replicate well in embryonated chicken eggs, posing an obstacle to egg-based vaccine production. To address this issue, we sought to identify egg-adaptive mutations in surface proteins that increase the yield of candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) in eggs while preserving their immunizing effectiveness. Afte...
Source: Vaccine - May 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Barman S, Franks J, Turner JC, Yoon SW, Webster RG, Webby RJ Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin
In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - May 17, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.
In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. PMID: 25986248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - May 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Stoppani E, Bassi I, Dotti S, Lizier M, Ferrari M, Lucchini F Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Magnitude and kinetics of multifunctional CD4 + and CD8β + T cells in pigs infected with swine influenza A virus
Abstract Although swine are natural hosts for influenza A viruses, the porcine T-cell response to swine influenza A virus (FLUAVsw) infection has been poorly characterized so far. We have studied Ki-67 expression and FLUAVsw-specific production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in CD4+ and CD8β+ T cells isolated from piglets that had been intratracheally infected with a H1N2 FLUAVsw isolate. IFN-γ+TNF-α+IL-2+ multifunctional CD4+ T cells were present in the blood of all infected animals at one or two weeks after primary infection and their frequency increased in four out of six animals after homologous secondary infe...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 14, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vitro antiviral activity of germacrone against porcine parvovirus
In this report, the antiviral activity of germacrone on PPV in swine testis (ST) cells was investigated. Here, we show for the first time that germacrone protects cells from PPV infection and suppresses the synthesis of viral mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we show that germacrone inhibits PPV replication at an early stage in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that germacrone is a potential candidate for anti-PPV therapy. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 12, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Man, Italy, 2014
A. Piralla et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Confidence in government and vaccination willingness in the USA
The most recent internationally widespread disease outbreak occurred during the flu season of 2009 and 2010. On April 2009, the first cases of influenza A (H1N1) (Popularly called, Swine Flu) were confirmed in the USA and UK following a novel virus that was first identified in Mexico. As the virus spread rapidly, the risk of morbidity and mortality increased in several countries. In this paper, we rely on the social cognitive theory of risk to assess the willingness of the US public to comply with vaccination and reduce the risk of sickness and death from the flu. We conduct a secondary data analysis of the Pew Research fo...
Source: Health Promotion International - May 11, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Mesch, G. S., Schwirian, K. P. Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS Source Type: research

A Review of the Current Status of Relevant Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Swine (Sus scrofa) Populations: Changes Modulating the Risk of Transmission to Humans
Summary Many wild swine populations in different parts of the World have experienced an unprecedented demographic explosion that may result in increased exposure of humans to wild swine zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between humans and wild swine leading to pathogen transmission could come from different ways, being hunters and game professionals the most exposed to acquiring infections from wild swine. However, increasing human settlements in semi‐natural areas, outdoor activities, socio‐economic changes and food habits may increase the rate of exposure to wild swine zoonotic pathogens and to potentially emerging pa...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - May 8, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: F. Ruiz‐Fons Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

How to reach the poor? Surveillance in low-income countries, lessons from experiences in Cambodia and Madagascar
Publication date: 1 June 2015 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 120, Issue 1 Author(s): F.L. Goutard , A. Binot , R. Duboz , H. Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo , M. Pedrono , D. Holl , M.I. Peyre , J. Cappelle , V. Chevalier , M. Figuié , S. Molia , F.L. Roger Surveillance of animal diseases in developing countries faces many constraints. Innovative tools and methods to enhance surveillance in remote and neglected areas should be defined, assessed and applied in close connection with local farmers, national stakeholders and international agencies. The authors performed a narrative synthesis of their own publication...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - May 6, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Transmission Dynamics of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Humans and Swine in Backyard Farms in Tumbes, Peru
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that human‐to‐swine pH1N1 transmission occurred during the pandemic among backyard farms in Peru, emphasizing the importance of inter‐species transmission in backyard pig populations. Continued surveillance for influenza viruses in backyard farms is warranted.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - May 1, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Yeny O. Tinoco, Joel M. Montgomery, Mathew R. Kasper, Martha I. Nelson, Eduardo Azziz‐Baumgartner, Robert H. Gilman, Daniel G. Bausch, Armando E. Gonzalez Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature
This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV‐infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV‐positive and IAV‐negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs im...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - April 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. S. Bowman, J. M. Nolting, J. D. Workman, M. Cooper, A. E. Fisher, B. Marsh, T. Forshey Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba
In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with bo...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - April 17, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Intra-host viral variability in children clinically infected with H1N1 (2009) pandemic influenza.
Abstract Recent in-depth genetic analyses of influenza A virus samples have revealed patterns of intra-host viral genetic variability in a variety of relevant systems. These have included laboratory infected poultry, horses, pigs, chicken eggs and swine respiratory cells, as well as naturally infected poultry and horses. In humans, next generation sequencing techniques have enabled the study of genetic variability at specific positions of the viral genome. The present study investigated how 454 pyrosequencing could help unravel intra-host genetic diversity patterns on the full-length viral hæmagglutinin and neuram...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - April 16, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bourret V, Croville G, Mansuy JM, Mengelle C, Mariette J, Klopp C, Genthon C, Izopet J, Guérin JL Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices
Conclusions Although our study design was sub-optimal for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention, we provided suggestive evidence that H1N1pdm-targeted vaccination in sows/gilts, enhanced biosecurity, lengthening of weaning cycles, and constrains in cross-fostering of piglets may prove useful in controlling a reassortant H1N1pdm outbreak in an intensive swine breeding farm without possibility of applying an all-in/all-out system. Maternally-derived immunity was elicited and further virus circulation in piglets dropped to undetectable levels, while keeping farm productivity at full. The present field study also su...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - April 13, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lapo Mughini-Gras Source Type: research

Lower seroreactivity to European than to North American H3N2 swine influenza viruses in humans, Luxembourg, 2010.
PMID: 25860393 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qiu Y, Muller CP, Van Reeth K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Reflections on New York City’s 1947 Smallpox Vaccination Program and Its 1976 Swine Influenza Immunization Program
This article examines in detail the epidemiology of this outbreak and the measures employed to contain it. In 1976, a swine influenza strain was isolated among a few recruits at a US Army training camp at Fort Dix, New Jersey. It was concluded at the time that this virus possibly represented a re-appearance of the 1918 influenza pandemic influenza strain. As a result, a mass national immunization program was launched by the federal government. From its inception, the program encountered a myriad of challenges ranging from doubts that it was even necessary to the development of Guillain-Barré paralysis among some vaccine r...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 7, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The repeated introduction of the H3N2 virus from human to swine during 1979-1993 in China.
Abstract Limited data are available regarding the swine influenza viruses (SIVs) that circulated in Mainland China prior to the 1990s. Eleven H3N2 virus strains were isolated from swine populations from 1979 to 1992. To determine the origin and tendency of these SIVs, the phylogenetic and antigenic properties of these viruses were analyzed based on the whole genome sequenced and the HI titrations with post-infection ferret antisera against influenza A (H3N2) virus isolates of swine and human origin. The results revealed that these 11 SIVs originated from humans and were not maintained in swine populations, indicati...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - April 6, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhu W, Yang S, Dong L, Yang L, Tang J, Zou X, Chen T, Yang J, Shu Y Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Lower seroreactivity to European than to North American H3N2 swine influenza viruses in humans, Luxembourg, 2010
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 2, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vaccines against influenza A viruses in poultry and swine: Status and future developments.
Abstract Influenza A viruses are important pathogens with a very broad host spectrum including domestic poultry and swine. For preventing clinical disease and controlling the spread, vaccination is one of the most efficient tools. Classical influenza vaccines for domestic poultry and swine are conventional inactivated preparations. However, a very broad range of novel vaccine types ranging from (i) nucleic acid-based vaccines, (ii) replicon particles, (iii) subunits and virus-like particles, (iv) vectored vaccines, or (v) live-attenuated vaccines has been described, and some of them are now also used in the field. ...
Source: Vaccine - March 30, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rahn J, Hoffmann D, Harder TC, Beer M Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen
by Wendy Gibson, Lori Peacock, Vanessa Ferris, Katrin Fischer, Jennifer Livingstone, James Thomas, Mick Bailey Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African T...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 27, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Wendy Gibson et al. Source Type: research

Vaccination-challenge studies with a Port Chalmers/73 (H3N2)-based swine influenza virus vaccine: Reflections on vaccine strain updates and on the vaccine potency test.
Abstract The human A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) influenza virus strain, the supposed ancestor of European H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs), was used in most commercial SIV vaccines in Europe until recently. If manufacturers want to update vaccine strains, they have to perform laborious intratracheal (IT) challenge experiments and demonstrate reduced virus titres in the lungs of vaccinated pigs. We aimed to examine (a) the ability of a Port Chalmers/73-based commercial vaccine to induce cross-protection against a contemporary European H3N2 SIV and serologic cross-reaction against H3N2 SIVs from Europe and North Am...
Source: Vaccine - March 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: De Vleeschauwer A, Qiu Y, Van Reeth K Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor mediated apoptosis in H3N2 swine influenza virus infection is inhibited by viral protein NS1 in vitro
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015 Source:Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Author(s): Jinqiu Zhang , Jinfeng Miao , Jibo Hou , Chengping Lu We investigated the in vitro role of mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor (MAVS) in apoptosis induced by H3N2 swine influenza virus infection and the influence of viral NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) protein on this process. H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV, A/Swine/Shandong/3/2005) was co-cultured with human lung epithelial A549 cells. The relationship of MAVS expression to SIV replication and apoptosis, and the influence of viral proteins on MAVS functions...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 20, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Monoclonal antibody specific to HA2 glycopeptide protects mice from H3N2 influenza virus infection
In this study, seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CIV JS/10 (an H3N2 subtype virus) were produced and characterized. Among them, mAb D7, which is specific for the HA2 glycopeptide (gp), induced the highest neutralization titers. The protection provided by mAb D7 was evaluated in BALB/c mice challenged with homologous or heterologous strains of H3N2 influenza virus, including two strains of CIV and one strain of swine influenza virus (SIV). The data show that mAb D7 protected the mice from infection with the three viral strains, especially the homologous strain, which was indicated by the recovery of body weight, re...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Efficient Isolation of Swine Influenza Viruses by Age-Targeted Specimen Collection [Clinical Veterinary Microbiology]
The control of swine influenza virus (SIV) infection is paramount for increasing the productivity of pig farming and minimizing the threat of pandemic outbreaks. Thus, SIV surveillance should be conducted by region and on a regular basis. Here, we established a microneutralization assay specific for SIV seroprevalence surveillance by using reporter gene-expressing recombinant influenza viruses. Growth-based SIV seroprevalence revealed that most sows and piglets were positive for neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses. In contrast, the 90-day-old growing pigs exhibited limited neutralizing activity in their sera,...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - March 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ozawa, M., Matsuu, A., Yonezawa, K., Igarashi, M., Okuya, K., Kawabata, T., Ito, K., Tsukiyama-Kohara, K., Taneno, A., Deguchi, E. Tags: Clinical Veterinary Microbiology Source Type: research

The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893–2014
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): A. Sally Davis , Jeffery K. Taubenberger , Mike Bray Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - March 15, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Studies on flu like H1NI led to information on homoeopathic medicines: Government
Studies on influenza like H1N1 during swine flu pandemic in 2009 has resulted in identification of specific homoeopathic medicines, LS was informed. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - March 13, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Swine flu outbreak in India raises concern: New strain of H1N1 may carry dangerous mutations
Since December, an outbreak of swine flu in India has killed more than 1,200 people, and a new study suggests that the strain has acquired mutations that make it more dangerous than previously circulating strains of H1N1 influenza. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Influenza Surveillance: 2014-2015 H1N1 "Swine"-Derived Influenza Viruses from India.
Abstract The 2014-15 H1N1 outbreak in India has reportedly led to 800 fatalities. The reported influenza hemagglutinin sequences from India indicate that these viruses contain amino acid changes linked to enhanced virulence and are potentially antigenically distinct from the current vaccine containing 2009 (Cal0709) H1N1 viral hemagglutinin. PMID: 25766285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - March 11, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tharakaraman K, Sasisekharan R Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Influenza A virus plasticity—A temporal analysis of species-associated genomic signatures
Conclusion Analyzing how species-associated signatures are becoming human-like in human-isolated avian influenza A viruses helps in assessing their potential to go pandemic as well as providing insights into host adaptation. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - March 7, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Influenza A virus plasticity-A temporal analysis of species-associated genomic signatures.
CONCLUSION: Analyzing how species-associated signatures are becoming human-like in human-isolated avian influenza A viruses helps in assessing their potential to go pandemic as well as providing insights into host adaptation. PMID: 25754840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J Formos Med Assoc)
Source: J Formos Med Assoc - March 6, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chen GW, Gong YN, Shih SR Tags: J Formos Med Assoc Source Type: research