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[Series] Emerging novel and antimicrobial-resistant respiratory tract infections: new drug development and therapeutic options
The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens for which diminishing treatment options are available is of major global concern. New viral respiratory tract infections with epidemic potential, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, swine-origin influenza A H1N1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, require development of new antiviral agents. The substantial rise in the global numbers of patients with respiratory tract infections caused by pan-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alimuddin Zumla, Ziad A Memish, Markus Maeurer, Matthew Bates, Peter Mwaba, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, David W Denning, Frederick G Hayden, David S Hui Tags: Series Source Type: research

[Series] Emerging viral respiratory tract infections—environmental risk factors and transmission
The past decade has seen the emergence of several novel viruses that cause respiratory tract infections in human beings, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, an H7N9 influenza A virus in eastern China, a swine-like influenza H3N2 variant virus in the USA, and a human adenovirus 14p1 also in the USA. MERS-CoV and H7N9 viruses are still a major worldwide public health concern. The pathogenesis and mode of transmission of MERS-CoV and H7N9 influenza A virus are poorly understood, making it more difficult to implement intervention and preventive measures. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philippe Gautret, Gregory C Gray, Remi N Charrel, Nnanyelugo G Odezulu, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Alimuddin Zumla, Ziad A Memish Tags: Series Source Type: research

Tumefactive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating human swine influenza (H1N1).
This report illustrates an adult patient presenting with tumefactive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating human swine influenza. Its presentation, diagnosis, investigation findings, course, and response to treatment are discussed herein. PMID: 25307074 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Hong Kong Med J)
Source: Hong Kong Med J - October 1, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chan AC, Ng SH Tags: Hong Kong Med J Source Type: research

Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus
Abstract Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were ...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 25, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification of four genotypes of H3N2 swine influenza virus in pigs from southern China
Abstract In 2011, four H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were isolated from nasal swabs of four pigs (800 nasal swabs were collected from pigs showing influenza-like symptoms) in Guangdong province, China. Four different genotypes of H3N2 appeared among pigs in southern China, including wholly human-like H3N2 viruses, intermediate (1975) double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses (resulting from reassortment between an early human lineage and a recent human lineage), recent double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses, and avian-like H3N2 viruses. Because pigs can support the reassortment of human and avian influenza virus...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 25, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses
Conclusions: We demonstrated that Korean SIV subtypes had different pulmonary pathologic patterns. The Korean H3N2 rapidly induced acute lung lesions such as broncho-interstitial pneumonia, while the Korean H1N1 showed longer course of infection as compared to other strains. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - September 24, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Kwang-Soo LyooJeong-Ki KimKwonil JungBo-Kyu KangDaesub Song Source Type: research

One‐Health Simulation Modelling: Assessment of Control Strategies Against the Spread of Influenza between Swine and Human Populations Using NAADSM
In conclusion, our study suggests that the early detection (and therefore effective surveillance) and effective quarantine had the largest impact in the control of the influenza spread, consistent with earlier studies. To our knowledge, no study had previously assessed the impact of the combination of different intervention strategies involving the simultaneous spread of influenza between swine and human populations. (Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases)
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - September 15, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: S. Dorjee, C. W. Revie, Z. Poljak, W. B. McNab, J. T. McClure, J. Sanchez Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Identification of swine influenza virus epitopes and analysis of multiple specificities expressed by cytotoxic T cell subsets
Conclusions: This study describes a timely and cost-effective approach for viral epitope identification in livestock animals. Analysis of T cell subsets showed multiple specificities suggesting SLA-bound epitope recognition of different conformations. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - September 6, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lasse Eggers PedersenSolvej Ø BreumUlla RiberLars E LarsenGregers Jungersen Source Type: research

Influenza A viruses of avian origin circulating in pigs and other mammals.
Abstract Influenza A viruses are zoonotic agents, capable of crossing the species barriers. Nowadays, they still constitute a great challenge worldwide. The natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses are wild aquatic birds, despite the fact they have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species, including humans. Even when influenza A viruses are able to get into another than waterfowl population, they are often unable to efficiently adapt and transmit between individuals. Only in rare cases, these viruses are capable of establishing a new lineage. To succeed a complete adaptation and further transm...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - September 4, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Urbaniak K, Kowalczyk A, Markowska-Daniel I Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research

The comparative profile of lymphoid cells and the T and B cell spectratype of germ-free piglets infected with viruses SIV, PRRSV or PCV2
Abstract Lymphocyte subsets isolated from germ-free piglets experimentally infected with swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were studied and the profile of these subsets among these three infections was monitored. Germ-free piglets were used since their response could be directly correlated to the viral infection. Because SIV infections are resolved even by colostrum-deprived neonates whereas PRRSV and PCV2 infections are not, SIV was used as a benchmark for an effectively resolved viral infection. PRRSV caused a large incre...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 4, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vivo reassortment of influenza viruses.
Abstract The genetic material of influenza A virus consists of eight negative-sense RNA segments. Under suitable conditions, the segmented structure of the viral genome allows an exchange of the individual gene segments between different strains, causing formation of new reassorted viruses. For reassortment to occur, co-infection with two or more influenza virus strains is necessary. The reassortment is an important evolutionary mechanism which can result in antigenic shifts that modify host range, pathology, and transmission of the influenza A viruses. In this process, the influenza virus strain with epidemic and/...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - September 3, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Urbaniak K, Markowska-Daniel I Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research

Electrical Immunosensor based on Dielectrophoretically-deposited Carbon Nanotubes for Detection of Influenza Virus H1N1
Analyst, 2014, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C4AN01335B, PaperRenu Singh, Abhinav Sharma, Seongkyeol Hong, Jaesung JangThe influenza virus has received extensive attention due to the recent swine-origin H1N1 pandemics. This paper reports a label-free, highly sensitive and selective electrical immunosensor for detection of influenza virus...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles)
Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles - September 2, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Renu Singh Source Type: research

An efficient genome sequencing method for equine influenza [H3N8] virus reveals a new polymorphism in the PA-X protein
Conclusions: These methods can be used to determine the genome sequences of EIV, including the NCRs, from both clade 1 and clade 2 of the Florida sublineage. Full genomes were covered efficiently using fewer PCR products than previously reported methods for influenza A viruses, the techniques used are affordable and the equipment required is available in most research laboratories. The adoption of these methods will hopefully allow for an increase in the number of full genomes available for EIV, leading to improved surveillance and a better understanding of EIV evolution. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - September 2, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Adam RashAlana WoodwardNeil BryantJohn McCauleyDebra Elton Source Type: research

Serological report of influenza a (H7N9) infections among pigs in Southern China
Conclusions: Pigs in southern China have been shown to be infected with multiple avian influenza viruses. As the prevalence of novel influenza A viruses (e.g., H7N9 avian influenza virus) may be increasing among poultry in China, similar seroepidemiological studies of pigs should be conducted in the future. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles - September 2, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pei ZhouMalin HongMary MerrillHuamei HeLingshuang SunGuihong Zhang Source Type: research

Heterogeneous pathological outcomes after experimental pH1N1 influenza infection in ferrets correlate with viral replication and host immune responses in the lung
In conclusion, this study confirmed that the clinicopathological outcomes of pH1N1 infection in ferrets were not only due to viral replication abilities but also depended on the hosts’ capacities to mount efficient immune responses to control viral infection of the lung. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 28, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

An Epidemic: Top 10 Outbreaks In U.S. History
Throughout the years, epidemics and plagues have shaken up societies and cultures around the world. The latest outbreak that Americans seem to be concerned about is the Ebola epidemic occurring in the African countries of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria.  With experts and doctors saying that the outbreak has the potential to become a full-blown pandemic that will become increasingly more difficult to control, the general public is scared. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continuously keep an eye on public health and any immediate health dangers, the American public still worries about how muc...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - August 7, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: cbskapost Tags: Health Africa avian flu Ebola Guinea Health Scare History Measles Nigeria Source Type: news

Performance of a rapid test versus real-time PCR for diagnosis of H1N1 swine flu
ConclusionCerTest Swine Flu card rapid test was found to have reliable sensitivity and specificity compared with the gold-standard RT-PCR. (Source: The Journal Of The Egyptian Public Health Association)
Source: The Journal Of The Egyptian Public Health Association - August 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Original articles Source Type: research

Genetic evolution of PB1 in the zoonotic transmission of influenza A(H1) virus.
The objective of this study was to identify whether PB1 retains genetic traces of interspecies transmission and adaptation. We have found that the evolutionary history of PB1 is traceable. Lineage appears to be distinguished by amino acid changes between the conserved motifs of the viral polymerase, which can have major impact in PB1 protein folding, and by changes in the expression of the Mitochondrial Targeting Sequence and in the predicted helical region, that putatively affect induction of cellular apoptosis by PB1-F2. Furthermore, we found genomic markers that possibly relate to viral adaptation to new hosts and to ne...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - August 1, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gíria M, de Andrade HR Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

The Eurasian genes of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus: an integrative perspective on their conveyance to and assimilation in America.
This study explores whether there is a particular interhemispheric system underlying such divergence, and its properties. Unlike the assumption that transport of live pigs from Eurasia to America facilitated the formation of the 2009 H1N1 PS in America, it is suggested that conveyance of Eurasian swine genes to America, and their assimilation therein, took place through a distinct, perfectly natural ecophylogenetic machinery. The latter conjunctively involves, foremost, a native Asian duck-swine-man interface, a Holarctic chain of certain migratory Anas ducks, a native American turkey-swine-man interface, and two specific ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - July 24, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shoham D Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Toward a Method for Tracking Virus Evolutionary Trajectory Applied to the Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus.
Abstract In 2009 a novel pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) emerged as the first official influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Early genomic sequence analysis pointed to the swine origin of the virus. Here we report a novel computational approach to determine the evolutionary trajectory of viral sequences that uses data-driven estimations of nucleotide substitution rates to track the gradual accumulation of observed sequence alterations over time. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments show that sequences belonging to the resulting evolutionary trajectory of the H1N1pdm09 lineage exhibit a...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - July 23, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Burke Squires R, Pickett BE, Das S, Scheuermann RH Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Genetic Characterization and Evolution of H1N1pdm09 after Circulation in a Swine Farm.
In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus identified in pigs reared in a single herd. Nasal swabs taken from pigs showing respiratory distress were tested for influenza type A and A(H1N1)pdm09 by real-time RT-PCR assays. Virus isolation from positive samples was attempted by inoculation of nasal swabs samples into specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and complete genome sequencing was performed on virus strains after replication on ECE or from original swab sample. The molecular analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) showed, in four of the swine influenza viruses under study, a un...
Source: Biomed Res - July 19, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Boni A, Vaccari G, Di Trani L, Zaccaria G, Alborali GL, Lelli D, Cordioli P, Moreno AM Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Divergent immune responses and disease outcomes in piglets immunized with inactivated and attenuated H3N2 swine influenza vaccines in the presence of maternally-derived antibodies.
This study was aimed at identifying immune correlates of cross-protection. Piglets with and without MDA received intramuscular adjuvanted WIV or intranasal LAIV, and were challenged with heterologous H3N2. WIV induced cross-reactive IgG, inhibited by MDA, and a moderate T cell response. LAIV elicited mucosal antibodies and T cells cross-reactive to the heterologous challenge strain. The presence of MDA at LAIV vaccination blocked lung and nasal antibody production, but did not interfere with T cell priming. Even without mucosal antibodies, MDA-positive LAIV vaccinates were protected, indicating a likely role for T cells. B...
Source: Virology - July 17, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Sandbulte MR, Platt R, Roth JA, Henningson JN, Gibson KA, Rajão DS, Loving CL, Vincent AL Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Humanized antibody neutralizing 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.
We describe here the humanization of MA2077 and its expression in a mammalian cell line. Six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of MA2077 were grafted onto the human germline variable regions; along with 6 and 8 back mutations in the framework of heavy and light chains respectively, pertaining to the vernier zone and interchain packing residues to promote favorable CDR conformation and facilitate antigen binding. The full length humanized antibody, 2077Hu2, expressed in CHO-K1 cells, showed high affinity to hemagglutinin protein (KD = 0.75 ± 0.32 nM) and potent neutralization of pandemic H1N1 virus (IC50 = 0.17 μ...
Source: Biotechnology Journal - July 7, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shembekar N, Mallajosyula VV, Chaudhary P, Upadhyay V, Varadarajan R, Gupta SK Tags: Biotechnol J Source Type: research

New analysis of 'swine flu' pandemic conflicts with accepted views on how diseases spread
(University of Cambridge) New analysis of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in the US shows that the pandemic wave was surprisingly slow, and that its spread was likely accelerated by school-age children. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - July 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Healthcare workers under a mandated H1N1 vaccination policy with employment termination penalty: A survey to assess employee perception.
Abstract The ethical debate over mandatory healthcare worker (HCW) influenza vaccination is a heated one. Our study hospital instituted a mandatory employee influenza vaccination policy for the 2009-2010 influenza season during the highly publicized pandemic of the H1N1 "Swine Flu." Under this mandate there was no informed declination option, and termination of employment was the consequence for noncompliance. Our objective was to examine HCW perceptions of the H1N1 influenza virus, the vaccine, and the strict mandated vaccination policy. A survey was designed, distributed, and anonymously collected. In total, 202 ...
Source: Vaccine - July 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Winston L, Wagner S, Chan S Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Utility of snout wipe samples for influenza A virus surveillance in exhibition swine populations
ConclusionsViral recoveries from potential snout wipe materials ranged from 0·26 to 1·59 log10 TCID50/ml less than that of the positive control in which no substrate was included; rayon/polyester gauze performed significantly worse than the other materials. In the field, snout wipes and nasal swabs had high levels of agreement for both rRT‐PCR detection and virus isolation. Although further investigation and refinement of the sampling method is needed, results indicate that snout wipes will facilitate convenient and undisruptive IAV surveillance in pigs at agricultural fairs. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - July 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jody L. Edwards, Sarah W. Nelson, Jeffrey D. Workman, Richard D. Slemons, Christine M. Szablewski, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Andrew S. Bowman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A flow-through chromatography process for influenza A and B virus purification.
This study focused on the development of an economic flow-through chromatographic process avoiding virus strain sensitive capture steps. Therefore, a three-step process consisting of anion exchange chromatography (AEC), Benzonase(®) treatment, and size exclusion chromatography with a ligand-activated core (LCC) was established, and tested for purification of two influenza A virus strains and one influenza B virus strain. The process resulted in high virus yields (≥68%) with protein contamination levels fulfilling requirements of the European Pharmacopeia for production of influenza vaccines for human use. DNA was deplet...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - July 1, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Weigel T, Solomaier T, Peuker A, Pathapati T, Wolff MW, Reichl U Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

N-acetyl-l-cystine (NAC) protects against H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury.
Abstract The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) had been shown to inhibit replication of seasonal human influenza A viruses. Here, the effects of NAC on H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI) were investigated in mice. BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of A/swine/HeBei/012/2008/(H9N2) viruses with or without NAC treatments to induce ALI model. The result showed that pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and CXCL-10 in BALF were attenuated by NAC. Moreover,...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - June 23, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhang RH, Li CH, Wang CL, Xu MJ, Tong X, Dong W, Liu BJ, Wang GH, Tian SF Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research

Immunotherapies influence the influenza vaccination response in multiple sclerosis patients: an explorative study
Conclusions: These findings suggest that MS patients receiving immunomodulatory therapies other than interferon beta should be considered for a vaccine response analysis and perhaps be offered a second dose of the vaccine, in cases of insufficient protection. (Source: Multiple Sclerosis)
Source: Multiple Sclerosis - June 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Olberg, H. K., Cox, R. J., Nostbakken, J. K., Aarseth, J. H., Vedeler, C. A., Myhr, K.-M. Tags: Research Papers Source Type: research

Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009
ABSTRACT In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)—two H1N2 and one H3N2—were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human‐like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic ...
Source: Microbiology and Immunology - June 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Katsushi Kanehira, Nobuhiro Takemae, Yuko Uchida, Hirokazu Hikono, Takehiko Saito Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

MicroRNA Expression in Mice Infected with Seasonal H1N1, Swine H1N1, or Highly Pathogenic H5N1.
In this study, we demonstrate differences in the miRNA expression profiles associated with the lung in mice infected with various influenza viruses that vary in virulence and pathogenicity. Additionally, this study employs a statistical model that utilizes changes in miRNA expression to identify the virus that was used to infect the mice. In all, this project identifies a unique fingerprint of viral pathogenicity associated with seasonal H1N1, swine H1N1, and highly pathogenic H5N1 in the mouse model and may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic and prophylactic targets. PMID: 24913561 [PubMed - as supplied b...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vela EM, Kasoji MD, Wendling MQ, Price JA, Knostman KA, Bresler HS, Long JP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

RNA Extraction from Swine Samples and Detection of Influenza A Virus in Swine by Real-Time RT-PCR
Real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays are currently the method of choice in many laboratories for the detection and subtyping of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine. Traditionally, nasal swabs and lung tissues (sometimes broncho-alveolar lavage and tracheal tissues) are the primary specimens for IAV testing. However, oral fluids are becoming more common for IAV prognostic profiling. In this chapter, we describe (1) procedures of RNA extraction from the common clinical specimens, (2) two rRT-PCR assays for detection of IAV in swine, and (3) an rRT-PCR assay for subtyping swine IAV. RNA extraction procedures include a magnetic bead...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - June 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Hemagglutinin Inhibition Assay with Swine Sera
Hemagglutination is based on the ability of viruses such as influenza A virus to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) of specific animal species by formation of cross-linking lattices between RBCs. Antibodies that have the ability to inhibit the hemagglutination property of influenza A viruses are correlated with protection from infection. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is a serological assay that measures the titer of specific antibodies in the sera and is the most common serological assay used to detect anti-influenza antibodies in swine sera. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - June 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Serum or Mucosal Isotype-Specific IgG and IgA Whole-Virus Antibody to Influenza A Virus in Swine
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays can be used to detect isotype-specific anti-influenza antibodies in biological samples to characterize the porcine immune response to influenza A virus. The isotype antibody assay is based on an indirect ELISA using whole influenza virus as antigen and detection antibodies directed against porcine IgG and IgA. Samples such as serum, nasal wash, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid allow for evaluation of systemic, upper, and lower respiratory tract mucosal antibody responses, respectively. The isotype ELISA assay is performed in a 96-well format using anti-swine detection antibodies conjugate...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - June 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

A Brief Introduction to Influenza A Virus in Swine
Influenza A viruses (IAV) of the Orthomyxoviridae virus family cause one of the most important respiratory diseases in pigs as well as humans. Repeated outbreaks and rapid spread of genetically and antigenically distinct IAVs represent a considerable challenge for animal production and public health. This overlap between human and animal health is a prime example of the “One Health” concept. Although only subtypes of H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are endemic in swine around the world, considerable diversity can be found not only in the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes, but in the other 6 genes as well. Hu...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - June 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Sample Types, Collection, and Transport for Influenza A Viruses of Swine
Detection of influenza A virus (IAV), viral antigen, nucleic acid, or antibodies in swine is dependent upon the collection of the appropriate sample type, the quality of the sample, and the proper storage and handling of the sample. The diagnostic tests to be performed should be considered prior to sample collection. Sera are acceptable samples for ELISA or hemagglutination inhibition tests, but not for real-time RT-PCR. Likewise, swabs and/or tissues are acceptable for real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation. The sample type will also depend on the age of swine that are being tested; oral fluids can be successfully collected...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - June 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Isolation of Swine Influenza Virus in Cell Cultures and Embryonated Chicken Eggs
Influenza virus isolation is a procedure to obtain a live and infectious virus that can be used for antigenic characterization, pathogenesis investigation, and vaccine production. Embryonated chicken egg inoculation is traditionally considered the “gold standard” method for influenza virus isolation and propagation. However, many primary cells and continuous cell lines have also been examined or developed for influenza virus isolation and replication. Specifically, swine influenza virus (SIV) isolation and propagation have been attempted and compared in embryonated chicken eggs, some primary porcine cells, and ...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - June 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Avian Influenza Virus Isolation, Propagation, and Titration in Embryonated Chicken Eggs
Avian influenza virus and some mammalian influenza A viruses are usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, for example, swine influenza in turkey specimens. Culture is highly sensitive, but is not specific for influenza A, which may be an advantage because a sample may be screened for several agents at once. Once an agent is isolated in culture, the presence of influenza viruses is confirmed with any...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - June 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Research/Review: Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium Analysis of Adamantane Resistant Mutations in Influenza Virus M2 Proton Channel.
Abstract The M2 proton channel is translated by the M gene segment of influenza viruses, and has been adopted as an attractive target for influenza A viruses, on which a series of adamantane-based drugs act. However, recently epidemic influenza viruses have strong resistant effects against the adamantane-based drugs. In this paper, we combined evolutionary analyses, linkage disequilibrium as well as molecular dynamics simulations to explore the drug resistance of the M2 proton channel, with an aim of providing an in-depth understanding of the resistant mechanism for adamantane-based drugs. We collected 2746 coding ...
Source: Current Drug Metabolism - June 5, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yu Y, Li X, Hao P, Wang JF, Chou KC Tags: Curr Drug Metab Source Type: research

The influence of experimental infection of gilts with swine H1N2 influenza A virus during the second month of gestation on the course of pregnancy, reproduction parameters and clinical status
Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that infection of pregnant gilts with swine H1N2 IAV in the second month of pregnancy does not cause abortion and other reproduction disorders. No evidence for transplacental transmission of swine H1N2 IAV was found. However, due to subclinical course of influenza in the present experiment caution should be taken in extrapolating these results to the cases of acute influenza. The other limitation is IAV diversity. It cannot be excluded that other subtypes of IAV could be associated to reproduction failure in pigs. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - June 4, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Krzysztof KwitMa¿gorzata Pomorska-MólIwona Markowska-Daniel Source Type: research

Origins and pathogenesis of the 1918 flu pandemic [Evolution]
The source, timing, and geographical origin of the 1918–1920 pandemic influenza A virus have remained tenaciously obscure for nearly a century, as have the reasons for its unusual severity among young adults. Here, we reconstruct the origins of the pandemic virus and the classic swine influenza and (postpandemic) seasonal H1N1... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 3, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Worobey, M., Han, G.-Z., Rambaut, A. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Cytokine Expression at Different Stages of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in the Porcine Lung, Using Laser Capture Microdissection
This study highlighted the value of using laser capture microdissection to isolate specific tissue regions and investigate subtle differences in cytokine mRNA expression during lesion development in pigs infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. (Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases)
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - June 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: D. J. Hicks, M. Kelly, S. M. Brookes, B. Z. Londt, A. Ortiz Pelaez, A. Orlowska, I. H. Brown, Y. I. Spencer, A. Núñez Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Variant Influenza Associated with Live Animal Markets, Minnesota
Summary Variant influenza viruses are swine‐origin influenza A viruses that cause illness in humans. Surveillance for variant influenza A viruses, including characterization of exposure settings, is important because of the potential emergence of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. In Minnesota, we have documented variant influenza A virus infections associated with swine exposure at live animal markets. (Source: Zoonoses and Public Health)
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - June 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: M. J. Choi, C. A. Morin, J. Scheftel, S. M. Vetter, K. Smith, R. Lynfield, Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Avian-Like A (H1N1) Swine Influenza Virus Antibodies among Swine Farm Residents and Pigs in Southern China.
Abstract Infection of human with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) occasionally occurs in China, suggesting a potential risk of cross-species transmission of the swine influenza H1N1 virus from pigs to humans, particularly to those having direct contact with pigs. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to assess the prevalence of antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China to evaluate the risk of infection to swine farm workers. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays revealed that 11.17% (61/546) of the sera samples from swine farm residents...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 29, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhou H, Cao Z, Tan L, Fu X, Lu G, Qi W, Ke C, Wang H, Sun L, Zhang G Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influenza at the animal-human interface: a review of the literature for virological evidence of human infection with swine or avian influenza viruses other than A(H5N1).
PMID: 24832117 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 19, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Freidl G, Meijer A, de Bruin E, de Nardi M, Munoz O, Capua I, Breed A, Harris K, Hill A, Kosmider R, Banks J, von Dobschuetz S, Stark K, Wieland B, Stevens K, van der Werf S, Enouf V, van der Meulen K, Van Reeth K, Dauphin G, Koopmans M, FLURISK Consortiu Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Tamiflu: drugs given for swine flu 'were waste of £500m'
Drug Tamiflu does nothing to halt the spread of influenza and Government wasted nearly £500?million stockpiling it over swine flu pandemic, study finds (Source: The Telegraph : Swine Flu A H1N1)
Source: The Telegraph : Swine Flu A H1N1 - May 13, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: influenza drugs pandemic tamiflu swine flu Source Type: news

Vaccinia‐based influenza vaccine overcomes previously induced immunodominance hierarchy for heterosubtypic protection
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: European Journal of Immunology)
Source: European Journal of Immunology - May 13, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ji‐Sun Kwon, Jungsoon Yoon, Yeon‐Jung Kim, Kyuho Kang, Sunje Woo, Dea‐Im Jung, Man Ki Song, Eun‐Ha Kim, Hyeok‐il Kwon, Young Ki Choi, Jihye Kim, Jeewon Lee, Yeup Yoon, Eui‐Cheol Shin, Jin‐Won Youn Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Vaccinia-based influenza vaccine overcomes previously induced immunodominance hierarchy for heterosubtypic protection.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 24825439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Immunology)
Source: European Journal of Immunology - May 13, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kwon JS, Yoon J, Kim YJ, Kang K, Woo S, Jung DI, Song MK, Kim EH, Kwon HI, Choi YK, Kim J, Lee J, Yoon Y, Shin EC, Youn JW Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research

Protective efficacy of intranasally administered bivalent live influenza vaccine and immunological mechanisms underlying the protection.
Abstract Previously we reported the generation of a new potential live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) named SIV/606 that expresses H1 and H3 HAs. We also demonstrated intratracheal vaccination of SIV/606 conferred protection against infections with both H1 and H3 swine influenza virus subtypes in pigs. Here we vaccinated pigs with SIV/606 intranasally, which is a more suitable route for LAIV, and evaluated vaccine efficacy. Intranasal vaccination of SIV/606 induced serum IgG antibody responses against both H1N1 and H3N2 SIVs and high titer of virus neutralizing antibodies against H1N1 SIV but not against H3N2 ...
Source: Vaccine - May 13, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pyo HM, Zhou Y Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Influenza at the animal-human interface: a review of the literature for virological evidence of human infection with swine or avian influenza viruses other than A(H5N1)
(Source: Eurosurveillance latest news)
Source: Eurosurveillance latest news - May 8, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research