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Do BK channels mediate glioma hypoxia-tolerance?
Authors: Pamenter ME, Haddad GG PMID: 25513337 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Channels)
Source: Channels - December 21, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Channels (Austin) Source Type: research

Plumbagin induces growth inhibition of human glioma cells by downregulating the expression and activity of FOXM1
Abstract Plumbagin, a natural quinonoid constituent isolated from the root of medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L, has exhibited anti-tumor and anti-proliferative activities in various tumor cell lines as well as in animal tumor models. However, its anticancer effects and the mechanisms underlying its suppression of glioma cell growth have not been elucidated. Oncogenic transcription factor Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1) has garnered particular interest in recent years as a potential target for the prevention and/or therapeutic intervention in glioma, nevertheless, less information is currently available regarding FOXM1...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - December 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chloroquine potentiates temozolomide cytotoxicity by inhibiting mitochondrial autophagy in glioma cells
Abstract Mitochondrial autophagy eliminates damaged mitochondria and decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS). The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) potentiates temozolomide (TMZ) cytotoxicity in glioma cells, but it is not known whether CQ does this by inhibiting mitochondrial autophagy. The effects of CQ and TMZ on MitoSOX Red fluorescence, a mitochondrial ROS indicator, and cell death were examined in rat C6 glioma cells. Mitochondrial autophagy was monitored by the colocalization of MitoTracker Red fluorescence and EGFP-LC3 dots. Mitochondrial content was measured by MitoTracker Green fluorescence and immuno...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - December 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Primo non nocere or maximum survival in grade 2 gliomas? A medical ethical question
Conclusions In important life-changing decisions there is no “one size fits all”. We find that it is ethically acceptable to offer more extensive surgery than is possible within the concept of maximal safe surgery as a treatment option, when balancing the principles of beneficence, non-maleficience, autonomy and justice supports the decision. At the same time it must be remembered that even when the patients have made a well-informed decision, some will regret it. In that situation it will be our job as healthcare professionals to support them and help carry some of this burden. (Source: Acta Neurochirurgica)
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - December 21, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Assisted Intra-arterial Deposition of Liposomes in Normal and Glioma-Bearing Rats
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of cationic liposome delivery to brain and glioma tissue after intra-arterial injection. Highly cationic liposomes directly delivered to the brain via an intracarotid route may represent an effective method for delivering antiglioma agents. ABBREVIATIONS: Chol, cholesterol DiD, DilC18(5) DMPC, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine DOTAP, dioleoyl-trimethylammonium-propane IA, intra-arterial MCA, middle cerebral artery OP, optical pharmacokinetic TCH, transient cerebral hypoperfusion (Source: Neurosurgery)
Source: Neurosurgery - December 20, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Research-Laboratory Source Type: research

FBPA PET in boron neutron capture therapy for cancer: prediction of 10B concentration in the tumor and normal tissue in a rat xenograft model
Background: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a molecular radiation treatment based on the 10B (n, ?) 7Li nuclear reaction in cancer cells, in which delivery of 10B by 4-borono-phenylalanine conjugated with fructose (BPA-fr) to the cancer cells is of critical importance. The PET tracer 4-borono-2-18?F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) has been used to predict the accumulation of BPA-fr before BNCT. However, because of the difference in chemical structure between BPA-fr and FBPA and the difference in the dose administered between BPA-fr (therapeutic dose) and FBPA (tracer dose), the predictive value of FBPA PET for BPA-fr a...
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - December 20, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kohei HanaokaTadashi WatabeSadahiro NakaYasukazu KanaiHayato IkedaGenki HoritsugiHiroki KatoKayako IsohashiEku ShimosegawaJun Hatazawa Source Type: research

High expression of CXCR3 is an independent prognostic factor in glioblastoma patients that promotes an invasive phenotype
Abstract Chemokines are a superfamily of small heparin-binding cytokines that induce leukocytes to migrate to sites of inflammation or injury through interacting with specific transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Currently, attention is focused on chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs and their ability to promote tumor cell migration and angiogenesis. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is involved in tumor metastasis and is used as a prognostic biomarker. However, its relationship with the clinicopathological features of primary glioblastoma multiforme (pGBM) and its potential prognostic value have yet to be investi...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - December 20, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Fisetin suppresses ADAM9 expression and inhibits invasion of glioma cancer cells through increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2
Abstract Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring flavonoid which is widely distributed in plants. It has been reported to possess some anticancer and anti-invasive capabilities. We set out to explore the effects of fisetin on antimetastatic and its mechanism of action in GBM8401 cells. The results indicated that fisetin exhibited effective inhibition of cell migration and inhibited the invasion of GBM8401 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. To identify the potential targets of fisetin, human proteinase antibody array analysis was performed, and the results indicated that the fise...
Source: Tumor Biology - December 20, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Modulation of p75 neurotrophin receptor under hypoxic conditions induces migration and invasion of C6 glioma cells
In this study, we investigated the relationship between the expression of p75NTR in malignant glioma and the impact on tumor cell migration and invasion. p75NTR and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression was down-regulated by short-hairpin RNA and up-regulated with expression vectors. By immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis, we found that p75NTR was expressed in both human and rat malignant gliomas. Knockdown of p75NTR increased the expression of vimentin, vascular endothelial growth factor, Matrix metalloproteinase 9, and TWIST, and enhanced the invasion and migration abilities assessed by tra...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - December 20, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Podoplanin: A Marker for Reactive Gliosis in Gliomas and Brain Injury
AbstractReactive astrogliosis is associated with many pathologic processes in the central nervous system, including gliomas. The glycoprotein podoplanin (PDPN) is upregulated in malignant gliomas. Using a syngeneic intracranial glioma mouse model, we show that PDPN is highly expressed in a subset of glial fibrillary acidic protein–positive astrocytes within and adjacent to gliomas. The expression of PDPN in tumor-associated reactive astrocytes was confirmed by its colocalization with the astrocytic marker S100β and with connexin43, a major astrocytic gap junction protein. To determine whether the increase in PDPN is a g...
Source: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology - December 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Roundabout 4 Regulates Blood–Tumor Barrier Permeability Through the Modulation of ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-5 Expression
AbstractThe blood–tumor barrier (BTB) restricts the delivery of chemotherapeutic drug molecules to tumor tissues. We found that the endothelial cell (EC) receptor molecule Roundabout 4 (Robo4) is endogenously expressed in human brain microvascular ECs and that it is upregulated in a BTB model of glioma cocultured ECs. Knockdown of Robo4 in this BTB model increased permeability; short hairpin RNA targeting Robo4 (shRobo4) led to decreased transendothelial electric resistance values, increased BTB permeability, and downregulated expression of the EC tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Roundabout 4 influe...
Source: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology - December 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gliomas in the Sellar Turcica Region: A Retrospective Study Including Adult Cases and Comparison with Craniopharyngioma
Conclusions: Sellar gliomas affect both pediatric and adult patients with pathological changes extending beyond pilocytic astrocytomas. They have diverse clinical manifestations and imaging presentations. Differences exist regarding several aspects between sellar gliomas and craniopharyngiomas, which may facilitate a differential diagnosis.Eur Neurol 2015;73:135-143 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - December 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ZEB1 Promotes invasion in human fetal neural stem cells and hypoxic glioma neurospheres
Abstract Diffuse spread through brain parenchyma and the presence of hypoxic foci rimmed by neoplastic cells are two cardinal features of glioblastoma, and low oxygen is thought to drive movement of malignant gliomas in the core of the lesions. Transcription factors associated with epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been linked to this invasion, and we found that hypoxia increased in vitro invasion up to 4‐fold in glioblastoma neurosphere lines and induced the expression of ZEB1. Immunohistochemical assessment of 295 surgical specimens consisting of various types of pediatric and adult brain cancers show...
Source: Brain Pathology - December 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: UD Kahlert, A Suwala, EH Raabe, FA Siebzehnrubl, MJ Suarez, BA Orr, EE Bar, J Maciaczyk, CG Eberhart Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

[Perspective] For pediatric glioma, leave no histone unturned
Examining histone mutations points to possible therapies for a lethal brain tumor [Also see Report by Funato et al.] Authors: Oren J. Becher, Robert J. Wechsler-Reya (Source: Science: Current Issue)
Source: Science: Current Issue - December 19, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Oren J. Becher Tags: Cancer Source Type: research

[Report] Use of human embryonic stem cells to model pediatric gliomas with H3.3K27M histone mutation
A stem cell model of a lethal brain tumor in children shows how a recurrent histone mutation leads to cancer. [Also see Perspective by Becher and Wechsler-Reya] Authors: Kosuke Funato, Tamara Major, Peter W. Lewis, C. David Allis, Viviane Tabar (Source: Science: Current Issue)
Source: Science: Current Issue - December 19, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Kosuke Funato Source Type: research

[Cancer Epigenetics] Modeling brain cancer from stem to stern
Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive brain tumors primarily affecting children. Because the tumors arise in the brainstem, which controls many vital functions, they – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)
Source: This Week in Science - December 19, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Paula A. Kiberstis Tags: Cancer Epigenetics Source Type: research

Opposing roles of glutaminase isoforms in determining glioblastoma cell phenotype.
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2014 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Monika Szeliga , Jan Albrecht Glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) play pivotal roles in the malignant phenotype of brain tumors via multiple mechanisms. Glutaminase (GA, EC 3.5.1.2) metabolizes Gln to Glu and ammonia. Human GA isoforms are encoded by two genes: GLS gene codes for kidney-type isoforms, KGA and GAC, whereas GLS2 codes for liver-type isoforms, GAB and LGA. The expression pattern of both genes in different neoplastic cell lines and tissues implicated that the kidney-type isoforms are associated with cell prolif...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 19, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Function and mechanism of tumor suppressor gene LRRC4/NGL-2
LRRC4/NGL-2 (Leucine rich repeat containing 4/Netrin-G ligand-2), a relatively specific expressed gene in brain tissue, is a member of the LRRC4/ NGL (netrin-G ligand) family and belongs to the superfamily of LRR proteins. LRRC4/NGL-2 regulates neurite outgrowth and lamina-specific dendritic segmentation, suggesting that LRRC4/NGL-2 is important for the development of the nervous system. In addition, LRRC4/NGL-2 has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene. The overexpression of LRRC4/NGL-2 suppresses glioma cell growth, angiogenesis and invasion through complicated signaling regulation networks. LRRC4/NGL-2 also has the...
Source: Molecular Cancer - December 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Peiyao LiGang XuGuiyuan LiMinghua Wu Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 19, Pages 21411-21423: Effects of Platycodin D on Proliferation, Apoptosis and PI3K/Akt Signal Pathway of Human Glioma U251 Cells
Effects of platycodin D (PD) on the proliferation, apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway of human glioma U251 cells were investigated. Glioma U251 cells were treated with PD at final concentrations of 0, 16.3, 40.8, 81.6, 163.2 μM, and inhibition rate, early and late apoptotic rate, apoptotic index, expression of apoptosis-related proteins and phosphorylation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were evaluated. The results showed that compared with the control group, PD could increase the proliferation inhibition rate of U251 cells in a dose- and time -dependent manner; PD could also elevate the early and late apoptotic r...
Source: Molecules - December 19, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chong XuGuibo SunGuangxin YuanRui WangXiaobo Sun Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 19, Pages 21350-21362: Is Development of High-Grade Gliomas Sulfur-Dependent?
We characterized γ-cystathionase, rhodanese and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase activities in various regions of human brain (the cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum and subcortical nuclei) and human gliomas with II to IV grade of malignancy (according to the WHO classification). The human brain regions, as compared to human liver, showed low γ-cystathionase activity. The activity of rhodanese was also much lower and it did not vary significantly between the investigated brain regions. The activity of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase was the highest in the thalamus, hypothalamus and subcortic...
Source: Molecules - December 19, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Maria WróbelJerzy CzubakPatrycja Bronowicka-AdamskaHalina JurkowskaDariusz AdamekBolesław Papla Tags: Article Source Type: research

Olanzapine inhibits proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent growth in human glioblastoma cell lines and enhances temozolomide’s antiproliferative effect
This study tested this hypothesis. The anti-proliferative effect of olanzapine was examined by MTT assays and cell count analysis. Soft-agar assays were performed to examine colony-forming ability. In addition, the inhibitory effect of olanzapine on the migratory capacity of U87MG and A172 cells was analyzed by Transwell® assays. Moreover, staining for annexin V/propidium iodide or carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester was performed prior to flow cytometric analysis in order to better understand the subjacent cellular mechanism. Our initial hypothesis that olanzapine may enhance temozolomide’s anti-tumor activity could ...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - December 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Histone acetyltransferase inhibitor II induces apoptosis in glioma cell lines via the p53 signaling pathway
Conclusions: HATi II inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via the caspase-dependent pathway in human glioma cell lines, possibly by activating the p53 signaling pathway. HATi II deserves further investigation as a novel treatment for glioma. (Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research)
Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research - December 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Li-Xiao XuZhi-Heng LiYan-Fang TaoRong-Hu LiFang FangHe ZhaoGang LiYan-Hong LiJian WangXing FengJian Pan Source Type: research

Response of recurrent BRAFV600E mutated ganglioglioma to Vemurafenib as single agent
Conclusion: Our experience underline the importance of understanding the driver molecular alterations of LGG and suggests a role for Vemurafenib in the treatment of pediatric GG not amenable of complete surgical resection. (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - December 19, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Francesca del BufaloAndrea CaraiLorenzo Figà-TalamancaBenedetta PettoriniConor MallucciFelice GiangasperoManila AntonelliManuela BadialiLoredana MoiGiuseppe BiancoAntonella CacchioneFranco LocatelliElisabetta FerrettiAngela Mastronuzzi Source Type: research

The subpopulation of microglia expressing functional muscarinic acetylcholine receptors expands in stroke and Alzheimer’s disease
Abstract Microglia undergo a process of activation in pathology which is controlled by many factors including neurotransmitters. We found that a subpopulation (11 %) of freshly isolated adult microglia respond to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist carbachol with a Ca2+ increase and a subpopulation of similar size (16 %) was observed by FACS analysis using an antibody against the M3 receptor subtype. The carbachol-sensitive population increased in microglia/brain macrophages isolated from tissue of mouse models for stroke (60 %) and Alzheimer’s disease (25 %), but not for glioma and multiple sclero...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - December 18, 2014 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Impact of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and functional neuronavigation on surgical outcome in patients with gliomas involving language areas
This study is designed to evaluate the impact of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) and functional neuronavigation on surgical outcome in patients with gliomas involving language areas. Two hundred seventeen patients were prospectively enrolled, 124 in the study group underwent iMRI and functional neuronavigation-guided microsurgery and 93 in the control group underwent conventional navigation-guided microsurgery. Extent of tumor volume resection (EoR) and rate of gross total resection (rGTR) were calculated perioperatively. Aphasia quotient (AQ) was assessed to evaluate the change of language function periop...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - December 18, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The role of IDO in brain tumor immunotherapy
Abstract Malignant glioma comprises the majority of primary brain tumors. Coincidently, most of those malignancies express an inducible tryptophan catabolic enzyme, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). While IDO1 is not normally expressed at appreciable levels in the adult central nervous system, it’s rapidly induced and/or upregulated upon inflammatory stimulus. The primary function of IDO1 is associated with conversion of the essential amino acid, tryptophan, into downstream catabolites known as kynurenines. The depletion of tryptophan and/or accumulation of kynurenine has been shown to induce T cell deactiva...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - December 18, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of intimate and long-distance cross-talk between glioma and myeloid cells: How to break a vicious cycle
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer, Volume 1846, Issue 2 Author(s): Thomas Wurdinger , Katrin Deumelandt , Hans J. van der Vliet , Pieter Wesseling , Tanja D. de Gruijl Glioma-associated microglia and macrophages (GAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) condition the glioma microenvironment to generate an immunosuppressed niche for tumour expansion. This immunosuppressive microenvironment is considered to be shaped through a complex multi-step interactive process between glioma cells, GAMs and MDSCs. Glioma cells recruit GAMs and MDSCs to the tumour s...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Reviews on Cancer - December 18, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma – Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009
Publication date: Available online 29 October 2014 Source:Pathophysiology Author(s): Lennart Hardell , Michael Carlberg We made a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on malignant brain tumours with patients diagnosed during 1997–2003 and 2007–2009. They were aged 20–80 years and 18–75 years, respectively, at the time of diagnosis. Only cases with histopathological verification of the tumour were included. Population-based controls, matched on age and gender, were used. Exposures were assessed by questionnaire. The whole reference group was used in the unconditional regression analysis adjusted for gender,...
Source: Pathophysiology - December 18, 2014 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Retinoblastoma: An overview
This article explains the complexity of retinoblastoma, genetic association, clinical features, management and prognosis. (Source: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology - December 18, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III renders glioma cancer cells less differentiated by JAGGED1
Abstract Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive primary brain tumor in which the majority of cancer cells are undifferentiated. One of the most common oncogenic drivers for this malignancy is the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), which lacks a portion of the extracellular ligand-binding domain due to deletion of exons 2–7 of the EGFR gene. EGFRvIII plays a critical role in tumor progression, promoting acquisition of stem cell-like features including an undifferentiated state and therapy resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms by which EGFRvIII contributes to cancer cell aggressiveness r...
Source: Tumor Biology - December 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor concerning 'Elevated serum antibodies against insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 allow detecting early-stage cancers: evidences from glioma and colorectal carcinoma studies'
(Source: Annals of Oncology)
Source: Annals of Oncology - December 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hassan, W. A., Bjerre, M., Hjortebjerg, R., Magnusson, N. E., Ramshanker, N., Frystyk, J. Tags: letters to the editor Source Type: research

miRNAs Induce Radioresistance in Gliomas
The efficacy of radiotherapy in many tumor types is limited by normal tissue toxicity and by intrinsic or acquired radioresistance. Therefore, it is essential to understand the molecular network responsible for regulating radiosensitivity/resistance. Here, an unbiased functional screen identified four microRNAs (miR1, miR125a, miR150, and miR425) that induce radioresistance. Considering the clinical importance of radiotherapy for patients with glioblastoma, the impact of these miRNAs on glioblastoma radioresistance was investigated. Overexpression of miR1, miR125a, miR150, and/or miR425 in glioblastoma promotes radioresist...
Source: Molecular Cancer Research - December 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Moskwa, P., Zinn, P. O., Choi, Y. E., Shukla, S. A., Fendler, W., Chen, C. C., Lu, J., Golub, T. R., Hjelmeland, A., Chowdhury, D. Tags: DNA Damage and Repair Source Type: research

Pharmacological Doses of Daily Ascorbate Protect Tumors from Radiation Damage after a Single Dose of Radiation in an Intracranial Mouse Glioma Model
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - December 16, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Preserving quality of life is not incompatible with increasing overall survival in diffuse low-grade glioma patients
(Source: Acta Neurochirurgica)
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Gamma Knife radiosurgery for low-grade tectal gliomas
Conclusion Gamma Knife radiosurgery is an effective and safe technique for treatment of tectal gliomas. Tumor shrinkage or disappearance after Gamma Knife radiosurgery may preclude the need for a shunt later on. (Source: Acta Neurochirurgica)
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Deficiency of very large G-protein-coupled receptor-1 is a risk factor of tumor-related epilepsy: a whole transcriptome sequencing analysis
Abstract The majority of patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) experience epileptic seizures as their initial symptom, while the underlying mechanisms of tumor-related seizures are still far from being fully understood. In addition to tumor type and location, genetic changes of LGGs are considered to be influential factors in causing epileptic seizures. Nevertheless, the molecular biomarkers associated with tumor-related epilepsy have rarely been identified. RNA sequence data from 80 patients with histologically confirmed LGG were collected from the Chinese glioma genome atlas database and significant differences i...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - December 16, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

CD200 in CNS Tumor-Induced Immunosuppression: The Role for CD200 Pathway Blockade in Targeted Immunotherapy
Conclusion: These data suggest that CNS-derived tumors can evade immune surveillance by engaging CD200. Because of the homology between mouse and human CD200, our data also suggest that blockade of CD200 binding to its receptor will enhance the efficacy of immune mediated anti-tumor strategies for brain tumors. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - December 16, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Christopher L MoertelJunzhe XiaReBecca LaRueNate N WaldronBrian M AndersenRobert M PrinsHideho OkadaAndrew M DondonNicholas K ForemanMatthew A HuntChristopher A PennellMichael R Olin Source Type: research

Inhibition of nestin suppresses stem cell phenotype of glioblastomas through the alteration of post-translational modification of heat shock protein HSPA8/HSC71
• High-grade gliomas exhibited the high expression level of nestin, a neuronal stem/progenitor cell marker.• Knockdown of nestin in glioblastoma cells suppressed stemness property including sphere formation ability and tumor volume in vivo.• We have demonstrated that nestin and heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71; gene HSPA8) regulate each other's expression levels or patterns, and that cyclin D1 is located downstream of nestin and HSC71.• Inhibition of nestin and HSC71 may be a useful target for glioblastomas. (Source: Cancer Letters)
Source: Cancer Letters - December 16, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yoko Matsuda, Toshiyuki Ishiwata, Hisashi Yoshimura, Masahito Hagio, Tomio Arai Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Tumor vasculature and glioma stem cells: contributions to glioma progression
• Glioma-derived endothelial cells (EC) are functionally distinct from normal brain EC• The tumor vasculature can regulate glioma stem cell self-renewal andtumorigenicity• Glioma stem cells contribute to tumor angiogenesis (Source: Cancer Letters)
Source: Cancer Letters - December 16, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Niyati Jhaveri, Thomas C. Chen, Florence M. Hofman Tags: Mini-review Source Type: research

Approaches Towards improving the prognosis of paediatric glioma Patients: Pursuing mutant drug Targets with emerging small molecules
Gliomas represent approximately 70% of all paediatric brain tumours and the majority of these will be of astrocytic lineage. Low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) comprise predominantly pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) and, less commonly, diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II). Malignant or high-grade astrocytoma (HGA) include anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grades III and IV, respectively) and account for approximately 20% of paediatric astrocytoma.1 Treatment options for paediatric glioma patients are limited. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Timothy J. Snape, Tracy Warr Source Type: research

Sonic hedgehog signalling proteins are frequently expressed in retinoblastoma and are associated with aggressive clinicopathological features
Conclusions SHH signalling molecules were frequently expressed in retinoblastoma tumour cells, and high SHH expression was closely related to an advanced disease status. Our results suggest that the SHH signalling pathway may play a role in the progression of retinoblastoma. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - December 16, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Choe, J.-Y., Yun, J. Y., Jeon, Y. K., Kim, S. H., Choung, H.-K., Oh, S., Park, M., Kim, J. E. Tags: Molecular genetics, Immunology (including allergy), Paediatric oncology Original article Source Type: research

Re: Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study
We have with great interest read the article by Coureau et al1 on mobile phone use and the risk for glioma and meningioma. However, we are concerned about the results in appendix 2. Side of mobile phone use was defined as ipsilateral for cases if the phone was used on the same side of the brain as the tumour or on both sides. Contralateral use was assigned to cases with tumour on the opposite side as the phone was used. OR for both ipsilateral and contralateral use was lower than the total OR which is not what one would expect. It seems all controls were used in the analysis without assignment of ‘tumour laterality&r...
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - December 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hardell, L., Carlberg, M. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Induction of H2AX phosphorylation in tumor cells by gossypol acetic acid is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) family
Conclusions: The member of PI3K family, DNA-PK, ATM and ATR are involved in the H2AX phosphorylation of MEC-1 cells. (Source: Cancer Cell International)
Source: Cancer Cell International - December 16, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhong GuoJin ZhaoLei SongJian-Xiu MaChen-Jing WangShu-Yan PeiChao JiangShang-Biao Li Source Type: research

Vitamin E Intake Is Not Associated with Glioma Risk: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Our analysis indicated that vitamin E intake is not associated with the risk of glioma.Neuroepidemiology 2014;43:253-258 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - December 15, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Early development of endocrine and metabolic consequences after treatment of central nervous system tumors in children.
CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of brain tumors suffer from numerous endocrine and metabolic consequences, majority of them developing within the first 5 years after brain tumor therapy. An active follow-up aiming for early diagnosis and therapy is essential for improvement of quality of life in these patients. PMID: 25488163 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medicina (Kaunas))
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - December 15, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Ramanauskienė E, Labanauskas L, Verkauskienė R, Sileikienė R Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research

3T Intraoperative MRI for Management of Pediatric CNS Neoplasms [PEDIATRICS]
CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative MRI is safe and increases the likelihood of gross total resection, albeit with increased operating room time, and reduces the need for early reoperation or repeat sedation for postoperative scans in children with brain tumors. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - December 15, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Choudhri, A. F., Klimo, P., Auschwitz, T. S., Whitehead, M. T., Boop, F. A. Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research

Overexpression of SCLIP promotes growth and motility in glioblastoma cells.
Abstract Abstract SCLIP, a microtubule-destabilizing phosphoprotein, is known to be involved in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). It has been well established that there are notable parallels between normal development and tumorigenesis, especially in glioma. However, no studies have examined the significance of SCLIP in gliomagenesis. To address this, we investigated the expression of SCLIP and its roles in the development of gliomas. Notably, we found that SCLIP was highly expressed in various grades of glioma samples, as compared with normal brain tissues. Overexpression of SCLIP dramatically ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - December 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhang Y, Ni S, Huang B, Wang L, Zhang X, Li X, Wang H, Liu S, Hao A, Li X Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Tailoring Chemotherapy for Low-Grade Gliomas.
PMID: 25510805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.))
Source: Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) - December 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Galanis E Tags: Oncology (Williston Park) Source Type: research

Chemotherapy for Low-Grade Gliomas: Lessons and Questions.
PMID: 25510804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.))
Source: Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) - December 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Raizer J Tags: Oncology (Williston Park) Source Type: research

Chemotherapy for Treatment of Grade II Gliomas.
Abstract Gliomas classified as grade II by the World Health Organization (WHO) include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas. This heterogeneous group of conditions is associated with a more favorable prognosis and longer-term survival than high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Neurosurgical resection and radiation therapy improve survival in symptomatic, progressive, or high-risk grade II gliomas. Until recently, the role of chemotherapy has been less clear. This review draws on insights from the management of HGGs and emerging data on the addition of PCV (procarbazine, lomustine [CCNU], and vincristi...
Source: Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) - December 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Strowd RE, Holdhoff M, Grossman SA Tags: Oncology (Williston Park) Source Type: research