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Glioma

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Therapeutic Targeting of Malignant Glioma
(Source: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents))
Source: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents) - September 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexandru-Abrams, DanielaR. Jadus, MartinP. Hsu, FrankStathopoulos, ApostolosA. Bota, Daniela Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Translational Gap in Glioma Research
(Source: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents))
Source: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents) - September 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ma, ChiZhao, GangHilda Cruz, MabelSiden, AkeSebastian Yakisich, Juan Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Cn‐AMP2 from green coconut water is an anionic anticancer peptide
Globally, death due to cancers is likely to rise to over 20 million by 2030, which has created an urgent need for novel approaches to anticancer therapies such as the development of host defence peptides. Cn‐AMP2 (TESYFVFSVGM), an anionic host defence peptide from green coconut water of the plant Cocos nucifera, showed anti‐proliferative activity against the 1321N1 and U87MG human glioma cell lines with IC50 values of 1.25 and 1.85 mM, respectively. The membrane interactive form of the peptide was found to be an extended conformation, which primarily included β‐type structures (levels > 45%) and random coil...
Source: Journal of Peptide Science - September 19, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Saurabh Prabhu, Sarah R. Dennison, Manuela Mura, Robert W. Lea, Timothy J. Snape, Frederick Harris Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Association of leukocyte mitochondrial DNA content with glioma risk: evidence from a Chinese case-control study
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate for the first time that a higher mtDNA content in PBLs is associated with an elevated risk of glioma, which warrants further investigation in larger populations. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - September 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jie ZhangDeyang LiFalin QuYibing ChenGang LiHequn JiangXiaojun HuangHushan YangJinliang Xing Source Type: research

Epithelial cell transformation sequence 2 is a potential biomarker of unfavorable survival in human gliomas
Conclusions: ECT2 expression is positively correlated with WHO pathologic grading and unfavorable survival, suggesting that ECT2 may be a potential therapeutic candidate in human gliomas. (Source: Neurology India)
Source: Neurology India - September 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Yung-Sheng ChengChin LinYen-Po ChengYi-Lin YuChi-Tun TangDueng-Yuan Hueng Source Type: research

Bilateral thalamic gliomas: Report of two cases with review of literature
Bi-Wu Wu, Yi Zhang, Wen-Gang Li, Zhi-Qi LiNeurology India 2014 62(4):438-440 (Source: Neurology India)
Source: Neurology India - September 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Bi-Wu WuYi ZhangWen-Gang LiZhi-Qi Li Source Type: research

Peri-ictal pseudoprogression [pipg] in an operated case of right frontal glioma; case report and review of literature
Boby Varkey Maramattom, Dilip PanikarNeurology India 2014 62(4):461-463 (Source: Neurology India)
Source: Neurology India - September 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Boby Varkey MaramattomDilip Panikar Source Type: research

Hypothermia Stimulates Glioma Stem Spheres to Spontaneously Dedifferentiate Adjacent Non-stem Glioma Cells.
In this study, tracking the non-stem cells, we found that they could be attracted by stem spheres, and finally enter the stem spheres to become a member of stem spheres in vitro. However, these induced stem-like cells positive of CD133 and Nestin markers could not form an obvious sphere. To better understand the genetic differences of the stem spheres and stem-like cells underlying the change of microenvironment, we carried out Cytokine antibody array, Cancer PathwayFinder PCR array, and miRNA chip array, which demonstrated that lots of cytokines, mRNAs, and miRNAs involved in this microenvironmental change. In this study,...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 17, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Shi L, Fei X, Sun G, Wang Z, Wan Y, Zeng Y, Guo J Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Recurrent Malignant Gliomas
Abstract: In almost all patients, malignant glioma recurs following initial treatment with maximal safe resection, conformal radiotherapy, and temozolomide. This review describes the many options for treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas, including reoperation, alternating electric field therapy, chemotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy or radiosurgery, or some combination of these modalities, presenting the evidence for each approach. No standard of care has been established, though the antiangiogenic agent, bevacizumab; stereotactic radiotherapy or radiosurgery; and, perhaps, combined treatment with these 2 modalities ...
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - September 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: John P. Kirkpatrick, John H. Sampson Source Type: research

Standardization and Quality Assurance of Radiation Therapy Volumes for Adults With High-Grade Gliomas
Abstract: Standard treatment for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) consists of a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. While the optimal dose of radiation therapy has been established, significant variability in volume of tissue irradiated exists. In this article we review the current guidelines, patterns of care, patterns of failure, imaging advances and toxicity related to radiation therapy volumes in the treatment of GBM. (Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology)
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - September 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shannon Fogh, Michael Wahl, Mekhail Anwar, Daphne Haas-Kogan, Jennifer L. Clarke, Penny K. Sneed Source Type: research

Management of High-Grade Gliomas in the Elderly
The incidence of glioblastoma (GBM) has been increasing over the past several decades with majority of this increase occurring in patients older than 70 years. In spite of the growing body of evidence in this area, it is still unclear as to the optimal management of elderly patients with GBM. The elderly are a heterogeneous population with a range of comorbid conditions, and functional, cognitive, and physiological changes, and ideally treatment decisions should be made in the context of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Patients with a poor performance status or assessed as “frail” might be considered for less agg...
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - September 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Michelle Ferguson, George Rodrigues, Jeffrey Cao, Glenn Bauman Source Type: research

Preface
In this issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology, experts provide comprehensive reviews of and insights into relevant issues in imaging advances, molecular characterization, and clinical approaches to adult and pediatric high-grade gliomas. It is a privilege for me to be able to serve as the Guest Editor for this issue in which the contributors are mentees, mentors, colleagues, and outstanding physician scientists. (Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology)
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - September 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daphne Haas-Kogan Source Type: research

Genetic Markers in Adult High-Grade Gliomas
Diffuse gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system malignancy in adults and most are high grade. Although current morphologic classification by the World Health Organization provides considerable information, significant variability continues to exist in each diagnostic category. Recent molecular advances define distinct molecular signatures and elucidate gliomagenesis pathways, leading to alternative methods for subclassification beyond morphology alone. In addition, each newly described molecular aberration represents a potential new biomarker with variable diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive value for...
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - September 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Melike Pekmezci, Arie Perry Source Type: research

The Genetic Signatures of Pediatric High-Grade Glioma: No Longer a One-Act Play
Advances in understanding pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) genetics have revealed key differences between pHGG and adult HGG and have uncovered unique molecular drivers among subgroups within pHGG. The 3 core adult HGG pathways, the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras-phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase, p53, and retinoblastoma networks, are also disrupted in pHGG, but they exhibit a different spectrum of effectors targeted by mutation. There are also similarities and differences in the genomic landscape of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and pediatric nonbrainstem (pNBS)-HGG. In 2012, histone H3 mutations were identified in...
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - September 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexander K. Diaz, Suzanne J. Baker Source Type: research

Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods for Planning and Monitoring Radiation Therapy in Patients With High-Grade Glioma
(Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology)
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - September 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic significance of astrocyte elevated gene-1 in human astrocytomas.
This study aimed to investigate the expression of AEG-1 in human astrocytomas and the correlation between AEG-1 expression and clinicopathologic variables of astrocytomas. AEG-1 expression in four pairs of matched astrocytomas tissues and 5 cell lines was detected by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. In addition, AEG-1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining in 204 cases, including 32 normal brain tissues, 80 Low-malignant astrocytomas (LMAs) and 92 High-Malignant astrocytomas (HMAs). AEG-1 expression in 31 LMAs and 29 HMAs samples was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We de...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - September 15, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: He Z, He M, Wang C, Xu B, Tong L, He J, Sun B, Wei L, Chu M Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Tumor suppressive miR-148a is silenced by CpG island hypermethylation in IDH1 mutant gliomas.
Conclusions:We identify miR-148a as a novel G-CIMP associated miRNA, and provide results suggesting that miR-148a restoration may have therapeutic implications. PMID: 25224277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Cancer Research)
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - September 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Li S, Chowdhury R, Liu F, Chou AP, Li T, Mody RR, Lou JJ, Chen W, Reiss JK, Soto H, Prins RM, Liau LM, Mischel PS, Nghiemphu PL, Yong WH, Cloughesy TF, Lai A Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research

Clinical Applications of Choline PET/CT in Brain Tumors.
Abstract Malignant gliomas and metastatic tumors are the most common forms of brain tumors. From a clinical persepctive, neuroimaging plays a significant role, in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. To date MRI is considered the current clinical gold standard for imaging, however, despite providing superior structural detail it features poor specificity in identifying viable tumors in brain treated with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. In the last years functional neuroimaging has become largely widespread thanks to the use of molecular tracers employed in cellular metabolism which has significantly i...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - September 15, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Giovannini E, Lazzeri P, Milano A, Gaeta MC, Ciarmiello A Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

NK Cells Eradicate Gal-1-Deficient Glioma
Natural killer (NK) cells safeguard against early tumor formation by destroying transformed target cells in a process referred to as NK immune surveillance. However, the immune escape mechanisms used by malignant brain tumors to subvert this innate type of immune surveillance remain unclear. Here we show that malignant glioma cells suppress NK immune surveillance by overexpressing the β-galactoside–binding lectin galectin-1. Conversely, galectin-1–deficient glioma cells could be eradicated by host NK cells before the initiation of an antitumor T-cell response. In vitro experiments demonstrated that galectin-1–defici...
Source: Cancer Research - September 14, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Baker, G. J., Chockley, P., Yadav, V. N., Doherty, R., Ritt, M., Sivaramakrishnan, S., Castro, M. G., Lowenstein, P. R. Tags: Microenvironment and Immunology Source Type: research

GSCs Are TLR9+ and Inhibited by CpG-STAT3siRNA
Understanding supports for cancer stem–like cells in malignant glioma may suggest therapeutic strategies for their elimination. Here, we show that the Toll-like receptor TLR9 is elevated in glioma stem–like cells (GSC) in which it contributes to glioma growth. TLR9 overexpression is regulated by STAT3, which is required for GSC maintenance. Stimulation of TLR9 with a CpG ligand (CpG ODN) promoted GSC growth, whereas silencing TLR9 expression abrogated GSC development. CpG-ODN treatment induced Frizzled4-dependent activation of JAK2, thereby activating STAT3. Targeted delivery of siRNA into GSC was achieved via TLR9 usi...
Source: Cancer Research - September 14, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Herrmann, A., Cherryholmes, G., Schroeder, A., Phallen, J., Alizadeh, D., Xin, H., Wang, T., Lee, H., Lahtz, C., Swiderski, P., Armstrong, B., Kowolik, C., Gallia, G. L., Lim, M., Brown, C., Badie, B., Forman, S., Kortylewski, M., Jove, R., Yu, H. Tags: Therapeutics, Targets, and Chemical Biology Source Type: research

Probabilistic map of critical functional regions of the human cerebral cortex: Broca's area revisited
We report the first bilateral probabilistic map for crucial cortical epicentres of human brain functions in the right and left hemispheres, including sensory, motor, and language (speech, articulation, phonology and semantics). These data challenge classical theories of brain organization (e.g. Broca’s area as speech output region) and provide a distributed framework for future studies of neural networks. (Source: Brain)
Source: Brain - September 13, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tate, M. C., Herbet, G., Moritz-Gasser, S., Tate, J. E., Duffau, H. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ouabain elicits human glioblastoma cells apoptosis by generating reactive oxygen species in ERK-p66SHC-dependent pathway.
Abstract Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been implicated as one of main agents in ouabain-induced anticancer effect. Unfortunately, the signaling pathways under it are not very clarified. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism involved in ouabain-induced ROS generation and cell apoptosis on human U373MG and U87MG glioma cells. Ouabain-induced glioblastoma cells apoptosis and increased ROS generation. Clearance ROS by three different ROS scavenger partly, but not totally, reversed ouabain's effect on cell apoptosis. Ouabain-induced ROS generation was not regulated by cal...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry - September 13, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yan X, Liang F, Li D, Zheng J Tags: Mol Cell Biochem Source Type: research

Pseudoprogression of low‐grade gliomas after radiotherapy
ConclusionsPseudoprogression occurred in more than half of the children with LGG following RT, typically beginning within 8 months and often running a very protracted course. Late presentations can also occur. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;9999:1–5. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - September 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Robert P. Naftel, Ian F. Pollack, Giulio Zuccoli, Melvin Deutsch, Regina I. Jakacki Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

miR-33a promotes glioma-initiating cell self-renewal via PKA and NOTCH pathways
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor in adults. Glioma-initiating cells (GICs) are stem-like cells that have been implicated in glioblastoma progression and recurrence; however, the distinct properties of GICs and non-GICs within GBM tumors are largely uncharacterized. Here, we evaluated stem cell–associated microRNA (miR) expression in GICs from GBM patients and GICs derived from xenografted human glioma cell lines and determined that miR-33a promotes GIC growth and self-renewal. Moreover, evaluation of a GBM tissue array revealed that higher miR-33a expression was associated with poor prognosis ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 11, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hui Wang, Tao Sun, Jing Hu, Rui Zhang, Yanhua Rao, Shuai Wang, Rui Chen, Roger E. McLendon, Allan H. Friedman, Stephen T. Keir, Darell D. Bigner, Qi-Jing Li, Huibo Wang, Xiao-Fan Wang Source Type: research

Pediatric Brain Tumor Cell Lines
Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor‐derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of the appropriate brain tumor cell line for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability as a model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor...
Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - September 11, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jingying Xu, Ashley Margol, Shahab Asgharzadeh, Anat Erdreich‐Epstein Tags: Article Source Type: research

Oroxylin A induces autophagy in human malignant glioma cells via the mTOR‐STAT3‐Notch signaling pathway
Autophagy is a tightly‐regulated catabolic pathway involving degradation of cellular proteins, cytoplasm and organelles. Recent evidence suggests that autophagy plays a potential role in cell death as a tumor suppressor and that its induction especially in combination with apoptosis could be beneficial. It remains unclear if all cancer cells behave the same mechanism when autophagy is induced. Although mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is well known as a negative regulator of autophagy, the relationship between signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and autophagy has not yet been investigated. Orox...
Source: Molecular Carcinogenesis - September 11, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Meijuan Zou, Chen Hu, Qidong You, Aixia Zhang, Xuerong Wang, Qinglong Guo Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Suppression of autophagy augments the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition on Human glioma cells.
In conclusion, our data revealed a protective role of autophagy in the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition, and both inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 might be a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells. PMID: 25220423 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Cell Research)
Source: Experimental Cell Research - September 11, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Yuan X, Du J, Hua S, Zhang H, Gu C, Wang J, Yang L, Huang J, Yu J, Liu F Tags: Exp Cell Res Source Type: research

WW Domain of BAG3 is Required for the Induction of Autophagy in Glioma Cells
ABSTRACT Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, selective degradation pathway of cellular components that is important for cell homeostasis under healthy and pathologic conditions. Here we demonstrate that an increase in the level of BAG3 results in stimulation of autophagy in glioblastoma cells. BAG3 is a member of a co‐chaperone family of proteins that associates with Hsp70 through a conserved BAG domain positioned near the C‐terminus of the protein. Expression of BAG3 is induced by a variety of environmental changes that cause stress to cells. Our results show that BAG3 overexpression induces autophagy in glioma ...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - September 10, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Nana Merabova, Ilker Kudret Sariyer, A Sami Saribas, Tijana Knezevic, Jennifer Gordon, M. Caterina Turco, Alessandra Rosati, Michael Weaver, Jacques Landry, Kamel Khalili Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Targeting SIM2‐s Decreases Glioma Cell Invasion Through Mesenchymal–Epithelial Transition
ABSTRACT Glioma is a common primary intracranial carcinoma with high incidence, recurrence, and motility. Single minded homolog 2‐short form (SIM2‐s), a member of basic helix‐loop‐helix (bHLH) family, is reported to be expressed in glioma and might play a role in the invasion. In the present study, we investigated the importance of SIM2‐s in glioma invasion and further explored the potential mechanisms. We showed that targeting SIM2‐s by interference technology could decrease cell adhesion to fibronectin, induce cell aggregation and cytoskeletal changes. Furthermore, we showed that targeting SIM2‐s increased ...
Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - September 10, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yuhang Su, Juntao Wang, Xiaodan Zhang, Jie Shen, Lin Deng, Qinglin Liu, Gang Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Newcastle disease virotherapy induces long‐term survival and tumor‐specific immune memory in orthotopic glioma through the induction of immunogenic cell death
Abstract The oncolytic features of several naturally oncolytic viruses have been shown on Glioblastoma Multiforme cell lines and in xenotransplant models. However, orthotopic glioma studies in immunocompetent animals are lacking. Here we investigated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in the orthotopic, syngeneic murine GL261 model. Seven days after tumor induction, mice received NDV intratumorally. Treatment significantly prolonged median survival and 50% of animals showed long‐term survival. We demonstrated immunogenic cell death (ICD) induction in GL261 cells after NDV infection, comprising calreticulin surface exposure, r...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - September 10, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Carolien A Koks, Abhishek D Garg, Michael Ehrhardt, Matteo Riva, Lien Vandenberk, Louis Boon, Steven De Vleeschouwer, Patrizia Agostinis, Norbert Graf, Stefaan W Van Gool Tags: Tumor Immunology Source Type: research

Intraoperative guidance for brain tumor removal [Biological Sciences]
We read with great interest the recent article by Santagata et al. (1) on the value of intraoperative mass spectrometry during brain tumor surgery. The authors, using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) MS, detected rapidly the tumor metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) from tissue sections of surgically resected gliomas. With DESI MS the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 9, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Vartholomatos, G., Alexiou, G., Batistatou, A., Kyritsis, A. P. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

CRM197 in combination with shRNA interference of VCAM‐1 displays enhanced inhibitory effects on human glioblastoma cells
CRM197 is a naturally nontoxic diphtheria toxin mutant that binds and inhibits heparin‐binding epidermal growth factor‐like growth factor. CRM197 serves as carrier protein for vaccine and other therapeutic agents. CRM197 also inhibits the growth, migration, invasion and induces apoptosis in various tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule‐1 (VCAM‐1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of CRM197 combined with shRNA interference of VCAM‐1 (shRNA‐VCAM‐1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of gliobl...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - September 9, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Yi Hu, Xing Lin, Ping Wang, Yi‐Xue Xue, Zhen Li, Li‐Bo Liu, Bo Yu, Tian‐Da Feng, Yun‐Hui Liu Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Is physical disability associated with fatigue in glioma?
Discussion Assessing fatigue, mood, sleep, and physical status may be useful for better understanding of the needs of brain tumour patients. Although no association was found with physical disability, sleep disturbance where present may be treatable. (Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - September 9, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Berntzen, B., Day, J., Rooney, A., Erridge, S., Peoples, S., Grant, R. Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

Analysis of Platinum and Trace Metals in Treated Glioma Rat Cells by X-Ray Fluorescence Emission.
Abstract So far, reports in the literature indicate a superior effectiveness of anticancer treatments using drug liposome-encapsulated. In this work, the influence of cisplatin associated with lipid vesicles (liposomes) is studied. Possible induced changes in the elemental composition, distribution, and concentration inside F98 glioma cells are investigated by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), combined with backscattering spectrometry (BS). SXRF at nanometer spatial resolution provides information on the two-dimension variation of elements inside the cells, while PIXE...
Source: Biological Trace Element Research - September 9, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: Gil S, Carmona A, Martínez-Criado G, León A, Prezado Y, Sabés M Tags: Biol Trace Elem Res Source Type: research

Manifold Learning in MR spectroscopy using nonlinear dimensionality reduction and unsupervised clustering
ConclusionThe LE method is promising for unsupervised clustering to separate brain and tumor tissue with automated color‐coding for visualization of 1H MRSI data after cluster analysis. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - September 8, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Guang Yang, Felix Raschke, Thomas R. Barrick, Franklyn A. Howe Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Manifold Learning in MR spectroscopy using nonlinear dimensionality reduction and unsupervised clustering.
CONCLUSION: The LE method is promising for unsupervised clustering to separate brain and tumor tissue with automated color-coding for visualization of (1) H MRSI data after cluster analysis. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 25199640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - September 8, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Yang G, Raschke F, Barrick TR, Howe FA Tags: Magn Reson Med Source Type: research

Egr-1 participates in abnormally high gdnf gene transcription mediated by histone hyperacetylation in glioma cells.
Abstract Abnormally high transcription of the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (gdnf) gene in glioma cells is related to the hyperacetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) in its promoter region II, but the mechanism remains unclear. There are three consecutive putative binding sites for the transcription factor early growth response protein 1(Egr-1) in promoter region II of the gdnf gene, and Egr-1 participates in gdnf gene transcription activation. Here we show that the acetylation level of H3K9 at Egr-1 binding sites in gdnf gene promoter region II in rat C6 astroglioma cells was significantly higher ...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - September 6, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang BL, Ni HB, Liu J, Lei Y, Li H, Xiong Y, Yao R, Yu ZQ, Gao DS Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research

The miR-21/IGFBP3 Pathway in Glioblastoma [Molecular Bases of Disease]
Despite advances in surgery, imaging, chemotherapy, and radiation, patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common histological subtype of glioma, have an especially dismal prognosis; >70% of GBM patients die within 2 years of diagnosis. In many human cancers, the microRNA miR-21 is overexpressed, and accumulating evidence indicates that it functions as an oncogene. Here, we report that miR-21 is overexpressed in human GBM cell lines and tumor tissue. Moreover, miR-21 expression in GBM patient samples is inversely correlated with patient survival. Knockdown of miR-21 in GBM cells inhibited cell proliferation i...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - September 5, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yang, C. H., Yue, J., Pfeffer, S. R., Fan, M., Paulus, E., Hosni-Ahmed, A., Sims, M., Qayyum, S., Davidoff, A. M., Handorf, C. R., Pfeffer, L. M. Tags: Cell Biology Source Type: research

Bradykinin enhances invasion of malignant glioma into the brain parenchyma by inducing cells to undergo amoeboid migration.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25194042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Journal of Physiology - September 5, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Seifert S, Sontheimer H Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

[Management of gliomas.]
Abstract Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors. Their care is difficult because of the proximity of organs at risk. The treatment of glioblastoma includes surgery followed by chemoradiation with the protocol of Stupp et al. The addition of bevacizumab allows an increase in progression-free survival by 4 months but it does not improve overall survival. This treatment is reserved for clinical trials. Intensity modulation radiotherapy may be useful to reduce the neurocognitive late effects in different types of gliomas. In elderly patients an accelerated radiotherapy 40Gy in 15 fractions allows a similar ...
Source: Cancer Radiotherapie - September 4, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lévy S, Chapet S, Mazeron JJ Tags: Cancer Radiother Source Type: research

Galectins and neovascularization in central nervous system tumors
Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the overall outcomes for patients with brain tumors remain unpredictable. New prognostic markers are still needed to identify high-risk patients for whom the standard treatment has poor outcomes and would thus be well suited for more aggressive therapies. Neovascularization has long been implicated as a salient feature of glioma progression. In fact, high-grade gliomas are among the most vascular of all solid tumors, and vascular proliferation is a pathological hallmark of glioblastomas. Galectins are known to play important roles in cancer biology, including cancer cell migrati...
Source: Glycobiology - September 3, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: D'Haene, N., Maris, C., Rorive, S., Decaestecker, C., Le Mercier, M., Salmon, I. Tags: SPECIAL ISSUE - REVIEWS ON GALECTINS IN ANGIOGENESIS Source Type: research

LDH5-mediated immune escape of gliomas [Immunology and Inflammation]
Myeloid cells are key regulators of the tumor microenvironment, governing local immune responses. Here we report that tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and circulating monocytes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) express ligands for activating the Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor, which cause down-regulation of NKG2D on natural killer... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 2, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Crane, C. A., Austgen, K., Haberthur, K., Hofmann, C., Moyes, K. W., Avanesyan, L., Fong, L., Campbell, M. J., Cooper, S., Oakes, S. A., Parsa, A. T., Lanier, L. L. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Combination of unsaturated fatty acids and ionizing radiation on human glioma cells: cellular, biochemical and gene expression analysis
Conclusions: Because PUFAs increased the radio responsiveness of glioma cells as assessed by biochemical and cellular assays, they might increase the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in treatment of gliomas. We demonstrated that treatment with DHA, AA and GLA as adjunct to irradiation up-regulated the expression of oxidative-stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress related genes, and affected NOTCH1 expression, which could explain their additive effects. (Source: Lipids in Health and Disease)
Source: Lipids in Health and Disease - September 2, 2014 Category: Lipidology Authors: Otilia AntalLászló HacklerJunhui ShenImola MánKatalin HideghétyKlára KitajkaLászló Puskás Source Type: research

LRIG and cancer prognosis.
Conclusions. LRIG gene statuses and mRNA and protein expression are clinically relevant prognostic indicators in several types of human cancer. We propose that LRIG analyses could become important when making informed and individualized clinical decisions regarding the management of cancer patients. PMID: 25180912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Oncologica)
Source: Acta Oncologica - September 2, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lindquist D, Kvarnbrink S, Henriksson R, Hedman H Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research

Intratumorally implanted mesenchymal stromal cells potentiate peripheral immunotherapy against malignant rat gliomas
Abstract: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) target glioma extensions and micro-satellites efficiently when implanted intratumorally. Here, we report that intratumoral implantation of MSCs and peripheral immunotherapy with interferon-gamma (IFNγ) producing tumor cells improve the survival of glioma-bearing rats (54% cure rate) compared to MSC alone (0% cure rate) or immunotherapy alone (21% cure rate) by enforcing an intratumoral CD8+ T cell response. Further analysis revealed that the MSCs up-regulate MHC classes I and II in response to IFNγ treatment in vitro and secrete low amounts of immunosuppressi...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Salina Ströjby, Sofia Eberstål, Andreas Svensson, Sara Fritzell, Daniel Bexell, Peter Siesjö, Anna Darabi, Johan Bengzon Tags: Short Communications Source Type: research

Intraocular astrocytoma and its differential diagnosis.
Abstract Astrocytomas arising within the eye display 2 distinct histologies: one comprises interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped cells mixed with a minority of polygonal cells, and the other consists of large cells with abundant glassy cytoplasm (gemistocytic astrocytes) indistinguishable from cells found in subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Both histologic patterns express glial fibrillary acid protein diffusely, are biologically benign, and are frequently associated with dysgenic syndromes, particularly tuberous sclerosis complex. Tumors with gemistocytes, however, demonstrate a greater propensity for invasive...
Source: Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Pusateri A, Margo CE Tags: Arch Pathol Lab Med Source Type: research

ACVR1 in FOP and DIPG
Whole-genome sequencing studies have recently identified a quarter of cases of the rare childhood brainstem tumor diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma to harbor somatic mutations in ACVR1. This gene encodes the type I bone morphogenic protein receptor ALK2, with the residues affected identical to those that, when mutated in the germline, give rise to the congenital malformation syndrome fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), resulting in the transformation of soft tissue into bone. This unexpected link points toward the importance of developmental biology processes in tumorigenesis and provides an extensive experience in...
Source: Cancer Research - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Taylor, K. R., Vinci, M., Bullock, A. N., Jones, C. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Advanced MR Imaging in Glioblastoma
The most common malignant primary brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating disease with a grim prognosis. Patient survival is typically less than two years and fewer than 10% of patients survive more than five years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can have great utility in the diagnosis, grading, and management of patients with GBM as many of the physical manifestations of the pathologic processes in GBM can be visualized and quantified using MRI. Newer MRI techniques such as dynamic contrast enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI provide functional information about the tumor hemodynamic sta...
Source: Cancer Research - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kalpathy-Cramer, J., Gerstner, E. R., Emblem, K. E., Andronesi, O. C., Rosen, B. Tags: Physics in Cancer Research Source Type: research

Mutant IDH1 Confers Temozolomide Resistance
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations occur in most lower grade glioma and not only drive gliomagenesis but are also associated with longer patient survival and improved response to temozolomide. To investigate the possible causative relationship between these events, we introduced wild-type (WT) or mutant IDH1 into immortalized, untransformed human astrocytes, then monitored transformation status and temozolomide response. Temozolomide-sensitive parental cells exhibited DNA damage (γ-H2AX foci) and a prolonged G2 cell-cycle arrest beginning three days after temozolomide (100 μmol/L, 3 hours) exposure and persistin...
Source: Cancer Research - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ohba, S., Mukherjee, J., See, W. L., Pieper, R. O. Tags: Therapeutics, Targets, and Chemical Biology Source Type: research

Subtyping of IDH1-Mutated Gliomas by 31P MRS
Many patients with glioma harbor specific mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene IDH1 that associate with a relatively better prognosis. IDH1-mutated tumors produce the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate. Because IDH1 also regulates several pathways leading to lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that IDH1-mutant tumors have an altered phospholipid metabolite profile that would impinge on tumor pathobiology. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed 31P-MRS imaging in mouse xenograft models of four human gliomas, one of which harbored the IDH1-R132H mutation. 31P-MR spectra from the IDH1-mutant tumor displayed a patt...
Source: Cancer Research - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Esmaeili, M., Hamans, B. C., Navis, A. C., van Horssen, R., Bathen, T. F., Gribbestad, I. S., Leenders, W. P., Heerschap, A. Tags: Tumor and Stem Cell Biology Source Type: research