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Scientists Take Huge Step Toward Universal Flu Vaccine
A universal flu vaccine -- one that provides immunity against every strain of the influenza virus for multiple years -- is the holy grail of flu research. It would be a medical breakthrough on the order of penicillin, with the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives every year. And scientists just got one crucial step closer to making it a reality. Two separate groups of scientists published papers this week demonstrating that a new type of flu vaccine can provide protection against multiple strains of the disease, rather than just one. Though a truly universal flu vaccine that could be given to humans remain...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - August 28, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Scientists Take Huge Step Toward Universal Flu Vaccine
A universal flu vaccine -- one that provides immunity against every strain of the influenza virus for multiple years -- is the holy grail of flu research. It would be a medical breakthrough on the order of penicillin, with the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives every year. And scientists just got one crucial step closer to making it a reality. Two separate groups of scientists published papers this week demonstrating that a new type of flu vaccine can provide protection against multiple strains of the disease, rather than just one. Though a truly universal flu vaccine that could be given to humans remain...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - August 28, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States
B. S. Kaplan et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - August 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Researchers 'a step closer' to universal flu vaccine
Conclusion These studies have developed two different flu vaccines that could potentially offer broader protection against a variety of flu strains than current vaccines. As yet, this research has only been conducted in animals, with one study showing an effect against different flu strains in mice and monkeys, and the other showing an effect in mice and ferrets. As monkeys are more similar to humans than mice or ferrets, the results from these experiments are likely to be the most representative of what would happen in humans. While the results are encouraging, it is likely that additional lab and animal research on bo...
Source: NHS News Feed - August 25, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medical practice Medication Heart/lungs Swine flu Source Type: news

Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil
Summary Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real‐time reverse tr...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - August 25, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: C. Schmidt, S. P. Cibulski, C. P. Andrade, T. F. Teixeira, A. P. M. Varela, C. M. Scheffer, A. C. Franco, L. L. Almeida, P. M. Roehe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Oral fluids as a live-animal sample for evaluating cross-reactivity and cross-protection following intranasal influenza A virus vaccination in pigs.
Abstract In North American swine there are numerous antigenically distinct H1 influenza A virus (IAV) variants currently circulating, making vaccine development difficult due to the inability to formulate a vaccine that provides broad cross-protection. Experimentally, live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines demonstrate increased cross-protection compared to inactivated vaccines. However, there is no standardized assay to predict cross-protection following LAIV vaccination. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody in serum is the gold standard correlate of protection following IAV vaccination. LAIV vaccinat...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - August 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hughes HR, Vincent AL, Brockmeier SL, Gauger PC, Pena L, Santos J, Braucher DR, Perez DR, Loving CL Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of H1N1 virus
Conclusion The molecular testing of H1N1 patients helped the clinicians in timely diagnosis and treatment of these patients during the pandemic surveillance. The RT-PCR test has higher sensitivity and specificity; hence it is considered to be the best tool to use during the pandemic surveillance, as compared to the any other commercial antigen-based tests, which show a variable performance, with the sensitivities of tests from different manufacturers ranging from 9 to 77%. (Source: Apollo Medicine)
Source: Apollo Medicine - August 18, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Genetic and biological characterization of two novel reassortant H5N6 swine influenza viruses in mice and chickens.
In this study, we reported the biological characterization of two H5N6 influenza viruses isolated from healthy pigs in Guangdong province. Genetic analysis indicates that the two viruses are reassortants of 2.3.4.4 H5N1 and H6N6 avian influenza viruses with a high similarity to duck and human H5N6 influenza viruses isolated from Guangdong province. The data from chicken and mouse experiments show that the viruses are highly pathogenic in chickens and result in a systemic infection, and replicate in the mouse lung accompanying with a clinical inflammatory pathology. The results of the study demonstrate the two H5N6 influenz...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - August 18, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Li X, Fu Y, Yang J, Guo J, He J, Guo J, Weng S, Jia Y, Liu B, Li X, Zhu Q, Chen H Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Novel Human-like Influenza A Viruses Circulate in Swine in Mexico and Chile
Discussion Through new surveillance efforts and phylogenetic analysis of IAV-S in Mexico and Chile, we have expanded our understanding of the extensive IAV-S diversity that circulates in swine in Latin America. Most notably, we have identified multiple novel clades of H3N2 and H1N1 viruses of human origin in Mexico and Chile that have not been identified in swine previously, highlighting the importance of the human-swine interface in the evolution of IAV-S diversity in Latin America. The presence of two different IAV-S lineages in Mexico that are related to North American IAV-S (classical H1N1 and H3-cluster IV) also demon...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - August 13, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: minelson22 Source Type: research

Bifunctional siRNA containing immunostimulatory motif 2 enhances protection against pandemic H1N1 virus infection.
CONCLUSIONS: This study paves the way for broad-spectrum RNAi-based therapeutics using immunostimulatory motif towards improved antiviral effect. Hence this approach will be useful to confront the sudden emergence of pandemic strains. PMID: 26264705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Gene Therapy)
Source: Current Gene Therapy - August 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Joshi G, Dash PK, Agarwal A, Sharma S, Parida M Tags: Curr Gene Ther Source Type: research

Simultaneous detection of eight swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyser-based multiplex PCR assay.
This study demonstrated that the GeXP assay is a new method with high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of these swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens. The GeXP assay may be adopted for molecular epidemiological surveys of these reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine populations. PMID: 26259690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Virological Methods)
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - August 7, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Zhang M, Xie Z, Xie L, Deng X, Xie Z, Luo S, Liu J, Pang Y, Khan MI Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Practical use of povidone‐iodine antiseptic in the maintenance of oral health and in the prevention and treatment of common oropharyngeal infections
ConclusionThe link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognised. The high rates of antibiotic misuse and subsequent development of bacterial resistance (e.g. increasing vancomycin‐resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) in large parts of the world, especially across Asia Pacific, highlight the need for identifying alternative antimicrobials that would minimise the use of these medications. This, together with recent large‐scale outbreaks of, for example, avian and swine influenza virus, further underline the importanc...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Practice - August 1, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: J. Kanagalingam, R. Feliciano, J. H. Hah, H. Labib, T. A. Le, J.‐C. Lin Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Disease risks associated with free-ranging wild boar in Saskatchewan.
This study investigated the disease status of Saskatchewan's feral wild boar population. Whole carcasses, tissue samples, and/or serum from 81 hunter-killed boars from Saskatchewan were submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) between 2009 and 2014. Serological tests were negative for PRRS, H1N1, and H3N2 swine influenza, PCV-2, and TGE/PRCV in 22/22 boars and for Toxoplasma gondii and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in 20/20 boars. Of 20 boars whose sera were tested 20 were positive for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, with 7 positive for, among other strains, serotype 14; 16 were positive for Lawsonia intrac...
Source: The Canadian Veterinary Journal - August 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: McGregor GF, Gottschalk M, Godson DL, Wilkins W, Bollinger TK Tags: Can Vet J Source Type: research

Development of Framework for Assessing Influenza Virus Pandemic Risk.
Abstract Although predicting which influenza virus subtype will cause the next pandemic is not yet possible, public health authorities must continually assess the pandemic risk associated with animal influenza viruses, particularly those that have caused infections in humans, and determine what resources should be dedicated to mitigating that risk. To accomplish this goal, a risk assessment framework was created in collaboration with an international group of influenza experts. Compared with the previously used approach, this framework, named the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool, provides a systematic and transparent...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Trock SC, Burke SA, Cox NJ Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.
Abstract The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nelson MI, Schaefer R, Gava D, Cantão ME, Ciacci-Zanella JR Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Novel Ranking System for Identifying Efficacious Anti-Influenza PB2 Inhibitors.
Abstract Through antigenic drift and shift, influenza (flu) viral infections continue to be an annual cause of morbidity in healthy populations and mortality among the elderly and at risk patients. The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses like H5N1 and H7N9 and the rapid spread of the swine origin H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 demonstrate the continued need for effective influenza therapeutics. While several neuraminidase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of influenza virus infections, these have shown a limited start-to-treat window and resistant variants have shown up in the popula...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tsai AW, McNeil CF, Leeman JR, Bennett HB, Nti-Addae K, Huang C, Germann UA, Byrn RA, Berlioz-Seux F, Rijnbrand R, Clark MP, Charifson PS, Jones SM Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Pregnancy outcome and clinical status of gilts following experimental infection by H1N2, H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 influenza A viruses during the last month of gestation
Abstract The present study was planned to study the effect of various subtypes of swine influenza virus (SIV) circulating among pigs (H1N2, H3N2 and emerging pandemic strain of H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1pdm09) on the course of pregnancy in naïve gilts experimentally infected during the last month of pregnancy. In addition, the clinical course of infection, distribution of viruses in various tissues (blood, placenta, fetal lung), and selected immunological, reproductive and productive parameters were also investigated. All SIV-inoculated gilts became infected. No abortions, stillbirths, intrauterine deaths or mu...
Source: Archives of Virology - July 11, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Profile of the porcine acute-phase proteins response following experimental co-infection with H3N2 swine influenza virus and Pasteurella multocida
Biomarkers, Ahead of Print. (Source: Biomarkers)
Source: Biomarkers - July 10, 2015 Category: Research Tags: article Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of porcine acute phase proteins in meat juice for detecting disease at abattoir
The aim of this work was to evaluate whether acute phase protein (APP) determinations could assist Official Veterinarians carrying out work in slaughterhouses. To test this hypothesis, the diagnostic accuracy of APP determinations in meat juice of pigs was analysed to differentiate between healthy and diseased pigs. One hundred and one pigs of two different origins were classified into two groups according to their health status (healthy and diseased pigs), which was determined by a veterinary clinical examination on the farm. To assess the pigs’ immune status, against the main porcine diseases, serological analyses ...
Source: Veterinary Record - July 2, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gutierrez, A. M., Martinez-Subiela, S., Ceron, J. J. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Molecular docking of selected phytocompounds with H1N1 Proteins.
Abstract The H1N1 influenza virus is a serious threat to human population. Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are known antiviral drugs for swine flu with observed side effects. These drugs are viral neuraminidase and hemagglutinin inhibitor prevents early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. Therefore, it is of interest to identify naturally occurring novel compounds to control viral growth. Thus, H1N1 proteins (neuraminidase and hemagglutinin) were screened with phytocompounds isolated from Tulsi plant (Ocimum sanctum L.) using molecular docking tools. This identified Apigenin as an alterna...
Source: Bioinformation - July 1, 2015 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Alhazmi MI Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research

Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review
CONCLUSIONS Based on the articles archived and selected, behavioral theories and models are applied to disasters and emergencies preparedness more commonly in developed countries (USA and Europe). In Asia, where the annual number of disasters events and victims exceed those in other continents, only 3 studies applying behavioral theories and models to disasters and emergencies were identifies. This identified a need for additional research to target the use of behavioral change theories in the Asian countries that bear the brunt of disasters and their consequences. This does not, however, mean that these theories have not ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 1, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Luche Tadesse Ejeta Source Type: research

Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications
Conclusions Twitter is but one of many electronic communication tools available today and used by a worldwide population. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a possible communications tool for disasters and as an essential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level. By understanding how these various factors contribute to superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as a potential risk communication and disaster risk reduction tool. Parts II, III, and IV of this study further detail the technological and scientific base necessary for the community...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - June 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Guy Paul Cooper Jr. Source Type: research

Co-infection of influenza A viruses of swine contributes to effective shuffling of gene segments in a naturally reared pig.
Abstract Following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, surveillance activities have been accelerated globally to monitor the emergence of novel reassortant viruses. However, the mechanism by which influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) acquire novel gene constellations through reassortment events in natural settings remains poorly understood. To explore the mechanism, we collected 785 nasal swabs from pigs in a farm in Thailand from 2011 to 2014. H3N2, H3N1, H1N1 and H1N2 IAVs-S were isolated from a single co-infected sample by plaque purification and showed a high degree of diversity of the genome. In particular, the H1N1 isola...
Source: Virology - June 23, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Abe H, Mine J, Parchariyanon S, Takemae N, Boonpornprasert P, Ubonyaem N, Patcharasinghawut P, Nuansrichay B, Tanikawa T, Tsunekuni R, Saito T Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil
M. I. Nelson et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - June 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Man, Italy, 2014.
We report a immunocompromised hematologic patient with swine influenza A(H3N2) virus in 2014 in Italy. Local pigs were the source of this human infection. PMID: 26079745 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Piralla A, Moreno A, Orlandi ME, Percivalle E, Chiapponi C, Vezzoli F, Baldanti F, Influenza Surveillance Study Group Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Four out of ten Brits may naturally show fewer flu symptoms
ConclusionA study of 1,414 unvaccinated people showed those with T cells targeting virus nucleoprotein still got infected by flu, but had fewer symptoms. The logic is that people with fewer symptoms are less likely to spread the virus through coughs and sneezes, which may slow the spread of both seasonal and pandemic flu strains.This is plausible, but was not directly tested in this study, so we don't know if it's true in real life. The research team suggested vaccines that boost T cell numbers might be worth exploring, as an alternative to those that try to stop virus infection altogether. An added potential benefit of th...
Source: NHS News Feed - June 16, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Heart/lungs Medical practice Medication Swine flu Source Type: news

Dynamic Virus-Bacterium Interactions in a Porcine Precision-Cut Lung Slice Coinfection Model: Swine Influenza Virus Paves the Way for Streptococcus suis Infection in a Two-Step Process [Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions]
In conclusion, the PCLS coinfection model established here revealed novel insights into the dynamic interactions between SIV and S. suis during infection of the respiratory tract. It showed that at least two different mechanisms contribute to the beneficial effects of SIV for S. suis, including capsule-mediated bacterial attachment to SIV-infected cells and capsule-independent effects involving virus-mediated damage of ciliated epithelial cells. (Source: Infection and Immunity)
Source: Infection and Immunity - June 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Meng, F., Wu, N. H., Nerlich, A., Herrler, G., Valentin-Weigand, P., Seitz, M. Tags: Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions Source Type: research

Seropositivity to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza A (H3N2) and risk of infection in health care workers
Conclusion Regardless of sociodemographic, professional and vaccination status, most health care workers had seroprotective antibody titers against influenza A viruses, indicating that they are not at an increased risk of infection. (Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health)
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - June 13, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 20, Pages 10415-10434: Molecular Characterisation of the Haemagglutinin Glycan-Binding Specificity of Egg-Adapted Vaccine Strains of the Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Swine Influenza A Virus
This study integrates glycan binding data with structure-recognition models to examine the impact of the K123N, D225G and Q226R mutations (as seen in the HA of vaccine strains of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 swine influenza A virus). The glycan-binding selectivity of three A/California/07/09 vaccine production strains, and purified recombinant A/California/07/09 HAs harboring these mutations was examined via a solid-phase ELISA assay. Wild-type A/California/07/09 recombinant HA bound specifically to α2,6-linked sialyl-glycans, with no affinity for the α2,3-linked sialyl-glycans in the array. In contrast, the vaccine virus stra...
Source: Molecules - June 5, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Vincenzo CarboneElena SchneiderSteve RockmanMark BakerJohnny HuangChi OngMatthew CooperElizabeth YurievJian LiTony Velkov Tags: Article Source Type: research

The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic: what have we learned in the past 6 months.
Authors: del Rio C, Guarner J Abstract The present review describes how the first influenza pandemic of the XXI century occurred, the characteristics of the virus that produced it, its epidemiology, clinical and pathological presentation, and the treatment and prevention methods that have been instituted. The lessons that have been learned in the first 6 months of the pandemic include: 1) predictions were not fulfilled (it was not an avian virus but a swine virus that caused the pandemic, it started in the American continent not in Asia), 2) international cooperation was critical, 3) mass media played a key role co...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - June 4, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research

Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of a novel reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus with gene constellation derived from multiple viral sources.
Abstract In 2011-2012, contemporary North American-like H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) possessing the 2009 pandemic H1N1 matrix gene (H3N2pM-like virus) were detected in domestic pigs of South Korea where H1N2 SIV strains are endemic. More recently, we isolated novel reassortant H1N2 SIVs bearing the Eurasian avian-like swine H1-like hemagglutinin and Korean swine H1N2-like neuraminidase in the internal gene backbone of the H3N2pM-like virus. In the present study, we clearly provide evidence on the genetic origins of the novel H1N2 SIVs virus through genetic and phylogenetic analyses. In vitro studies demonstr...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - June 4, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lee JH, Pascua PN, Decano AG, Kim SM, Park SJ, Kwon HI, Kim EH, Kim YI, Kim H, Kim SY, Song MS, Jang HK, Park BK, Choi YK Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Antigenic Detection of Human Strain of Influenza Virus A (H3N2) in Swine Populations at Three Locations in Nigeria and Ghana during the Dry Early Months of 2014
Summary Since the first detection of human H3N2 influenza virus in Taiwanese pigs in 1970, infection of pigs with wholly human viruses has been known to occur in other parts of the world. These viruses, referred to as human‐like H3N2 viruses, have been known to cause clinical and subclinical infections of swine populations. Due to the paucity and complete unavailability of information on transmission of influenza viruses from other species, especially humans, to swine in Nigeria and Ghana, respectively, this study was designed to investigate the presence and prevalence of a human strain of influenza A (H3N2) in swine pop...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - June 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: O. A. Adeola, B. O. Olugasa, B. O. Emikpe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Serological Evidence and Risk Factors for Swine Influenza Infections among Chinese Swine Workers in Guangdong Province
by Mengmeng Ma, Benjamin D. Anderson, Tao Wang, Yingan Chen, Dingmei Zhang, Gregory C. Gray, Jiahai Lu During July to September 2014, we performed a controlled, cross-sectional, seroepidemiologic study among 203 swine workers and 115 control subjects in Guangdong Province. Sera were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against locally-isolated swine H3N2 and H1N1 viruses and commercially-obtained human influenza viral antigens. We found swine workers had a greater prevalence and odds of seropositivity against the swine H3N2 virus (17.3% vs. 7.0%; adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1 -10.7). Younger age, self-report o...
Source: PLoS One - May 27, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mengmeng Ma et al. Source Type: research

Egg-adaptive mutations in H3N2v vaccine virus enhance egg-based production without loss of antigenicity or immunogenicity.
Abstract The recently detected zoonotic H3N2 variant influenza A (H3N2v) viruses have caused 343 documented cases of human infection linked to contact with swine. An effective vaccine is needed for these viruses, which may acquire easy transmissibility among humans. However, viruses isolated from human cases do not replicate well in embryonated chicken eggs, posing an obstacle to egg-based vaccine production. To address this issue, we sought to identify egg-adaptive mutations in surface proteins that increase the yield of candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) in eggs while preserving their immunizing effectiveness. Afte...
Source: Vaccine - May 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Barman S, Franks J, Turner JC, Yoon SW, Webster RG, Webby RJ Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin
In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - May 17, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.
In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. PMID: 25986248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - May 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Stoppani E, Bassi I, Dotti S, Lizier M, Ferrari M, Lucchini F Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Magnitude and kinetics of multifunctional CD4 + and CD8β + T cells in pigs infected with swine influenza A virus
Abstract Although swine are natural hosts for influenza A viruses, the porcine T-cell response to swine influenza A virus (FLUAVsw) infection has been poorly characterized so far. We have studied Ki-67 expression and FLUAVsw-specific production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in CD4+ and CD8β+ T cells isolated from piglets that had been intratracheally infected with a H1N2 FLUAVsw isolate. IFN-γ+TNF-α+IL-2+ multifunctional CD4+ T cells were present in the blood of all infected animals at one or two weeks after primary infection and their frequency increased in four out of six animals after homologous secondary infe...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 14, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vitro antiviral activity of germacrone against porcine parvovirus
In this report, the antiviral activity of germacrone on PPV in swine testis (ST) cells was investigated. Here, we show for the first time that germacrone protects cells from PPV infection and suppresses the synthesis of viral mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we show that germacrone inhibits PPV replication at an early stage in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that germacrone is a potential candidate for anti-PPV therapy. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 12, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Man, Italy, 2014
A. Piralla et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Confidence in government and vaccination willingness in the USA
The most recent internationally widespread disease outbreak occurred during the flu season of 2009 and 2010. On April 2009, the first cases of influenza A (H1N1) (Popularly called, Swine Flu) were confirmed in the USA and UK following a novel virus that was first identified in Mexico. As the virus spread rapidly, the risk of morbidity and mortality increased in several countries. In this paper, we rely on the social cognitive theory of risk to assess the willingness of the US public to comply with vaccination and reduce the risk of sickness and death from the flu. We conduct a secondary data analysis of the Pew Research fo...
Source: Health Promotion International - May 11, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Mesch, G. S., Schwirian, K. P. Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS Source Type: research

A Review of the Current Status of Relevant Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Swine (Sus scrofa) Populations: Changes Modulating the Risk of Transmission to Humans
Summary Many wild swine populations in different parts of the World have experienced an unprecedented demographic explosion that may result in increased exposure of humans to wild swine zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between humans and wild swine leading to pathogen transmission could come from different ways, being hunters and game professionals the most exposed to acquiring infections from wild swine. However, increasing human settlements in semi‐natural areas, outdoor activities, socio‐economic changes and food habits may increase the rate of exposure to wild swine zoonotic pathogens and to potentially emerging pa...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - May 8, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: F. Ruiz‐Fons Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

How to reach the poor? Surveillance in low-income countries, lessons from experiences in Cambodia and Madagascar
Publication date: 1 June 2015 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 120, Issue 1 Author(s): F.L. Goutard , A. Binot , R. Duboz , H. Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo , M. Pedrono , D. Holl , M.I. Peyre , J. Cappelle , V. Chevalier , M. Figuié , S. Molia , F.L. Roger Surveillance of animal diseases in developing countries faces many constraints. Innovative tools and methods to enhance surveillance in remote and neglected areas should be defined, assessed and applied in close connection with local farmers, national stakeholders and international agencies. The authors performed a narrative synthesis of their own publication...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - May 6, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Transmission Dynamics of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Humans and Swine in Backyard Farms in Tumbes, Peru
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that human‐to‐swine pH1N1 transmission occurred during the pandemic among backyard farms in Peru, emphasizing the importance of inter‐species transmission in backyard pig populations. Continued surveillance for influenza viruses in backyard farms is warranted.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - May 1, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Yeny O. Tinoco, Joel M. Montgomery, Mathew R. Kasper, Martha I. Nelson, Eduardo Azziz‐Baumgartner, Robert H. Gilman, Daniel G. Bausch, Armando E. Gonzalez Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature
This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV‐infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV‐positive and IAV‐negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs im...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - April 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. S. Bowman, J. M. Nolting, J. D. Workman, M. Cooper, A. E. Fisher, B. Marsh, T. Forshey Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba
In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with bo...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - April 17, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Intra-host viral variability in children clinically infected with H1N1 (2009) pandemic influenza.
Abstract Recent in-depth genetic analyses of influenza A virus samples have revealed patterns of intra-host viral genetic variability in a variety of relevant systems. These have included laboratory infected poultry, horses, pigs, chicken eggs and swine respiratory cells, as well as naturally infected poultry and horses. In humans, next generation sequencing techniques have enabled the study of genetic variability at specific positions of the viral genome. The present study investigated how 454 pyrosequencing could help unravel intra-host genetic diversity patterns on the full-length viral hæmagglutinin and neuram...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - April 16, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bourret V, Croville G, Mansuy JM, Mengelle C, Mariette J, Klopp C, Genthon C, Izopet J, Guérin JL Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices
Conclusions Although our study design was sub-optimal for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention, we provided suggestive evidence that H1N1pdm-targeted vaccination in sows/gilts, enhanced biosecurity, lengthening of weaning cycles, and constrains in cross-fostering of piglets may prove useful in controlling a reassortant H1N1pdm outbreak in an intensive swine breeding farm without possibility of applying an all-in/all-out system. Maternally-derived immunity was elicited and further virus circulation in piglets dropped to undetectable levels, while keeping farm productivity at full. The present field study also su...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - April 13, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lapo Mughini-Gras Source Type: research

Lower seroreactivity to European than to North American H3N2 swine influenza viruses in humans, Luxembourg, 2010.
PMID: 25860393 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qiu Y, Muller CP, Van Reeth K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Reflections on New York City’s 1947 Smallpox Vaccination Program and Its 1976 Swine Influenza Immunization Program
This article examines in detail the epidemiology of this outbreak and the measures employed to contain it. In 1976, a swine influenza strain was isolated among a few recruits at a US Army training camp at Fort Dix, New Jersey. It was concluded at the time that this virus possibly represented a re-appearance of the 1918 influenza pandemic influenza strain. As a result, a mass national immunization program was launched by the federal government. From its inception, the program encountered a myriad of challenges ranging from doubts that it was even necessary to the development of Guillain-Barré paralysis among some vaccine r...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 7, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The repeated introduction of the H3N2 virus from human to swine during 1979-1993 in China.
Abstract Limited data are available regarding the swine influenza viruses (SIVs) that circulated in Mainland China prior to the 1990s. Eleven H3N2 virus strains were isolated from swine populations from 1979 to 1992. To determine the origin and tendency of these SIVs, the phylogenetic and antigenic properties of these viruses were analyzed based on the whole genome sequenced and the HI titrations with post-infection ferret antisera against influenza A (H3N2) virus isolates of swine and human origin. The results revealed that these 11 SIVs originated from humans and were not maintained in swine populations, indicati...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - April 6, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhu W, Yang S, Dong L, Yang L, Tang J, Zou X, Chen T, Yang J, Shu Y Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research