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Novel mechanisms and approaches in immunotherapy for brain tumors.
Authors: Finocchiaro G, Pellegatta S Abstract Converging data indicate that the immune system is able to recognize cancer epitopes as non-self and mount an immune reaction that may erase, or temporarily block, tumor growth. The immune pressure supports the amplification of immune resistant tumor clones, creating an immune suppressive environment that leads to the formation of a clinically relevant tumor. These general observations also apply to brain tumors and specifically to gliomas. Cancer immunotherapy strategies are aimed at reverting such immune suppression. Two approaches are already used in the clinics. The...
Source: Discovery Medicine - September 1, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Researchers develop a likely new combo treatment for the deadliest form of brain cancer
Scientists have developed a potentially promising new combination therapy for glioblastoma, the deadliest form of brain cancer. Glioblastoma, also known as grade IV glioma, is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. Approximately 23,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM) every year. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - September 1, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

UCLA researchers create a promising new treatment for the deadliest form of brain cancer
UCLA scientists have developed a potentially promising new combination therapy for glioblastoma, the most common and deadliest form of brain cancer. Glioblastoma, also known as grade IV glioma, is an aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. Approximately 23,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with glioblastoma every year. Patients usually receive surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, but these treatments are not very effective as an estimated 50 percent of GBM patients die within one year, and 90 percent die within three years. A study led by Dr. Robert Prins and Dr. Linda Liau, both members of the UCLA Jonsson Comprehens...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - September 1, 2015 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

For Children with High-Grade Glioma, Resection Key to Survival—Especially for Girls
No abstract available (Source: Oncology Times - Current Table Of Contents)
Source: Oncology Times - Current Table Of Contents - September 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: News Source Type: research

Physical and functional interactions between a glioma cation channel and integrin-{beta}1 require {alpha}-actinin
Major plasma membrane components of the tumor cell, ion channels, and integrins play crucial roles in metastasis. Glioma cells express an amiloride-sensitive nonselective cation channel composed of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC)-1 and epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) α- and -subunits. Inhibition of this channel is associated with reduced cell migration and proliferation. Using the ASIC-1 subunit as a reporter for the channel complex, we found a physical and functional interaction between this channel and integrin-β1. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of integrin-β1 attenuated the amiloride-sensitive current, which ...
Source: AJP: Cell Physiology - September 1, 2015 Category: Cytology Authors: Rooj, A. K., Liu, Z., McNicholas, C. M., Fuller, C. M. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

TGF-{beta} Antibody Uptake in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma Imaged with 89Zr-Fresolimumab PET
Conclusion: 89Zr-fresolimumab penetrated recurrent high-grade gliomas very well but did not result in clinical benefit. (Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine)
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - September 1, 2015 Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: den Hollander, M. W., Bensch, F., Glaudemans, A. W. J. M., Oude Munnink, T. H., Enting, R. H., den Dunnen, W. F. A., Heesters, M. A. A. M., Kruyt, F. A. E., Lub-de Hooge, M. N., Cees de Groot, J., Pearlberg, J., Gietema, J. A., de Vries, E. G. E., Walenka Tags: Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Incidence, risk factors, and longitudinal outcome of seizures in long‐term survivors of pediatric brain tumors
Summary ObjectiveSeizures are common during and after treatment for a primary brain tumor. Our objective was to describe the incidence and risk factors for seizures in long‐term survivors of pediatric brain tumors. MethodsIn a retrospective, longitudinal study, we reviewed all consecutive patients during a 12‐month period who were at least 2 years post initial diagnosis of a brain tumor. Data collection included age at diagnosis, length of follow‐up, extent of initial resection, tumor histology, and treatment modalities. For patients who had experienced seizures at any time, the timing and frequency of seizures, sei...
Source: Epilepsia - August 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Nicole J. Ullrich, Scott L. Pomeroy, Kush Kapur, Peter E. Manley, Liliana C. Goumnerova, Tobias Loddenkemper Tags: Full‐Length Original Research Source Type: research

Blockage of autophagy in C6 glioma cells enhanced radiosensitivity possibly by attenuating DNA-PK-dependent DSB due to limited Ku nuclear translocation and DNA binding.
Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor and notorious for its resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). Recent evidence suggests that one possible mechanism that enables resistance to IR and protects cells against therapeutic stress is cellular autophagy. The molecular basis for this pro-survival function, however, remains elusive. Herein, we report a molecular mechanism by which IR-induced autophagy accelerates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). We demonstrate that IR induces the accumulation of autophagosomes, which is accompanied by elevated expression of autophagy-related g...
Source: Current Molecular Medicine - August 31, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Liu C, He W, Jin M, Li H, Xu H, Liu H, Yang K, Zhang T, Wu G, Ren J Tags: Curr Mol Med Source Type: research

Cell context-dependent dual effects of EFEMP1 stabilizes subpopulation equilibrium in responding to changes of in vivo growth environment.
Authors: Hu Y, Ke C, Ru N, Chen Y, Yu L, Siegel ER, Linskey ME, Wang P, Zhou YH Abstract Conflicting functions of EFEMP1 in cancer have been reported. Using two syngeneic glioma cell lines (U251 and U251-NS) carrying two different principal cell subpopulations that express high or low EGFR, and that are able to interconvert via mis-segregation of chromosome 7 (Chr7), we studied EFEMP1's cell-context-dependent functions in regulating subpopulation equilibrium, here defined by the percentage of cells carrying different copies of Chr7. We found that EFEMP1 attenuated levels of EGFR and cellular respiration in high-EGF...
Source: Oncotarget - August 29, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Aberrant mesenchymal differentiation of glioma stem-like cells: implications for therapeutic targeting.
Authors: Balasubramaniyan V, Vaillant B, Wang S, Gumin J, Butalid ME, Sai K, Mukheef F, Kim SH, Boddeke HW, Lang F, Aldape K, Sulman EP, Bhat KP, Colman H Abstract Differentiation has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma (GBM) in part due to observations of stem-like cells in GBM that have been shown to undergo terminal differentiation in response to growth factor withdrawal and BMP activation. However, the effects of long term exposure to serum culture conditions on glioma sphere cultures/glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) have not been examined. Here we show that GSCs retained both neurosphere form...
Source: Oncotarget - August 29, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

In situ dendritic cell vaccination for the treatment of glioma and literature review
This article reviews the existing evidence regarding in situ DC vaccination for the treatment of glioma and puts forward hypotheses regarding patient, tumor, and technical factors and warrant further investigation. (Source: Tumor Biology)
Source: Tumor Biology - August 29, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Complexity of cancer protease biology: Cathepsin K expression and function in cancer progression
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2015 Source:Seminars in Cancer Biology Author(s): Urška Verbovšek, Cornelis J.F. Van Noorden, Tamara T. Lah Proteases, including lysosomal cathepsins are functionally involved in many processes in cancer progression, from its initiation to invasion and metastatic spread. Only recently, cathepsin K (CatK), the cysteine protease originally reported as a collagenolytic protease produced by osteoclasts, appeared to be also overexpressed in various types of cancers. In this review, the physiological functions of CatK are presented and compared to its potential role in pathobio...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 29, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

IDH1 mutation causes a less aggressive phenotype and radiosensitizes human malignant glioma cells independent of the oxygenation status
In malignant glioma the presence of the IDH1 mutation (IDH1R132H) is associated with better clinical outcome. However, it is unclear whether IDH1 mutation is associated with a less aggressive phenotype or directly linked to increased sensitivity to radiotherapy. (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - August 29, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Jacqueline Kessler, Antje Güttler, Henri Wichmann, Swetlana Rot, Matthias Kappler, Matthias Bache, Dirk Vordermark Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Prognostic Value of Metabolic Tumor Volume on 11 C-Methionine PET in Predicting Progression-Free Survival in High-Grade Glioma
Conclusion MTV on MET PET is a significant and independent prognostic factor for PFS in HGG patients, whereas TNRmax is not. Thus, performing volumetric analysis of MET PET is recommended in HGG for better prognostication. (Source: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging)
Source: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - August 28, 2015 Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

Automatic estimation of midline shift in patients with cerebral glioma based on enhanced voigt model and local symmetry
Abstract Cerebral glioma is one of the most aggressive space-occupying diseases, which will exhibit midline shift (MLS) due to mass effect. MLS has been used as an important feature for evaluating the pathological severity and patients’ survival possibility. Automatic quantification of MLS is challenging due to deformation, complex shape and complex grayscale distribution. An automatic method is proposed and validated to estimate MLS in patients with gliomas diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The deformed midline is approximated by combining mechanical model and local symmetry. An enhanced Voigt m...
Source: Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine - August 28, 2015 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Overexpression of miR‐18a negatively regulates myocyte enhancer factor 2D to increase the permeability of the blood–tumor barrier via Krüppel‐like factor 4‐mediated downregulation of zonula occluden‐1, claudin‐5, and occludin
This study investigates the potential effects of miR‐18a on the permeability of the blood–tumor barrier (BTB) and its possible molecular mechanisms. An in vitro BTB model was successfully established. The endogenous expression of miR‐18a in glioma vascular endothelial cells (GECs) was significantly lower than that in normal vascular ECs, and the overexpression of miR‐18a significantly increased the permeability of the BTB as well as downregulating the mRNA and protein expressions of tight junction‐related proteins zonula occluden‐1 (ZO‐1), claudin‐5, and occludin in GECs. Dual luciferase reporter assays rev...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - August 28, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ying‐Yu Zhao, Li‐Ni Zhao, Ping Wang, Yin‐Sha Miao, Yun‐Hui Liu, Zhen‐Hua Wang, Jun Ma, Zhen Li, Zhi‐Qing Li, Yi‐Xue Xue Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Impact of Molecular Pathology on Classifying Diffuse GliomasImpact of Molecular Pathology on Classifying Diffuse Gliomas
Learn how molecular pathology has improved pricision in defing and grouping gliomas. Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - August 28, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Hematology-Oncology Journal Article Source Type: news

Glutathione-bearing fluorescent polymer-curcumin conjugate enables simultaneous drug delivery and label-free cellular imaging
In this study, a novel glutathione containing biodegradable, non-toxic and water soluble, fluorescent polymer was developed. Curcumin was covalently conjugated to this polymer to fabricate nano-sized micelle forming fluorescent polymer-curcumin conjugate. The ability of the entity as a safer curcumin delivery vehicle and label-free cellular imaging probe was demonstrated in C6 glioma cells. Graphical abstract (Source: Polymer)
Source: Polymer - August 28, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Investigating a signature of temozolomide resistance in GBM cell lines using metabolomics
This study undertook a metabolomics-based approach to characterize the metabolic profiles observed in temozolomide-sensitive and temozolomide-resistant GBM cell lines as well as in a small sub-set of primary GBM tumors. This approach was also utilized to explore the metabolic changes modulated upon cell treatment with temozolomide and lomeguatrib, an MGMT inhibitor with temozolomide-sensitizing potential. Metabolites previously explored for their potential role in chemoresistance including glucose, citrate and isocitrate demonstrated elevated levels in temozolomide-resistant GBM cells. In addition, a signature of metabolit...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - August 28, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The distribution of BRAF gene fusions in solid tumors and response to targeted therapy
In conclusion, BRAF fusions are rare driver alterations in a wide variety of malignant neoplasms, but enriched in Spitzoid melanoma, pilocytic astrocytomas, pancreatic acinar and‐papillary thyroid cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: International Journal of Cancer)
Source: International Journal of Cancer - August 28, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jeffrey S Ross, Kai Wang, Juliann Chmielecki, Laurie Gay, Adrienne Johnson, Jacob Chudnovsky, Roman Yelensky, Doron Lipson, Siraj M Ali, Julia A Elvin, Jo‐Anne Vergilio, Steven Roels, Vincent A Miller, Brooke N Nakamura, Adam Gray, Michael K Wong, Phili Tags: Cancer Genetics Source Type: research

Expression Analysis of Genes Involved in the RB/E2F Pathway in Astrocytic Tumors
by Wallax Augusto Silva Ferreira, Mariana Diniz Araújo, Nilson Praia Anselmo, Edivaldo Herculano Correa de Oliveira, José Reginaldo Nascimento Brito, Rommel Rodriguez Burbano, Maria Lúcia Harada, Bárbara do Nascimento Borges Astrocytic gliomas, which are derived from glial cells, are considered the most common primary neoplasias of the central nervous system (CNS) and are histologically classified as low grade (I and II) or high grade (III and IV). Recent studies have shown that astrocytoma formation is the result of the deregulation of several pathways, including the RB/E2F pathway, which is commonly deregulated in v...
Source: PLoS One - August 28, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wallax Augusto Silva Ferreira et al. Source Type: research

Monitoring of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide in Living Cells Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.
Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has emerged as an important gasotransmitter in diverse physiological processes, although many aspects of its roles remain unclear, partly owing to a lack of robust analytical methods. Herein we report a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanosensor, 4-acetamidobenzenesulfonyl azide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs/4-AA), for detecting the endogenous H2 S in living cells. The detection is accomplished with SERS spectrum changes of AuNPs/4-AA resulting from the reaction of H2 S with 4-AA on AuNPs. The SERS nanosensor exhibits high selectivity toward H2 S. Furthermo...
Source: Angewandte Chemie - August 28, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Li DW, Qu LL, Hu K, Long YT, Tian H Tags: Angew Chem Int Ed Engl Source Type: research

5-Carboxylcytosine levels are elevated in human breast cancers and gliomas.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that, unlike 5hmC, the levels of 5caC are elevated in a proportion of breast cancers and gliomas. Our results reveal another level of complexity to the cancer epigenome, suggesting that active demethylation and/or 5caC-dependent transcriptional regulation are pre-activated in some tumours and may contribute to their pathogenesis. Larger studies to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of 5caC in cancers are warranted. PMID: 26300993 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer)
Source: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer - August 27, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Eleftheriou M, Pascual AJ, Wheldon LM, Perry C, Abakir A, Arora A, Johnson AD, Auer DT, Ellis IO, Madhusudan S, Ruzov A Tags: Clin Epigenetics Source Type: research

Comment on: Carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions in pediatric low‐grade glioma are protocol specific and desensitization shows poor efficacy
(Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - August 27, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dildar B. Genc, Su G. Berrak, Cengiz Canpolat Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Metastatic low‐grade gliomas in children: 20 years' experience at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
ConclusionThis study describes the longest follow‐up of children with metastatic LGG. LGG is underestimated and entails major morbidity and mortality. Prospective studies are needed to learn the true incidence, study the biology, and determine the best approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and follow‐up. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015; 9999:1–9. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - August 27, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Omar Chamdine, Alberto Broniscer, Shengjie Wu, Amar Gajjar, Ibrahim Qaddoumi Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

RTVP-1 regulates glioma cell migration and invasion via interaction with N-WASP and hnRNPK.
Authors: Ziv-Av A, Giladi ND, Lee HK, Cazacu S, Finniss S, Xiang C, Pauker MH, Barda-Saad M, Poisson L, Brodie C Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding normal brain tissue. RTVP-1 is highly expressed in GBM and regulates the migration and invasion of glioma cells. To further study RTVP-1 effects we performed a pull-down assay using His-tagged RTVP-1 followed by mass spectrometry and found that RTVP-1 was associated with the actin polymerization regulator, N-WASP. This association was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation and FRET analysis. We found that RTVP-1...
Source: Oncotarget - August 26, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Unilateral Hemilaminectomy for Intradural Lesions
ConclusionOur data suggest that there is a place for the UHIT approach. This minimally invasive approach is useful for resecting all intradural tumors. UHIL is a useful minimally invasive technique for resecting intradural spinal tumors with maximal preservation of musculoligamentous attachments and posterior bony elements and should be considered an improvement on currently employed techniques. (Source: Orthopaedic Surgery)
Source: Orthopaedic Surgery - August 26, 2015 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ralph J Mobbs, Monish M Maharaj, Kevin Phan, Prashanth J Rao Tags: CLINICAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

miRNA Multiplayers in glioma. From bench to bedside.
Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of malignant gliomas, characterized by genetic instability, intratumoral histopathological variability and unpredictable clinical behavior. Disappointing results in the treatment of gliomas with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy have fuelled a search for a new therapeutic targets and treatment modalities. A novel small non-coding RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs), appear to represent one of the most attractive target molecules contributing to the pathogenesis of various types of tumors. They play crucial roles in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, invasion ...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - August 26, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rolle K Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research

Survival Varies by Sex in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma Survival Varies by Sex in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma
New research shows a greater survival benefit for girls who had total resection of their tumor compared with boys who underwent the same procedure. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines)
Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines - August 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news

Epirubicin inhibits growth and alters the malignant phenotype of the U‑87 glioma cell line.
Authors: Wang XF, Zhao ZF, Chen MH, Yuan QH, Li YL, Jiang CL Abstract Epirubicin, an anthracycline derivative, is one of the main line treatments for brain tumors. The aim of the present study was to verify that epirubicin alters the growth and morphological characteristics of U‑87 glioma cells. In the present study, the effects of epirubicin were tested using cellular and biochemical assays, which demonstrated its anti‑proliferative and cytotoxic effects, with an IC50 of 6.3 µM for the U‑87 cell line, while rat normal neuronal cells were resistant to epirubicin. Epirubicin also reduced the secretion of mat...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - August 25, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Characterization of highly proliferative secondary tumor clusters along host blood vessels in malignant glioma.
In conclusion, the present study revealed that invading tumor cells are capable of forming highly proliferative cell clusters along arterioles near the tumor margin, which may be a possible cause of the recurrence of malignant glioma. PMID: 26299849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular Medicine Reports)
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - August 25, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Cytokine-induced killer cells induce apoptosis and inhibit the Akt/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in cisplatin-resistant human glioma U87MG cells.
Authors: Cui Y, Yang F, He L Abstract Despite advances in the development of treatment methods, glioma remains among the cancer types with a high rate of mortality. Therefore, significant efforts are made to develop novel strategies for the treatment of glioma. Ineffective, long-term cancer chemotherapy can lead to multidrug resistance (MDR), which is one of the most common reasons for the failure of chemotherapy. The present study investigated the effects of cytokine‑induced killer cells (CIK) on reversing MDR in cisplatin-resistant U87MG cells (U87MG/DDP). Mononuclear cells were isolated from the peripheral blo...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - August 25, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Chlorotoxin-Conjugated Multifunctional Dendrimers Labeled with Radionuclide 131I for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging and Radiotherapy of Gliomas
ACS Applied Materials & InterfacesDOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b05836 (Source: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces)
Source: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces - August 25, 2015 Category: Materials Science Authors: Lingzhou Zhao, Jingyi Zhu, Yongjun Cheng, Zhijuan Xiong, Yueqin Tang, Lilei Guo, Xiangyang Shi and Jinhua Zhao Source Type: research

Silencing SOX2 Expression by RNA Interference Inhibits Proliferation, Invasion and Metastasis, and Induces Apoptosis through MAP4K4/JNK Signaling Pathway in Human Laryngeal Cancer TU212 Cells
SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) plays an important role in tumor cell metastasis and apoptosis. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), responsible for 1.5% of all cancers, is one of the most common head and neck malignancies. Accumulating evidence shows that SOX2 is overexpressed in several human tumors, including lung cancer, esophageal carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, breast cancer, ovarian carcinoma and glioma. Our study aimed to investigate the silencing effects of SOX2 expression using RNA interference (RNAi) on various biological processes in laryngeal cancer TU212 cells, including proliferation, apopt...
Source: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry - August 25, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yang, N., Wang, Y., Hui, L., Li, X., Jiang, X. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Genetic and epigenetic characterization of low‐grade gliomas reveals frequent methylation of the MLH3 gene
Diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II) are the most common histological subtypes of low‐grade gliomas (LGGs). Several molecular and epigenetic markers have been identified that predict tumor progression. Our aim was in detail to investigate the genetic and epigenetic background of LGGs and to identify new markers that might play a role in tumor behavior. Twenty‐three patients with oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma (LGO) and 22 patients with diffuse astrocytoma (LGA) were investigated using several molecular‐cytogenetic and molecular methods to assess their copy number variations, mutational st...
Source: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer - August 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Halka Lhotska, Zuzana Zemanova, Hana Cechova, Sarka Ransdorfova, Libuse Lizcova, Filip Kramar, Zdenek Krejcik, Karla Svobodova, Dagmar Bystricka, Petr Hrabal, Alena Dohnalova, Kyra Michalova Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Fractal analysis: fractal dimension and lacunarity from MR images for differentiating the grades of glioma.
Abstract Glioma, the heterogeneous tumors originating from glial cells, generally exhibit varied grades and are difficult to differentiate using conventional MR imaging techniques. When this differentiation is crucial in the disease prognosis and treatment, even the advanced MR imaging techniques fail to provide a higher discriminative power for the differentiation of malignant tumor from benign ones. A powerful image processing technique applied to the imaging techniques is expected to provide a better differentiation. The present study focuses on the fractal analysis of fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR ima...
Source: Physica Medica - August 25, 2015 Category: Physics Authors: Smitha KA, Gupta AK, Jayasree RS Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research

DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX23 modulates glioma malignancy via elevating miR-21 biogenesis
Upregulation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is known to be strongly associated with the proliferation, invasion, and radio-resistance of glioma cells. However, the regulatory mechanism that governs the biogenesis of miR-21 in glioma is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the DEAD-box RNA helicase, DDX23, promotes miR-21 biogenesis at the post-transcriptional level. The expression of DDX23 was enhanced in glioma tissues compared to normal brain, and expression level of DDX23 was highly associated with poor survival of glioma patients. Specific knockdown of DDX23 expression suppressed glioma cell proliferation and invasion in ...
Source: Brain - August 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Yin, J., Park, G., Lee, J. E., Choi, E. Y., Park, J. Y., Kim, T.-H., Park, N., Jin, X., Jung, J.-E., Shin, D., Hong, J. H., Kim, H., Yoo, H., Lee, S.-H., Kim, Y.-J., Park, J. B., Kim, J. H. Tags: Neuro-oncology Original Articles Source Type: research

The role of proto-oncogene GLI1 in pituitary adenoma formation and cell survival regulation
In conclusion, our findings point toward an alternative, ligand-independent Hh pathway activation with GLI1 playing a major role in the cell survival of pituitary adenoma cells. (Source: Endocrine-Related Cancer)
Source: Endocrine-Related Cancer - August 24, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lampichler, K., Ferrer, P., Vila, G., Lutz, M. I., Wolf, F., Knosp, E., Wagner, L., Luger, A., Baumgartner-Parzer, S. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Downregulation of ubiquitin-associated protein 2-like with a short hairpin RNA inhibits human glioma cell growth in vitro.
Abstract Ubiquitin-associated protein 2-like (UBAP2L), which contains a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain near its N-terminus, has been indicated in the pathogenesis of several human cancers, including multiple myeloma, hepatocellular carcinoma and malignant ovarian tumors. However, the role of UBAP2L in human glioma remains unknown. In the present study, UBAP2L was widely expressed in multiple glioma cell lines. To further examine the effects of UBAP2L on glioma growth, lentivirus‑mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was employed to knockdown UBAP2L expression in the glioblastoma cell lines. Depletion of UBAP2...
Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine - August 24, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Zhao B, Zong G, Xie Y, Li J, Wang H, Bian E Tags: Int J Mol Med Source Type: research

Clinical Trials OK for High-Grade Glioma Patients (CME/CE)
(MedPage Today) -- Automatic exclusions are unjustified, review concludes (Source: MedPage Today Hematology/Oncology)
Source: MedPage Today Hematology/Oncology - August 22, 2015 Category: Hematology Source Type: news

New Terpenoids from Croton limae (Euphorbiaceae)
An asymmetrical dimer of kaurane diterpene and monoterpene and four novel diterpenes were isolated from the roots of Croton limae, along with kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, ombuin- 3-O-rutinoside and acetyl aleuritolic acid. The cytotoxic activity of the kaurane diterpene was evaluated against colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-116), ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR-8) and glioma (SF-295) cell lines, exhibiting IC50 values of 7.14, 8.19 and > 10 µg mL−1, respectively. (Source: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society)
Source: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society - August 22, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

VSIG4 is highly expressed and correlated with poor prognosis of high-grade glioma patients.
In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray to determine the expression of VSIG4 in malignant glioma and normal brain. We then applied univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the expression of VSIG4 and correlated with prognosis of glioma patients. We have shown that VSIG4 was significantly elevated in high-grade glioma compared with those of normal brain tissues (P<0.001). We have also found that high VSIG4 expression was an independent prognostic factor for a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in high-grade glioma patients [hazard ratio (HR) =1.786, P=0...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - August 22, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Wnt Inhibition Reduces Proliferation, Survival, and Clonogenicity of Glioblastoma Cells
Abstract: Wingless (Wnt) signaling is an important pathway in gliomagenesis and in the growth of stem-like glioma cells. Using immunohistochemistry to assess the translocation of β-catenin protein, we identified intranuclear staining suggesting Wnt pathway activation in 8 of 43 surgical samples (19%) from adult patients with glioblastoma and in 9 of 30 surgical samples (30%) from pediatric patients with glioblastoma. Wnt activity, evidenced by nuclear β-catenin in our cohort and high expression of its target AXIN2 (axis inhibitor protein 2) in published glioma datasets, was associated with shorter patient survival, altho...
Source: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology - August 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Randomized controlled trials and neuro-oncology: should alternative designs be considered?
Abstract Deficiencies in design and reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) hinders interpretability and critical appraisal. The reporting quality of recent RCTs in neuro-oncology was analyzed to assess adequacy of design and reporting. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched to identify non-surgical RCTs (years 2005–2014, inclusive). The CONSORT and Jadad scales were used to assess the quality of design/reporting. Studies published in 2005–2010 were compared as a cohort against studies published in 2011–2014, in terms of general characteristics and reporting quality. A PRECIS-based scale was...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - August 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Leukocyte telomere length: a novel biomarker to predict the prognosis of glioma patients
Conclusions Our study for the first time demonstrates that leukocyte RTL is an independent prognostic marker for glioma patients. The potential mechanism needs further investigation. (Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology)
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - August 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Knockdown of NAT12/NAA30 reduces tumorigenic features of glioblastoma-initiating cells
Conclusion: NAT12/NAA30 plays an important role in growth and survival of GICs possibly by regulating hypoxia response (HIF1α), levels of p-MTOR (Ser2448) and the p53 pathway. (Source: Molecular Cancer)
Source: Molecular Cancer - August 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Awais MughalZanina GriegHåvard SkjellegrindArtem FayzullinMustapha LamkhannatMrinal JoelM. AhmedWayne MurrellEinar Vik-MoIver LangmoenBiljana Stangeland Source Type: research

5-Carboxylcytosine levels are elevated in human breast cancers and gliomas
Background: DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine (5mC)) patterns are often altered in cancers. Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins oxidise 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). In addition to their presumptive specific biological roles, these oxidised forms of 5mC may serve as intermediates in demethylation process. According to several reports, 5hmC levels are strongly decreased in cancers; however, the distribution of 5fC and 5caC in malignant tissue has not been studied.FindingsHere, we examine the levels of 5hmC and 5caC in 28 samples of normal breast tissue, 59 s...
Source: Clinical Epigenetics - August 21, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Maria EleftheriouAna PascualLee WheldonChristina PerryAbdulkadir AbakirArvind AroraAndrew JohnsonDorothee AuerIan EllisSrinivasan MadhusudanAlexey Ruzov Source Type: research

[Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in preoperative diagnostics].
Abstract The extent of anisotropy and the direction of diffusion of H protons characterize the tissue structure and qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the appropriate parameters provide inferences for the membrane permeability, axon thickness, integrity and connectivity. The technique of fiber tracking is implemented in the presurgical diagnostics for lesions in the brain to show the relationship of the lesion to the fiber system. The benefit of this technique for preoperative and intraoperative localization of the pyramidal tracts, the primary motor areas, the optic radiation and the speech regions could b...
Source: Der Radiologe - August 21, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Reith W Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

Recruitment of Contralateral Supplementary Motor Area in Functional Recovery Following Medial Frontal Lobe Surgery: An fMRI Case Study
Conclusion Our results confirm brain remodeling of the lateral premotor cortex, as previously described, and indicate that functional improvement is also paralleled with a shift of SMA activation toward the healthy hemisphere.[...]Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part A: Central European Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part A: Central European Neurosurgery - August 20, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Acioly, Marcus AndreCunha, Alexandre MartinsParise, MaudRodrigues, ErikaTovar-Moll, Fernanda Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

High-definition fiber tractography for the evaluation of perilesional white matter tracts in high-grade glioma surgery
Conventional white matter (WM) imaging approaches, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been used to preoperatively identify the location of affected WM tracts in patients with intracranial tumors in order to maximize the extent of resection and potentially reduce postoperative morbidity. DTI, however, has limitations that include its inability to resolve multiple crossing fibers and its susceptibility to partial volume effects. Therefore, recent focus has shifted to more advanced WM imaging techniques such as high-definition fiber tractography (HDFT). In this paper, we illustrate the application of HDFT, which in ...
Source: Neuro-Oncology - August 20, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Abhinav, K., Yeh, F.-C., Mansouri, A., Zadeh, G., Fernandez-Miranda, J. C. Tags: Reviews Source Type: research