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World Briefing: India: Swine Flu Prompts City’s Caution
A west Indian city has banned most public gatherings in an attempt to halt the spread of swine flu, which has claimed at least 926 lives nationwide in 11 weeks. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 26, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Tags: India Influenza Swine Influenza Source Type: news

Vaccine Narratives and Public Health: Investigating Criticisms of H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination
Conclusions In order to understand the ways in which individuals make decisions regarding vaccine use, it is important to access the public discourse surrounding vaccination. Such narratives incorporate ideas about vaccinations which, while contrary to medical and scientific viewpoints, underpins the public understanding of vaccines. As such, it is important to see vaccine hesitancy as much a result of public discourse as it is a problem of individual decision-making. The Council of Europe’s criticisms of the use of vaccines during the H1N1 Pandemic reflect many dominant discourses – lay understandings of vaccination a...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 25, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: abeysinghe Source Type: research

Airport screening for viruses misses half of infected travelers but can be improved, says UCLA-led study
In the past decade, the H1N1 virus and Ebola are just two of the diseases whose spread was spurred by international airline travel. Screening passengers at airports, therefore, could be one key method for slowing the global spread of infectious diseases. And although a team lead by UCLA researchers has found that airport screening misses at least half of infected travelers, the scientists say that rate could be improved. Their research was published in eLife, a highly regarded open-access online science journal. The life scientists used a mathematical model to analyze screening for six viruses: the SARS coronavirus, the Eb...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - February 25, 2015 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Swine flu: WHO 'carefully watching' situation in India
A senior WHO official said the seasonal influenza was quite normal at this time of the year and that its India office was closely working with the govt for dealing with the disease. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - February 24, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

India Deploys Expert Teams to Study Rise in Flu Cases
Officials are trying to determine the extent of illness, which has caused 700 deaths since the beginning of the year. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 20, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: By ELLEN BARRY and HARI KUMAR Tags: India Epidemics Influenza Deaths (Fatalities) Swine Influenza World Health Organization Source Type: news

Influenza A viruses of swine circulating in the United States during 2009–2014 are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors but show lineage-dependent resistance to adamantanes
This study defines a drug-susceptibility profile, identifies the frequency of drug-resistant markers, and establishes a phylogenetic approach for continued antiviral-susceptibility monitoring of IAV-S in the U.S. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - February 19, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Influenza A viruses of swine circulating in the United States during 2009-2014 are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors but show lineage-dependent resistance to adamantanes.
This study defines a drug-susceptibility profile, identifies the frequency of drug-resistant markers, and establishes a phylogenetic approach for continued antiviral-susceptibility monitoring of IAV-S in the U.S. PMID: 25701593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - February 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Baranovich T, Bahl J, Marathe BM, Culhane M, Stigger-Rosser E, Darnell D, Kaplan BS, Lowe JF, Webby RJ, Govorkova EA Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Characterization of co-circulating swine influenza A viruses in North America and the identification of a novel H1 genetic clade with antigenic significance.
Abstract Multiple genetically and antigenically distinct hemagglutinin genes of the H1 and H3 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes co-circulate in North American swine. This diversity has evolved by repeated transmission of IAVs from humans to swine and subsequent antigenic drift in swine. To understand the evolutionary dynamics of these diverse HA lineages in North American swine, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of 1576 H1 and 607 H3 HA gene segments, as well as 834 N1 and 1293 N2 NA gene segments, and 2126M gene segments. These data revealed yearly co-circulation of H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 viruses, with three HA cl...
Source: Virus Research - February 18, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Anderson TK, Campbell BA, Nelson MI, Lewis NS, Janas-Martindale A, Killian ML, Vincent AL Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

The first lack of evidence of H7N9 avian influenza virus infections among pigs in Eastern China
In this study, we sought to examine whether evidence existed suggesting that pigs were being infected with the novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. From November 2012 to November 2013, blood was drawn from 1560 pigs from 100 large farms in 4 provinces of eastern China. Many of these pigs were in close proximity to wild birds or poultry. Swine sera were studied using hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against the H7 antigen derived from the emergent H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV). Only 29 of the 1560 samples had HI titers of 1:20 when using the H7N9 AIV antigens, and none of ...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - February 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Altered splenic miRNA expression profile in H1N1 swine influenza
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated the key regulatory roles played by microRNAs (miRNAs) in influenza virus-host interactions. To gain more insight into the contribution of miRNAs to the host immune response, spleen tissues from mice infected with A/Swine/GD/2/12 (H1N1) virus were harvested 5 days postinfection, and miRNA deep sequencing was performed. The results showed that 50 miRNAs were modulated. Interestingly, pathway analysis of miRNAs and targets showed that upregulated miR-124-3p interacts with innate immune-related pathways such as the Toll-like receptor pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling p...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Assessment of transmission, pathogenesis and adaptation of H2 subtype influenza viruses in ferrets.
Abstract After their disappearance from the human population in 1968, influenza H2 viruses have continued to circulate in the natural avian reservoir. The isolation of this virus subtype from multiple bird species as well as swine highlights the need to better understand the potential of these viruses to spread and cause disease in humans. Here we analyzed the virulence, transmissibility and receptor-binding preference of two avian influenza H2 viruses (H2N2 and H2N3) and compared them to a swine H2N3 (A/swine/Missouri/2124514/2006 [swMO]), and a human H2N2 (A/England/10/1967 [Eng/67]) virus using the ferret model ...
Source: Virology - February 4, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Pappas C, Yang H, Carney PJ, Pearce MB, Katz JM, Stevens J, Tumpey TM Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Emergence of human-like H3N2 influenza viruses in pet dogs in Guangxi, China
Conclusions: These two viruses share the highest homology with swine H3N2, Moscow/99-like viruses, which indicated that these viruses might originate from swine viruses. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - February 3, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ying ChenYan-Ning MoHua-Bo ZhouZu-Zhang WeiGuo-Jun WangQing-Xiong YuXiong XiaoWen-Juan YangWei-Jian Huang Source Type: research

Medicos asked to adhere to Standard Universal Precautions on swine flu
Delhi government directed all 25 designated hospitals to strictly adhere to the Standard Universal Precautions while dealing with H1N1 influenza patients. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - January 30, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT‐PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus
In this study, we describe validation of a new probe‐based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT‐PCR) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on a compact, user‐friendly device (POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer) that does not need data interpretation by the user. The assay accurately detected CSFV RNA from a diverse panel of 33 CSFV strains representing all three genotypes plus an additional in vitro‐transcribed RNA from cloned sequences representing a vaccine strain. No cross‐reactivity was observed with a panel of 18 viruses associated with livestock including eight other ...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - January 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: O. Lung, J. Pasick, M. Fisher, C. Buchanan, A. Erickson, A. Ambagala Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of biological characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from different hosts
In this study, eight H9N2 viruses, isolated from chickens (Ck/F98, Ck/AH and Ck/TX), pigeons (Pg/XZ), quail/(Ql/A39), ducks (Dk/Y33) and swine (Sw/YZ and Sw/TZ) were selected, and their biological characteristics were determined. The results showed that all H9N2 viruses maintained a preference for both the avian- and human-type receptors, except for Sw/TZ, which had exclusive preference for the human-type receptor. The viruses replicated well in DF-1 and MDCK cells, whereas only three isolates, Ck/F98, Ck/TX and Sw/TZ, could replicate in A549 cells and also replicated in mouse lungs, resulting in body weight loss in mice. ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 23, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

'By failing to prepare you are preparing to fail': lessons from the 2009 H1N1 'swine flu' pandemic
Conclusions: Policy makers should prioritize investment in the skills and expertise required to achieve desired behaviour changes. Audience research should be conducted throughout the planning cycle to inform national communications strategies. This should include insights to inform the segmentation of public audiences, targeting of messages and consideration of content and emotional tone most likely to achieve desired behavioural outcomes. (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - January 23, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Crosier, A., McVey, D., French, J. Tags: Infectious diseases Source Type: research

Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants.
Abstract Influenza is an important respiratory disease of pigs, and may lead to novel human pathogens like the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (SoIV). Therefore, improved influenza vaccines for pigs are required. Recently, we demonstrated that single intranasal immunization with a hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing pseudorabies virus recombinant of vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) protected pigs from H1N1 SoIV challenge (Klingbeil et al., 2014). Now we investigated enhancement of efficacy by prime-boost vaccination and/or intramuscular administration. Furthermore, a novel PrV-Ba recombinant expressing codo...
Source: Virus Research - January 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Klingbeil K, Lange E, Blohm U, Teifke JP, Mettenleiter TC, Fuchs W Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Could brain protein help people 'sleep off' the flu?
Conclusion This complex study suggests the AcPb protein is playing a role in regulating normal sleep and the response to flu infection in mice. At this stage, the implications of this research for humans are unclear, as differences between the species may mean the results would not be exactly the same in humans. While The Telegraph suggests this "could finally lead to an effective treatment for the [flu], which until now has eluded experts", we are a long way off knowing whether this is the case. What the researchers have shown – in mice – is if you remove this protein, mice don't fight the virus as we...
Source: NHS News Feed - January 13, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Neurology Medication Heart/lungs Swine flu Source Type: news

Serological evidence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in pigs, West and Central Africa
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Chantal J. Snoeck , Olusoji J. Abiola , Aurélie Sausy , Mbah P. Okwen , Ayoade G. Olubayo , Ademola A. Owoade , Claude P. Muller Besides birds, pigs are another important reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to human, as highlighted by the emergence and spread of the pandemic (H1N1) virus (pdm/09) in 2009. Surveillance in pigs is therefore necessary for public health and influenza pandemic preparedness. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of data on influenza in Africa, especially in swine. We therefore coll...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 7, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.
Abstract The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human vi...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - January 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nelson MI, Vincent AL Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative virulence of wild-type H1N1pdm09 influenza A isolates in swine
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the HA protein can affect pathogenicity and antigenicity of H1N1pdm09 in swine. We compared lung pathology, viral replication and shedding and the antigenic relationships of four wild-type H1N1pdm09 viruses in pigs: one human (CA/09) and three isolated in swine after the pandemic (IL/09, IL/10, and MN/10). The swine strains were selected based upon unique amino acid substitutions in the HA protein. All selected viruses resulted in mild disease and viral shedding through nasal and oral fluids, however, viral replication and the degree of pathology varied bet...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow‐to‐finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil
ConclusionsThe serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - January 1, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: A.S. Dias, E.A. Costa, D.S Rajão, R.M.C Guedes, J.R. Ciacci Zanella, Z.I.P. Lobato Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Identification of putative interactions between swine and human influenza A virus nucleoprotein and human host proteins
Conclusions: Ten human proteins were identified as interacting with IAV NP in a Y2H screen. Some of these human proteins were reported in previous screens aimed at elucidating host proteins relevant to specific viral life cycle processes such as replication. This study extends previous findings by suggesting a mechanism by which these host proteins associate with the IAV, i.e., physical interaction with NP. Furthermore, this study revealed novel host protein-NP interactions in yeast. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - December 30, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Alex GenerousMolly ThorsonJeff BarcusJoseph JacherMarc BuschHeidi Sleister Source Type: research

Identification of putative interactions between swine and human influenza A virus nucleoprotein and human host proteins
Conclusions: Ten human proteins were identified as interacting with IAV NP in a Y2H screen. Some of these human proteins were reported in previous screens aimed at elucidating host proteins relevant to specific viral life cycle processes such as replication. This study extends previous findings by suggesting a mechanism by which these host proteins associate with the IAV, i.e., physical interaction with NP. Furthermore, this study revealed novel host protein-NP interactions in yeast. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - December 30, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Alex GenerousMolly ThorsonJeff BarcusJoseph JacherMarc BuschHeidi Sleister Source Type: research

Roles of p38 MAPK in the regulation of the inflammatory response to swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in mice.
Abstract UNLABELLED: Swine influenza virus (SIV), one of the most important zoonotic agents, is associated with major public health concerns. The current study was conducted to investigate the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the regulation of the inflammatory response to acute lung injury (ALI) induced by SIV of H9N2 subtype (H9N2-SIV) in mice. For this purpose, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with 20 LD50 of H9N2-SIV (infected group), while non-infected mice served as control (control group). To assess the effect of p38 MAPK, its specific inhibitor SB203580 was employed followed ...
Source: Acta Virologica - December 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wei D, Huang ZH, Zhang RH, Wang CL, Xu MJ, Liu BJ, Wang GH, Xu T Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses in Thai swine farms, 2011–2014
Abstract The pig is known as a “mixing vessel” for influenza A viruses. The co-circulation of multiple influenza A subtypes in pig populations can lead to novel reassortant strains. For this study, swine influenza surveillance was conducted from September 2011 to February 2014 on 46 swine farms in Thailand. In total, 78 swine influenza viruses were isolated from 2,821 nasal swabs, and 12 were selected for characterization by whole genome sequencing. Our results showed that the co-circulation of swine influenza subtypes H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 in Thai swine farms was observable throughout the 3 years of surveilla...
Source: Virus Genes - December 11, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers
Publication date: 15 December 2014 Source:Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Volume 162, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Lasse Eggers Pedersen , Gregers Jungersen , Maria Rathmann Sorensen , Chak-Sum Ho , Dorte Fink Vadekær The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen lea...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 11, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Two different genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in northern China and their pathogenicity in animals
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2014 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Huanliang Yang , Yan Chen , Chuanling Qiao , Chuantian Xu , Minghua Yan , Xiaoguang Xin , Zhigao Bu , Hualan Chen During 2006 and 2007, two swine-origin triple-reassortant influenza A (H1N2) viruses were isolated from pigs in northern China, and the antigenic characteristics of the hemagglutinin protein of the viruses were examined. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated different emergence patterns for the two H1N2 viruses, Sw/Hebei/10/06 and Sw/Tianjin/1/07. Sequences for the other genes encoding the internal protein...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 11, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cultural epidemiology of pandemic influenza in urban and rural Pune, India: a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study
Conclusions Although the term was well known, better recognition of pandemic influenza cases is needed, especially in rural areas. Improved awareness, access to treatment and timely referrals by private practitioners are also required to reduce treatment delays. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - December 8, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sundaram, N., Schaetti, C., Purohit, V., Kudale, A., Weiss, M. G. Tags: Open access, Global health, Infectious diseases, Public health Research Source Type: research

Influenza A Virus Surveillance Based on Pre‐Weaning Piglet Oral Fluid Samples
This study supported the use of oral fluid sampling as a means of conducting IAV surveillance in pig populations and demonstrated the inapparent circulation of IAV in piglets. Future work on IAV oral fluid diagnostics should focus on improved procedures for virus isolation, subtyping and sequencing of HA and NA genes. The role of antibody in IAV surveillance remains to be elucidated, but longitudinal assessment of specific antibody has the potential to provide information regarding patterns of infection, vaccination status and herd immunity. (Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases)
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - December 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Y. Panyasing, C. Goodell, A. Kittawornrat, C. Wang, I. Levis, L. Desfresne, R. Rauh, P. C. Gauger, J. Zhang, X. Lin, S. Azeem, S. Ghorbani‐Nezami, K.‐J. Yoon, J. Zimmerman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from Ontario swine in 2011 and 2012
Conclusions: The characterization of the Ontario H3N2 viruses clearly indicates reassortment of gene segments between the North American swine trH3N2 from cluster IV and the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - November 22, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Helena Grgi¿Marcio CostaRobert FriendshipSusy CarmanÉva NagyGreg WidemanScott WeeseZvonimir Poljak Source Type: research

Enhancement of influenza virus transmission by gene reassortment.
Authors: Li C, Chen H Abstract Influenza A virus is characterized by a genome composed of eight single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments, which allow for reassortment between different strains when they co-infect the same host cell. ReassortmentReassortment is an important driving force for the evolution of influenza virusesInfluenza viruses . The ability of reassortment allows influenza virus to endlessly reinvent itself and pose a constant threat to the health of humans and other animals. Of the four human influenza pandemics since the beginning of the last century, three of them were caused by reassortant vi...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and vaccination of influenza a virus in Swine.
Authors: Rajao DS, Anderson TK, Gauger PC, Vincent AL Abstract Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus (IAV) and characterized by fever followed by lethargy, anorexia, and serous nasal discharge. The disease progresses rapidly and may be complicated when associated with other respiratory pathogens. IAV is one of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens of swine, resulting in substantial economic burden to pork producers. In the past 10-15 years, a dramatic evolution of the IAV in U.S. swine has occurred, resulting in the co-circulation of many antigenically distinct IAV ...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Swine and influenza: a challenge to one health research.
Authors: Kahn RE, Ma W, Richt JA Abstract The challenge of increasing swineSwine production and a rising number of novel and known swine influenzaInfluenza viruses has prompted a considerable boost in research into how and why pigs have become such significant hosts for influenza viruses. The ecology of influenza A viruses is rather complicated, involving multiple host species and a segmented genome. Wild aquatic birds are the reservoir for the majority of influenza A viruses, but novel influenza viruses were recently identified in bats. Occasionally, influenza A viruses can be transmitted to mammals from avian spe...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Temporal insight into the natural generation of a new reassortant porcine influenza virus in a swine holding
Publication date: 7 November 2014 Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 174, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Chiara Chiapponi , Laura Baioni , Andrea Luppi , Ana Moreno , Alberto Castellan , Emanuela Foni The influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine in Italy. Reassortant influenza A viruses subtypes in swine appeared in European pig population. In particular reassortant viruses carrying genome segment from the pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) are reported in many European countries, including Italy. In a 1000 sows farrow-to feeder farm, in Northern Italy, we isolated 10 IAVs from recu...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - November 8, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cross-Reactive Influenza-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Intravenous Immunoglobulin as a Potential Therapeutic Against Emerging Influenza Viruses
Conclusions. IVIG preparations contain broadly cross-reactive ADCC mediating antibodies. IVIG may provide at least some level of protection for individuals at high risk of severe influenza disease, especially during influenza pandemics prior to the development of effective vaccines. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jegaskanda, S., Vandenberg, K., Laurie, K. L., Loh, L., Kramski, M., Winnall, W. R., Kedzierska, K., Rockman, S., Kent, S. J. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus among Humans and Swine, Sri Lanka
H. Perera et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - November 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Media, M.D.
After almost two months of screaming newspaper headlines and wall-to-wall cable television coverage about the Ebola outbreak, a calm descended over the media in late October. On Oct. 30, the Washington Post's front page carried the headline, "New Cases of Ebola Declining, WHO Says." The next day, the same real estate carried stories about the war in Syria and the CEO of Apple, Inc. Over the same two days, Ebola was nowhere to be found on the front page of the New York Times. It was 23 days after the death of Thomas Eric Duncan, the first and only confirmed Ebola fatality in the United States. Barring another victim arri...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - November 4, 2014 Category: Science Source Type: news

Analysis of codon usage preference in hemagglutinin genes of the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus
Conclusion This study proposes a new and effective way to gain a better understanding of the features of the S-OIV genome and evolutionary processes based on the codon usage pattern. It is useful to trace influenza viral origins and cross-species virus transmission. (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection)
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - November 3, 2014 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Detection of Novel Reassortant Influenza A (H3N2) and H1N1 2009 Pandemic Viruses in Swine in Hanoi, Vietnam
Summary From May to September 2013, monthly samples were collected from swine in a Vietnamese slaughterhouse for influenza virus isolation and serological testing. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and a novel H3N2 originating from reassortment between A(H1N1)pdm09 and novel viruses of the North American triple reassortant lineage were isolated. Serological results showed low seroprevalence for the novel H3N2 virus and higher seroprevalence for A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In addition, serology suggested that other swine influenza viruses are also circulating in Vietnamese swine. (Source: Zoonoses and Public Health)
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - November 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: E. Baudon, L. L. Poon, T. D. Dao, N. T. Pham, B. J. Cowling, M. Peyre, K. V. Nguyen, M. Peiris Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Analysis of codon usage preference in hemagglutinin genes of the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus.
CONCLUSION: This study proposes a new and effective way to gain a better understanding of the features of the S-OIV genome and evolutionary processes based on the codon usage pattern. It is useful to trace influenza viral origins and cross-species virus transmission. PMID: 25442859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection)
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - October 31, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang SF, Su MW, Tseng SP, Li MC, Tsao CH, Huang SW, Chu WC, Liu WT, Chen YM, Huang JC Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research

Viral M2 Ion Channel Protein: A Promising Target for Anti-influenza Drug Discovery.
Abstract Influenza virus is an important RNA virus causing pandemics (Spanish Flu (1918), Asian Flu (1957), Hong Kong Flu (1968) and Swine Flu (2009)) over the last decades. Due to the spontaneous mutations of these viral proteins, currently available antiviral and anti-influenza drugs quickly develop resistance. To account this, only limited antiinfluenza drugs have been approved for the therapeutic use. These include amantadine and rimantadine (M2 proton channel blockers), zanamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir (neuraminidase inhibitors), favipravir (polymerase inhibitor) and laninamivir. This review provides an ou...
Source: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry - October 28, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Moorthy NS, Poongavanam V, Pratheepa V Tags: Mini Rev Med Chem Source Type: research

Novel triple reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses bearing six internal genes of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 influenza virus were detected in pigs in China
At present, three predominant influenza virus subtypes, H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2, circulate among pigs worldwide. The wholly avian-like H1N1 virus, known as Eurasian avian-like H1N1, was first isolated from pigs in Italy in 1979, and appeared in China in the 1990s [1]. H1N2 viruses, first reported in Japan in 1978, which contained a variety of gene combinations or reassortment patterns between the H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses also concurrently circulate among swine herds in various counties [2]. In 1999, North American triple-reassortant H1N2 viruses, which resulted from human-, swine-, and avian-origin genes of influenza v...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - October 28, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Chuanling Qiao, Liping Liu, Huanliang Yang, Yan Chen, Huiyang Xu, Hualan Chen Source Type: research

Live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine protects against A(H1N1)pdm09 heterologous challenge without vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease.
Abstract Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines may provide cross-protection against contemporary influenza A virus (IAV) in swine. Conversely, whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines have the potential risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) when challenged with IAV of substantial antigenic drift. A temperature sensitive, intranasal H1N2 LAIV was compared to wild type exposure (WT) and an intramuscular WIV vaccine in a model shown to induce VAERD. WIV vaccinated swine challenged with pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) were not protected from infection and demonstrated severe respiratory di...
Source: Virology - October 28, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Gauger PC, Loving CL, Khurana S, Lorusso A, Perez DR, Kehrli ME, Roth JA, Golding H, Vincent AL Tags: Virology Source Type: research

[Series] Emerging novel and antimicrobial-resistant respiratory tract infections: new drug development and therapeutic options
The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens for which diminishing treatment options are available is of major global concern. New viral respiratory tract infections with epidemic potential, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, swine-origin influenza A H1N1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, require development of new antiviral agents. The substantial rise in the global numbers of patients with respiratory tract infections caused by pan-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alimuddin Zumla, Ziad A Memish, Markus Maeurer, Matthew Bates, Peter Mwaba, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, David W Denning, Frederick G Hayden, David S Hui Tags: Series Source Type: research

[Series] Emerging viral respiratory tract infections—environmental risk factors and transmission
The past decade has seen the emergence of several novel viruses that cause respiratory tract infections in human beings, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, an H7N9 influenza A virus in eastern China, a swine-like influenza H3N2 variant virus in the USA, and a human adenovirus 14p1 also in the USA. MERS-CoV and H7N9 viruses are still a major worldwide public health concern. The pathogenesis and mode of transmission of MERS-CoV and H7N9 influenza A virus are poorly understood, making it more difficult to implement intervention and preventive measures. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philippe Gautret, Gregory C Gray, Remi N Charrel, Nnanyelugo G Odezulu, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Alimuddin Zumla, Ziad A Memish Tags: Series Source Type: research

Diseases at the livestock–wildlife interface: Status, challenges, and opportunities in the United States
In this study, we conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature to evaluate the status of diseases at the livestock–wildlife interface in the United States. Specifically, the goals of the literature review were three fold: first to evaluate domestic animal diseases currently found in the United States where wildlife may play a role; second to identify critical issues faced in managing these diseases at the livestock–wildlife interface; and third to identify potential technical and policy strategies for addressing these issues. We found that of the 86 avian, ruminant, swine, poultry, and lagomorph diseases th...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - October 17, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Tumefactive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating human swine influenza (H1N1).
This report illustrates an adult patient presenting with tumefactive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating human swine influenza. Its presentation, diagnosis, investigation findings, course, and response to treatment are discussed herein. PMID: 25307074 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Hong Kong Med J)
Source: Hong Kong Med J - October 1, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chan AC, Ng SH Tags: Hong Kong Med J Source Type: research

Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus
Abstract Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were ...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 25, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification of four genotypes of H3N2 swine influenza virus in pigs from southern China
Abstract In 2011, four H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were isolated from nasal swabs of four pigs (800 nasal swabs were collected from pigs showing influenza-like symptoms) in Guangdong province, China. Four different genotypes of H3N2 appeared among pigs in southern China, including wholly human-like H3N2 viruses, intermediate (1975) double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses (resulting from reassortment between an early human lineage and a recent human lineage), recent double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses, and avian-like H3N2 viruses. Because pigs can support the reassortment of human and avian influenza virus...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 25, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research