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RNA interference against TMEM97 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in glioma cells
Abstract Gliomas are the most common form of primary brain tumor in the adult central nervous system. Altered expression and prognostic value of transmembrane protein 97 (TMEM97) has been recently reported in different types of human tumors. However, the association of TMEM97and glioma is poorly defined. Here, we reported that TMEM97 was significantly increased in glioma tissues compared to non-tumorous brain tissues. Furthermore, TMEM97 levels were progressively increased with increasing histologic tumor grade in glioma. Higher TMEM97 expression level was correlated with shorter survival time of patients with gli...
Source: Tumor Biology - May 23, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Biomarker-driven diagnosis of diffuse gliomas
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2015 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Christina L. Appin , Daniel J. Brat The diffuse gliomas are primary central nervous system tumors that arise most frequently in the cerebral hemispheres of adults. They are currently classified as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas or oligoastrocytomas and range in grade from II – IV. Glioblastoma (GBM), grade IV, is the highest grade and most common form. The diagnosis of diffuse gliomas has historically been based primarily on histopathologic features, yet these tumors have a wide range of biological behaviors that are only p...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 22, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Implantable micro-device to monitor oxygen in glioma to improve treatment outcomes
Monitoring oxygen levels in human tumors growing in a mouse brain using EPR oximetry with implantable resonators provides opportunities to evaluate and optimize various strategies being developed to improve oxygen levels in the glioma. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - May 21, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor prevents radiation-enhanced infiltration of F98 glioma cells in brain of Fischer rat
International Journal of Radiation Biology, Ahead of Print. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - May 21, 2015 Category: Radiology Tags: article Source Type: research

Loss of CX3CR1 increases accumulation of inflammatory monocytes and promotes gliomagenesis.
Authors: Feng X, Szulzewsky F, Yerevanian A, Chen Z, Heinzmann D, Rasmussen RD, Alvarez-Garcia V, Kim Y, Wang B, Tamagno I, Zhou H, Li X, Kettenmann H, Ransohoff RM, Hambardzumyan D Abstract The most abundant populations of non-neoplastic cells in the glioblastoma (GBM) microenvironment are resident microglia, macrophages and infiltrating monocytes from the blood circulation. The mechanisms by which monocytes infiltrate into GBM, their fate following infiltration, and their role in GBM growth are not known. Here we tested the hypothesis that loss of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in microglia and monocytes would a...
Source: Oncotarget - May 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

The emerging role of NG2 in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.
Authors: Yadavilli S, Scafidi J, Becher OJ, Saratsis AM, Hiner RL, Kambhampati M, Mariarita S, MacDonald TJ, Codispoti KE, Magge SN, Jaiswal JK, Packer RJ, Nazarian J Abstract Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) have a dismal prognosis and are poorly understood brain cancers. Receptor tyrosine kinases stabilized by neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) protein are known to induce gliomagenesis. Here, we investigated NG2 expression in a cohort of DIPG specimens (n= 50). We demonstrate NG2 expression in the majority of DIPG specimens tested and determine that tumors harboring histone 3.3 mutation express the highest NG2...
Source: Oncotarget - May 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Dynamic treatment effect (DTE) curves reveal the mode of action for standard and experimental cancer therapies.
We present a method for estimating the empirical dynamic treatment effect (DTE) curves from tumor growth delay (TGD) studies. This improves on current common methods of TGD analysis, such as T/C ratio and doubling times, by providing a more detailed treatment effect and overcomes their lack of reproducibility. The methodology doesn't presuppose any prior form for the treatment effect dynamics and is shown to give consistent estimates with missing data. The method is illustrated by application to real data from TGD studies involving three types of therapy. Firstly, we demonstrate that radiotherapy induces a sharp peak in in...
Source: Oncotarget - May 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Small molecule inhibition of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase potently suppresses multiple malignant properties of glioma cells.
In conclusion, small molecule inhibitor-led targeting of Axl may be a promising therapy for GBM progression. PMID: 25980499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)
Source: Oncotarget - May 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Genome‐wide small noncoding RNA profiling of pediatric high grade gliomas reveals deregulation of several miRNAs, identifies downregulation of snoRNA cluster HBII‐52, and delineates H3F3A and TP53 mutant specific miRNAs and snoRNAs
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: International Journal of Cancer)
Source: International Journal of Cancer - May 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Prerana Jha, Rahul Agrawal, Pankaj Pathak, Anupam Kumar, Suvendu Purkait, Supriyo Mallik, Vaishali Suri, Mehar Chand Sharma, Deepak Gupta, Ashish Suri, B. S. Sharma, P. K. Julka, Ritu Kulshreshtha, Chitra Sarkar Tags: Cancer Genetics Source Type: research

Intraoperative ultrasound in low-grade glioma surgery
Dear Editor, We read with great interest the article by Petridis et al. titled “The value of intraoperative sonography in low grade glioma surgery [1]. The authors compared the accuracy of conventional neuronavigation based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2D-ultrasound during low-grade glioma surgery. The ultrasound was used in combination with neuronavigation, however, ultrasound was not fused with MRI. In none of the patients where ultrasound was used (N=15) to find the tumors, the target was missed, whereas the exclusive use of neuronavigation missed the target in 5 of 19 cases of small subcortica...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 21, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Andrej Šteňo, Viktor Matejčík, Juraj Šteňo Source Type: research

[Classification of gliomas : Current progress and perspectives].
Abstract The diagnostic subdivision of gliomas is traditionally based on histological features as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system. In recent years molecular studies have identified a number of genetic and epigenetic markers that could contribute to an improved tumor classification and better prediction of response to therapy and prognosis in the individual patient. The most important molecular tests with differential diagnostic relevance in patients with astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors include the detection of genetic mutations in the isoc...
Source: Der Nervenarzt - May 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Capper D, Reifenberger G Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

Knocking down the expression of TRA2β inhibits the proliferation and migration of human glioma cells
This study aimed to assess the expression and function of TRA2β in human glioma. To analyze the expression levels of TRA2β protein in glioma tissues, we performed immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis on human glioma tissues. The expression level of the TRA2β protein was significantly higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas. A strongly positive correlation was observed between TRA2β and Ki-67. More importantly, high expression of TRA2β was associated with a poor outcome. In vitro, after the release of U87 cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of TRA2β was upregulated, as well as PCNA...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - May 21, 2015 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

[Editors' Choice] Neurons promote glioma growth
Active neurons release neuroligin-3, which stimulates glioma proliferation. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 20, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Nancy Gough (mailto:ngough at Source Type: news

Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) Expression Induced by EGFRvIII Promotes Self-renewal and Tumor Progression of Glioma Stem Cells
by Jinlong Yin, Gunwoo Park, Tae Hoon Kim, Jun Hee Hong, Youn-Jae Kim, Xiong Jin, Sangjo Kang, Ji-Eun Jung, Jeong-Yub Kim, Hyeongsun Yun, Jeong Eun Lee, Minkyung Kim, Junho Chung, Hyunggee Kim, Ichiro Nakano, Ho-Shin Gwak, Heon Yoo, Byong Chul Yoo, Jong Heon Kim, Eun-Mi Hur, Jeongwu Lee, Seung-Hoon Lee, Myung-Jin Park, Jong Bae Park Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) has been associated with glioma stemness, but the direct molecular mechanism linking the two is largely unknown. Here, we show that EGFRvIII induces the expression and secretion of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) via activation o...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - May 20, 2015 Category: Biology Authors: Jinlong Yin et al. Source Type: research

Determining optimal treatment strategy for diffuse glioma: the emerging role of IDH mutations
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, Ahead of Print. (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - May 19, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: article Source Type: research

Overexpression of CCT8 and its significance for tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion in Glioma
This study showed that high CCT8 protein expression might be related to poor outcome of glioma, and that CCT8 regulates the proliferation and invasion of glioblastomas. (Source: Pathology Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - May 19, 2015 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Multisite interaction with Sufu inhibits Ci/Gli [Developmental Biology]
The tumor suppressor protein Suppressor of fused (Sufu) plays a conserved role in the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway by inhibiting Cubitus interruptus (Ci)/Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli) transcription factors, but the molecular mechanism by which Sufu inhibits Ci/Gli activity remains poorly understood. Here we show that Sufu can bind Ci/Gli through... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 19, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Han, Y., Shi, Q., Jiang, J. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Process of the Functional Reorganization of the Cortical Centers for Movement in GBM Patients: fMRI Study
Conclusions SMAa seems to play the most important role in the processes of motor cortex plasticity in high-grade glioma patients. Surgery seems not having a significant influence on the pattern of functional reorganization of the cortical centers for movement. Identification of the individual patterns of the reorganization of motor centers plays an important role in clinical practice. (Source: Clinical Neuroradiology)
Source: Clinical Neuroradiology - May 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical spectrum and diagnostic value of antibodies against the potassium channel-related protein complex
Conclusions The discovery of antigens such as LGI1 and Caspr2 has resulted in a clinical and molecular definition of the broad group of diseases previously attributed to antibodies against VGKC. Considering the literature that describes the presence of antibodies against VGKC other than LGI1 and Caspr2 proteins, we propose a practical algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. (Source: Neurologia)
Source: Neurologia - May 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gap junctions modulate glioma invasion by direct transfer of microRNA.
Authors: Hong X, Sin WC, Harris AL, Naus CC Abstract The invasiveness of high-grade glioma is the primary reason for poor survival following treatment. Interaction between glioma cells and surrounding astrocytes are crucial to invasion. We investigated the role of gap junction mediated miRNA transfer in this context. By manipulating gap junctions with a gap junction inhibitor, siRNAs, and a dominant negative connexin mutant, we showed that functional glioma-glioma gap junctions suppress glioma invasion while glioma-astrocyte and astrocyte-astrocyte gap junctions promote it in an in vitro transwell invasion assay. A...
Source: Oncotarget - May 16, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Loss of ATRX, associated with DNA methylation pattern of chromosome end, impacted biological behaviors of astrocytic tumors.
Authors: Cai J, Chen J, Zhang W, Yang P, Zhang C, Li M, Yao K, Wang H, Li Q, Jiang C, Jiang T Abstract Loss of ATRX leads to epigenetic alterations, including abnormal levels of DNA methylation at repetitive elements such as telomeres in murine cells. We conducted an extensive DNA methylation and mRNA expression profile study on a cohort of 82 patients with astrocytic tumors to study whether ATRX expression was associated with DNA methylation level in astrocytic tumors and in which cellular functions it participated. We observed that astrocytic tumors with lower ATRX expression harbored higher DNA methylation level...
Source: Oncotarget - May 16, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Fluorescence in Neurosurgery: its diagnostic and therapeutic use. Review of the literature
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2015 Source:Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Author(s): Christian Ewelt , Andrei Nemes , Volker Senner , Johannes Wölfer , Benjamin Brokinkel , Walter Stummer , Markus Holling Fluorescent agents, e.g. 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) are in common use in neurosurgery for tumor resection and neurovascular surgery. Protoporphyrine IX (PPIX) as major metabolite of 5-ALA is a strong fluorescent substance accumulated within malignant glioma tissue and a very sensitive and specific tool for visualizing high grade glioma tissue...
Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - May 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Solitary tumour-like mass lesions of the central nervous system: primary angiitis of the CNS and inflammatory pseudotumour
We report two cases presenting with cerebral mass lesions in eloquent brain areas, consistent clinically and on initial neuroimaging with primary glioma, CNS lymphoma or abscess, which ultimately proved to be the result of highly unusual, non-neoplastic, non-infective processes. After exhaustive diagnostic workup, both male patients underwent biopsies of presumed malignant lesions before histological analysis resulted in a diagnosis of primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS) in one case and inflammatory pseudotumour (IPT) in the other. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 16, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tim Killeen, Dario Jucker, Philip Went, Vanaja Muthurajah, Kelvin Woon, Evaldas Cesnulis, Adam Czaplinski Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Age-associated brain regions in gliomas: a volumetric analysis
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor location and age at diagnosis in a large cohort of patients with a primary diagnosis of glioma. We consecutively enrolled a cohort of 200 adults with glioblastoma and another cohort of 200 adults with diffuse low-grade gliomas. The magnetic resonance images of all tumors were manually segmented and then registered to a standard brain space. By using voxel-by-voxel regression analysis, specific brains regions associated with advanced age at tumor diagnosis were localized. In the low-grade gliomas cohort, the brain regions associated with advanced ...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - May 16, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Impact of Survivin on Prognosis and Clinicopathology of Glioma Patients: A Systematic Meta-Analysis
Abstract Up to now, survivin has been recommended as a prognostic and diagnostic indicator in glioma patients. However, there are still many controversies. Here, a meta-analysis was conducted to draw a more definitive conclusion on the correlation of survivin with overall survival (OS), age, gender, and WHO grade. Eligible studies were available through careful assessment, and then pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were estimated. Funnel plots were introduced to evaluate the publication bias. Additionally, heterogeneity and sensitivity were also evaluated....
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Consultative issues in surgical neuropathology: a retrospective review of the rationale for submitting cases for expert review.
CONCLUSIONS: Pathologists who predominately submit cases with a preliminary diagnosis rendered seek expert consultation while clinicians seek a second opinion. PMID: 25972322 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 15, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Lipp ES, Clark AC, McLendon RE Tags: Am J Clin Pathol Source Type: research

Proteomic screening and identification of microRNA‐128 targets in glioma cells
Brain‐enriched miR‐128 is repressed in glioma cells, and could inhibit the proliferation of gliomas by targeting genes such as E2F3a and BMI1. To identify more targets of miR‐128 in glioblastoma multiforme, the pulse stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (pSILAC) technique was used to test its impact on whole protein synthesis in T98G glioma cells. We successfully identified 1897 proteins, of which 1459 proteins were quantified. Among them, 133 proteins were downregulated after the overexpression of miR‐128. Through predictions using various bioinformatics tools, 13 candidate target genes were ch...
Source: Proteomics - May 15, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bin Yang, Shan Wang, Jiawei Zeng, Yu Zhang, Xiangbin Ruan, Wei Han, Bin Yin, Jiangang Yuan, Boqin Qiang, Wantao Ying, Xiaohong Qian, Xiaozhong Peng Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Inhibition of MEK confers hypersensitivity to X‐radiation in the context of BRAF mutation in a model of childhood astrocytoma
ConclusionsSelumetinib suppressed TORC1 signaling in the context of BRAF mutation. Selumetinib caused a rapid downregulation of FANCD2 and markedly potentiated the effect of XRT. These data suggest the possibility of potentiating the effect of XRT selectively in tumor cells by MEK inhibition in the context of mutant BRAF or maintaining tumor control at lower doses of XRT that would decrease long‐term sequelae. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - May 15, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Adam Studebaker, Kathryn Bondra, Star Seum, Changxian Shen, Doris A. Phelps, Christopher Chronowski, Justin Leasure, Paul D. Smith, Raushan T. Kurmasheva, Xiaokui Mo, Maryam Fouladi, Peter J. Houghton Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Pixel-by-Pixel Comparison of Volume Transfer Constant and Estimates of Cerebral Blood Volume from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging in High-Grade Gliomas [BRAIN]
CONCLUSIONS: The finding of a very weak correlation between estimates of microvascular density and volume transfer constant suggests that they provide different information. Estimates of blood volume obtained by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging are significantly higher than those obtained by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging in human gliomas, most likely due to the effect of contrast leakage. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - May 15, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Alcaide-Leon, P., Pareto, D., Martinez-Saez, E., Auger, C., Bharatha, A., Rovira, A. Tags: BRAIN Source Type: research

Diffusion and Perfusion MRI to Differentiate Treatment-Related Changes Including Pseudoprogression from Recurrent Tumors in High-Grade Gliomas with Histopathologic Evidence [FELLOWS' JOURNAL CLUB]
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment-related changes showed higher diffusion and lower perfusion than recurrent tumor. Similar correlations were found for patients with suspected pseudoprogression. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - May 15, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Prager, A. J., Martinez, N., Beal, K., Omuro, A., Zhang, Z., Young, R. J. Tags: FELLOWS ' JOURNAL CLUB Source Type: research

Neuronal antibodies in patients with suspected or confirmed sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Conclusions This study indicates that <5% patients with sCJD develop serum antibodies to these neuronal antigens and, when positive, only at low titres. By contrast, three patients referred with possible prion disease had a clinical picture in keeping with autoimmune encephalitis and very high VGKC-complex/LGI1 antibodies. Low titres of neuronal antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD and when present should be interpreted with caution. (Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Rossi, M., Mead, S., Collinge, J., Rudge, P., Vincent, A. Tags: Open access, Dementia, Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Infection (neurology), Neurooncology, Variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease, CNS cancer, Memory disorders (psychiatry) Neuro-inflammation Source Type: research

Do relevant markers of cancer stem cells CD133 and Nestin indicate a poor prognosis in glioma patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion: High level of CD133 expression trends to correlate with a worse OS and PFS in glioma patients, especially WHO IV gliomas and Nestin high expression trends to correlate with a worse OS in glioma patients especially WHO II–III, revealing both the markers of cancer stem cells may as the potential pathological prognostic markers for glioma patients. (Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research)
Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research - May 14, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bin WuCaixing SunFang FengMinghua GeLiang Xia Source Type: research

Movable intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging incorporating a seismic system
A variety of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) devices (high/low field, fixed/movable magnets) are currently used in neurosurgical operating rooms. iMRIs have been shown to improve the extent of resection (especially in gliomas and pituitary adenomas), and this translates into improved patient outcomes and survival.[1–7] The VISIUS® Surgical Theatre (IMRIS, Minnetonka, MN, USA) is a unique iMRI solution that features a high-field (1.5 or 3T) ceiling-mounted and movable magnet. In this system, the operating table and patient remain in a fixed position while the magnet moves to the patient, via ceiling rail...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Hiroyoshi Akutsu, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Yosuke Masuda, Eiichi Ishikawa, Tomohiko Masumoto, Masahide Matsuda, Akira Matsumura Source Type: research

Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus Following Implantation of Subdural Grid Electrodes in a Brain Tumor Patient
Implantation of subdural electrodes is considered to be safe and conventionally performed during epilepsy surgery. The application has been recently expanded into brain tumor surgery for the presurgical evaluation of the cerebral function, wherein no major complications have been reported (Kral et al., 2007; Little et al., 2008; Wellmer et al., 2012). We herein present a precautionary case in a patient with a high-grade glioma who showed transient neurological deficits after the implantation of subdural grid electrodes. (Source: Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 14, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hiroshi Fujioka, Eiichirou Urasaki, Akifumi Izumihara, Katsuhiro Yamashita Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The Circadian Gene Clock Plays an Important Role in Cell Apoptosis and the DNA Damage Response In Vitro.
We examined whether silencing the expression of the human Clock gene in glioma cells influences cell growth and induces apoptosis after irradiation. Silencing the expression of Clock in a human glioma cell line (U87MG), but not in a control glioma cell line, resulted in increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, silencing Clock expression altered the expression of apoptosis-related genes. The protein levels of c-Myc and Cyclin B1 were downregulated, but those of p53 were upregulated, in human Clock-silenced U87MG cells compared with control cells. Our results suggest that the circadian gene human Clock may play a...
Source: Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment - May 14, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang F, Li C, Yongluo, Chen L Tags: Technol Cancer Res Treat Source Type: research

TGF-β induced miR-132 enhances the activation of TGF-β signaling through inhibiting SMAD7 expression in glioma cells.
Abstract Transforming growth factors β (TGF-β) pathway has been proven to play important roles in oncogenesis and angiogenesis of gliomas. MiR-132 might be related to TGF-β signaling pathway and high miR-132 expression was reported to be a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients diagnosed with glioma. However, the expression regulation way involved in TGF-β pathway and clinical significance of miR-132 have not been investigated in glioma cells. Here we reported that the mRNA level of miR-132 and TGF-β concentration were both increased in patients with brain glioma. Correlation analysis revealed that TGF-β con...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - May 14, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang ZH, Zhang QS, Duan YL, Zhang JL, Li GF, Zheng DL Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP-Wnt pathway.
Abstract We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, a...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - May 14, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cao L, Lei H, Chang MZ, Liu ZQ, Bie XH Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Patient-specific characterization of the invasiveness and proliferation of low-grade gliomas using serial MR imaging and a mathematical model of tumor growth.
Authors: Hathout L, Ellingson BM, Cloughesy TF, Pope WB Abstract Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) represent a significant proportion of hemispheric gliomas in adults. Although less aggressive than glioblastomas (GBMs), they have a broad range of biologic behavior, and often a limited prognosis. The aim of the present study was to explore LGG growth kinetics through a combination of routine MRI imaging and a novel adaptation of a mathematical tumor model. MRI imaging in 14 retrospectively identified grade II LGGs that showed some tumor enhancement was used to assess tumor radii at two separate time-points. This informatio...
Source: Oncology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research

Perioperative cerebral ischemia promote infiltrative recurrence in glioblastoma.
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals an unrecognized association of perioperative cerebral ischemia with distant or diffuse recurrence in glioblastoma. It is the first clinical study supporting the concept that hypoxia is a key driver of infiltrative tumor growth in glioblastoma patients. PMID: 25966341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)
Source: Oncotarget - May 13, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Mutation-Specific T Cells for Immunotherapy of Gliomas
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 372, Issue 20, Page 1956-1958, May 2015. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - May 13, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

ALA Fluorescence Intensifies With Glioma Tumor CellularityALA Fluorescence Intensifies With Glioma Tumor Cellularity
ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) shows a high positive predictive value for high-grade gliomas, but the test shows poor probability for absence of tumor cells. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines)
Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines - May 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news

Lipid-albumin nanoassemblies co-loaded with borneol and paclitaxel for intracellular drug delivery to C6 glioma cells with P-gp inhibition and its tumor targeting
In this study, lipid-albumin nanoassemblies co-loaded with borneol and paclitaxel (BOR/PTX LANs) were prepared to circumvent MDR in C6 glioma cells. The physiochemical properties including particle size, encapsulation efficiency and morphology were evaluated in vitro. Quantitative and qualitative investigations of cellular uptake were carried out in C6 glioma cells. The cytotoxicity of the BOR/PTX LANs was determined by MTT assay. After that, the tumor targeting was also evaluated in C6 glioma bearing mice by in vivo imaging analysis. BOR/PTX LANs have a higher entrapment efficiency (90.4 ± 1.2 %), small particle size (10...
Source: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - May 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

[Treatment of the glioma microenvironment].
This article provides an overview on the current antiangiogenic and immunological therapies for gliomas, summarizes the results of clinical trials and discusses further developments. PMID: 25962344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Nervenarzt)
Source: Der Nervenarzt - May 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Herrlinger U, Platten M Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

FGL2 as a Multimodality Regulator of Tumor-Mediated Immune Suppression and Therapeutic Target in Gliomas
Conclusions: FGL2 augments glioma immunosuppression by increasing the expression levels of PD-1 and CD39, expanding the frequency of tumor-supportive M2 macrophages via the FcRIIB pathway, and enhancing the number of MDSCs and CD39+ regulatory T cells. Collectively, these results show that FGL2 functions as a key immune-suppressive modulator and has potential as an immunotherapeutic target for treating GBM. (Source: JNCI)
Source: JNCI - May 13, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yan, J., Kong, L.-Y., Hu, J., Gabrusiewicz, K., Dibra, D., Xia, X., Heimberger, A. B., Li, S. Tags: Article Source Type: research

DcR1 and Temozolomide in Malignant Glioma
Temozolomide is used widely to treat malignant glioma, but the overall response to this agent is generally poor. Resistance to DNA-damaging drugs such as temozolomide has been related to the induction of antiapoptotic proteins. Specifically, the transcription factor NF-κB has been suggested to participate in promoting the survival of cells exposed to chemotherapy. To identify factors that modulate cytotoxicity in the setting of DNA damage, we used an unbiased strategy to examine the NF-κB–dependent expression profile induced by temozolomide. By this route, we defined the decoy receptor DcR1 as a temozolomide response g...
Source: Cancer Research - May 13, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mansour, N. M., Bernal, G. M., Wu, L., Crawley, C. D., Cahill, K. E., Voce, D. J., Balyasnikova, I. V., Zhang, W., Spretz, R., Nunez, L., Larsen, G. F., Weichselbaum, R. R., Yamini, B. Tags: Therapeutics, Targets, and Chemical Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of EGFR-Targeted Resistance in Glioma
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly amplified, mutated, and overexpressed in human malignant gliomas. Despite its prevalence and growth-promoting functions, therapeutic strategies to inhibit EGFR kinase activity have not been translated into profound beneficial effects in glioma clinical trials. To determine the roles of oncogenic EGFR signaling in gliomagenesis and tumor maintenance, we generated a novel glioma mouse model driven by inducible expression of a mutant EGFR (EGFR*). Using combined genetic and pharmacologic interventions, we revealed that EGFR*-driven gliomas were insensitive to EGFR tyrosine kin...
Source: Cancer Research - May 13, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Klingler, S., Guo, B., Yao, J., Yan, H., Zhang, L., Vaseva, A. V., Chen, S., Canoll, P., Horner, J. W., Wang, Y. A., Paik, J.-H., Ying, H., Zheng, H. Tags: Tumor and Stem Cell Biology Source Type: research

Glia: Diffusible danger
Nature Reviews Neuroscience 16, 316 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrn3970 Author: Sian Lewis The growth of high-grade glioma (HGG) and proliferation of glial precursor cells are enhanced by neuronal activity, but the mechanisms are not known. A new study shows that optogenetic stimulation of cortical neurons in a patient-derived glioblastoma xenograft model in mice increased precursor proliferation. Crucially, (Source: Nature Reviews Neuroscience)
Source: Nature Reviews Neuroscience - May 13, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sian Lewis Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Effect of treatment with baicalein on the intracerebral tumor growth and survival of orthotopic glioma models
In conclusion, baicalein has an obvious anti-tumor activity in the orthotopic glioma models. Our results suggested that treatment with baicalein might be an effective therapy for recurrent malignant brain cancers through suppressing tumor growth and alleviating edema. (Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - May 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pathology, molecular mechanisms and markers of gliomas: new insight and new challenges
(Source: Acta Neuropathologica)
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

IDH mutant diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas have similar age at presentation and little difference in survival: a grading problem for WHO
Abstract The WHO 2007 classification of tumors of the CNS distinguishes between diffuse astrocytoma WHO grade II (A IIWHO2007) and anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III (AA III WHO2007). Patients with A II WHO2007 are significantly younger and survive significantly longer than those with AA III WHO2007. So far, classification and grading relies on morphological grounds only and does not yet take into account IDH status, a molecular marker of prognostic relevance. We here demonstrate that WHO 2007 grading performs poorly in predicting prognosis when applied to astrocytoma carrying IDH mutations. Three independent se...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research