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Propofol suppresses proliferation and invasion of glioma cells by upregulating microRNA-218 expression.
In conclusion, propofol may effectively suppress proliferation and invasion, and induce the apoptosis of glioma cells, at least partially through upregulation of miR-218 expression. PMID: 26133092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular Medicine Reports)
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - July 3, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Comparative study of IDH1 mutations in gliomas by high resolution melting analysis, immunohistochemistry and direct DNA sequencing.
Authors: Li J, Zhang H, Wang L, Yang C, Lai H, Zhang W, Chen X, Wang J Abstract Patients with glioblastomas with a specific mutation in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene have a better prognosis than those with gliomas with wild‑type IDH1. IDH1 analysis has become part of the standard diagnostic procedure and a promising tool used for stratification in clinical trials. The present study aimed to compare high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and direct DNA sequencing for the detection of IDH mutations in gliomas. Fifty‑one formalin‑fixed paraffin‑embedded tumor samples we...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - July 3, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Prognostic Factors in Lobar World Health Organization Grade II Astrocytomas
Conclusions Patients with World Health Organization grade II astrocytomas have better overall survival if their tumor is nonenhancing, amenable to surgical resection, and exhibits the IDH1 mutation. These factors should be used to guide patient management and inform prognosis. (Source: World Neurosurgery)
Source: World Neurosurgery - July 3, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Ets Factors Regulate Neural Stem Cell Depletion and Gliogenesis in Ras Pathway Glioma
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015 Source:Cell Reports Author(s): Joshua J. Breunig , Rachelle Levy , C. Danielle Antonuk , Jessica Molina , Marina Dutra-Clarke , Hannah Park , Aslam Abbasi Akhtar , Gi Bum Kim , Xin Hu , Serguei I. Bannykh , Roel G.W. Verhaak , Moise Danielpour As the list of putative driver mutations in glioma grows, we are just beginning to elucidate the effects of dysregulated developmental signaling pathways on the transformation of neural cells. We have employed a postnatal, mosaic, autochthonous glioma model that captures the first hours and days of gliomagenesis in more resolutio...
Source: Cell Reports - July 3, 2015 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

In vitro screen of a small molecule inhibitor drug library identifies multiple compounds that synergize with oncolytic myxoma virus against human brain tumor-initiating cells
Conclusions This study has identified multiple novel drug candidates that synergistically improve MyxV efficacy in a preclinical BTIC glioma model. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - July 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: McKenzie, B. A., Zemp, F. J., Pisklakova, A., Narendran, A., McFadden, G., Lun, X., Kenchappa, R. S., Kurz, E. U., Forsyth, P. A. Tags: Basic and Translational Investigations Source Type: research

ADAM-9 is a novel mediator of tenascin-C-stimulated invasiveness of brain tumor-initiating cells
Conclusions This study has identified TNC as a promoter of the invasiveness of BTICs through a mechanism involving ADAM-9 proteolysis via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - July 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sarkar, S., Zemp, F. J., Senger, D., Robbins, S. M., Yong, V. W. Tags: Basic and Translational Investigations Source Type: research

Acute effects of surgery on emotion and personality of brain tumor patients: surgery impact, histological aspects, and recovery
Conclusions These results show that surgery can be relatively safe for LGG patients with regard to the higher-level, more complex cognitive functions and can provide further useful information to the neurosurgeon and improve communication with both the patient and the relatives about possible changes that can occur immediately after surgery. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - July 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Campanella, F., Fabbro, F., Ius, T., Shallice, T., Skrap, M. Tags: Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

A pilot study using carboplatin, vincristine, and temozolomide in children with progressive/symptomatic low-grade glioma: a Children's Oncology Group study
Conclusion It was feasible to deliver the combination of weekly carboplatin and vincristine alternating with temozolomide to children with progressive/symptomatic low-grade glioma with acceptable toxicities. This combination appears to be effective in delaying progression. Further trials are needed to establish the relative efficacy of this regimen compared with other regimens in use. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - July 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chintagumpala, M., Eckel, S. P., Krailo, M., Morris, M., Adesina, A., Packer, R., Lau, C., Gajjar, A. Tags: Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Source Type: research

MMP2 and MMP9 as candidate biomarkers to monitor bevacizumab therapy in high-grade glioma
(Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - July 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tabouret, E., Boudouresque, F., Farina, P., Barrie, M., Bequet, C., Sanson, M., Chinot, O. Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Disrupting the right pars opercularis with electrical stimulation frees the song: case report.
Abstract The authors report the first case of a strikingly unusual speech impairment evoked by intraoperative electrostimulation in a 36-year-old right-handed patient, a well-trained singer, who underwent awake surgery for a right fronto-temporo-insular low-grade glioma. Functionally disrupting the pars opercularis of the right inferior frontal gyrus led the patient to automatically switch from a speaking to a singing mode of language production. Given the central role of the right pars opercularis in the inhibitory control network, the authors propose that this finding may be interpreted as possible evidence for a...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - July 3, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Herbet G, Lafargue G, Almairac F, Moritz-Gasser S, Bonnetblanc F, Duffau H Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Long-term outcome of patients with WHO Grade III and IV gliomas treated by fractionated intracavitary radioimmunotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS Median OS of GBM and AA patients treated with (131)I-mABs reached 25.3 and 77.2 months, respectively, thus markedly exceeding that of historical controls. Adverse events remained well controllable with the fractionated dosage regimen. PMID: 26140493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - July 3, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Reulen HJ, Poepperl G, Goetz C, Gildehaus FJ, Schmidt M, Tatsch K, Pietsch T, Kraus T, Rachinger W Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Quantitative fluorescence using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX biomarker as a surgical adjunct in low-grade glioma surgery.
CONCLUSIONS The authors' initial experience with ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in LGGs concurs with other literature reports that the resulting visual fluorescence has poor diagnostic accuracy. However, the authors also found that diagnostically significant levels of CPpIX do accumulate in LGGs, and the resulting fluorescence emissions are very often below the detection threshold of current visual fluorescence imaging methods. Indeed, at least in the authors' initial experience reported here, if quantitative detection methods are deployed, the diagnostic performance of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in LGGs approaches the a...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - July 3, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Valdés PA, Jacobs V, Harris BT, Wilson BC, Leblond F, Paulsen KD, Roberts DW Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Safety and feasibility of the NanoKnife system for irreversible electroporation ablative treatment of canine spontaneous intracranial gliomas.
CONCLUSION With the incorporation of additional therapeutic planning procedures, the NanoKnife system is a novel technology capable of controlled IRE ablation of telencephalic gliomas. PMID: 26140483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - July 3, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Rossmeisl JH, Garcia PA, Pancotto TE, Robertson JL, Henao-Guerrero N, Neal RE, Ellis TL, Davalos RV Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Retargeted human avidin-CAR T cells for adoptive immunotherapy of EGFRvIII expressing gliomas and their evaluation via optical imaging.
Authors: Liu K, Liu X, Peng Z, Sun H, Zhang M, Zhang J, Liu S, Hao L, Lu G, Zheng K, Gong X, Wu D, Wang F, Shen L Abstract There has been significant progress in the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. However, the challenge of monitoring the therapy in real time has been continually ignored. To address this issue, we developed optical molecular imaging approaches to evaluate a recently reported novel CAR strategy for adoptive immunotherapy against glioma xenografts expressing EGFRvIII. We initially biotinylated a novel anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal ...
Source: Oncotarget - July 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

MicroRNA-153/Nrf-2/GPx1 pathway regulates radiosensitivity and stemness of glioma stem cells via reactive oxygen species.
Authors: Yang W, Shen Y, Wei J, Liu F Abstract Glioma stem cells (GSCs) exhibit stem cell properties and high resistance to radiotherapy. The main aim of our study was to determine the roles of ROS in radioresistance and stemness of GSCs. We found that microRNA (miR)-153 was down-regulated and its target gene nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) was up-regulated in GSCs compared with that of non-GSCs glioma cells. The enhanced Nrf-2 expression increased glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) transcription and decreased ROS level leading to radioresistance of GSCs. MiR-153 overexpression resulted in increase...
Source: Oncotarget - July 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Decreased Expression of MiRNA-204-5p Contributes to Glioma Progression and Promotes Glioma Cell Growth, Migration and Invasion
by Zhiqiang Xia, Fang Liu, Jian Zhang, Li Liu Gliomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumors in adults and exhibit a spectrum of aberrantly aggressive phenotype. Although increasing evidence indicated that the deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to tumorigenesis and invasion, little is known about the roles of miR-204-5p in human gliomas. In the present study, the expression of miR-204-5p in clinical glioma tissues was measured by qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-204-5p on glioma cell growth and metastasis were examined by overexpressing or inhibiting miR-204-5p. We found that the expression level of miR...
Source: PLoS One - July 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhiqiang Xia et al. Source Type: research

Automated Analysis of 1p/19q Status by FISH in Oligodendroglial Tumors: Rationale and Proposal of an Algorithm
Conclusion Our algorithm can be easily implemented on all existing FISH analysis software platforms and should facilitate multicentric evaluation and standardization of 1p/19q assessment in gliomas with reduction of the professional and technical time required. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - July 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Céline Duval et al. Source Type: research

Function of PD-L1 in antitumor immunity of glioma cells
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015 Source:Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences Author(s): Lou Yongli , Shi Jin , Guo Dewei , Ahmad Kaleem Qureshi , Song Laijun Human glioma is highly fatal tumor with significant feature of immune suppression. The functions of PD-L1 refer to co-simulation and immune regulation. To investigate expression and functional activity of PD-L1 in human glioma cell in vivo and in vitro. Expressions of PD-L1mRNA and protein in human glioma cell line were analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometer; and then expression of PD-L1 in tissue specimens of 10 glioma patients was treat...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - July 2, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Molecular subtypes, stem cells and heterogeneity: Implications for personalised therapy in glioma
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, Volume 22, Issue 8 Author(s): Andrew Morokoff , Wayne Ng , Andrew Gogos , Andrew Kaye We discuss a number of recent developments that have led to new concepts regarding the biology of gliomas. Collective tissue banking, large-scale genomic, transcriptomic and methylomic expression profiling, and discoveries such as isocitrate dehydrogenase gene mutation and the C-phosphate-G island methylation phenotype have improved glioma classification schemes. Furthermore, the discovery of glioma stem cells has both enhanced and complicated our understanding. Gene...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - July 2, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Improved survival in adult patients with low-grade brain tumors
(University of California - San Diego) Using clinical data collected over the past decade through a US cancer registry, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine demonstrated that significant strides have been made in improving the survival of adult patients with low-grade gliomas, a slow-growing yet deadly form of primary brain cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - July 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment in adults with intramedullary spinal cord glioblastoma
We report our institution’s experience with adult patients who underwent surgery for intramedullary spinal cord glioblastoma. Spine involvement of glioblastoma is rare, representing 7.5% of all intramedullary gliomas and 1–3% of all spinal cord tumors. We performed a retrospective review of five male patients with intramedullary spinal cord glioblastoma who underwent surgical resection from 1990 to 2014. Demographic, operative, and postoperative factors were recorded. The median age at treatment was 31years (range: 18–61) and all men presented with motor or sensory dysfunction. Two had prior surgical resection of an ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - July 1, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prognostic impact of molecular phenotype in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma treated with prolonged administration of temozolomide
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2015 Source:Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Author(s): Doo-Sik Kong , Hong Rye Kim , Yoon-Ra Choi , Ho Jun Seol , Jung-Il Lee , Do-Hyun Nam We retrospectively investigated the prognostic impact of molecular phenotypes in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma treated with prolonged administration of temozolomide (TMZ). Malignant gliomas have a dismal prognosis despite the available multimodal treatments. We reviewed 87 patients who were diagnosed with recurrent anaplastic gliomas between March 2004 and June 2010, and 58 were enrolled for analysis. In the cohort, 21 patients ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - July 1, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fast spectroscopic multiple analysis (FASMA) for brain tumor classification: a clinical decision support system utilizing multi-parametric 3T MR data
Conclusions    FASMA is a prototype CDSS, which integrates complex quantitative MR data for brain tumor characterization. FASMA was developed as a diagnostic assistant that provides fast analysis, representation and classification for a set of MR parameters. This software may serve as a teaching tool on advanced MRI techniques, as it incorporates additional information regarding typical tumor characteristics derived from the literature. (Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery)
Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery - July 1, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein restrict the brain penetration of the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib
Conclusion Thus, the brain penetration of palbociclib is restricted by P-gp and BCRP, which may restrict the efficacy against GBM and DIPG. Moreover, preclinical studies with this agent should be conducted at a more clinically relevant dose level. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 30, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Molecular profiling of gliomas: potential therapeutic implications
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, Ahead of Print. (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 30, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: article Source Type: research

A novel role of sphingosine kinase-1 in the invasion and angiogenesis of VHL mutant clear cell renal cell carcinoma [Research Communication]
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1), the enzyme responsible for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) production, is overexpressed in many human solid tumors. However, its role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has not been described previously. ccRCC cases are usually associated with mutations in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and subsequent normoxic stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We previously showed that HIF-2α up-regulates SK1 expression during hypoxia in glioma cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that the stabilized HIF in ccRCC cells will be associated with increased SK1 expression. Here, we demonstrate that S...
Source: FASEB Journal - June 30, 2015 Category: Biology Authors: Salama, M. F., Carroll, B., Adada, M., Pulkoski-Gross, M., Hannun, Y. A., Obeid, L. M. Tags: Research Communication Source Type: research

High leukocyte mitochondrial DNA content contributes to poor prognosis in glioma patients through its immunosuppressive effect
i, S He & J Xing (Source: British Journal of Cancer)
Source: British Journal of Cancer - June 30, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Y ChenJ ZhangX HuangJ ZhangX ZhouJ HuG LiS HeJ Xing Tags: mitochondrial DNA content glioma prognosis immunophenotype cytokine Source Type: research

Heparin in malignant glioma: review of preclinical studies and clinical results
Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor that is invariably lethal. Novel treatments are desperately needed. In various cancers, heparin and its low molecular weight derivatives (LMWHs), commonly used for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis, have shown therapeutic potential. Here we systematically review preclinical and clinical studies of heparin and LMWHs as anti-tumor agents in GBM. Even though the number of studies is limited, there is suggestive evidence that heparin may have various effects on GBM. These effects include the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenes...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - June 30, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Glioma invasion mediated by the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR/CD271) requires regulated interaction with PDLIM1
Glioma invasion mediated by the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR/CD271) requires regulated interaction with PDLIM1 Oncogene advance online publication, June 29 2015. doi:10.1038/onc.2015.199 Authors: B Y Ahn, R F G Saldanha-Gama, J J Rahn, X Hao, J Zhang, N-H Dang, M Alshehri, S M Robbins & D L Senger (Source: Oncogene)
Source: Oncogene - June 29, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: B Y AhnR F G Saldanha-GamaJ J RahnX HaoJ ZhangN-H DangM AlshehriS M RobbinsD L Senger Source Type: research

Early versus delayed postoperative radiotherapy for treatment of low-grade gliomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Given the high risk of bias in the included study, the results of this analysis must be interpreted with caution. Early radiation therapy was associated with the following adverse effects: skin reactions, otitis media, mild headache, nausea, and vomiting. People with LGG who undergo early radiotherapy showed an increase in time to progression compared with people who were observed and had radiotherapy at the time of progression. There was no significant difference in overall survival between people who had early versus delayed radiotherapy; however, this finding may be due to the effectiveness of rescue therap...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - June 29, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sarmiento JM, Venteicher AS, Patil CG Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

An innovative fluorescent semi-quantitative methylation-specific PCR method for the determination of MGMT promoter methylation is reflecting intra-tumor heterogeneity.
Abstract High grade gliomas (HGG) are usually associated with a very dismal prognosis, which was moderately improving in the last decade with the introduction of the alkylating agent temozolomide in their treatment. The methylation status of MGMT (O6 methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase) promoter is one of the strongest predictive and prognostic factors for the patient chemoresponse. For instance, the molecular method of assessment for MGMT promoter status is not standardized. In this background, we developed a fluorescent capillary gel electrophoresis-based methylation specific-PCR. This technique allowed a semi-qu...
Source: Current Cancer Drug Targets - June 29, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Entz-Werle N Tags: Curr Cancer Drug Targets Source Type: research

Identification of Global DNA Methylation Signatures in Glioblastoma-Derived Cancer Stem Cells
In this study, we performed an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation landscape in GBM-derived cancer stem cells (GSCs). Parallel comparisons of primary tumors and GSC lines derived from these tumors with normal controls (a neural stem cell (NSC) line and normal brain tissue) identified groups of hyper- and hypomethylated genes that display a trend of either increasing or decreasing methylation levels in the order of controls, primary GBMs, and their counterpart GSC lines, respectively. Interestingly, concurrent promoter hypermethylation and gene body hypomethylation were observed in a subset of genes including MGMT, AJA...
Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics - June 27, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Transport of treosulfan and temozolomide across an in-vitro blood–brain barrier model
In vitro, treosulfan (TREO) has shown high effectiveness against malignant gliomas. However, a first clinical trial for newly diagnosed glioblastoma did not show any positive effect. Even though dosing and timing might have been the reasons for this failure, it might also be that TREO does not reach the brain in sufficient amount. Surprisingly, there are no published data on TREO uptake into the brain of patients, despite extensive research on this compound. An in-vitro blood–brain barrier (BBB) model consisting of primary porcine brain capillary endothelial cells was used to determine the transport of TREO across the ce...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - June 26, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Neutralization of the CD95 ligand by APG101 inhibits invasion of glioma cells in vitro
Glioblastoma is a disease characterized by rapid invasive tumour growth. Studies on the proapoptotic CD95/CD95L signalling pathway recently suggested a significant contribution of CD95 signalling towards the high degree of motility in glioma cells. Apogenix has developed APG101, a clinical phase II compound designed to bind and neutralize CD95L, and thus to interfere with CD95/CD95L-based signalling. APG101 has shown clinical efficacy in a controlled randomized phase II trial in patients with recurrent glioma. Because APG101 is not cytotoxic to tumour cells in vitro, we postulated that the anti-invasive function of APG101 ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - June 26, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Phase I study of non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in children with recurrent/refractory high-grade glioma
Conclusion The RD of Myocet® administered every 3 weeks to paediatric patients was 60 mg/m2. The efficacy of Myocet® in paediatric patients with high-grade glioma remains to be determined and should be studied in Phase II trials. (Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology)
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - June 26, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparison of Brain Tumor Contrast-enhancement on T1-CUBE and 3D-SPGR Images.
CONCLUSIONS: Gadolinium enhancement of brain tumors was generally higher when imaged by T1-Cube than 3D FSPGR, and T1-Cube with Gd enhancement may be superior to 3D FSPGR for detecting smaller metastatic tumors. PMID: 26104076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences - June 26, 2015 Category: Radiology Tags: Magn Reson Med Sci Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Discrepancy between Arterial Spin Labeling Images and Contrast-enhanced Images in the Diagnosis of Brain Tumors.
CONCLUSION: The high signal intensity outside the area of contrast enhancement is probably caused by increased perfusion or vascular proliferation, which indicates the presence of glioma or PCNSL and not metastasis. This finding indicates a new utility for ASL images in the diagnosis of brain tumors as a supplement to the conventional measurement of perfusion obtained from ASL images. PMID: 26104074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences - June 26, 2015 Category: Radiology Tags: Magn Reson Med Sci Source Type: research

HGF/MET signaling promotes glioma growth via up-regulation of Cox-2 expression and PGE2 production.
Abstract Cyclooxygenase2 (Cox-2) is well known for glioma growth through up-regulation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. MET, a hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, is also frequently high expressed in glioma, which promotes glioma growth and invasion. Here, we demonstrate that HGF/MET signaling can promote PGE2 production in glioma cells via Cox-2 up-regulation. RNA inhibition of MET suggested that MET signaling is essential for Cox-2 up-regulation. Moreover, HGF could enhance Cox-2 expression and PGE2 release. Knockdown of Cox-2 inhibited growth-promoting effects of HGF, suggesting that HGF/MET functioned vi...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - June 26, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhao Y, Sun Y, Zhang H, Liu X, Du W, Li Y, Zhang J, Chen L, Jiang C Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

LRIG1 enhances the radiosensitivity of radioresistant human glioblastoma U251 cells via attenuation of the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway.
Abstract The radiotherapy as a local and regional modality is widely applied in treatment of glioma, but most glioblastomas are commonly resistant to irradiation treatment. It remains challengeable to seek out efficient strategies to conquer the resistance of human glioblastoma cells to radiotherapy. Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 (LRIG1) is a newly discovered tumor suppressor which involved in regulation of chemosensitivity in various human cancer cells. In the present study, we established a radioresistant U251 cell line (U251R) to investigate the role of LRIG1 in regulation of rad...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - June 26, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Yang JA, Liu BH, Shao LM, Guo ZT, Yang Q, Wu LQ, Ji BW, Zhu XN, Zhang SQ, Li CJ, Chen QX Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Tesmilifene modifies brain endothelial functions and opens the blood‐brain/blood‐glioma barrier
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - June 26, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fruzsina R. Walter, Szilvia Veszelka, Mária Pásztói, Zoltán A. Péterfi, András Tóth, Gábor Rákhely, László Cervenak, Csongor S. Ábrahám, Mária A. Deli Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of established human iPSC-derived neurons to model neurodegenerative diseases
In this study we show that iCell® neurons are primarily immature GABAergic neurons within the tested time frame. Addition of C6 glioma conditioned medium improved the bursting frequency of cells without further maturation or evidence for glutamatergic responses. Furthermore, cells were suitable for lentiviral transduction within the tested time frame. Altogether, iCell® neurons might be useful to model neurodegenerative diseases in which young GABAergic subtypes are affected. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - June 26, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Plumbagin inhibits growth of gliomas in vivo via suppression of FOXM1 expression
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015 Source:Journal of Pharmacological Sciences Author(s): Mingshan Niu , Wei Cai , Huize Liu , Yulong Chong , Wenqiang Hu , Shangfeng Gao , Qiong Shi , Xiuping zhou , Xuejiao Liu , Rutong Yu Plumbagin is a natural compound that is isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L. Based on a previous in vitro study performed by our group, which demonstrated the effectiveness of plumbagin against glioma cells, we further ascertained whether plumbagin exhibits the same effectiveness against glioma cell xenografts in nude mice. Our results revealed that tumor volu...
Source: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences - June 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Metabolic consequences of oncogenic IDH mutations
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2015 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Seth J. Parker , Christian M. Metallo Specific point mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) occur in a variety of cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), low-grade gliomas, and chondrosarcomas. These mutations inactivate wild-type enzymatic activity and convey neomorphic function to produce d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG), which accumulates at millimolar levels within tumors. d-2HG can impact α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase activity and subsequently affect various cellular functions in t...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Kinetic evaluation of low-grade gliomas in adults before and after treatment with CCNU alone.
CONCLUSIONS These results show that CCNU as a single agent has a significant impact on LGG tumor growth. The impact of CCNU seems to be comparable to the previously reported impact of temozolomide therapy and of combined procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine chemotherapy. PMID: 26115464 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - June 26, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Kaloshi G, Roci E, Rroji A, Ducray F, Petrela M Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Incidence and survival of childhood central nervous system tumors: A report of the regional registry of childhood cancers in Auvergne-Limousin.
CONCLUSION: We report that the incidence of CNST in Auvergne-Limousin is similar to that in the literature and did not increase between 1986 and 2009. In addition, 5years overall survival increased after 1999, especially for surgically treatable tumors. PMID: 26123613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Chirurgie)
Source: Neuro-Chirurgie - June 26, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Coll G, Combes JD, Isfan F, Rochette E, Chazal J, Lemaire JJ, de Schlichting E, Kanold J Tags: Neurochirurgie Source Type: research

New Ways to Evaluate Gliomas Will Enhance Practice New Ways to Evaluate Gliomas Will Enhance Practice
Genetic sequencing can identify tumor groupings that seem to share closer prognostic and clinical features than those defined by histopathological evaluation. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - June 25, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Hematology-Oncology News Source Type: news

Glucose-regulated protein 94 is a novel glioma biomarker and promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway
Conclusion, our findings establish GRP94 as progression markers and druggable targets in glioblastoma, relating their oncogenic effects to activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. (Source: Tumor Biology)
Source: Tumor Biology - June 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

GD3 Drives Invasiveness via PDGFR{alpha} [Cell Biology]
In this study we employed a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma to clarify the functions of GD3 in gliomas. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in cultured astrocytes derived from p53-deficient mice resulted in the expression of GD3 and GD2. GD3-positive astrocytes exhibited increased cell growth and invasion activities along with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Yes kinase. By enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources reaction and mass spectrometry, we identified PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) as a GD3-associated molecule. GD3-positive astrocytes showed a significant amount of PDGFRα in glyc...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - June 25, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ohkawa, Y., Momota, H., Kato, A., Hashimoto, N., Tsuda, Y., Kotani, N., Honke, K., Suzumura, A., Furukawa, K., Ohmi, Y., Natsume, A., Wakabayashi, T., Tags: Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices Source Type: research

CD133+ and Nestin+ Glioma Stem-Like Cells Reside Around CD31+ Arterioles in Niches that Express SDF-1{alpha}, CXCR4, Osteopontin and Cathepsin K
Poor survival of high-grade glioma is at least partly caused by glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) that are resistant to therapy. GSLCs reside in niches in close vicinity of endothelium. The aim of the present study was to characterize proteins that may be functional in the GSLC niche by performing immunohistochemistry on serial cryostat sections of human high-grade glioma samples. We have found nine niches in five out of five high-grade glioma samples that were all surrounding arterioles with CD31+ endothelial cells and containing cellular structures that were CD133+ and nestin+. All nine niches expressed stromal-derived fact...
Source: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry - June 25, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hira, V. V. V., Ploegmakers, K. J., Grevers, F., Verbovšek, U., Silvestre-Roig, C., Aronica, E., Tigchelaar, W., Turnšek, T. L., Molenaar, R. J., Van Noorden, C. J. F. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Evidence-based clinical practice parameter guidelines for the treatment of adults with diffuse low grade glioma: introduction and methods
(Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - June 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research