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MiR-221/222 promote human glioma cell invasion and angiogenesis by targeting TIMP2
In this study, we found that miR-221/222 were significantly upregulated in human glioma samples and glioma cell lines. Both gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that miR-221/222 regulate cell proliferation, the cell cycle and apoptosis, in addition to, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis in glioma cell lines. Subsequent investigations revealed that TIMP2 is a direct target of miR-221/222, and overexpression of TIMP2 reduced the miR-221/222-mediated invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of glioma cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the suppression of miR-221/222 may be a feasible approach for inhibiting...
Source: Tumor Biology - March 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A preclinical study demonstrating the efficacy of nilotinib in inhibiting the growth of pediatric high-grade glioma
Abstract Solid tumors arising from malignant transformation of glial cells are one of the leading causes of central nervous system tumor-related death in children. Recurrence in spite of rigorous surgical and chemoradiation therapies remains a major hurdle in management of these tumors. Here, we investigate the efficacy of the second-generation receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib as a therapeutic option for the management of pediatric gliomas. We have utilized two independent pediatric high-grade glioma cell lines with either high platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) or high PDGFRβ ex...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - March 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Inhibition of cathepsin L sensitizes human glioma cells to ionizing radiation in vitro through NF-κB signaling pathway
Inhibition of cathepsin L sensitizes human glioma cells to ionizing radiation in vitro through NF-κB signaling pathway Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 36, 400 (March 2015). doi:10.1038/aps.2014.148 Authors: Neng Yang, Pan Wang, Wen-juan Wang, Yun-zhen Song & Zhong-qin Liang (Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica)
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - March 3, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Neng YangPan WangWen-juan WangYun-zhen SongZhong-qin Liang Tags: glioma radiotherapy ionizing radiation cathepsin L NF-κB cyclin D1 ATM Z-FY-CHO shRNA DNA damage clonogenic survival Source Type: research

Modeling Discrete Survival Time Using Genomic Feature Data
In this study, we further extended the GMIFS method for ordinal response modeling using a complementary log-log link, which allows one to model discrete survival data. We applied our extension to a publicly available microarray gene expression dataset (GSE53733) with a discrete survival outcome. The dataset included 70 primary glioblastoma samples from patients of the German Glioma Network with long-, intermediate-, and short-term overall survival. We tested the performance of our method by examining the prediction accuracy of the fitted model. The method has been implemented as an addition to the ordinalgmifs package in t...
Source: Cancer Informatics - March 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kyle FerberKellie J. Archer Source Type: research

The role of FoxJ2 in the migration of human glioma cells
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2015 Source:Pathology - Research and Practice Author(s): Xiaojun Qiu , Bin Ji , Lixiang Yang , Qingfeng Huang , Wei Shi , Zongmei Ding , Xiaojuan He , Na Ban , Shaochen Fan , Jianguo Zhang , Ye Tian Previous studies have demonstrated that FoxJ2 (forkhead box J2) is a member of Forkhead Box transcription factors and acts as an important prognostic indicator in human breast cancer. Our study aimed to assess the expression and function in human glioma. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed in human glioma tissues. Low FoxJ2 expression was observed in 80 s...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - March 2, 2015 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Antitumor Activity of a Polypyridyl Chelating Ligand: In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibition of Glioma
Glioblastoma multiforme is an extremely aggressive and invasive form of central nervous system tumor commonly treated with the chemotherapeutic drug Temozolomide. Unfortunately, even with treatment, the median survival time is less than 12 months. 2,9-Di-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthroline (SBP), a phenanthroline-based ligand originally developed to deliver gold-based anticancer drugs, has recently been shown to have significant antitumor activity in its own right. SBP is hypothesized to initiate tumor cell death via interaction with non-DNA targets, and considering most glioblastoma drugs kill tumors through DNA damage processe...
Source: ASN Neuro - March 2, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: David, C. N., Frias, E. S., Elix, C. C., McGovern, K. E., Walker, A. M., Eichler, J. F., Wilson, E. H. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Tumor border sharpness correlates with HLA-G expression in low-grade gliomas
This study investigated the potential relationship between HLA-G expression levels and the sharpness of low-grade glioma tumor borders in magnetic resonance images. Preoperative T2-weighted images from 72 patients were retrospectively examined by manually segmenting the hyperintensive tumor areas and subsequently registering them to a standard brain template. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - March 2, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yinyan Wang, Xing Fan, Hongming Li, Zhiguo Lin, Hongbo Bao, Shaowu Li, Lei Wang, Tianzi Jiang, Yong Fan, Tao Jiang Source Type: research

Robotics in the neurosurgical treatment of glioma.
CONCLUSION: Robotic surgical systems can potentially increase safety and performance of surgical operation via novel features such as virtual fixtures, augmented force feedback, and haptic high-force warning system. The case study using neuroArm robot to resect a glioma, for the first time, showed the positional information of surgeon's hand movement and tool-tissue interaction forces. PMID: 25722932 [PubMed] (Source: Hand Surgery)
Source: Hand Surgery - March 1, 2015 Category: Surgery Authors: Sutherland GR, Maddahi Y, Gan LS, Lama S, Zareinia K Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Comparison of the selective targeting efficacy of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R and VNP20009 on the lewis lung carcinoma in nude mice.
Authors: Zhang Y, Zhang N, Hoffman RM, Zhao M Abstract Salmonella typhimurium A1-R is auxotrophic for arg and leu, which attenuates growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor targeting and virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human prostate, breast, and pancreatic cancer as well as osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and glioma in clinically-relevant mouse models. VNP20009 is also a genetically-modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium that has been tested in Phase I clinical trials, but is more attenuated than S. typhimurium A1-R and in addition of multiple amino-acid auxotrophs, is purine auxotropic with th...
Source: Oncotarget - February 28, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Biomarkers for glioma immunotherapy: the next generation
Abstract The term “biomarker” historically refers to a single parameter, such as the expression level of a gene or a radiographic pattern, used to indicate a broader biological state. Molecular indicators have been applied to several aspects of cancer therapy: to describe the genotypic and phenotypic state of neoplastic tissue for prognosis, to predict susceptibility to anti-proliferative agents, to validate the presence of specific drug targets, and to evaluate responsiveness to therapy. For glioblastoma (GBM), immunohistochemical and radiographic biomarkers accessible to the clinical lab have informed tradit...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - February 28, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas
Publication date: April 2015 Source:European Journal of Radiology, Volume 84, Issue 4 Author(s): Bela Purohit , Ali A. Kamli , Spyros S. Kollias Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other su...
Source: European Journal of Radiology - February 28, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion MRI with quantitative ADC measurements in differentiating glioma recurrence from radiation necrosis
: Differentiating radiation necrosis from glioma recurrence remains a great challenge. Several advanced imaging modalities have been developed to differentiate between these two entities with disparate outcomes. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic quality of diffusion MRI in differentiating glioma recurrence from radiation necrosis. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - February 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hui Zhang, Li Ma, Cheng Shu, Yu-bo Wang, Lian-qiang Dong Source Type: research

Malignant Glioma: Is VMAT Truly better than 3DCRT?
Malignant glioma is a devastating primary tumour located in the brain with a median survival less than two years. Standard of care for gliomas is maximal surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The standard dose used is 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the post-operative bed with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). This technique has been shown to have a definitive impact on patient survival. These tumours are often nearby or abutting dose limiting OARs such as the brainstem or optical structures. (Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences)
Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences - February 27, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Lucy Ward Tags: Technical and Clinical Inquiry Source Type: research

p16 Gene Transfer Induces Centrosome Amplification and Abnormal Nucleation Associated with Survivin Downregulation in Glioma Cells
Conclusion: p16 transfer caused centrosome amplification even in G1/S phase-arrested cells. This suggests that p16 is involved in abnormal nucleation and radiosensitization in human glioma cells.Pathobiology 2015;82:1-8 (Source: Pathobiology)
Source: Pathobiology - February 27, 2015 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Evolution of DNA repair defects during malignant progression of low-grade gliomas after temozolomide treatment
Abstract Temozolomide (TMZ) increases the overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), but its role in the clinical management of diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG) is still being defined. DNA hypermethylation of the O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with an improved response to TMZ treatment, while inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is associated with therapeutic resistance and TMZ-induced mutagenesis. We previously demonstrated that TMZ treatment of LGG induces driver mutations in the RB and AKT–mTOR pathways, which m...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - February 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Liquid biopsies in patients with diffuse glioma
Abstract Diffuse gliomas are the most common malignant primary tumors of the central nervous system. Like other neoplasms, these gliomas release molecular information into the circulation. Tumor-derived biomarkers include proteins, nucleic acids, and tumor-derived extracellular vesicles that accumulate in plasma, serum, blood platelets, urine and/or cerebrospinal fluid. Recently, also circulating tumor cells have been identified in the blood of glioma patients. Circulating molecules, vesicles, platelets, and cells may be useful as easily accessible diagnostic, prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers to guide patie...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - February 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: A concept car or a allroad car to drive all along glioma resection ?
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2015 Source:World Neurosurgery Author(s): Johan Pallud (Source: World Neurosurgery)
Source: World Neurosurgery - February 27, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The LIM-only transcription factor LMO2 determines tumorigenic and angiogenic traits in glioma stem cells
C Lim, J D Lathia, I Nakano & H Kim (Source: Cell Death and Differentiation)
Source: Cell Death and Differentiation - February 27, 2015 Category: Cytology Authors: S-H KimE-J KimM HitomiS-Y OhX JinH-M JeonS BeckX JinJ-K KimC G ParkS-Y ChangJ YinT KimY-j JeonJ SongY C LimJ D LathiaI NakanoH Kim Source Type: research

Identifying core gene modules in glioblastoma based on multilayer factor-mediated dysfunctional regulatory networks through integrating multi-dimensional genomic data
The driver genetic aberrations collectively regulate core cellular processes underlying cancer development. However, identifying the modules of driver genetic alterations and characterizing their functional mechanisms are still major challenges for cancer studies. Here, we developed an integrative multi-omics method CMDD to identify the driver modules and their affecting dysregulated genes through characterizing genetic alteration-induced dysregulated networks. Applied to glioblastoma (GBM), the CMDD identified a core gene module of 17 genes, including seven known GBM drivers, and their dysregulated genes. The module showe...
Source: Nucleic Acids Research - February 27, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Ping, Y., Deng, Y., Wang, L., Zhang, H., Zhang, Y., Xu, C., Zhao, H., Fan, H., Yu, F., Xiao, Y., Li, X. Tags: Computational Biology Source Type: research

Is there a risk of seizures in "preventive" awake surgery for incidental diffuse low-grade gliomas?
CONCLUSIONS The risk of inducing seizures is very low in ILGG, and it does not represent an argument against early surgery. These data strongly support the proposal of a screening policy for LGG that will evolve toward a preventive treatment in a more systematic manner. PMID: 25723301 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - February 27, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: de Oliveira Lima GL, Duffau H Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Antineoplastic effects of deoxypodophyllotoxin, a potent cytotoxic agent of plant origin, on glioblastoma U-87 MG and SF126 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data demonstrated that DPT possesses a potent in vitro cytotoxic activity and exerts its effect via G2/M arrest and apoptosis. PMID: 25712646 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - February 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Guerram M, Jiang ZZ, Sun L, Zhu X, Zhang LY Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Blockage of potassium channel inhibits proliferation of glioma cells via increasing reactive oxygen species.
Authors: Hu L, Li LL, Lin ZG, Jiang ZC, Li HX, Zhao SG, Yang KB Abstract The potassium (K(+)) channel plays an important role in the cell cycle and proliferation of tumor cells, while its role in brain glioma cells and the signaling pathways remains unclear. We used tetraethylammonium (TEA), a nonselective antagonist of big conductance K(+) channels, to block K(+) channels in glioma cells, and antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) to inhibit production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). TEA showed an antiproliferation effect on C6 and U87 glioma cells in a time-dependent manner, which was accompanied b...
Source: Oncology Research - February 26, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Res Source Type: research

Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy plus bevacizumab after response to bevacizumab plus irinotecan as a rescue treatment for high-grade gliomas
Conclusions The combination of BVZ+FSRT as a second-line HGG relapse rescue treatment is well-tolerated and seems to offer promising results. We believe that multi-centre prospective studies are needed to determine the long-term efficacy and toxicity of this therapeutic approach. (Source: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy)
Source: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy - February 26, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The active intrathecal B-cell response in LGI1-antibody encephalitis
Publication date: 26 February 2015 Source:The Lancet, Volume 385, Supplement 1 Author(s): Sarosh R Irani , Klaus Lehmann-Horn , Michael Geschwind , Shengzhi Wang , Angela Vincent , H-Christian von Büdingen Background Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a component of the voltage-gated potassium channel complex. IgG antibodies against LGI1 are associated with immunotherapy-responsive encephalitis and epilepsies. LGI1-antibody concentrations are 10–100 times greater in serum than in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Oligoclonal IgG bands are rarely found in patients with LGI1-antibody encephalitis or epilepsy. These ob...
Source: The Lancet - February 26, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

ABT-888 enhances cytotoxic effects of temozolomide independent of MGMT status in serum free cultured glioma cells
Conclusion: PARPi mediated potentiation of TMZ is independent of TMZ sensitivity and can override MGMT(-) mediated resistance when administered simultaneously. Response to combination therapy was associated with increased double strand breaks induction, and coincided by increased apoptosis and autophagy. PARPi addition potentiates TMZ treatment in primary GSCs. PARPi could potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the standard of care in GBM. (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - February 26, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Rutger BalversMartine LamfersJenneke KloezemanAnne KleijnLotte Berghauser PontClemens DirvenSieger Leenstra Source Type: research

Prolonged treatment with bevacizumab is associated with brain atrophy: a pilot study in patients with high-grade gliomas
Abstract Bevacizumab is widely used for treatment of high-grade gliomas and other malignancies. Because bevacizumab has been shown to be associated with neurocognitive decline, this study is designed to investigate whether prolonged treatment with bevacizumab is also associated with brain atrophy. We identified 12 high-grade glioma patients who received bevacizumab for 12 months at the first recurrence and 13 matched controls and blindly compared the volumes of the contralateral hemispheres and contralateral ventricle in these two groups at baseline and after 12 ± 2 months of the baseline scan by two independ...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - February 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effect of cancer-associated fibroblasts on the migration of glioma cells in vitro
Abstract Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) significantly influence biological properties of many tumors. The role of these mesenchymal cells is also anticipated in human gliomas. To evaluate the putative role of CAFs in glioblastoma, we tested the effect of CAF conditioned media on the proliferation and chemotaxis of glioma cells. The proliferation of glioma cells was stimulated to similar extent by both the normal fibroblasts (NFs) and CAF-conditioned media. Nevertheless, CAF-conditioned media enhanced the chemotactic migration of glioma cells significantly more potently than the media from normal fibroblasts....
Source: Tumor Biology - February 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combination therapy of intraperitoneal rapamycin and convection-enhanced delivery of nanoliposomal CPT-11 in rodent orthotopic brain tumor xenografts.
Conclusion: In summary, we propose a very powerful new combination therapy for glioma. PMID: 25714699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Cancer Drug Targets)
Source: Current Cancer Drug Targets - February 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mendiburu-Eliçabe M, Gil-Ranedo J Tags: Curr Cancer Drug Targets Source Type: research

Trends in incidence of primary brain cancer in New Zealand, 1995 to 2010.
Conclusion: In New Zealand, there has been no consistent increase in incidence rates of primary brain cancers. An increase in glioma at ages over 70 is likely to be due to improvements in diagnosis. As with any such studies, a small effect, or one with a latent period of more than 10 to 15 years, cannot be excluded. PMID: 25715883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health)
Source: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health - February 25, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Kim SJ, Ioannides SJ, Elwood JM Tags: Aust N Z J Public Health Source Type: research

Together, nanotechnology, genetic interference may tackle 'untreatable/ brain tumors
There are no effective available treatments for sufferers of Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and devastating form of brain tumor. Now a study may offer hope to the tens of thousands diagnosed with gliomas every year, using a nanomedical treatment first engineered to tackle ovarian cancer tumors. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - February 24, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Together, nanotechnology and genetic interference may tackle 'untreatable' brain tumors
(American Friends of Tel Aviv University) There are no effective available treatments for sufferers of Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and devastating form of brain tumor. Now a new Tel Aviv University study may offer hope to the tens of thousands diagnosed with gliomas every year, using a nanomedical treatment first engineered to tackle ovarian cancer tumors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 24, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news

Dynamic Perfusion CT in Brain Tumors
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2015 Source:European Journal of Radiology Author(s): Timothy Pok Chi Yeung , Glenn Bauman , Slav Yartsev , Enrico Fainardi , David Macdonald , Ting-Yim Lee Dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) is an imaging technique for assessing the vascular supply and hemodynamics of brain tumors by measuring blood flow, blood volume, and permeability-surface area product. These PCT parameters provide information complementary to histopathologic assessments and have been used for grading brain tumors, distinguishing high-grade gliomas from other brain lesions, differentiating true progression from ...
Source: European Journal of Radiology - February 24, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Expression of CD150 in Tumors of the Central Nervous System: Identification of a Novel Isoform
by Olga Romanets-Korbut, Alexander M. Najakshin, Mariya Yurchenko, Tatyana A. Malysheva, Larysa Kovalevska, Larysa M. Shlapatska, Yuriy A. Zozulya, Alexander V. Taranin, Branka Horvat, Svetlana P. Sidorenko CD150 (IPO3/SLAM) belongs to the SLAM family of receptors and serves as a major entry receptor for measles virus. CD150 is expressed on normal and malignant cells of the immune system. However, little is known about its expression outside the hematopoietic system, especially tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Although CD150 was not found in different regions of normal brain tissues, our immunohistochemical stu...
Source: PLoS One - February 24, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Olga Romanets-Korbut et al. Source Type: research

GATA2 promotes glioma progression through EGFR/ERK/Elk-1 pathway
Abstract Among the gliomas, glioblastoma (GBM) is the highest grade and the most malignant glioma tumor. GATA2 is a hematopoietic factor that has been intensely studied in hematopoietic malignancies. Recently, the functions of GATA2 as an oncogene in other types of human cancer have been reported. However, no role for GATA2 in the development and progression of glioma has been reported to date. In the present study, we found that the expression level of GATA2 is upregulated in GBM and is correlated with GBM outcome. Ectopic expression of GATA2 or RNAi-mediated knockdown of GATA2 significantly enhanced or inhibite...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 24, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Grade II pilocytic astrocytoma in a 3‐month‐old patient with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL): Case report and literature review of low grade gliomas in ECCL
We report on the fourth case of LGG in a patient with ECCL; a grade II pilocytic astrocytoma with pilomyxoid features in a 3‐month‐old male, the youngest in literature. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A)
Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A - February 23, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sarah Bieser, Martin Reis, Miguel Guzman, Karen Gauvain, Samer Elbabaa, Stephen R. Braddock, Mohamed S. Abdel‐Baki Tags: Clinical Report Source Type: research

Metabolic Reprogramming in Mutant IDH1 Glioma Cells
Conclusion The IDH1 mutation leads to several, potentially translatable MRS-detectable metabolic changes beyond the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - February 23, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jose L. Izquierdo-Garcia et al. Source Type: research

Association of IDH1/2 mutation with preoperative seizure in low-grade gliomas: how strong is the evidence?
We read with the great interest a recent paper by Zhong et al. on the association between IDH 1/2 mutation and seizure as an initial symptom in low-grade gliomas. In a cohort of 311 patients with WHO grade II gliomas, the authors found that IDH1/2 was an independent factor involved in preoperative seizure (p=0.041), but contributed little to postoperative seizure control (Zhong et al., 2015). (Source: Epilepsy Research)
Source: Epilepsy Research - February 23, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Yingjie Zou, Harrison Xiao Bai, Zhili Wang, Yiqun Jiang, Li Yang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The Oncofetal Protein IMP3: A Novel Grading Tool and Predictor of Poor Clinical Outcome in Human Gliomas.
Abstract Morphologic criteria illustrated in WHO guidelines are the most significant prognostic factor in human gliomas, but novel biomarkers are needed to identify patients with a poorer outcome. The present study examined the expression of the oncofetal protein IMP3 in a series of 135 patients affected by high-grade (grade III and IV) gliomas, correlating the results with proliferative activity, molecular parameters, and clinical and follow-up data. Overall, IMP3 expression was higher in glioblastomas (68%) than in grade III tumors (20%, P < 0.0001), and IMP3-positive high-grade gliomas showed a shorter overal...
Source: Biomed Res - February 22, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Del Gobbo A, Vaira V, Ferrari L, Patriarca C, Di Cristofori A, Ricca D, Caroli M, Rampini P, Bosari S, Ferrero S Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in combination with bevacizumab or fotemustine for patients with progressive malignant gliomas
Abstract To evaluate the efficacy of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy performed as reirradiation in combination with fotemustine or bevacizumab as salvage treatment in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Between May 2006 and December 2013, 54 patients with recurrent malignant glioma received hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT, 25 Gy in 5-Gy fractions) plus either fotemustine or bevacizumab at University of Rome Sapienza, Sant’Andrea Hospital. All patients had Karnofsky performance score (KPS) ≥ 60 and were previously treated with standard chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two patients h...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - February 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Colour contrasting between tissues predicts the resection in 5-aminolevulinic acid-guided surgery of malignant gliomas
This study aimed to reveal the shortcomings of the human visual perception of fluorescence, particularly the factors guiding the tissue removal and the correlation of fluorescence with contrast enhancement (CE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Various colour features [CIE L*a*b* colour space, colour difference described by ΔE and contrast ratio (CR)] of total 206 noticed fluorescent areas and their surroundings were measured from the video recordings of 21 primary high grade glioma (HGG) surgeries. The position of a fluorescent region was related to the corecorded navigational image. Following early postoperative MRI,...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - February 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pediatric Brainstem Gliomas: New Understanding Leads to Potential New Treatments for Two Very Different Tumors
Abstract Pediatric brainstem gliomas include low-grade focal brainstem gliomas (FBSG) and high-grade diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). These tumors share a crucial and eloquent area of the brain as their location, which carries common challenges for treatment. Otherwise, though, these two diseases are very different in terms of presentation, biology, treatment, and prognosis. FBSG usually present with greater than 3 months of symptoms, while DIPG are usually diagnosed within 3 months of symptom onset. Surgery remains the preferred initial treatment for FBSG, with chemotherapy used for persistent, recurr...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - February 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Holocord low grade astrocytoma – Role of radical irradiation and chemotherapy
We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with holocord astrocytoma extending from cervicomedullary junction till lumbar spine, who recovered full neurological function following radical irradiation of entire spine followed by temozolomide-based chemotherapy. No grade 3/4 bone marrow morbidity was seen. Five years following treatment, she maintained normal neurological function and apparently normal pubertal and skeletal growth despite residual disease visible on imaging. Literature review of existing reports of holocord astrocytomas highlighting management and outcome is presented. (Source: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute)
Source: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute - February 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor efficacy of composite liposomes for neutron capture therapy
Conclusions: Liposomal gadolinium formulations represent a promising approach for neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma cells. The liposome composition determines the uptake and the survival of cells following radiation, presumably due to different uptake pathways of liposomes and intracellular deposition of gadolinium-DTPA. Due to the small range of the Auger and conversion electrons produced in 157Gd capture, the proximity of Gd-atoms to cellular DNA is a crucial factor for infliction of lethal damage. Furthermore, Gd-containing liposomes may be used as MRI contrast agents for diagnostic purposes and surveillance of tu...
Source: Radiation Oncology - February 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tanja PetersCatrin GrunewaldMatthias BlaicknerMarkus ZiegnerChristian SchützDorothee IfflandGabriele HampelThomas NawrothPeter Langguth Source Type: research

Genetics and immunotherapy: using the genetic landscape of gliomas to inform management strategies
Abstract Recent work in genetics has identified essential driver mutations in gliomas and has profoundly changed our understanding of tumorigenesis. New insights into the molecular basis of glioma has informed the development of therapies demonstrating considerable potential, including immunotherapeutic approaches such as peptide and dendritic cell vaccines against EGFRvIII. However, the selective targeting of one component of a dysregulated pathway may be inadequate for a durable clinical response, given the intratumoral heterogeneity of glioblastoma (GBM) and hypermutated profiles displayed by tumor recurrence...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - February 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

IDH mutation status and role of WHO grade and mitotic index in overall survival in grade II–III diffuse gliomas
Abstract Diffuse gliomas are up till now graded based upon morphology. Recent findings indicate that isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status defines biologically distinct groups of tumors. The role of tumor grade and mitotic index in patient outcome has not been evaluated following stratification by IDH mutation status. To address this, we interrogated 558 WHO grade II–III diffuse gliomas for IDH1/2 mutations and investigated the prognostic impact of WHO grade within IDH-mutant and IDH-wild type tumor subsets independently. The prognostic impact of grade was modest in IDH-mutant [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.2...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - February 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

miR-130a can predict response to temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma multiforme, independently of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase
Conclusions: Our data suggested that miR-130a could be a predictive marker for TMZ response in patients with GBM, independently of the mechanism by which MGMT acts as a biomarker. miR-130a could serve as a guide for treatment strategy selection in cases of GBM. (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Huiyuan ChenXinyi LiWenbin LiHuyong Zheng Source Type: research

Flamethrowers: blood cells and cancer thrombosis risk.
Authors: Pabinger I, Posch F Abstract Cancer patients are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. The clotting system is activated in most cancer patients, which is reflected by specific parameters such as an increased thrombin generation and elevated D-dimer levels. Blood cells, especially WBCs and platelets, play an important role in this activation process. Neutrophils and monocytes are subpopulations of WBCs that increase the thrombotic potential by different mechanisms. Neutrophils are activated by tumor cells and can release DNA, generating highly thrombogenic neutrophil extracellular traps. Monocytes...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - February 20, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research

Hypoxia Imaging in Gliomas With F-Fluoromisonidazole PET: Toward Clinical Translation
There is significant interest in the development of improved image-guided therapy for neuro-oncology applications. Glioblastomas (GBM) in particular present a considerable challenge because of their pervasive nature, propensity for recurrence, and resistance to conventional therapies. MRI is routinely used as a guide for planning treatment strategies. However, this imaging modality is not able to provide images that clearly delineate tumor boundaries and affords only indirect information about key tumor pathophysiology. (Source: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine - February 20, 2015 Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Christopher Bell, Nicholas Dowson, Mike Fay, Paul Thomas, Simon Puttick, Yaniv Gal, Stephen Rose Source Type: research

PinX1 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in glioma cells
In conclusion, our results suggested that PinX1 may be a potential suppressive gene in the progression of gliomas. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - February 20, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Variations of ITSS‐Morphology and their Relationship to Location and Tumor Volume in Patients with Glioblastoma
CONCLUSIONOur findings indicate that ITSS‐morphology is not a random phenomenon. Location of GB, as well as tumor volume, appear to be factors contributing to ITSS morphology. (Source: Journal of Neuroimaging)
Source: Journal of Neuroimaging - February 20, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Delia Fahrendorf, Volker Hesselmann, Wolfram Schwindt, Johannes Wölfer, Astrid Jeibmann, Hendrik Kooijman, Harald Kugel, Walter Heindel, Andrea Bink Tags: Clinical Investigative Study Source Type: research