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A proinvasive role for the Ca2+‐activated K+ channel KCa3.1 in malignant glioma
Glioblastoma multiforme are highly motile primary brain tumors. Diffuse tissue invasion hampers surgical resection leading to poor patient prognosis. Recent studies suggest that intracellular Ca2+ acts as a master regulator for cell motility and engages a number of downstream signals including Ca2+‐activated ion channels. Querying the REepository of Molecular BRAin Neoplasia DaTa (REMBRANDT), an annotated patient gene database maintained by the National Cancer Institute, we identified the intermediate conductance Ca2+‐activated K+ channels, KCa3.1, being overexpressed in 32% of glioma patients where protein expression ...
Source: Glia - March 3, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Kathryn L. Turner, Avinash Honasoge, Stephanie M. Robert, Michael M. McFerrin, Harald Sontheimer Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Cytomorphological features of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: An account of 12 years' experience
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), an aggressive neoplasm mostly affecting young children, is characterized by rhabdoid cells together with epithelial, mesenchymal and primitive differentiation. Diagnosing AT/RT in intraoperative consultation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples may therefore pose problems. Fourteen immunohistochemically proven AT/RTs diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 were collected. Material consisted of squash smears prepared during intraoperative consultation (thirteen) and CSF smears (three). MGG‐stained CSF smears and H&E stained squash smears were reviewed by a neuropathologist and a cyto...
Source: Diagnostic Cytopathology - March 3, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Güneş Güner, Sevgen Önder, Figen Söylemezoğlu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
p14ARF Suppresses Thrombosis by Activating TFPI2
How necrotic areas develop in tumors is incompletely understood but can impact progression. Recent findings suggest that the formation of vascular microthrombi contributes to tumor necrosis, prompting investigation of coagulation cascades. Here, we report that loss of tumor suppressor P14ARF can contribute to activating the clotting cascade in glioblastoma. P14ARF transcriptionally upregulated TFPI2, a Kunitz-type serine protease in the tissue factor pathway that inhibits the initiation of thrombosis reactions. P14ARF activation in tumor cells delayed their ability to activate plasma clotting. Mechanistically, P14ARF activ...
Source: Cancer Research - March 2, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zerrouqi, A., Pyrzynska, B., Brat, D. J., Van Meir, E. G. Tags: Microenvironment and Immunology Source Type: research
Phenotype-Genotype Interactions during Proneural Progression
Proneural glioblastoma is defined by an expression pattern resembling that of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and carries a distinctive set of genetic alterations. Whether there is a functional relationship between the proneural phenotype and the associated genetic alterations is unknown. To evaluate this possible relationship, we performed a longitudinal molecular characterization of tumor progression in a mouse model of proneural glioma. In this setting, the tumors acquired remarkably consistent genetic deletions at late stages of progression, similar to those deleted in human proneural glioblastoma. Further investigati...
Source: Cancer Research - March 2, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sonabend, A. M., Bansal, M., Guarnieri, P., Lei, L., Amendolara, B., Soderquist, C., Leung, R., Yun, J., Kennedy, B., Sisti, J., Bruce, S., Bruce, R., Shakya, R., Ludwig, T., Rosenfeld, S., Sims, P. A., Bruce, J. N., Califano, A., Canoll, P. Tags: Molecular and Cellular Pathobiology Source Type: research
Disulfiram is a direct and potent inhibitor of human O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in brain tumor cells and mouse brain and markedly increases the alkylating DNA damage
The alcohol aversion drug disulfiram (DSF) reacts and conjugates with the protein-bound nucleophilic cysteines and is known to elicit anticancer effects alone or improve the efficacy of many cancer drugs. We investigated the effects of DSF on human O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a DNA repair protein and chemotherapy target that removes the mutagenic O6-akyl groups from guanines, and thus confers resistance to alkylating agents in brain tumors. We used DSF, copper-chelated DSF or CuCl2–DSF combination and found that all treatments inhibited the MGMT activity in two brain tumor cell lines in a rapid and...
Source: Carcinogenesis - March 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paranjpe, A., Zhang, R., Ali-Osman, F., Bobustuc, G. C., Srivenugopal, K. S. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research
Autocrine regulation of glioma cell proliferation via pHe-sensitive K+ channels
Since the seminal studies of Otto Warburg in the 1920s, it has been widely recognized that cancers grow glycolytically, even in the presence of oxygen. This generates an abundance of protons in a gradient across most solid tumors with an acidic core and an alkaline rim. Whether and how this proton gradient may also serve in an autocrine fashion in these tumors is unclear. We demonstrate that human glioma cells form spheroids that act as a viable three-dimensional tumor model, forming physiologically relevant extracellular pH (pHe) and cell proliferation gradients. Using fluorescent cell cycle trackers, we determined that t...
Source: AJP: Cell Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Honasoge, A., Shelton, K. A., Sontheimer, H. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research
Clinical Neuropathology practice news 2-2014: ATRX, a new candidate biomarker in gliomas.
Abstract Genome-wide molecular approaches have substantially elucidated molecular alterations and pathways involved in the oncogenesis of brain tumors. In gliomas, several molecular biomarkers including IDH mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, and MGMT promotor methylation status have been introduced into neuropathological practice. Recently, mutations of the ATRX gene have been found in various subtypes and grades of gliomas and were shown to refine the prognosis of malignant gliomas in combination with IDH and 1p/19q status. Mutations of ATRX are associated with loss of nuclear ATRX protein expression, detectable by a c...
Source: Clinical Neuropathology - February 28, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Haberler C, Wöhrer A Tags: Clin Neuropathol Source Type: research
PORTR: Pre-Operative and Post-Recurrence Brain Tumor Registration
We propose a new method for deformable registration of pre-operative and post-recurrence brain MR scans of glioma patients. Performing this type of intra-subject registration is challenging as tumor, resection, recurrence, and edema cause large deformations, missing correspondences, and inconsistent intensity profiles between the scans. To address this challenging task, our method, called PORTR, explicitly accounts for pathological information. It segments tumor, resection cavity, and recurrence based on models specific to each scan. PORTR then uses the resulting maps to exclude pathological regions from the image-based co...
Source: IEE Transactions on Medical Imaging - February 28, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Robert Avery, D.O., M.S.C.E., studies innovations to improve vision in children with tumors
(Children's National Medical Center) Robert Avery, D.O., M.S.C.E., of Children's National Health System and colleagues are establishing innovative approaches with technology and medication to improve the vision of young children who have visual pathway glioma, a type of brain tumor. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 28, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
Association study of a functional copy number variation in the WWOX gene with risk of gliomas among Chinese people
Abstract Gliomas represents more than 80% of all malignant brain tumors. However, the etiology still remains largely unknown. Human WW domain‐containing oxidoreductase (WWOX), which is located at 16q23.1‐16q23.2, the common fragile site 16D (FRA16D), an area with a high frequency of gene deletions or chromosomal alterations, has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in multiple cancers. In current study, we analyzed the WWOX deletion (CNV‐67048) in a large, case‐control study of 3,622 adult Chinese people (including 1798 glioma cases and 1824 healthy controls). All participants were genotyped using real‐time...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - February 28, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ke Yu, Jin Fan, Xin Ding, CongYang Li, Jun Wang, Yang Xiang, QingSong Wang Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
[Blepharospasm as the presenting symptom of a brain stem glioma].
PMID: 24570363 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista de Neurologia)
Source: Revista de Neurologia - February 27, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Galvez-Ruiz AL Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
Increased IR-A/IR-B ratio in non-small cell lung cancers associates with lower epithelial-mesenchymal transition signature and longer survival in squamous cell lung carcinoma
Conclusions: Our results indicate a common reduction of the mRNA expression level of IR-B and an increased IR-A/IR-B mRNA ratio in NSCLC and other tumor types. The relationship of altered IR-A/IR-B ratios with cancer progression and patient survival should be prospectively explored in future studies. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - February 26, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liyan JiangWei ZhuKatie StreicherChris MorehousePhilip BrohawnXiaoxiao GeZhengwei DongXiaolu YinGuanshan ZhuYi GuKoustubh RanadeBrandon HiggsYihong YaoJiaqi Huang Source Type: research
In vivo brain macromolecule signals in healthy and glioblastoma mouse models: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, post‐processing and metabolite quantification at 14.1 T
In this study, we introduced a novel method to post‐process measured macromolecule signals that offers a flexible and robust way of removing residual metabolite signals. This method was applied to investigate regional differences in the mouse brain macromolecule signals that may affect metabolite quantification when not taken into account. However, since no significant differences in metabolite quantification were detected, it was concluded that a single macromolecule spectrum can be generally used for the quantification of healthy mouse brain spectra. Alternatively, the study of a mouse model of human glioma showed seve...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - February 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Mélanie Craveiro, Virginie Clément‐Schatlo, Denis Marino, Rolf Gruetter, Cristina Cudalbu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array.
Abstract Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance pro...
Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology - February 25, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Zhang L, Yuan H, Burk LM, Inscoe CR, Hadsell MJ, Chtcheprov P, Lee YZ, Lu J, Chang S, Zhou O Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research
Cathepsin B: Multiple Roles in Cancer
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Proteomics. Clinical Applications)
Source: Proteomics. Clinical Applications - February 22, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Neha Aggarwal, Bonnie F. Sloane Tags: Review Source Type: research
Request for Applications: Career Development Award in Brain Cancer
The Neuro-Oncology Program at the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (DF/HCC) is seeking applications for career development projects focused on adult or pediatric gliomas. Funding will be provided through the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) mechanism. Eligible candidates are those who are in the final year of clinical fellowship or postdoctoral fellowship (M.D., Ph.D. or equivalent rank are required) or are within 5 years of their first faculty appointment who hold the current rank of Instructor or Assistant Professor. Applications will be judged on their scienti...
Source: DF/HCC: Latest News - February 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Funding Source Type: news
Request for Applications: Developmental Research Award in Brain Cancer
The Neuro-Oncology Program at the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (DF/HCC) is seeking applications for developmental research projects focused on adult or pediatric gliomas. Funding will be provided through the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) mechanism. Applicants must be faculty members of Harvard Medical School at the level of Instructor or higher. While the proposed research may be basic or clinical, bench-to-bedside or bedside-to-bench strategies must be addressed in the application, as the ultimate purpose of the program is to promote translational researc...
Source: DF/HCC: Latest News - February 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Funding Source Type: news
Assessment of the intrinsic radiosensitivity of glioma cells and monitoring of metabolite ratio changes after irradiation by 14.7‐T high‐resolution 1H MRS
Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor. Radiation therapy (RT) is the primary adjuvant treatment to eliminate residual tumor tissue after surgery. However, the current RT guided by conventional imaging is unsatisfactory. A fundamental question is whether it is possible to further enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of RT based on individual radiosensitivity. In this research, to probe the correlation between radiosensitivity and the metabolite characteristics of glioma cells in vitro, a perchloric acid (PCA) extracting method was used to obtain water‐soluble metabolites [such as N‐acetylaspartate ...
Source: NMR in Biomedicine - February 21, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhaotao Zhang, Qingshi Zeng, Yun Liu, Chuanfu Li, Dechao Feng, Jianzheng Wang Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Retrospective analysis of 104 histologically proven adult brainstem gliomas: clinical symptoms, therapeutic approaches and prognostic factors
Conclusion: Adult brainstem gliomas present with a wide variety of neurological symptoms and postoperative radiation remains the cornerstone of therapy with no proven benefit of adding chemotherapy. Low KPS, age >= 40 and higher tumor grade have a negative impact on overall survival. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - February 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Thomas ReithmeierAanyo KuzeawuBettina HentschelMarkus LoefflerMichael TrippelGuido Nikkhah Source Type: research
Genetic alterations in paediatric high grade astrocytomas
Abstract: Paediatric high grade astrocytomas (HGA) are diffusely infiltrative and highly aggressive brain tumours that account for nearly 20% of all central nervous system tumours in children. They are classified as anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III) and glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). Grade IV HGAs that are centred in the pons and diffusely involve the brainstem are referred to as Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPGs). This chapter describes some of the most common genetic alterations identified in paediatric HGAs, and focuses on recent findings which underscore the major differences between adult and paediatric HGAs...
Source: Diagnostic Histopathology - February 21, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Patricia Rakopoulos, Cynthia Hawkins Tags: Mini-Symposium: Pathology of Paediatric Neoplasms Source Type: research
Family Favors Cannabis Oil Over Chemotherapy for Child with Brain Tumor
Called The Jonah Fund, the campaign is named for 2-year-old Jonah Allen of Longmont, Colo., who was diagnosed in 2013 with a glioma - an inoperable tumor on the left side of his brain. The Green Solution is subsidizing a portion of the cost of cannabis oil therapy for Jonah. The cannabis oil is made up of THC and CBD. CBD is scientifically known as Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive concentrate extracted from the Cannabis sativa plant. The oil is administered orally. THC is the more commonly known compound in cannabis that is known for producing a "high" and when coupled with CBD it is considered to have greater cancer fighti...
Source: Disabled World - February 20, 2014 Category: Disability Tags: Medical Marijuana Source Type: news
WNK1-OSR1 kinase-mediated phospho-activation of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter facilitates glioma migration
Conclusion: Together, our data show a novel role for the WNK1/OSR1/NKCC1 pathway in basal and TMZ-induced glioma migration, and suggest that glioma treatment with TMZ might be improved by drugs that inhibit elements of the WNK1/OSR1/NKCC1 signaling pathway. (Source: Molecular Cancer)
Source: Molecular Cancer - February 20, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wen ZhuGulnaz BegumKelli PointerPaul ClarkSung-Sen YangShih-Hua LinKristopher KahleJohn KuoDandan Sun Source Type: research
The NFκB inhibitor, SN50, induces differentiation of glioma stem cells and suppresses their oncogenic phenotype.
Abstract The malignant phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is believed to be largely driven by glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), and targeting GSCs is now considered a promising new approach to treatment of this devastating disease. Here, we show that SN50, a cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of NFκB, induced robust differentiation of human GSCs, causing loss of their oncogenic potential. We observed that following treatment of GSCs with SN50, their differentiated progeny cells showed significant decreases in their capability to form neuro-spheres and to invade in vitro and a reduction in their tumorigenicity i...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - February 20, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhang L, Ren X, Cheng Y, Liu X, Allen JE, Zhang Y, Yuan Y, Huang SY, Yang W, Berg A, Webb BS, Connor J, Liu CG, Lu Z, El-Deiry WS, Yang JM Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research
Hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy for pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG): A randomized controlled trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypofractionated radiotherapy offers lesser burden on the patients, their families and the treating departments, with nearly comparable results to conventional fractionation, though not fulfilling the non-inferiority assumption. PMID: 24560760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - February 20, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Zaghloul MS, Eldebawy E, Ahmed S, Mousa AG, Amin A, Refaat A, Zaky I, Elkhateeb N, Sabry M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research
Small Double-Stranded RNA Mediates the Anti-Cancer Effects of p21(WAF1/ClP1) Transcriptional Activation in a Human Glioma Cell Line.
Conclusion: In the present study, P21 activation by RNA-induced gene activation (RNAa) induced anti-tumor activity in vitro in a human glioma SHG-44 cell line. The results suggested that RNAa could be used for human glioma treatment by targeted activation of tumor suppressor genes. PMID: 24532499 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yonsei Medical Journal)
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - February 19, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Dong Z, Dang Y, Chen Y Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research
Lithium chloride decreases proliferation and migration of C6 glioma cells harboring isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutant via GSK-3β
Abstract The gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is somatically mutated predominantly in secondary glioblastoma multiforme. Mutations of IDH1 and IDH2 lead to simultaneous loss and gain of activities in the production of α-ketoglutarate and 2-hydroxyglutarate, respectively. Lithium chloride was recently proved efficient in inhibiting glioma cell migration. The mechanism of lithium chloride on C6 glioma cells harboring IDH2 mutation has not been studied. Here, we found lithium chloride induced inhibitive effects on cell proliferation of both C6 glioma cells with and without IDH2 mutation, although IDH2 mut...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - February 19, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Fu Y, Zheng Y, Chan KG, Liang A, Hu F Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
Cytotoxic and Radio-sensitizing Effects of Polyphenolic Acetates in a Human Glioma Cell Line (BMG-1).
Conclusions: The polyphenolic acetate 7, 8- diacetoxy-4-methyl coumarin (DAMC) demonstrates both anticancer effects and radiosensitizing potential under in vitro conditions. PMID: 24552186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - February 19, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Verma A, Venkateswaran K, Farooque A, Bhatt AN, Kalra N, Arya A, Dhawan A, Arya MB, Raj HG, Prasad AK, Parmar VS, Dwarakanath BS Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
CXCL12-induced upregulation of FOXM1 expression promotes human glioblastoma cell invasion.
In this study, we demonstrate that CXCL12 increases the production of FOXM1 by binding to CXCR4 in GBM cell lines. Furthermore, pretreatment with an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway abrogated the CXCL12-induced expression of FOXM1. In addition, there was a positive correlation between CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and FOXM1 expression in human malignant glioma tissues. Finally, a functional assay revealed that CXCL12 does not stimulate GBM cell invasion when FOXM1 expressionis silenced using a small interfering RNA (siRNA). Collectively, these findings suggest that CXCL12 promotes GBM cell invasion in part byincreasing the expr...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - February 19, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang S, Zhang S, Li J, Xu X, Weng Y, Zheng M, Ouyang L, Li F Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
The prognostic role of intragenic copy number breakpoints and identification of novel fusion genes in paediatric high grade glioma
Conclusions: These data expand upon our understanding of the genomic events driving these tumours and represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention in these poor prognosis cancers of childhood. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - February 18, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Diana CarvalhoAlan MackayLynn BjerkeRichard G GrundyCeleste LopesRui M ReisChris Jones Source Type: research
Inferring a dual-stream model of mentalizing from associative white matter fibres disconnection
In the field of cognitive neuroscience, it is increasingly accepted that mentalizing is subserved by a complex frontotemporoparietal cortical network. Some researchers consider that this network can be divided into two distinct but interacting subsystems (the mirror system and the mentalizing system per se), which respectively process low-level, perceptive-based aspects and high-level, inference-based aspects of this sociocognitive function. However, evidence for this type of functional dissociation in a given neuropsychological population is currently lacking and the structural connectivities of the two mentalizing subnet...
Source: Brain - February 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Herbet, G., Lafargue, G., Bonnetblanc, F., Moritz-Gasser, S., Menjot de Champfleur, N., Duffau, H. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
The rs7003908 (T>G) polymorphism in the XRCC7 gene and the risk of cancers.
The objective of the current study was to investigate the association between the rs7003908 polymorphism in the XRCC7 gene and the risk of cancers by meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMbase, CNKI and Wanfang databases; the last search was performed on January 10th, 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using the Revman4.2 and STATA10.0 softwares. A total of 3,684 cancer cases and 5,232 controls from 11 case-control studies were included for data analysis. In the dominant model analysis, the results suggested a lack of association between the polymorphism and the risk of cancers: OR 1.01, 95 % CI 0.83-1.16, P = 0.70...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - February 18, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Xiao M, Shen Y, Chen L, Liao Z, Wen F Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
Theobromine, the Primary Methylxanthine Found in Theobroma cacao, Prevents Malignant Glioblastoma Proliferation by Negatively Regulating Phosphodiesterase-4, Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, Akt/mammalian Target of Rapamycin Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-Kappa B.
Abstract Theobromine, a caffeine derivative, is the primary methylxanthine produced by Theobroma cacao. We previously showed that methylxanthines, including caffeine and theophylline, have antitumor and antiinflammatory effects, which are in part mediated by their inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE). A member of the PDE family, PDE4, is widely expressed in and promotes the growth of glioblastoma, the most common type of brain tumor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether theobromine could exert growth inhibitory effects on U87-MG, a cell line derived from human malignant glioma. We show that theobromi...
Source: Nutrition and Cancer - February 18, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sugimoto N, Miwa S, Hitomi Y, Nakamura H, Tsuchiya H, Yachie A Tags: Nutr Cancer Source Type: research
Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharides induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in glioma C6 cells.
In this study, we aimed at examining the antitumor activity of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide (AMPs) in vitro using glioma C6 cells and the underlying mechanisms were also investigated. The results demonstrated that AMPs significantly inhibited proliferation of C6 cells in a concentration dependent manner by DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induction. Besides, AMPs treatment induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and caused release of cytochrome c to cytosol. Furthermore, the activation of capase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage occurred following AMPs treatment in C6 cel...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - February 17, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Li X, Liu F, Li Z, Ye N, Huang C, Yuan X Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research
Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Promote Glioma Angiogenesis
In this study, we define a unique role for stroma-derived PDGF signaling in maintaining tumor homeostasis within the glioma microenvironment. Large numbers of PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα)–expressing stromal cells derived from oligodendrocytes progenitor cells (OPC) were discovered at the invasive front of high-grade gliomas, in which they exhibited a unique perivascular distribution. In PDGFRα-deficient host mice, in which orthotopic Gl261 tumors displayed reduced outgrowth, we found that tumor-associated blood vessels displayed smaller lumens and normalized vascular morphology, with tumors in host animals injected with t...
Source: Cancer Research - February 16, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Huang, Y., Hoffman, C., Rajappa, P., Kim, J.-H., Hu, W., Huse, J., Tang, Z., Li, X., Weksler, B., Bromberg, J., Lyden, D. C., Greenfield, J. P. Tags: Microenvironment and Immunology Source Type: research
Effect of the Addition of Chemotherapy to Radiotherapy on Cognitive Function in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma: Secondary Analysis of RTOG 98-02 [Neurooncology]
Conclusion The MMSE is a relatively insensitive tool, and subtle changes in CF may have been missed. However, the addition of PCV to RT did not result in significantly higher rates of MMSE score decline than RT alone through 5 years of follow-up. Patients in both randomly assigned arms experienced a statistically significant average MMSE score increase over time, with no difference between arms. The addition of PCV chemotherapy to RT improves PFS without excessive CF detriment over RT alone for patients with low-grade glioma. (Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 14, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Prabhu, Won, Shaw, Hu, Brachman, Buckner, Stelzer, Barger, Brown, Gilbert, Mehta Tags: Brain Tumors, Radiation, Chemotherapy, Combined Modality Neurooncology Source Type: research
Brain involvement by leprosy presenting as a frontal cystic lesion.
Abstract Leprosy has a predilection for peripheral nerves and is not considered to involve the CNS. The idea that the CNS is exempt from Mycobacterium leprae bacilli has been suspected from a clinical perspective or CSF study in leprosy patients. However, there has been no direct evidence for CNS involvement by leprosy in a living patient. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present case is the first report providing histopathological and molecular evidence for CNS involvement by leprosy in a living patient. Brain MRI revealed a 2-cm cystic lesion in the right frontal lobe of the patient. The medical history...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - February 14, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Lee KH, Moon KS, Yun SJ, Won YH, Lee JH, Lee MC, Jung S Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2 autoantibody identification in glioblastoma patient using single B cell-based antibody gene cloning.
Abstract Antibody direct cloning from single B cells is simple and efficient and has been successful in antibody identification of infectious diseases. However, although a recent whole-exome sequencing revealed abundant heterogeneic mutation accumulation in cancers, identification and synthesis of autoantibodies against specific cancer-associated antigens is still difficult in cancer patients owing to the very small number of B cells producing autoantibodies. In the present study, to identify autoantibodies targeting tumor antigens, we measured the titer of autoantibodies in high-grade glioma patients' plasma and i...
Source: Immunology Letters - February 14, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Iizuka A, Komiyama M, Oshit C, Kume A, Ashizawa T, Mitsuya K, Hayashi N, Nakasu Y, Yamaguchi K, Akiyama Y Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
Regulatory Roles of miRNA in the Human Neural Stem Cell Transformation to Glioma Stem Cells
Abstract To investigate the expressional alternation of microRNAs (miRNA) during the malignant transformation and development of human glioma, we measured miRNA expression profile as well as mRNA expression profile in normal human neural stem cells (hNSCs) and human glioma stem cells (hGSCs). We found 116 miRNA up‐regulated and 62 miRNA down‐regulated in GSCs. On the other hand, we identified 1,372 mRNA down‐regulated, and 1,501 mRNA up‐regulated in GSCs compared to those in NSCs. We then analyzed the pathways and the predicted target genes of the miRNAs which differ significantly in expression between GSCs and NSC...
Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - February 13, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Shuang Liu, Feng Yin, Jianning Zhang, Max S Wicha, Alfred E Chang, Wenhong Fan, Ling Chen, Ming Fan, Qiao Li Tags: Article Source Type: research
Impact of drug size on brain tumor and brain parenchyma delivery after a blood–brain barrier disruption
Impact of drug size on brain tumor and brain parenchyma delivery after a blood–brain barrier disruption Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, February 12 2014. doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.14 Authors: Marie Blanchette, Luc Tremblay, Martin Lepage & David Fortin (Source: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow)
Source: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow - February 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Marie BlanchetteLuc TremblayMartin LepageDavid Fortin Tags: blood–brain barrier blood–tumor barrier blood–brain barrier disruption dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging malignant gliomas Source Type: research
Perfusion Measurement in Brain Gliomas with Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MRI [BRAIN]
CONCLUSIONS: The intravoxel incoherent motion perfusion fraction is helpful for differentiating high- from low-grade brain gliomas. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - February 12, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Federau, C., Meuli, R., O'Brien, K., Maeder, P., Hagmann, P. Tags: BRAIN Source Type: research
62Cu-Diacetyl-Bis (N4-Methylthiosemicarbazone) PET in Human Gliomas: Comparative Study with [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose and L-Methyl-[11C]Methionine PET [BRAIN]
CONCLUSIONS: 62Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) may be a practical radiotracer in the prediction of glioblastoma multiforme. In addition to FDG-PET, L-methyl-[11C]methionine)–PET, and MR imaging, 62Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone)-PET may provide intratumoral hypoxic information useful in establishing targeted therapeutic strategies for patients with glioblastoma multiforme. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - February 12, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Tateishi, K., Tateishi, U., Nakanowatari, S., Ohtake, M., Minamimoto, R., Suenaga, J., Murata, H., Kubota, K., Inoue, T., Kawahara, N. Tags: BRAIN Source Type: research
Permeability of the blood–tumor barrier is enhanced by combining vascular endothelial growth factor with papaverine
This study aims to determine the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), papaverine (PA), and the combination of VEGF and PA on the permeability of the blood–tumor barrier (BTB) and to determine possible molecular mechanisms contributing to the effects. In the rat C6 glioma model, the extravasation of Evans blue (EB) through the BTB was increased significantly by VEGF and PA. VEGF‐induced and PA‐induced increase of EB extravasation was further increased after combining VEGF with PA infusion. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the combination of VEGF and PA not only opened tight junctions...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - February 12, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhi‐hang Yang, Li‐bo Liu, Li‐ni Zhao, Yun‐hui Liu, Yi‐xue Xue Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Nimotuzumab in combination with radiotherapy in high grade glioma patients: A single institution experience.
This study, in a poor prognosis population, validates the previous data of survival gain after combining nimotuzumab and radiotherapy, in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients. PMID: 24521695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - February 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Teresa Solomon M, Miranda N, Jorrín E, Chong I, Marinello JJ, Alert J, Lorenzo-Luaces P, Crombet T Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research
Primate-specific miR-663 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting PIK3CD and predicts the prognosis of human glioblastoma.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-663 is a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic candidate for GBM. PMID: 24523440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Cancer Research)
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - February 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shi Y, Chen C, Zhang X, Liu Q, Xu JL, Zhang HR, Yao XH, Jiang T, He ZC, Ren Y, Cui W, Xu C, Liu L, Cui YH, Yu S, Ping YF, Bian XW Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
The demonstration of extension of high-grade glioma beyond magnetic resonance imaging defined edema by the use of 11 C-methionine positron emission tomography
We present the case of a gentleman with an inoperable HGG which was imaged with 11 C-methionine-PET ( 11 C-MET-PET)/CT as well as MRI as part of the radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) process. The differences noted between the MRI and the PET defined volumes are presented. This being a patient who was not operated, the potentially confounding issue of surgery-induced PET-avidity is absent. (Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics)
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics - February 11, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sridhar P SusheelaSwaroop RevannasiddaiahN MadhusudhanMahesh Bijjawara Source Type: research
Neurocognitive functioning in patients of high-grade gliomas
Slovacek LadislavJournal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics 2013 9(4):757-758 (Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics)
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics - February 11, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Slovacek Ladislav Source Type: research
MicroRNA‐16 inhibits glioma cell growth and invasion through suppression of BCL2 and the nuclear factor‐κB1/MMP9 signaling pathway
Recent studies have identified a class of small non‐coding RNA molecules, named microRNA (miRNA), that is dysregulated in malignant brain glioblastoma. Substantial data have indicated that miRNA‐16 (miR‐16) plays a significant role in tumors of various origins. This miRNA has been linked to various aspects of carcinogenesis, including cell apoptosis and migration. However, the molecular functions of miR‐16 in gliomagenesis are largely unknown. We have shown that the expression of miR‐16 in human brain glioma tissues was lower than in non‐cancerous brain tissues, and that the expression of miR‐16 decreased wit...
Source: Cancer Science - February 11, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tian‐Quan Yang, Xiao‐Jun Lu, Ting‐Feng Wu, Da‐Dong Ding, Zhao‐Hui Zhao, Gui‐Lin Chen, Xue‐Shun Xie, Bin Li, Yong‐Xin Wei, Ling‐Chuan Guo, Yu Zhang, Yu‐Lun Huang, You‐Xin Zhou, Zi‐Wei Du Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
PMID: 24518479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening)
Source: Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening - February 11, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Stensjøen AL, Solheim O, Berntsen EM Tags: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen Source Type: research
Polyglutamic acid-PEG nanocapsules as long circulated carriers for the delivery of docetaxel.
Abstract Recently we reported for the first time a new type of nanocapsules consisting of an oily core and a polymer shell made of a polyglutamic acid-polyethylene glycol (PEG-PGA) grafted copolymer with a 24% w/w PEG content. The goal of the work presented here has been to develop a new version of these nanocapsules, in which the shell is made of a di-block PEG-PGA copolymer with a 57% w/w PEG content and to evaluate their potential for improving the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the anticancer drug docetaxel (DCX). A comparative analysis of the biodistribution of fluorescently labeled PGA-PEG nanocapsul...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - February 11, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lollo G, Rivera-Rodriguez GR, Bejaud J, Tristan M, Passirani C, Benoit JP, García-Fuentes M, Alonso MJ, Torres D Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research
Tim-3 on Peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Is Involved in the Development of Glioma
DNA and Cell Biology , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: DNA and Cell Biology)
Source: DNA and Cell Biology - February 10, 2014 Category: Cytology Tags: article Source Type: research