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Tunneling nanotubes between rat primary astrocytes and C6 glioma cells alter proliferation potential of glioma cells
In this study, we established a co-culture system for rat primary astrocytes and C6 glioma cells and found that TNTs formed between them. Most of the TNTs initiated from astrocytes towards C6 glioma cells. The formation of TNTs depended on p53. In addition, hydrogen peroxide increased the number of TNTs in the co-culture system. Established TNTs reduced the proliferation of C6 glioma cells. Our data suggest that TNTs between astrocytes and glioma cells facilitate substance transfer and therefore alter the properties, including the proliferation potential, of glioma cells. (Source: Neuroscience Bulletin)
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - April 26, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

What is New in the Management of Epilepsy in Gliomas?
Opinion statement Seizures represent a common symptom in low- and high-grade gliomas. Tumor location and histology influence the risk for epilepsy. Some molecular factors (BRAF V 600E mutations in glioneuronal tumors and IDH1/2 mutations in diffuse grade II and III gliomas) are molecular factors that are relevant for diagnosis and prognosis and have been associated with the risk of epilepsy as well. Glutamate plays a central role in epileptogenicity and growth of glial and glioneuronal tumors, based on the release of glutamate from tumor cells that enhances excitotoxicity, and a downregulation of the inhibitory G...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Neurology - April 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Consider tumour type, as well as patient age and performance status, when selecting medical treatments for malignant glioma
Abstract Surgery and radiotherapy are the initial treatment options for all types of malignant gliomas. Pharmacological therapies include antineoplastic and antiangiogenic agents and supportive care, with the choice of medical treatment being dependent on the tumour type, patient age and status, and whether the condition is newly diagnosed or recurrent. Molecular markers may be predictive of prognosis and influence treatment selection in some cases. (Source: Drugs and Therapy Perspectives)
Source: Drugs and Therapy Perspectives - April 25, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Further confirmation of germline glioma risk variant rs78378222 in TP53 and its implication in tumor tissues via integrative analysis of TCGA data
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Human Mutation)
Source: Human Mutation - April 24, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhaoming Wang, Preetha Rajaraman, Beatrice S. Melin, Charles C. Chung, Weijia Zhang, Roberta McKean‐Cowdin, Dominique Michaud, Meredith Yeager, Anders Ahlbom, Demetrius Albanes, Ulrika Andersson, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Julie E. Buring, MaryAnn Butler, Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Mangiferin regulates proliferation and apoptosis in glioma cells by induction of microRNA-15b and inhibition of MMP-9 expression.
Authors: Xiao J, Liu L, Zhong Z, Xiao C, Zhang J Abstract Mangiferin, a flavonoid extracted from the leaves of the Anacardiaceae plant, the mango tree, has physiological activity and pharmacological effects in many aspects. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of mangiferin on proliferation and apoptosis of glioma cells and the mechanism of these curative effects of mangiferin. In this experiment, we detected the proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Then, cell apoptosis of U87 glioma cells was measured with the Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (P...
Source: Oncology Reports - April 24, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research

Inhibition of mutant IDH1 decreases D-2-HG levels without affecting tumorigenic properties of chondrosarcoma cell lines.
Authors: Suijker J, Oosting J, Koornneef A, Struys EA, Salomons GS, Schaap FG, Waaijer CJ, Wijers-Koster PM, Briaire-de Bruijn IH, Haazen L, Riester SM, Dudakovic A, Danen E, Cleton-Jansen AM, van Wijnen AJ, Bovée JV Abstract Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are found in a subset of benign and malignant cartilage tumors, gliomas and leukaemias. The mutant enzyme causes the production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), affecting CpG island and histone methylation. While mutations in IDH1/2 are early events in benign cartilage tumors, we evaluated whether these mutations play a role in malignan...
Source: Oncotarget - April 24, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Association Between PARP1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Brain Tumors
Abstract To systematically evaluate the association between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) rs1136410 T>C and brain tumor risk, a meta-analysis has been carried out. We performed a meta-analysis of 2004 brain tumor patients and 2944 controls by use of STATA version 12.0 to determine whether the risk of brain tumors was associated with the genotypes or alleles of rs1136410 T>C. We found a significantly decreased risk (ranging from 0.18- to 0.16-fold) in the dominant model (OR = 0.84, 95 % CI = 0.75–0.95), the C vs. T model (OR = 0.82, 95 % CI = 0.74–0.91), and the CT vs. TT model (...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - April 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Single-component self-assembled RNAi nanoparticles functionalized with tumor-targeting iNGR delivering abundant siRNA for efficient glioma therapy.
In this study, a novel glioma-targeting RNAi system was developed. Single-component RNAi nanospheres were tactfully self-assembled in vitro, combining the carrier and cargo as a whole. An artificially synthesized polycation (pOEI) with redox-sensitive disulfides in structure condensed the RNAi nanospheres into more compacted nanoparticles. Then a novelly designed tumor-homing and penetrating cyclopeptide iNGR was further modified on the surface. iNGR modified RNAi nanoparticles demonstrated significantly enhanced accumulation in glioma site, remaining stable in circulation until the release of naked RNAi nanospheres were ...
Source: Biomaterials - April 24, 2015 Category: Materials Science Authors: An S, Jiang X, Shi J, He X, Li J, Guo Y, Zhang Y, Ma H, Lu Y, Jiang C Tags: Biomaterials Source Type: research

Immunobiology and immunotherapeutic targeting of glioma stem cells.
Authors: Madany M, Thomas TM, Edwards L, Yu JS Abstract For decades human brain tumors have confounded our efforts to effectively manage and treat patients. In adults, glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant brain tumor with a patient survival of just over 14 months. In children, brain tumors are the leading cause of solid tumor cancer death and gliomas account for one-fifth of all childhood cancers. Despite advances in conventional treatments such as surgical resection, radiotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy, the incidence and mortality rates for gliomas have essentially stayed the same. Furthermore,...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 24, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Chemoresistance and chemotherapy targeting stem-like cells in malignant glioma.
Authors: Sørensen MD, Fosmark S, Hellwege S, Beier D, Kristensen BW, Beier CP Abstract Glioblastoma remains a tumor with a dismal prognosis because of failure of current treatment. Glioblastoma cells with stem cell (GSC) properties survive chemotherapy and give rise to tumor recurrences that invariably result in the death of the patients. Here we summarize the current knowledge on chemoresistance of malignant glioma with a strong focus on GSC. Chemoresistant GSC are the most likely cause of tumor recurrence, but it remains controversial if GSC and under which conditions GSC are more chemoresistant than non-GSC wit...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 24, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Radiation therapy for glioma stem cells.
Authors: Rizzo AE, Yu JS Abstract Radiation therapy is the most effective adjuvant treatment modality for virtually all patients with high-grade glioma. Its ability to improve patient survival has been recognized for decades. Cancer stem cells provide new insights into how tumor biology is affected by radiation and the role that this cell population can play in disease recurrence. Glioma stem cells possess a variety of intracellular mechanisms to resist and even flourish in spite of radiation, and their proliferation and maintenance appear tied to supportive stimuli from the tumor microenvironment. This chapter rev...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 24, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The role of stem cells in pediatric central nervous system malignancies.
Authors: Manoranjan B, Garg N, Bakhshinyan D, Singh SK Abstract Representing the leading cause of childhood cancer mortality, pediatric brain tumors are comprised of diverse histological features, genetic perturbations, cellular populations, treatment protocols, and clinical outcomes. In this chapter we discuss recent and emerging data that implicate cancer stem cells (also known as brain tumor-initiating cells) in initiating and maintaining the growth of a number of pediatric brain tumors including: medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, ependymoma, low-g...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 24, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The SVZ and Its Relationship to Stem Cell Based Neuro-oncogenesis.
Authors: Kusne Y, Sanai N Abstract Gliomas are primary cancers of the brain and the most lethal cancers known to man. In recent years the discovery of germinal regions in the postnatal brain containing neuronal stem and progenitor cell populations has led to the hypothesis that these cells may themselves serve as an origin of brain tumors. Stem cells that reside within the glioma tumor have been shown to display nonneoplastic stem-like characteristics, including expression of various stem cell markers, as well as capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Furthermore, glioma tumors display marked similarities to t...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 24, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Fascin-1 knock-down of human glioma cells reduces their microvilli/filopodia while improving their susceptibility to lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity.
Authors: Hoa NT, Ge L, Erickson KL, Kruse CA, Cornforth AN, Kuznetsov Y, McPherson A, Martini F, Jadus MR Abstract Cancer cells derived from Glioblastoma multiforme possess membranous protrusions allowing these cells to infiltrate surrounding tissue, while resisting lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Microvilli and filopodia are supported by actin filaments cross-linked by fascin. Fascin-1 was genetically silenced within human U251 glioma cells; these knock-down glioma cells lost their microvilli/filopodia. The doubling time of these fascin-1 knock-down cells was doubled that of shRNA control U251 cells. Fascin-1 knock-down ...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - April 24, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research

Ketoprofen-loaded pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsion stabilized by pullulan: selective antiglioma formulation for intravenous administration
This study aimed to prepare pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsions containing ketoprofen using pullulan as a polymeric stabilizer, and to evaluate antitumor activity against in vitro glioma cells. Formulations were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method and different concentrations of pullulan were tested. Nanoemulsions presented adequate droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, pH, ketoprofen content and encapsulation efficiency. Nanoemulsions were able to delay the photodegradation profile of ketoprofen under UVC radiation, regardless of the concentration of pullulan. In vitro release study indicates th...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - April 24, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Biphasic IDH1 phenotype in a diffusely infiltrating glioma: implications for pathogenesis, treatment and prognosis.
We present an infiltrating glioma with mixed oligoastroglial morphology and biphasic molecular phenotype. Areas resembling oligodendroglioma by histology expressed mutant IDH1-R132H, and strong ATRX, Olig2, and PDGFR-α by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, astrocytic areas completely lacked the IDH1-R132H mutation, showed loss of nuclear ATRX expression, and only weakly expressed Olig2 and PDGFR-α. Co-deletion of 1p/19q was evident throughout, while p53 expression was largely negative. This case suggests that 1p/19q co-deletion may rarely precede IDH1 mutations or that IDH1 mutations may be secondarily lost, as demonstra...
Source: Clinical Neuropathology - April 24, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Odia Y, Varma H, Tsankova NM Tags: Clin Neuropathol Source Type: research

Awake craniotomy to maximize glioma resection: methods and technical nuances over a 27-year period.
CONCLUSIONS Based on the current best practice described here and developed from multiple regimens used over a 27-year period, it is concluded that awake brain tumor surgery can be safely performed with extremely low complication and failure rates regardless of ASA classification; body mass index; smoking status; psychiatric or emotional history; seizure frequency and duration; and tumor site, size, and pathology. PMID: 25909573 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - April 24, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Hervey-Jumper SL, Li J, Lau D, Molinaro AM, Perry DW, Meng L, Berger MS Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

A Pilot Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Treatments in Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas: The Example of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Compared With White-Light Surgery
CONCLUSION: 5-ALA fluorescence-guided surgery appears to be cost-effective in newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas compared with white-light surgery. This example demonstrates cost-effectiveness analyses for malignant glioma surgery to be feasible on the basis of existing data. ABBREVIATIONS: 5-ALA, 5-aminolevulinic acid ICER, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio LY, life-year PFLY, progression-free life-year QALY, quality-adjusted life-year (Source: Neurosurgery)
Source: Neurosurgery - April 23, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Research-Human-Clinical Studies Source Type: research

Thoughts Can Fuel Some Deadly Brain Cancers
A doctor-scientist's long quest to help children with a rare form of brain cancer has led to the discovery that high levels of brain activity can make glioma tumors grow faster.» E-Mail This (Source: NPR Health and Science)
Source: NPR Health and Science - April 23, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Jon Hamilton Source Type: news

Brain tumor growth stimulated by nerve activity in the cortex, Stanford study finds
(Stanford University Medical Center) Deadly brain tumors called high-grade gliomas grow with the help of nerve activity in the cerebral cortex, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - April 23, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults
It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto‐histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercel...
Source: Diagnostic Cytopathology - April 23, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: José A. Jiménez‐Heffernan, Carmen Bárcena, Carolina Agra, Alfonso Asunción Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Pituitary tumor transforming gene: a novel therapeutic target for glioma treatment.
Abstract Glioma which has strong proliferation and angiogenesis ability is the most common and malignant primary tumor in central nervous system. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is found in pituitary tumor, and plays important role in cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis, and angiogenesis. However, the role of PTTG in glioma is still incompletely investigated. Here, we explored the correlation between PTTG and glioma grade, as well as micro-vessel density (MVD). In addition, siRNA was used to silence PTTG expression in glioma cell lines including U87MG, U251, and SHG44. Cell proliferation, apopto...
Source: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica - April 23, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cui L, Xu S, Song Z, Zhao G, Liu X, Song Y Tags: Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) Source Type: research

Effects of Iron Ions and Iron Chelation on the Efficiency of Experimental Radiotherapy of Animals with Gliomas
We evaluated the effect of iron ion chelation on the growth of gliomas and radiotherapy efficiency in tumor-bearing animals. The rats with transplanted glioma-35 received iron-containing water; desferroxamine was injected for metal chelation. Long-term treatment with iron-containing water promoted glioma growth in rats and improved the efficiency of radiotherapy due to combination of apoptosis and ferroptosis. Desferroxamine reduced the efficiency of this treatment and was inessential for the efficiency of radiotherapy alone. (Source: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine)
Source: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine - April 22, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sevoflurane promotes the expansion of glioma stem cells through activation of hypoxia-inducible factors in vitro
Conclusions Sevoflurane can promote the expansion of human GSCs through HIFs in vitro. Inhaled anaesthetics may enhance tumour growth through tumour stem cells. (Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia - April 22, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Shi, Q. Y., Zhang, S. J., Liu, L., Chen, Q. S., Yu, L. N., Zhang, F. J., Yan, M. Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Cannabidiol stimulates Aml‐1a‐dependent glial differentiation and inhibits glioma stem‐like cells proliferation by inducing autophagy in a TRPV2‐dependent manner
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: International Journal of Cancer)
Source: International Journal of Cancer - April 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Massimo Nabissi, Maria Beatrice Morelli, Consuelo Amantini, Sonia Liberati, Matteo Santoni, Lucia Ricci‐Vitiani, Roberto Pallini, Giorgio Santoni Tags: Cancer Cell Biology Source Type: research

Genetic Modulation of Neurocognitive Function in Glioma Patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in inflammation, DNA repair, and metabolism pathways are associated with neurocognitive function in glioma patients and may affect clinical outcomes. PMID: 25904748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Cancer Research)
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - April 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liu Y, Zhou R, Sulman EP, Scheurer ME, Boehling N, Armstrong G, Tsavachidis S, Liang FW, Etzel CJ, Conrad CA, Gilbert MR, Armstrong TS, Bondy ML, Wefel J Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research

Complete Response and Long-Term Survival (>20 Years) of a Child with Tectal Glioma: A Case Report
This report discusses a case of a 13-year-old male diagnosed with tectal glioma who obtained a complete response and long-term survival after the treatment with antineoplastons (ANP) in phase II trial. Prior treatment consisted of placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After 6 years of stabilization there had been an increase in tumor size with signs of malignant transformation. The patient received treatment with ANP A10 and AS2-1 infusions for 20 months, obtained a complete response, and was switched to maintenance with ANP capsules. All treatments were discontinued in December 2003. Adverse events according to CTCAE...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - April 21, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The Clinical Implications of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Expression in Grade and Prognosis of Gliomas: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that hTERT is significantly associated with high glioma grade and poor 5-year overall survival, and pathological test of hTERT mRNA and protein in glioma tissues should be suggested as criteria of glioma grade in the clinical practice. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - April 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multiethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI [Original Articles]
Conclusions— We identified 4 novel genetic loci that implicate inflammatory and glial proliferative pathways in the development of WMH in addition to previously proposed ischemic mechanisms. (Source: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics)
Source: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics - April 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Verhaaren, B. F. J., Debette, S., Bis, J. C., Smith, J. A., Ikram, M. K., Adams, H. H., Beecham, A. H., Rajan, K. B., Lopez, L. M., Barral, S., van Buchem, M. A., van der Grond, J., Smith, A. V., Hegenscheid, K., Aggarwal, N. T., de Andrade, M., Atkinson, Tags: Cerebrovascular disease/stroke, Genetics of Stroke, Risk Factors for Stroke, Epidemiology, Genetics of cardiovascular disease Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantification of nonenhancing tumor burden in gliomas using effective T2 maps derived from dual-echo turbo spin-echo MRI.
CONCLUSIONS: T2 maps using dual echo data are feasible, stable, and can be used to objec-tively define NET burden for use in brain tumor characterization, prognosis, and response assessment. The use of effective T2 maps for defining NET burden should be validated in a randomized clinical trial. PMID: 25901082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Cancer Research)
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - April 21, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ellingson BM, Lai A, Nguyen HN, Nghiemphu PL, Pope WB, Cloughesy TF Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research

Title: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) may play a role in malignant glioma infiltration
Infiltration is the main cause of death of malignant glioma patients. However, the mechanisms of the infiltration in the development of brain cancer (glioblastoma multiforme) are not completely understood. Here, we hypothesized that, in the development of human brain cancer, infiltration is primarily due to differentiated cancer cells and that the cell surface molecule programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) may play an important role in brain tumor infiltration. PD-L1 is highly expressed in differentiated glioma cells in comparison to undifferentiated cell brain cancer stem-like cells. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - April 20, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lei Zhang, Zhiqing Zhang, Yunhui Liu, Yixue Xue, Ian Parney Source Type: research

Intermittent Induction of HIF-1α Produces Lasting Effects on Malignant Progression Independent of Its Continued Expression
by Hyunsung Choi, David L. Gillespie, Shauna Berg, Christopher Rice, Sandrine Couldwell, Jie Gu, Howard Colman, Randy L. Jensen, L. Eric Huang Dysregulation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α correlates with poor prognosis in human cancers; yet, divergent and sometimes opposing activities of these factors in cancer biology have been observed. Adding to this complexity is that HIF-1α apparently possesses tumor-suppressing activities, as indicated by the loss-of-function mutations or even homozygous deletion of HIF1A in certain human cancers. As a step towards understanding this complexity, we e...
Source: PLoS One - April 20, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hyunsung Choi et al. Source Type: research

Conditions for (13)C NMR Detection of 2-Hydroxyglutarate in Tissue Extracts from IDH-Mutated Gliomas.
Abstract (13)C NMR spectroscopy of extracts from patient tumor samples provides rich information about metabolism. However, in IDH-mutant gliomas (13)C labeling is obscured in glutamate and glutamine by the oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutaric acid (2HG), prompting development of a simple method to resolve the metabolites. J-coupled multiplets in 2HG were similar to glutamate and glutamine and could be clearly resolved at pH 6. A cryogenically-cooled (13)C probe but not J-resolved heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy significantly improved detection of 2HG. These methods enable the monitoring of (13)C-(...
Source: Analytical Biochemistry - April 20, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pichumani K, Mashimo T, Baek HM, Ratnakar J, Mickey B, DeBerardinis RJ, Maher EA, Bachoo RM, Malloy CR, Kovacs Z Tags: Anal Biochem Source Type: research

Microenvironment involved in FPR1 expression by human glioblastomas
Abstract Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) activity in U87 glioblastoma (GBM) cells contributes to tumor cell motility. The present study aimed to evaluate the FPR1 expression in human GBM, the possibility to elicit agonist induced FPR1 activation of GBM cells and inhibit this activation with chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus (CHIPS). Immunohistochemistry was used to assess FPR1 expression in GBM patient samples, which was present in all 178 samples. Also FPR1 mRNA levels measured with quantitative PCR, could be detected in all 25 GBM patient samples tested. Activation of FPR1 in U87 cells, as ...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - April 19, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Adult Brainstem Gliomas: Correlation of Clinical and Molecular Features
Brainstem gliomas are rare in adults and overall have superior survival outcomes compared to pediatric brainstem gliomas. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - April 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Brett J. Theeler, Benjamin Ellezam, Isaac Melguizo-Gavilanes, John F. de Groot, Anita Mahajan, Kenneth D. Aldape, Janet M. Bruner, Vinay K. Puduvalli Source Type: research

A meta-analysis: Do prophylactic antiepileptic drugs in patients with brain tumors decrease the incidence of seizures?
Seizures are a potentially devastating complication of resection of brain tumors, often worsening existing neurological defiits, producing new defiits, and prolonging the length of hospitalization after brain tumor surgery [1]. For some people, a seizure might be the first clue that something unusual is happening in the brain. Seizures are particularly common with slow-growing gliomas, meningiomas located in the convexity of the brain, and with metastatic brain tumors. The incidence of seizures is higher with primary tumors than with metastatic lesions, and among patients with primary tumors, seizures are less common with ...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - April 18, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Xiangyi Kong, Jian Guan, Yi Yang, Yongning Li, Wenbin Ma, Renzhi Wang Source Type: research

Aberrant alternative splicing pattern of ADAR2 downregulates adenosine-to-inosine editing in glioma.
In this study, we explored the deregulation of A-to-I RNA editing in glioma. We confirmed the underediting at the Q/R site of GluR-B mRNA in the glioma cell lines U87, U251 and A172 compared with that in normal human astrocytes (NHAs) HA1800. However, we demonstrated with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) that the expression of ADAR2 mRNA was not significantly altered in the glioma cell lines. Three alternative splicing sites are utilized in the glioma cell lines and NHAs: the first, located between exons -1 and 1, causes the inclusion of exon 1a; the second causes the removal of exon 2, ...
Source: Oncology Reports - April 17, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research

Silencing of the TPM1 gene induces radioresistance of glioma U251 cells.
Authors: Du HQ, Wang Y, Jiang Y, Wang CH, Zhou T, Liu HY, Xiao H Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) and radioresistance in human U251 cells. Radioresistant U251 (RR-U251) cells were established by repeated small irradiating injury. TPM1 levels in the U251 and RR-U251 cells were inhibited by transfection with TPM1-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) while overexpression was induced by treatment with pcDNA3.1‑TPM1. The radiosensitivity of the U251 and RR-U251 cells and the plasmid-transfected cells was evaluated by cell viability, migration and invasion assay...
Source: Oncology Reports - April 17, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research

Targeted therapy of glioblastoma stem-like cells and tumor non-stem cells using cetuximab-conjugated iron-oxide nanoparticles.
Authors: Kaluzova M, Bouras A, Machaidze R, Hadjipanayis CG Abstract Malignant gliomas remain aggressive and lethal primary brain tumors in adults. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in the most common malignant glioma, glioblastoma (GBM), and represents an important therapeutic target. GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) present in tumors are felt to be highly tumorigenic and responsible for tumor recurrence. Multifunctional magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) can be directly imaged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and designed to therapeutically target cancer cells. The target...
Source: Oncotarget - April 17, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Silencing of R-Spondin1 increases radiosensitivity of glioma cells.
Authors: Gu X, Wang X, Xiao H, Ma G, Cui L, Li Y, Zhou H, Liang W, Zhao B, Li K Abstract Although radiation therapy is the most effective postoperative adjuvant treatment, it does not substantially improve the long-term outcomes of glioma patients because of the characteristic radioresistance of glioma. We found that R-Spondin1 (Rspo1) expression was elevated in high-grade gliomas and was associated with worse overall survival and disease-free survival. Rspo1 expression was also associated with reduced survival rates in glioma patients after treatment with radiotherapy and temozolomide (RT-TMZ). Importantly, Rspo1 ...
Source: Oncotarget - April 17, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Simulation Predicts IGFBP2-HIF1α Interaction Drives Glioblastoma Growth
In this study we connect for the first time microscale insulin signaling activity with macroscale glioblastoma growth through the use of computational modeling. Results of the model suggest a novel observation: feedback from IGFBP2 to HIF1α is integral to the sustained growth of glioblastoma. Our study suggests that downstream signaling from IGFI to HIF1α, which has been the target of many insulin signaling drugs in clinical trials, plays a smaller role in overall tumor growth. These predictions strongly suggest redirecting the focus of glioma drug candidates on controlling the feedback between IGFBP2 and HIF1α. (Source...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - April 17, 2015 Category: Biology Authors: Ka Wai Lin et al. Source Type: research

Inferior peduncle lesion presenting with bilaterally impaired vestibular responses to horizontal and posterior head impulses
Differentiating central from peripheral origins of vestibulo‐ocular reflex (VOR) lesions can be challenging. A 36‐year old man presented with a 1‐year history of progressive unsteadiness. The video‐Head Impulse Test revealed a significantly reduced VOR gain in both horizontal and posterior canals (0.49 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.06) but normal VOR responses in both anterior canals (0.89 ± 0.08 and 1.04 ± 0.15). No plausible combination of end‐organ lesion should be responsible for these observations. A brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a left inferior cerebellar peduncle lesion suggestive of...
Source: The Laryngoscope - April 17, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Francisco Zuma e Maia, Leonel Luis Tags: Otology/Neurotology Source Type: research

Demethoxycurcumin was prior to temozolomide on inhibiting proliferation and induced apoptosis of glioblastoma stem cells
Abstract Temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used for treating glioblastoma (GBM), which can effectively inhibit the GBM growth for some months; however, it still could not prevent the invariable recurrence of GBM. The existence of glioma stem cells (GSCs) was considered to be a key factor. But TMZ has poor effects on GSCs. Recently, demethoxycurcumin (DMC) has been shown to display anti-tumor activities in malignant gliomas. However, its effects and the potential mechanisms on GSCs were still unclear. Our study showed that DMC was prior to TMZ on resulting in a significant increase in GSC apoptosis and a marked inhibiti...
Source: Tumor Biology - April 16, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Glutathione depletion sensitizes cisplatin- and temozolomide-resistant glioma cells in vitro and in vivo
;rio & C F M Menck (Source: Cell death and disease)
Source: Cell death and disease - April 16, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: C R R RochaC C M GarciaD B VieiraA QuinetL C de Andrade-LimaV MunfordJ E BelizárioC F M Menck Source Type: research

The DNA damage/repair cascade in glioblastoma cell lines after chemotherapeutic agent treatment.
This study investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of three chemotherapeutics, temozolomide (TMZ), doxorubicin (Dox) and paclitaxel (PTX) on glioma cell lines, by analyzing the molecular mechanisms leading to DNA repair and cell resistance, or to cell death. The drugs were tested on 16 GBM cell lines, grown as neurospheres (NS) or adherent cells (AC), by studying DNA damage occurrence by Comet assay, the expression by immunofluorescence and western blotting of checkpoint/repair molecules and apoptosis. The three drugs were able to provoke a genotoxic injury and to inhibit dose- and time-dependently cell proliferation, mor...
Source: International Journal of Oncology - April 16, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Annovazzi L, Caldera V, Mellai M, Riganti C, Battaglia L, Chirio D, Melcarne A, Schiffer D Tags: Int J Oncol Source Type: research

CDKN2A Loss Is Associated With Shortened Overall Survival in Lower-Grade (World Health Organization Grades II–III) Astrocytomas
Abstract: Lower-grade (World Health Organization Grades II and III) gliomas vary widely in clinical behavior and are classified as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or mixed. Anaplasia depends greatly on mitotic activity, with CDKN2A loss considered as the most common mechanism for cell cycle dysregulation. We investigated whether loss of the CDKN2A gene is associated with overall survival across pathologically and genetically defined glioma subtypes. After adjustment for IDH mutation, sex, and age, CDKN2A deletion was strongly associated with poorer overall survival in astrocytomas but not in oligodendrogliomas or oligoastroc...
Source: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Increase in Both CD14-Positive and CD15-Positive Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Subpopulations in the Blood of Patients With Glioma But Predominance of CD15-Positive Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Glioma Tissue
Abstract: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), defined as CD33-positive major histocompatibility complex class II–negative cells, are increased in a variety of human tumors and are associated with immunosuppression. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells can be further subdivided into CD14-positive monocytic MDSC and CD15-positive granulocytic MDSC (polymorphonuclear MDSC) subpopulations. Here we analyzed MDSC subsets in the blood and tumor tissue of patients with glioma, including the most malignant variant, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). CD33-positive major histocompatibility complex class II–negative MDSCs in blood f...
Source: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Image Guided Drug Release From pH-sensitive Ion Channel-functionalized Stealth Liposomes into an in vivo Glioblastoma Model
We report on functionalizing stealth-liposomes with an engineered ion channel and using these liposomes in vivo for releasing an imaging agent into a cerebral glioma rodent model. If the ambient pH drops below a threshold value, the channel generates temporary pores on the liposomes, thus allowing leakage of the intraluminal medicines. By using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, we show that these engineered liposomes can detect the mildly acidic pH of the tumor microenvironment with 0.2 pH unit precision and they release their content into C6 glioma tumors selectively, in vivo. A drug delivery system with this l...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - April 15, 2015 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

In Vivo Measurement of Brain Tumor Elasticity Using Intraoperative Shear Wave Elastography.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that there are significant differences in elasticity among the most common types of brain tumors. With intraoperative SWE, neurosurgeons may have innovative information to predict diagnosis and guide their resection. PMID: 25876221 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ultraschall in der Medizin)
Source: Ultraschall in der Medizin - April 15, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Chauvet D, Imbault M, Capelle L, Demene C, Mossad M, Karachi C, Boch AL, Gennisson JL, Tanter M Tags: Ultraschall Med Source Type: research

Unique microenvironmental responses to PDGF stimulation in brain and spinal cord gliomas determine tumor phenotype
Abstract Injection of a PDGF-B expressing retrovirus into the subcortical white matter of adult rats induces the rapid formation of brain tumors that have the histological features of glioblastoma. In contrast, when the same retrovirus is injected into the spinal cord of adult rats the resulting tumors are more indolent and display a unique histology characterized by nests of tumor cells separated by a dense vascular network without areas of necrosis. To study whether these differences are determined by the tumor cell of origin or due to microenvironmental influences, we conducted a series of transplantation exper...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - April 14, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research