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How Stemlike Are Sphere Cultures From Long-term Cancer Cell Lines? Lessons From Mouse Glioma Models
AbstractCancer stem cells may mediate therapy resistance and recurrence in various types of cancer, including glioblastoma. Cancer stemlike cells can be isolated from long-term cancer cell lines, including glioma lines. Using sphere formation as a model for cancer cell stemness in vitro, we derived sphere cultures from SMA-497, SMA-540, SMA-560, and GL-261 glioma cells. Gene expression and proteomics profiling demonstrated that sphere cultures uniformly showed an elevated expression of stemness-associated genes, notably including CD44. Differences in neural lineage marker expression between nonsphere and sphere cultures we...
Source: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology - October 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Reoperation for Recurrent High-Grade Glioma: A Current Perspective of the Literature
Optimal treatment for recurrent high-grade glioma continues to evolve. Currently, however, there is no consensus in the literature on the role of reoperation in the management of these patients. In this analysis, we reviewed the literature to examine the role of reoperation in patients with World Health Organization grade III or IV recurrent gliomas, focusing on how reoperation affects outcome, perioperative complications, and quality of life. An extensive literature review was performed through the use of the PubMed and Ovid Medline databases for January 1980 through August 2013. A total 31 studies were included in the fi...
Source: Neurosurgery - October 23, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Review Source Type: research

End of life care in high-grade glioma patients in three European countries: a comparative study
This study aimed to (1) compare EOL care processes for high-grade glioma (HGG) patients in three European countries, (2) explore differences in perceived quality of care (QOC), and (3) identify aspects of good QOC in the EOL phase. We analyzed 207 questionnaires from relatives of deceased HGG patients, using a similar retrospective study design in three countries [The Netherlands (n = 83), Austria (n = 72) and the UK (n = 52)], and examined four subthemes: (1) organization of EOL care, (2) treatment preferences, (3) experiences with EOL care, (4) perceived QOC. Three months before death 75 % of patients were at home...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Antiepileptic drug prophylaxis in primary brain tumor patients: is current practice in agreement to the consensus?
Abstract The role of antiepileptic drugs (AED) prophylaxis in primary brain tumor (PBT) seizure-naïve patients remains unclear. Additionally, AED are associated with severe side effects, negative impact on cognition and drug interactions. Little is known about current practice regarding prophylactic AED use in PBT. We investigated its use in a tertiary care cancer center. We reviewed medical records of 260 patients registered in our center between 2008 and 2012, focusing on prophylactic AED use. A descriptive analysis was performed with SPSS IBM version 20.0. Median age was 44.5 years (11–83). Most patients h...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Venous thromboembolism in high grade glioma among surgical patients: results from a single center over a 10 year period
Abstract Patients with high-grade glioma are at elevated risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The relationship between VTE and survival in glioma patients remains unclear, as does the optimal protocol for chemoprophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to assessthe incidence of and risk factors associated with VTE in patients with high-grade glioma, and the correlation between VTE and survival in this population. Furthermore, we sought to define a protocol for perioperative DVT prophylaxis. This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent craniotomy for resection of high-grade glioma (WHO grade III ...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Diagnostic challenges, management and outcomes of midline low-grade gliomas
Conclusions Diagnosis of midline LGGs is complicated by both limitations of biopsy and imaging. Midline tumours have a poorer prognosis compared to lobar equivalents and survival differences are probably due to the absence of significant surgical intervention in midline locations. (Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mechanisms involved in kinin-induced glioma cells proliferation: the role of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways
This study investigated the role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R) on cell proliferation in human glioblastoma cell lineages. The mRNA expression of B1R and B2R was verified by RT-qPCR, whereas the effects of kinin agonists (des-Arg9-BK and BK) were analyzed by cell counting, MTT assay and annexin-V/PI determination. The PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling activation was assessed by flow cytometry. Our results demonstrated that both human glioblastoma cell lines U-138MG and U-251MG express functional B1R and B2R. The proliferative effects induced by the incubation of des-Arg9-BK and BK are likely related to the activati...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Olig2 labeling index is correlated with histological and molecular classifications in low-grade diffuse gliomas
In conclusion, Olig2 LI cannot be taken as a complete surrogate marker for molecular genotype, but could possibly provide some ancillary information when molecular assay is not availabe. (Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

TERT promoter mutations and BRAF mutations are rare in sporadic, and TERT promoter mutations are absent in NF1-related malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors
Abstract Hot spot mutations in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT promoter mutations) occur frequently in tumors of neuroectodermal origin such as melanoma and glioma. Many of these tumors are of neuroectodermal or ectomesenchymal origin which is suggestive of TERT promoter mutations playing a role in the development of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). In melanoma a correlation has been suggested between the occurrence of TERT promoter mutations and v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutations. We investigated TERT promoter and BRAF mutation frequenc...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Vismodegib: A Review
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition), Volume 105, Issue 8 Author(s): V. Ruiz-Salas , M. Alegre , A. López-Ferrer , J.R. Garcés In January 2012, vismodegib (Erivedge, manufactured by Genentech) became the first selective inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma. The drug selectively binds to Smoothened, a 7-helix transmembrane receptor, thereby inhibiting activation of transcription factors of the glioma-associated oncogene family and suppressi...
Source: Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas - October 23, 2014 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Prospective therapies for high-grade glial tumours: A literature review
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Annals of Medicine and Surgery, Volume 3, Issue 3 Author(s): Sayed Samed Talibi , Sayed Samie Talibi , Bashaar Aweid , Osama Aweid After three decades of intensive research, cytoreductive surgery remains the gold standard of treatment of malignant gliomas. Survivorship at both 1-year and 5-years has not drastically changed in the UK. Concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy has enhanced the efficiency of surgery, enabling more aggressive tumour resection whilst also preserving the surrounding healthy brain parenchyma. More accurate imaging techniques have also played a role in tumour id...
Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery - October 23, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Successive distinct high-grade gliomas in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
Abstract Patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are at risk for developing cerebral neoplasms, particularly gliomas, as one of the optical isomers of the known oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate is produced in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. To illustrate the concept of sustained oncogenic potential in permanent exposure to L-2-hydroxyglutarate in brain tissue, we present the medical history of a patient with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria who underwent surgery to remove a right temporal anaplastic astrocytoma and developed an anatomically distinct, but histopathologically similar, tumor in the left frontal region...
Source: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease - October 23, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Erratum to "LRIG1 Enhances Chemosensitivity by Modulating BCL-2 Expression and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Glioma Cells" by Guo Z, et al. (Yonsei Med J 2014;55:1196-205.).
Authors: Abstract We would like to add the grant. PMID: 25323917 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Yonsei Medical Journal)
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - October 22, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research

The tumor suppressor prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is regulated by mutant IDH1 and kills glioma stem cells
Abstract Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is an endogenous tumor suppressor that selectively induces apoptosis in a variety of cancers. Although it has been the subject of intensive research in other cancers, less is known about its significance in gliomas, including whether it is regulated by key driver mutations, has therapeutic potential against glioma stem cells (GSCs), and/or is a prognostic marker. We found that patient-derived gliomas with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 have markedly lower Par-4 expression (P < 0.0001), which was validated by The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset (P = 2.0 E-13). T...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - October 21, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Agios begins Phase I/II trial of AG-221 to treat advanced solid tumours
Agios Pharmaceuticals has started a Phase I/II multicentre trial of AG-221 in patients with advanced solid tumours, including gliomas, as well as angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) that carry an isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2) mutation. (Source: Drug Development Technology)
Source: Drug Development Technology - October 21, 2014 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Inadvertent High-dose Therapy With Temozolomide in a Child With Recurrent Pontine Glioma Followed by a Rapid Clinical Response But Deteriorated After Substitution With Low-dose Therapy
We present a case of inadvertent high-dose therapy with temozolomide in a child with recurrent diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma followed by a rapid clinical response. The patient was a 7-year-old boy who initially presented with a history of left facial palsy, double vision, headache, and ataxia. His symptoms were completely resolved following radiotherapy but recurred 3 months after. Following recurrence, he received temozolomide in a dose >3 times higher than prescribed inadvertently but tolerated well with a rapid clinical response. He eventually deteriorated after he was substituted with a lower dose of temozolomide an...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - October 21, 2014 Category: Hematology Tags: Online Articles: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research

Resection of supratentorial gliomas: the need to merge microsurgical technical cornerstones with modern functional mapping concepts. An overview
Abstract Although surgery is not curative for the majority of intracranial gliomas, radical resection has been demonstrated to influence survival and delay tumor progression. Because gliomas are very frequently located in eloquent or more generally critical areas, surgeons must always balance the maximizing resection with the need to preserve neurological function. In this overview, we tried to summarize the recent literature and our personal experience about (1) the benefits and limits of using preoperative anatomical and functional neuroimaging (anatomical MRI, DTI fiber tracking, and functional MRI), (2) the is...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - October 21, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Menopausal hormone therapy and central nervous system tumor risk: Large UK prospective study and meta‐analysis
Abstract Female sex hormones are thought to affect women's risk of developing central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Some have reported an increased risk in users of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) but evidence is limited. In the UK General Practice Research Database we compared prospectively collected information on HT prescriptions in women aged 50‐79 years with CNS tumors diagnosed in 1987‐2011 with that in matched controls (four per case). Relative risks (RRs) in relation to prescribed HT were calculated overall and by CNS tumor subtype. A meta‐analysis was conducted, combining our results with those from other pub...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - October 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Victoria S. Benson, Oksana Kirichek, Valerie Beral, Jane Green Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Faciobrachial dystonic seizures and antibodies to Lgi1 in a 92-year-old patient: A case report
Faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) have recently been characterized as a distinctive type of seizures, which frequently precede the onset of limbic encephalitis and are associated with antibodies to the leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 (Lgi1) protein [1]. We here report on a novel patient with FBDS and antibodies to Lgi1, who had a remarkably old age at first manifestation of the disease, but still showed a complete remission of FBDS following immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - October 21, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Pawel Fidzinski, Sven Jarius, Christian Gaebler, Friedrich Boegner, Roland Nohr, Klemens Ruprecht Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Commentary on IDH1 mutation is associated with seizures and protoplasmic subtype in patients with low‐grade gliomas
(Source: Epilepsia)
Source: Epilepsia - October 20, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Gianluca Marucci Tags: Letter Source Type: research

In response: IDH1 mutation expression is associated with seizures and protoplasmic subtype in patients with low‐grade glioma
(Source: Epilepsia)
Source: Epilepsia - October 20, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Andrew Morokoff, Simon Liubinas Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Angiocentric glioma: a rare intractable epilepsy-related tumour in children.
We present two teenage cases of the angiocentric variant of glioma: 1) a 15-year-old girl with a chronic and intractable partial epilepsy with cystic tumour located in the right temporal lobe and 2) a 14-year-old boy with intractable seizures and an extensive cortical lesion in the left parieto-occipital area. In both cases, the total tumours excision was performed. The histopathological findings revealed a characteristic angiocentric pattern that was composed of elongated cells arranging in pseudorosette-like structures around blood vessels. Moreover, schwannoma-like areas and subpial neoplastic infiltration with palisadi...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 17, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Grajkowska W, Matyja E, Daszkiewicz P, Roszkowski M, Peregud-Pogorzelski J, Jurkiewicz E Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Abnormalities in the normal appearing white matter of the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to a malignant brain tumor detected by diffusion tensor imaging.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with previously untreated anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma, an increase of the ADC and a reduction of FA were found in the brain parenchyma of the hemisphere contralateral to the tumor localization. In the absence of visible MRI abnormalities, this may be an early indicator of microstructural changes of the NAWM attributed to malignant brain tumor. PMID: 25310733 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 17, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Kallenberg K, Goldmann T, Menke J, Strik H, Bock HC, Mohr A, Buhk JH, Frahm J, Dechent P, Knauth M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Specific monoclonal antibodies against IDH1/2 mutations as diagnostic tools for gliomas
Abstract Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) have been reported in gliomas and other types of tumors, such as acute myeloid leukemias, cartilaginous tumors, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, osteosarcomas, and giant cell tumors of bone. In gliomas, IDH mutations uniformly occur in the functionally critical arginine 132 residue (R132) of IDH1 and arginine 172 residue (R172) of IDH2. IDH1 and IDH2 catalyze the oxidative carboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) in the cytosol and mitochondria, respectively. In contrast, mutated IDH1/2 proteins possess a neomorphic enzymatic function that...
Source: Brain Tumor Pathology - October 17, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anatomical localization of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation: a voxel‐based radiographic study of 146 low‐grade gliomas
ConclusionsLow‐grade gliomas with IDH1 mutation are region‐specific and preferentially located surrounding the rostral extension of the lateral ventricles. Furthermore, such mutations are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. (Source: European Journal of Neurology)
Source: European Journal of Neurology - October 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Y. Wang, T. Zhang, S. Li, X. Fan, J. Ma, L. Wang, T. Jiang Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Drosophila oncogene Gas41 is RNAi modulator that intersects heterochromatin and siRNA pathway
Abstract Glioma amplified sequence41 (Gas41) is a highly conserved putative transcription factor that is frequently abundant in human gliomas. Gas41 shows oncogenic activity by promoting cell growth and viability. Here we show Gas41 is required for proper functioning of RNAi machinery in the nuclei, though three basic structural domains of RNAi components PAZ, PIWI and dsRNA binding are absent in the structural sequences. Variations of structural domains are highly conversed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gas41 interacts with cytological RNase III enzyme Dicer1 both biochemically and genetically. However, Drosophila Gas...
Source: FEBS Journal - October 16, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Sumit G. Gandhi, Indira Bag, Saswati Sengupta, Manika Pal‐Bhadra, Utpal Bhadra Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Attention dysfunction of postoperative patients with glioma
Conclusions: High-grade glioma patients suffer more severe attention impairment. In addition, the frontal and parietal lobe glioma patients suffer attention dysfunction in dissimilar manner. These findings will provide important guidance on the care of glioma patients after therapy. (Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology)
Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology - October 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dazhao FangJian JiangXiaoyang SunWeijie WangNan DongXianhua FuCong PangXingui ChenLianshu Ding Source Type: research

Alternative lengthening of telomeres is enriched in, and impacts survival of TP53 mutant pediatric malignant brain tumors
We examined the association of ALT with alterations in genes found to segregate with specific histological phenotypes and with clinical outcome. ALT was detected almost exclusively in malignant tumors (p = 0.001). ALT was highly enriched in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (12 %), choroid plexus carcinomas (23 %) and high-grade gliomas (22 %). Furthermore, in contrast to adult gliomas, pediatric low grade gliomas which progressed to high-grade tumors did not exhibit the ALT phenotype. Somatic but not germline TP53 mutations were highly associated with ALT (p = 1.01 × 10−8). Of the other alterations examined...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - October 15, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dynamic 18F‐FET PET in suspected WHO grade II gliomas defines distinct biological subgroups with different clinical courses
Abstract In suspected grade II gliomas, three distinct patterns of time‐activity‐curves (TAC) on O‐(2‐[18F]fluoroethyl)‐1‐tyrosine (18F‐FET) positron emission tomography (PET) have been delineated: (i) increasing TAC homogeneously throughout the tumor, and decreasing TAC, (ii) either homogeneously throughout the tumor or (iii) only focally within otherwise increasing TAC patterns. Increasing TAC was associated with low‐grade histology and decreasing TAC with high‐grade histology. This prospective study analyzed whether these patterns correlate with distinct biological tumor subtypes and differential outco...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - October 14, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Niklas Thon, Mathias Kunz, Lena Lemke, Nathalie L Jansen, Sabina Eigenbrod, Simone Kreth, Jürgen Lutz, Rupert Egensperger, Armin Giese, Jochen Herms, Michael Weller, Hans Kretzschmar, Jörg‐Christian Tonn, Christian laFougère, Friedrich‐Wilhelm Kret Tags: Early Detection and Diagnosis Source Type: research

TERT promoter mutations in gliomas, genetic associations and clinico-pathological correlations
J-Y Delattre, K Mokhtari & M Sanson (Source: British Journal of Cancer AOP)
Source: British Journal of Cancer AOP - October 14, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M LabussièreA L Di StefanoV GleizeB BoisselierM GiryS MangesiusA BrunoR PaterraY MarieA RahimianG FinocchiaroR S HoulstonK Hoang-XuanA IdbaihJ-Y DelattreK MokhtariM Sanson Tags: gliomas TERT promoter mutation prognostic impact IDH mutation gliomas molecular classification Source Type: research

The analysis of deregulated expression and methylation of the PER2 genes in gliomas
Conclusions: Since, the circadian clock controls expression of cell-cycle related genes, we suggest that disturbances in PER2 gene expression may result in disruption of the control of the normal circadian clock, thus benefiting the survival of cancer cells and promoting carcinogenesis. Differential expression of circadian genes in non-cancerous and cancerous cells may provide a molecular basis for chronotherapy of glioma. (Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics)
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics - October 14, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang FanXiaowei ChenCaiyan LiYongluoLvan ChenPingfei LiuZhijun Chen Source Type: research

Activation of C6 glioblastoma cell ceruloplasmin expression by neighboring human brain endothelia-derived interleukins in an in vitro blood¿brain barrier model system
Conclusion: hBMVEC influence the gene expression of neighboring C6 glioma sCp. This change in gene expression is mediated by the secretion of IL-1? and IL-6 from hBMVEC. Furthermore, the hBMVEC-induced increase in neighboring C6 glioma sCp gene expression leads to an increased rate of hBMVEC iron efflux. Taken together, our results indicate that hBMVEC-secreted cytokine activity increases the gene expression of neighboring C6 glioma sCp, which reciprocally acts on basolateral hBMVEC Fpn to enhance brain iron import. (Source: Cell Communication and Signaling)
Source: Cell Communication and Signaling - October 14, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Ryan McCarthyDaniel Kosman Source Type: research

Activation of C6 glioblastoma cell ceruloplasmin expression by neighboring human brain endothelia-derived interleukins in an in vitro blood¿brain barrier model system
Conclusion: hBMVEC influence the gene expression of neighboring C6 glioma sCp. This change in gene expression is mediated by the secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 from hBMVEC. Furthermore, the hBMVEC-induced increase in neighboring C6 glioma sCp gene expression leads to an increased rate of hBMVEC iron efflux. Taken together, our results indicate that hBMVEC-secreted cytokine activity increases the gene expression of neighboring C6 glioma sCp, which reciprocally acts on basolateral hBMVEC Fpn to enhance brain iron import. (Source: Cell Communication and Signaling)
Source: Cell Communication and Signaling - October 14, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Ryan McCarthyDaniel Kosman Source Type: research

Evaluation of TAZ expression and its effect on tumor invasion and metastasis in human glioma
Conclusions TAZ protein overexpression is observed in human glioma and its elevated expression is significantly correlated with poor differentiation. TAZ knockdown prominently reduces cell migration and invasion in SNB19 cells, suggesting that TAZ may play a key role in the initiation and progression of human glioma. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine - October 12, 2014 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

MicroRNA-184 promotes proliferation ability of glioma cells by regulating FOXO3
Conclusions MiR-184 can affect the proliferation abilities of glioma cells and regulate the cell cycle related protein. It plays an important role in the occurrence and development of gliomas. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine - October 12, 2014 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Expression of RINT1 predicts seizure occurrence and outcomes in patients with low-grade gliomas
Conclusions Our results suggest that high RINT1 expression may represent a risk factor for LGG-related seizures and may be associated with seizure outcomes. (Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology)
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - October 11, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

C-Glycoside Mimetics Inhibit Glioma Stem Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/jm500522y (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - October 10, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ludovic Clarion, Carine Jacquard, Odile Sainte-Catherine, Marc Decoux, Séverine Loiseau, Marc Rolland, Marc Lecouvey, Jean-Philippe Hugnot, Jean-Noël Volle, David Virieux, Jean-Luc Pirat and Norbert Bakalara Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid Receptor β Acts as a Co-activator of T-Cell Factor 4 and Enhances Glioma Cell Proliferation
Abstract We previously reported that glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ) regulates injury-mediated astrocyte activation and contributes to glioma pathogenesis via modulation of β-catenin/T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcriptional activity. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism behind cross-talk between GRβ and β-catenin/TCF in the progression of glioma. Here, we reported that GRβ knockdown reduced U118 and Shg44 glioma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that GRβ knockdown decreased TCF/LEF transcriptional activity without affecting β-caten...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 10, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Radiosensitization of gliomas by intracellular generation of 5-fluorouracil potentiates prodrug activator gene therapy with a retroviral replicating vector
S Iwamoto & N Kasahara (Source: Cancer Gene Therapy)
Source: Cancer Gene Therapy - October 10, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M TakahashiG ValdesK HiraokaA InagakiS KamijimaE MicewiczH E GruberJ M RobbinsD J JollyW H McBrideK S IwamotoN Kasahara Source Type: research

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b drives malignant progression in a PDGFB‐dependent proneural glioma model by suppressing apoptosis
Abstract Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is likely the relevant STAT5 isoform with respect to the process of malignant progression in gliomas. STAT5b is a latent cytoplasmic protein involved in cell signaling through the modulation of growth factors, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Previous in vitro studies have shown increased STAT5b expression in glioblastomas relative to low‐grade tumors and normal brain. We recently demonstrated that phosphorylated STAT5b associates with delta epidermal growth factor receptor in the nucleus and subsequently binds the promoters of downstream effector molecule...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - October 10, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Loyola V. Gressot, Tiffany A. Doucette, Yuhui Yang, Gregory N. Fuller, Amy B. Heimberger, Oliver Bögler, Arvind Rao, Khatri Latha, Ganesh Rao Tags: Carcinogenesis Source Type: research

Dihydroartemisinin suppresses glioma proliferation and invasion via inhibition of the ADAM17 pathway
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether DHA inhibits cell proliferation and invasion in glioma cells, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that DHA treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as determined using viability, transwell migration, and matrix penetration assays, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that protein expression levels of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), and phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor and AKT (p-EGFR and p-AKT, respectively), were suppressed by DHA. EGFR and AKT phosphorylation was...
Source: Neurological Sciences - October 10, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

TGF-β-induced hCG-β regulates redox homeostasis in glioma cells.
Abstract Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is associated with the progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-the most malignant of brain tumors. Since there is a structural homology between TGF-β and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and as both TGF-β and hCG-β are known regulators of oxidative stress and survival responses in a variety of tumors, the role of TGF-β in the regulation of hCG-β and its consequences on redox modulation of glioblastoma cells was investigated. A heightened hCG-β level was observed in GBM tumors. TGF-β treatment increased hCG-β expression in glioma cell lines, and this height...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry - October 10, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ahmad F, Ghosh S, Sinha S, Joshi SD, Mehta VS, Sen E Tags: Mol Cell Biochem Source Type: research

Tetraarsenic oxide-induced inhibition of malignant glioma cell invasion in vitro via a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase secretion and protein kinase B phosphorylation.
Conclusions These results showed that TAO effectively inhibits proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines and also exerts an anti-invasive effect via decreased MMP-2 secretion, decreased MT1-MMP expression, and the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation under conditions devoid of cytotoxicity. Further investigations using an in vivo model are needed to evaluate the potential role of TAO as an anti-invasive agent. PMID: 25303017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - October 10, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Gwak HS, Park MJ, Park IC, Woo SH, Jin HO, Rhee CH, Jung HW Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma from high‐grade glioma and brain metastases using susceptibility‐weighted imaging
ConclusionsSWI is useful in differentiating of PCNSLs from high‐grade gliomas and brain metastases. Quantitative analysis of intratumoral hemorrhage and vessels from SWI imaging adds specificity to noninvasive differentiation of PCNSLs from high‐grade gliomas and brain metastases, which may have considerable overlap in their conventional MR imaging appearance. (Source: Brain and Behavior)
Source: Brain and Behavior - October 10, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Yaling Ding, Zhen Xing, Biying Liu, Xinjian Lin, Dairong Cao Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

PDE5 inhibitors enhance Celecoxib killing in multiple tumor types
The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L‐NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over‐expression of c...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - October 9, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Laurence Booth, Jane L. Roberts, Nichola Cruickshanks, Seyedmehrad Tavallai, Timothy Webb, Peter Samuel, Adam Conley, Brittany Binion, Harold F. Young, Andrew Poklepovic, Sarah Spiegel, Paul Dent Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Effect of PKCα expression on Bcl-2 phosphorylation and cell death by hypericin
Abstract In order to explain the contribution of the protein kinase Cα (PKCα) in apoptosis induced by photo-activation of hypericin (Hyp), a small interfering RNA was used for post-transcriptional silencing of pkcα gene expression. We have evaluated the influence of Hyp photo-activation on cell death in non-transfected and transfected (PKCα−) human glioma cells (U-87 MG). No significant differences were detected in cell survival between non-transfected and transfected PKCα− cells. However, the type of cell death was notably affected by silencing the pkcα gene. Photo-activation of Hyp strongly induced...
Source: Apoptosis - October 9, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Temozolomide after radiotherapy in recurrent ‘‘low grade’’ diffuse brainstem glioma in adults
(Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 9, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Investigation on the role of integrated PET/MRI for target volume definition and radiotherapy planning in patients with high grade glioma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the target volume definition using FLAIR-MRI is more adequate compared to enhanced T1MRI. 11C-METPET uptake could help identify microscopic residual areas. PMID: 25308182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - October 9, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Navarria P, Reggiori G, Pessina F, Ascolese AM, Tomatis S, Mancosu P, Lobefalo F, Clerici E, Lopci E, Bizzi A, Grimaldi M, Chiti A, Simonelli M, Santoro A, Bello L, Scorsetti M Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

Investigation on the role of integrated PET/MRI for target volume definition and radiotherapy planning in patients with high grade glioma
To evaluate the impact of fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery MRI (FLAIR/MRI) and Carbon-11-labeled-methionine PET (11C-MET-PET) on high grade glioma (HGG) tumor volume delineation for radiotherapy planning. (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - October 9, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Pierina Navarria, Giacomo Reggiori, Federico Pessina, Anna Maria Ascolese, Stefano Tomatis, Pietro Mancosu, Francesca Lobefalo, Elena Clerici, Egesta Lopci, Alberto Bizzi, Marco Grimaldi, Arturo Chiti, Matteo Simonelli, Armando Santoro, Lorenzo Bello, Mar Source Type: research

Brain-Penetrating Nanoparticles Improve Paclitaxel Efficacy in Malignant Glioma Following Local Administration
ACS NanoDOI: 10.1021/nn504210g (Source: ACS Nano)
Source: ACS Nano - October 8, 2014 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Elizabeth Nance, Clark Zhang, Ting-Yu Shih, Qingguo Xu, Benjamin S. Schuster and Justin Hanes Source Type: research