Medicine RSS Search Engine

Glioma Glioma RSS feedThis is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.

This page shows you the latest news and research items in this category.

Differentiation of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas from High-Grade Gliomas by rCBV and Percentage of Signal Intensity Recovery Derived from Dynamic Susceptibility-Weighted Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MR Imaging
Conclusions The combination of rCBV measurement with percentage of signal intensity recovery can help in more accurate differentiation of PCNSL from HGG. (Source: Clinical Neuroradiology)
Source: Clinical Neuroradiology - November 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Definition of K trans and FA Thresholds for Better Assessment of Experimental Glioma Using High-field MRI: A Feasibility Study
Conclusions DCE-MRI and DTI with calculation of Ktrans and FA maps allow very precise brain glioma assessment comparable to histology if established thresholds for the given tumor model are used. (Source: Clinical Neuroradiology)
Source: Clinical Neuroradiology - November 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of human hedgehog interacting protein in glioma cell lines and primary tumor samples
In this study, we demonstrated low or no expression of hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) in most of the cell lines and primary glioma tumor samples. We further proceeded to promoter methylation study of this gene in the same cell lines and primary tumor samples and found 87 % (7/8) HHIP methylation in glioblastoma cell lines and 75 % (33/44) in primary tumor samples. These methylation pattern correlates with low or unexpressed HHIP in both cell lines and primary tumor samples. Our results suggest the possibility of epigenetic regulation of this gene in glioma, similarly to medulloblastoma, gastric, hepatic, and pancrea...
Source: Tumor Biology - November 22, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Secretory prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 sensitizes multicellular spheroids (MCS) of glioblastoma multiforme cells to tamoxifen-induced cell death
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2014 Source:FEBS Open Bio Author(s): Jayashree C. Jagtap , Parveen D , Reecha D. Shah , Aarti Desai , Dipali Bhosale , Ashish Chugh , Deepak Ranade , Swapnil Karnik , Bhushan Khedkar , Aaishwarya Mathur , Kumar Natesh , Goparaju Chandrika , Padma Shastry Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of brain tumor and is associated with resistance to conventional therapy and poor patient survival. Prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4, a tumor suppressor, is expressed as both an intracellular and secretory/extracellular protein. Though secretory Par-4 induces apopto...
Source: FEBS Open Bio - November 22, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A Activity in Low-Dose Endothelial Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide-II-Induced Opening of Blood–Tumor Barrier
In this study, an in vitro BTB model was used to investigate the potential role of cAMP/PKA signaling cascade in EMAP-II-induced BTB hyperpermeability. Our data revealed that low-dose EMAP-II (0.05 nM) induced a significant decrease in total intracellular cAMP concentration and PKA activity in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs). Pretreatment with forskolin to increase intracellular cAMP nearly completely blocked the EMAP-II-induced decrease in transendothelial electric resistance and increase in horseradish peroxidase flux across the BTB. Similar pretreatment completely prevented the EMAP-II-induced change...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 21, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Thalidomide as Palliative Treatment in Patients with Advanced Secondary Glioblastoma
Conclusion: The palliative effects of TH, especially the normalization of a sleep pattern, were highly valued by patients and families. The prolongation of survival of patients with secondary GBM has not been reported previously.Oncology 2015;88:173-179 (Source: Oncology)
Source: Oncology - November 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Interleukin-6-induced S100B secretion is inhibited by haloperidol and risperidone
Publication date: 3 June 2013 Source:Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, Volume 43 Author(s): Daniela Fraga de Souza , Krista Wartchow , Fernanda Hansen , Paula Lunardi , Maria Cristina Guerra , Patrícia Nardin , Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves Although inflammation may be a physiological defense process, imbalanced neuroinflammation has been associated with the pathophysiology of brain disorders, including major depression and schizophrenia. Activated glia releases a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to neuronal dysfunction. Elevated levels of S100B, a glia derived protein, hav...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - November 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

In vitro S100B secretion is reduced by apomorphine: Effects of antipsychotics and antioxidants
Publication date: 1 July 2011 Source:Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, Volume 35, Issue 5 Author(s): Patrícia Nardin , Ana Carolina Tramontina , André Quincozes-Santos , Lucas S. Tortorelli , Paula Lunardi , Paulo R. Klein , Krista M. Wartchow , Larissa D. Bobermin , Carmem Gottfried , Elaine Elisabetsky , Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves Astrocytes express dopamine receptors and respond to dopamine stimulation. However, the role of astrocytes in psychiatric disorders and the effects of antipsychotics on astroglial cells have only been investigated recently. S100B is a glial-derived protein, comm...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - November 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Regulatory Network of Proneural Glioma in Tumor Progression
No abstract available (Source: Neurosurgery)
Source: Neurosurgery - November 20, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Science Times Source Type: research

Why Glioma Patients Seize: Adding More Pathological GABA to the Glutamate Hypothesis
No abstract available (Source: Neurosurgery)
Source: Neurosurgery - November 20, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Science Times Source Type: research

Mutational Analysis Reveals the Origin and Therapy-Driven Evolution of Recurrent Glioma
No abstract available (Source: Neurosurgery)
Source: Neurosurgery - November 20, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Science Times Source Type: research

Can Multiparametric MRI and FDG-PET Predict Outcome in Diffuse Brainstem Glioma? A Report from a Prospective Phase-II Study
Conclusions: Cumulative RPI was able to classify tumours into different grades and predicted clinical outcome. At baseline, MR hyperperfusion indicated a shorter survival for DIPG patients. Sensitivity and specificity of imaging modalities to detect low-grade gliomas were poor.Pediatr Neurosurg 2013;49:274-281 (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - November 20, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Genetic variation in telomere maintenance genes in relation to ovarian cancer survival.
Authors: Harris HR, Vivo ID, Titus LJ, Vitonis AF, Wong JY, Cramer DW, Terry KL Abstract Telomeres are repetitive non-coding DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that provide protection against chromosomal instability. Telomere length and stability are influenced by proteins, including telomerase which is partially encoded by the TERT gene. Genetic variation in the TERT gene is associated with ovarian cancer risk, and predicts survival in lung cancer and glioma. We investigated whether genetic variation in five telomere maintenance genes was associated with survival among 1480 cases of invasive epithelial ovari...
Source: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics - November 20, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet Source Type: research

Antisense oligonucleotides in the treatment of cerebral gliomas. Review of concerning patents.
Authors: Caruso G, Caffo M Abstract Gliomas are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors in the adult population. Despite the intensive research on cancer pathology, real mechanisms concerning glioma progression are not completely understood. The prognosis in patients affected by malignant gliomas is still very unfavorable. Recent genomic analyses have revealed patterns of molecular changes within tumor subclasses that harbor distinct underlying biology, clinical prognosis, and pathogenic routes. So, novel treatments will have to be able to interfere at different molecular levels in gliomagenesis minimizi...
Source: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery - November 20, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov Source Type: research

On the future development of optimally-sized lipid-insoluble systemic therapies for CNS solid tumors and other neuropathologies.
Authors: Sarin H Abstract It remains a challenge to deliver effective concentrations of therapeutics into CNS pathologies, which is primarily due to the fact that current and investigational CNS therapeutics are suboptimally-sized to accumulate to effective concentrations in individual diseased CNS tissue cells. The blood-CNS barrier of blood capillary microvasculature within neuropathologic tissues is known to be permeable to lipid-insoluble macromolecules in a wide-spectrum of neuropathologies. In the case of CNS solid tumor tissue blood capillaries, the physiological upper limit of pore size to the transcapillar...
Source: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery - November 20, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov Source Type: research

Antisense oligonucleotides as innovative therapeutic strategy in the treatment of high-grade gliomas.
Authors: Caruso G, Caffo M, Raudino G, Alafaci C, Salpietro FM, Tomasello F Abstract Despite the intensive recent research in cancer therapy, the prognosis in patients affected by high-grade gliomas is still very unfavorable. The efficacy of classical anti-cancer strategies is seriously limited by lack of specific therapies against malignant cells. The extracellular matrix plays a pivotal role in processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, and migration in both the normal and the pathologic nervous system. Glial tumors seem to be able to create a favorable environment for the invasion of glioma cells in cerebral ...
Source: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery - November 20, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov Source Type: research

The combination of adenosine deaminase inhibition and deoxyadenosine induces apoptosis in a human astrocytoma cell line
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2014 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Mercedes Garcia-Gil , Maria Grazia Tozzi , Stefano Varani , Lorenza Della Verde , Edoardo Petrotto , Francesco Balestri , Laura Colombaioni , Marcella Camici Alterations in the functions of astrocytes contribute to the appearance of a variety of neurological pathologies. Gliomas, especially those of astrocytic origin, are particularly resistant to chemotherapy and are often characterized by a poor prognosis. Neuroblastoma is the tumor with the higher incidence in infants. Anticancer drugs can induce apoptosis and their cyto...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 20, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Advances in the Management of Paediatric High-Grade Glioma
Abstract High-grade gliomas represent a formidable challenge to paediatric oncologists. The second most common malignant brain tumour of childhood, little progress has been made in the outcome of these tumours in the last four decades. Outcome remains dire with less than 20 % of patients surviving. Current treatment consists of maximal resection and radiotherapy, with chemotherapy both in conjunction with and adjuvant to radiotherapy being added more recently. Yet much of the evidence for the use of chemotherapy is extrapolated from adult data, and evidence for its use in the paediatric population is weak. Recen...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - November 20, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Revealing the Potential Pathogenesis of Glioma by Utilizing a Glioma Associated Protein-Protein Interaction Network.
This study aims to explore the potential mechanism of glioma through bioinformatic approaches. The gene expression profile (GSE4290) of glioma tumor and non-tumor samples was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 180 samples were available, including 23 non-tumor and 157 tumor samples. Then the raw data were preprocessed using robust multiarray analysis, and 8,890 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by using t-test (false discovery rate < 0.0005). Furthermore, 16 known glioma related genes were abstracted from Genetic Association Database. After mapping 8,890 DEGs and 16 know...
Source: Pathology Oncology Research - November 20, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Pan W, Li G, Yang X, Miao J Tags: Pathol Oncol Res Source Type: research

Health-related quality of life in high-grade glioma patients.
Authors: Dirven L, Aaronson NK, Heimans JJ, Taphoorn MJ Abstract Gliomas are malignant primary brain tumors and yet incurable. Palliation and the maintenance or improvement of the patient's quality of life is therefore of main importance. For that reason, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important outcome measure in clinical trials, next to traditional outcome measures such as overall and progression-free survivals, and radiological response to treatment. HRQoL is a multidimensional concept covering physical, psychological, and social domains, as well as symptoms induced by the disease and its t...
Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Chin J Cancer Source Type: research

Radiotherapy of high-grade gliomas: current standards and new concepts, innovations in imaging and radiotherapy, and new therapeutic approaches.
Authors: Dhermain F Abstract The current standards in radiotherapy of high-grade gliomas (HGG) are based on anatomic imaging techniques, usually computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The guidelines vary depending on whether the HGG is a histological grade 3 anaplastic glioma (AG) or a grade 4 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). For AG, T2-weighted MRI sequences plus the region of contrast enhancement in T1 are considered for the delineation of the gross tumor volume (GTV), and an isotropic expansion of 15 to 20 mm is recommended for the clinical target volume (CTV). For GBM, the Radiati...
Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Chin J Cancer Source Type: research

High-grade gliomas: reality and hopes.
Authors: Mirimanoff RO Abstract In this issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer, European experts review current standards, trends, and future prospects in the difficult domain of high-grade glioma. In all fields covered by the different authors, the progress has been impressive. For example, discoveries at the molecular level have already impacted imaging, surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and they are expected to play an increasing role in the management of these cancers. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) has pioneered new treatment strategies and contributed to ne...
Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Chin J Cancer Source Type: research

Molecular biology of high-grade gliomas: what should the clinician know?
This article aims to summarize current knowledge on the molecular biology of high-grade gliomas relevant to daily practice. PMID: 24325789 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer)
Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Chin J Cancer Source Type: research

Enhanced MGMT expression contributes to temozolomide resistance in glioma stem-like cells.
In this study, we aimed to investigate MGMT expression and regulatory mechanisms in GSCs and the association of MGMT with temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity. GSCs were enriched from one MGMT-positive cell line (SF-767) and 7 MGMT-negative cell lines (U251, SKMG-4, SKMG-1, SF295, U87, MGR1, and MGR2) through serum-free clone culture. GSCs from the U251G, SKMG-4G, SF295G, and SKMG-1G cell lines became MGMT-positive, but those from the U87G, MGR1G, and MGR2G cell lines remained MGMT-negative. However, all the GSCs and their parental glioma cell lines were positive for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, GSCs were more resis...
Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Chin J Cancer Source Type: research

Vasculogenic mimicry: a novel target for glioma therapy.
Authors: Chen YS, Chen ZP Abstract Anti-angiogenic therapy has shown promising but insufficient efficacy on gliomas. Recent studies suggest that vasculogenic mimicry (VM), or the formation of non-endothelial, tumor-cell-lined microvascular channels, occurs in aggressive tumors, including gliomas. There is also evidence of a physiological connection between the endothelial-lined vasculature and VM channels. Tumor cells, by virtue of their high plasticity, can form vessel-like structures themselves, which may function as blood supply networks. Our previous study on gliomas showed that microvessel density was comparab...
Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Chin J Cancer Source Type: research

ANH-Intl News Alerts: Week 47, 2014
No to fluoride, family meals, GM, Saatchi’s Medical Innovation Bill, cell phones and brain tumours, omega-3 levels in farmed fish, and EC chief scientific advisor role is scrapped (Source: Alliance for Natural Health)
Source: Alliance for Natural Health - November 19, 2014 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Yvonne Tags: Anne Glover Brain tumour cell phone chief scientist. EMR europe fluoride gliomas GM GMO international meals Medical Innovation Bill mobile phone omega-3 Saatchi salmon Source Type: news

Use of dexamethasone in patients with high-grade glioma: a clinical practice guideline.
Authors: Kostaras X, Cusano F, Kline GA, Roa W, Easaw J Abstract BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone is the corticosteroid most commonly used for the management of vasogenic edema and increased intracranial pressure in patients with brain tumours. It is also used after surgery (before embarking on radiotherapy), particularly in patients whose tumours exert significant mass effect. Few prospective clinical trials have set out to determine the optimal dose and schedule for dexamethasone in patients with primary brain tumours, and subsequently, fewer clinical practice guideline recommendations have been formulated. METHODS:...
Source: Current Oncology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Curr Oncol Source Type: research

Profiling Hsp90 differential expression and the molecular effects of the Hsp90 inhibitor IPI-504 in high-grade glioma models
In this study, we profiled the expression pattern of Hsp90α/β mRNA in stable glioma cell lines, multiple glioma-derived primary cultures and human neural stem/progenitor cells. The effects of IPI-504 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, motility and expression of Hsp90 client proteins were evaluated in glioma cell lines. In vivo activity of IPI-504 was investigated in subcutaneous glioma xenografts. Our results showed Hsp90α and Hsp90β expression levels to be patient-specific, higher in high-grade glioma-derived primary cells than in low-grade glioma-derived primary cells, and strongly correlated with CD133 expression and...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combining diffusion and perfusion differentiates tumor from bevacizumab-related imaging abnormality (bria)
Abstract A subset of patients with high-grade glioma and brain metastases who are treated with bevacizumab develop regions of marked and persistent restricted diffusion that do not reflect recurrent tumor. Here, we quantify the degree of restricted diffusion and the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) within these regions of bevacizumab-related imaging abnormality (BRIA) in order to facilitate differentiation of these lesions from recurrent tumor. Six patients with high-grade glioma and two patients with brain metastases who developed regions of restricted diffusion after initiation of bevacizumab were included...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Temozolomide after radiotherapy in recurrent “low grade” diffuse brainstem glioma in adults
Abstract Diffuse brainstem glioma is a rare disease in adults. Radiotherapy (RT) is usually considered to be the standard treatment. However, the role of chemotherapy in treating relapses after RT is unclear, and this study aimed to assess the use of temozolomide (TMZ) in this situation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients from our database with “low grade” adult diffuse infiltrating brainstem glioma who received TMZ at relapse after failing RT. The patients were diagnosed by histology or MRI criteria compatible with a low-grade glioma. The tumors were localized in the pons, medulla oblongata or...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Significant heterogeneity in the geographical distribution of diffuse grade II/III gliomas in France
Abstract Diffuse WHO grade II and III gliomas (DGII/IIIG) are rare tumors, with few specific epidemiological studies. We aimed at describing the geographical distribution of a homogeneous series of histologically confirmed DGII/IIIG, over a four-year period (2006–2009), at a national level. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary national network already established by the French Brain Tumor DataBase and data collected directly from every neuropathology department. Personal home addresses were collected for confirmed cases. For each region, the incidence of DGII/IIIG was analyzed and standardized on the...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The survival of patients with high grade glioma from different ethnic groups in South East England
This study investigates for the first time whether differences also exist in the United Kingdom (UK). This population-based cohort study used cancer registration data for 4,845 patients diagnosed in South East England between 2000 and 2009. Linked self-assigned ethnicity data within Hospital Episode Statistics were used to define White, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, Other and Not known groups. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for a record of receipt of treatment (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy), adjusting for sex, age, morphology, socioeconomic deprivation and c...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Symptoms and medication management in the end of life phase of high-grade glioma patients
In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of symptoms and medication management in HGG patients during the EOL phase. We analyzed disease-specific symptoms, general EOL symptoms, symptom frequency, and medication use at 3 months and 1 week before death in a cohort of 178 HGG patients, based on questionnaires completed by physicians responsible for EOL care. In addition, information on patient’s perceived quality of care (QOC) was derived from 87 questionnaires completed by patient’s relatives. Somnolence, focal neurological deficits and cognitive disturbances were the most prevalent symptoms during the EOL phase. Ov...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

An individual patient data meta-analysis on characteristics, treatments and outcomes of the glioblastoma/gliosarcoma patients with central nervous system metastases reported in literature until 2013
Abstract Dissemination of high-grade gliomas (WHO IV) has been investigated poorly so far. We conducted an extensive analysis of the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)/gliosarcoma (GS) patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases reported in literature until April 2013. PubMed and Web of Science searches for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to GBM/GS patients with metastatic disease were conducted using predefined keywords. Additionally, we performed hand search following the references from the selected papers. Cases in which the metastases exclusively occurre...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Glioma-associated antigen HEATR1 induces functional cytotoxic T lymphocytes in patients with glioma.
Authors: Wu ZB, Qiu C, Zhang AL, Cai L, Lin SJ, Yao Y, Tang QS, Xu M, Hua W, Chu YW, Mao Y, Zhu JH, Xu J, Zhou LF Abstract A2B5+ glioblastoma (GBM) cells have glioma stem-like cell (GSC) properties that are crucial to chemotherapy resistance and GBM relapse. T-cell-based antigens derived from A2B5+ GBM cells provide important information for immunotherapy. Here, we show that HEAT repeat containing 1 (HEATR1) expression in GBM tissues was significantly higher than that in control brain tissues. Furthermore, HEATR1 expression in A2B5+ U87 cells was higher than that in A2B5-U87 cells (P = 0.016). Six peptides of HEATR...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - November 19, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

A new hope in immunotherapy for malignant gliomas: adoptive T cell transfer therapy.
Authors: Chung DS, Shin HJ, Hong YK Abstract Immunotherapy emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to highly incurable malignant gliomas due to tumor-specific cytotoxicity, minimal side effect, and a durable antitumor effect by memory T cells. But, antitumor activities of endogenously activated T cells induced by immunotherapy such as vaccination are not sufficient to control tumors because tumor-specific antigens may be self-antigens and tumors have immune evasion mechanisms to avoid immune surveillance system of host. Although recent clinical results from vaccine strategy for malignant gliomas are encouraging...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - November 19, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and Li-Fraumeni syndrome: report of two cases and review of the literature
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) was initially described in the late 60's, based on the report of four families with high tumor occurrence [1]. This condition has been characterized by an autosomal dominant predisposition to various malignancies. The principal localizations are sarcomas, gliomas and breast carcinomas. Direct involvement of germline TP53 gene mutations has emerged approximately two decades after the primary description [2]. In most cases, mutation of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene result in a loss-of-function of p53 protein, leading to alterations in DNA repair, apoptosis cell-cycle control and consequently genom...
Source: Lung Cancer - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: C. Ricordel, M. Labalette-Tiercin, A. Lespagnol, M. Kerjouan, C. Dugast, J.Mosser, B. Desrues, H. Léna Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Therapies for Malignant Glioma: A Guide for Clinicians
Abstract This review covers the medical options for malignant gliomas based on the results of recent clinical trials and updated information on molecular markers of prognostic and predictive value. In addition to alkylating agents, the antiangiogenic drug bevacizumab is increasingly used, particularly in cases of recurrence. Supportive care, including antiedema agents, antiepileptic drugs and anticoagulants, represent complementary treatment approaches of the utmost clinical importance. (Source: CNS Drugs)
Source: CNS Drugs - November 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prognostic relevance of histomolecular classification of diffuse adult high grade gliomas with necrosis
ConclusionsDiffuse adult HGG with necrosis can be split into three histomolecular groups of prognostic relevance: 1p/19q codeleted AO, IDH1 R132H‐ GBM, and 1p19q intact IDH1 R132H+ gliomas that might be classified as IDH1 R132H+ GBM. Because of histomolecular heterogeneity, we suggest to remove the name GBMO. (Source: Brain Pathology)
Source: Brain Pathology - November 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Dominique Figarella‐Branger, Karima Mokhtari, Carole Colin, Emmanuelle Uro‐Coste, Anne Jouvet, Caroline Dehais, Catherine Carpentier, Chiara Villa, Claude‐Alain Maurage, Sandrine Eimer, Marc Polivka, Jean‐Michel Vignaud, Annie Laquerriere, Henri S Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Imaging Integrin α v β 3 and NRP-1 Positive Gliomas with a Novel Fluorine-18 Labeled RGD-ATWLPPR Heterodimeric Peptide Probe
Conclusions [18F]FAl-NOTA-RGD-ATWLPPR exhibited significantly improved receptor-targeting properties both in vitro and in vivo compared with the F-18 labeled RGD or ATWLPPR monomers. The improved targeting and localization exhibited by the RGD-ATWLPPR heterodimer provide a foundation for further investigations of its applicability in clinical tumor imaging. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - November 17, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Preclinical Imaging Evaluation of Novel TSPO-PET Ligand 2-(5,7-Diethyl-2-(4-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)- N , N -diethylacetamide ([ 18 F]VUIIS1008) in Glioma
Conclusions The PET ligand [18F]VUIIS1008 exhibits promising characteristics as a tracer for imaging glioma. Further translational studies appear warranted. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - November 17, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

AR-A 014418 Used against GSK3beta Downregulates Expression of hnRNPA1 and SF2/ASF Splicing Factors.
Authors: Yadav AK, Vashishta V, Joshi N, Taneja P Abstract Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive forms of primary brain tumors of glial cells, including aberrant regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3 β ) and splicing factors deregulation. Here, we investigate the role of small molecule AR-A014418 and Manzamine A against GSK3 kinase with factual control on splicing regulators. AR-A 014418, 48 hrs posttreatment, caused dose (25-100  μ M) dependent inhibition in U373 and U87 cell viability with also inhibition in activating tyrosine phosphorylation of GSK3alpha (Tyr 279) and beta (Tyr 216). Furt...
Source: Journal of Oncology - November 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Tumor-associated macrophages in glioma: friend or foe?
Authors: Kennedy BC, Showers CR, Anderson DE, Anderson L, Canoll P, Bruce JN, Anderson RC Abstract Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute substantially to the tumor mass of gliomas and have been shown to play a major role in the creation of a tumor microenvironment that promotes tumor progression. Shortcomings of attempts at antiglioma immunotherapy may result from a failure to adequately address these effects. Emerging evidence supports an independent categorization of glioma TAMs as alternatively activated M2-type macrophages, in contrast to classically activated proinflammatory M1-type macrophages. These...
Source: Journal of Oncology - November 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

A clinical update and radiologic review of pediatric orbital and ocular tumors.
Authors: Rao AA, Naheedy JH, Chen JY, Robbins SL, Ramkumar HL Abstract While pediatric orbital tumors are most often managed in tertiary care centers, clinicians should be aware of the signs of intraocular and orbital neoplasms. In the pediatric population, a delay in diagnosis of orbital and intraocular lesions, even if benign, can lead to vision loss and deformity. Intraocular lesions reviewed are retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, and retinal astrocytic hamartoma. Orbital neoplasms reviewed are rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma metastases, optic pathway glioma, plexiform neurofibroma, leukemia, lymphoprolipherati...
Source: Journal of Oncology - November 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Glioma revisited: from neurogenesis and cancer stem cells to the epigenetic regulation of the niche.
Authors: de Almeida Sassi F, Lunardi Brunetto A, Schwartsmann G, Roesler R, Abujamra AL Abstract Gliomas are the most incident brain tumor in adults. This malignancy has very low survival rates, even when combining radio- and chemotherapy. Among the gliomas, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type, and patients frequently relapse or become refractory to conventional therapies. The fact that such an aggressive tumor can arise in such a carefully orchestrated organ, where cellular proliferation is barely needed to maintain its function, is a question that has intrigued scientists until ve...
Source: Journal of Oncology - November 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Potential therapy found for incurable pediatric brain tumor
(Northwestern University) scientists have discovered a new potential drug therapy for a rare, incurable pediatric brain tumor by targeting a genetic mutation found in children with the cancer.By inhibiting the tumor-forming consequences of the mutation using an experimental drug called GSKJ4, they delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice with pediatric brainstem glioma. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - November 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Drosophila oncogene Gas41 is an RNA interference modulator that intersects heterochromatin and the small interfering RNA pathway
Glioma amplified sequence41 (Gas41) is a highly conserved putative transcription factor that is frequently abundant in human gliomas. Gas41 shows oncogenic activity by promoting cell growth and viability. In the present study, we show that Gas41 is required for proper functioning of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery in the nuclei, although three basic structural domains of RNAi components PAZ, PIWI and dsRNA with respect to binding are absent in the structural sequences. Variations of structural domains are highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gas41 interacts with cytological RNase III enzyme Dicer1 both bioc...
Source: FEBS Journal - November 17, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Sumit G. Gandhi, Indira Bag, Saswati Sengupta, Manika Pal‐Bhadra, Utpal Bhadra Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

White matter connections of the supplementary motor area in humans
Conclusions The SMA shows a wide range of white matter connections with motor, language and lymbic areas. Features of the SMA syndrome (akinesia and mutism) can be better understood on the basis of these findings. (Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - November 17, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Vergani, F., Lacerda, L., Martino, J., Attems, J., Morris, C., Mitchell, P., de Schotten, M. T., Dell'Acqua, F. Tags: Neurooncology, CNS cancer, Child and adolescent psychiatry, Radiology, Surgical oncology Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Seizures and Antiepileptic Drug Associated Adverse Effects In High‐grade Glioma Patients: A Multicenter Retrospective Study in Hong Kong
ConclusionsAntiepileptic drug prescription for primary seizure prophylaxis is both pervasive and prolonged for HGG patients. Seizures occur frequently, but most were delayed and none was life threatening. Judicious prescription of AEDs is required especially when a significant proportion of patients experience adverse effects. Patients with a diagnosis GBM and a history of radiotherapy are at risk therefore we suggest, contrary to present practice, that primary seizure prophylaxis be given only during the perioperative period and resumed when they occur. We also recommend avoidance of aromatic AEDs due to their association...
Source: Surgical Practice - November 17, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Peter Yat‐Ming Woo, Danny Tat‐Ming Chan, Kwong‐Yau Chan, Wai‐Kei Wong, Yin‐Chung Po, John Ching‐Kong Kwok, Wai‐Sang Poon Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Probucol suppresses human glioma cell proliferation in vitro via ROS production and LKB1-AMPK activation.
Conclusion:Probucol suppresses human glioma cell proliferation in vitro via ROS production and LKB1-AMPK activation, which reduces 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of p27(Kip1). PMID: 25399650 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica)
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - November 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jiang YS, Lei JA, Feng F, Liang QM, Wang FR Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research