Medicine RSS Search Engine


This page shows you the latest news and research items in this category.

Polyphyllin D Induces Apoptosis in U87 Human Glioma Cells Through the c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Pathway
Journal of Medicinal Food , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Medicinal Food)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Food - July 22, 2014 Category: Nutrition Tags: article Source Type: research

Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) Family as potential diagnostic and prognostic tumor markers for human gliomas
Conclusions: High expression of MCM 2, MCM3 and MCM7 mRNA correlated with poor outcome and may be clinically useful molecular prognostic markers in glioma. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - July 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cong HuaGang ZhaoYunqian LiLi Bie Source Type: research

The E3 ligase PARC mediates the degradation of cytosolic cytochrome c to promote survival in neurons and cancer cells.
Abstract The ability to withstand mitochondrial damage is especially critical for the survival of postmitotic cells, such as neurons. Likewise, cancer cells can also survive mitochondrial stress. We found that cytochrome c (Cyt c), which induces apoptosis upon its release from damaged mitochondria, is targeted for proteasome-mediated degradation in mouse neurons, cardiomyocytes, and myotubes and in human glioma and neuroblastoma cells, but not in proliferating human fibroblasts. In mouse neurons, apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) prevented the proteasome-dependent degradation of Cyt c in response to i...
Source: Science Signaling - July 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gama V, Swahari V, Schafer J, Kole AJ, Evans A, Huang Y, Cliffe A, Golitz B, Sciaky N, Pei XH, Xiong Y, Deshmukh M Tags: Sci Signal Source Type: research

STAT3 serine 727 phosphorylation influences clinical outcome in glioblastoma.
In conclusion, the high proportion of pSer727-STAT3 positive neoplastic cells in GBM is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor, and increased expression of both pTyr705-STAT3 and pSer727-STAT3 is predictive of poorer clinical outcome, thereby adding to the growing evidence that STAT3 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma. PMID: 25031733 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology)
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - July 19, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Lin GS, Chen YP, Lin ZX, Wang XF, Zheng ZQ, Chen L Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

LncRNA TSLC1-AS1 is a novel tumor suppressor in glioma.
Abstract Growing evidence demonstrates that long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in cancer origination and progression. A novel lncRNA, TSLC1-AS1, is the antisense transcript of tumor suppressor TSLC1. The expression profile and function of TSLC1-AS1 in glioma were investigated using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and siRNA knockdown. The data showed that TSLC1-AS1 expression was down-regulated in tumor tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and negatively associated with the WHO criteria of the tumors. Overexpression of TSLC1-AS1 resulted in up-regulation of TSLC1 and significant inhib...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - July 19, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Qin X, Yao J, Geng P, Fu X, Xue J, Zhang Z Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Revisiting TP53 mutations and immunohistochemistry – a comparative study in 157 diffuse gliomas
Abstract The association between p53 immunohistochemistry and TP53 mutation status has been controversial. The present study aims to re‐evaluate the efficacy of p53 immunohistochemistry to predict the mutational status of TP53. A total of 157 diffuse gliomas (World Health Organization grade II to IV) were assessed by exon‐by‐exon DNA sequencing from exon 4 through 10 of TP53 using frozen tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry with a p53 antibody (DO‐7) on paired formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded materials was assessed for the extent and intensity of reactivity in all cases. A total of 72 mutations were detected in...
Source: Brain Pathology - July 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Hirokazu Takami, Akihiko Yoshida, Shintaro Fukushima, Hideyuki Arita, Yuko Matsushita, Taishi Nakamura, Makoto Ohno, Yasuji Miyakita, Soichiro Shibui, Yoshitaka Narita, Koichi Ichimura Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

A Diphtheria Toxin Negative Selection in RNA Interference Screening
RNA interference (RNAi) screening is a powerful technique for understanding the molecular biology of cancer and searching drug targets. Genes and their upstream activators that are essential for the survival of cancer cells often dictate cancer formation/progression. Hence, they are preferable therapeutic targets. Identifying these genes using RNAi is, however, problematic because knocking them down leads to cell death. Here we describe a diphtheria toxin (DT) negative selection method to circumvent the problem of cell death in RNAi screening. DT fails to kill mouse cells due to the lack of functional DT receptor (DTR). Th...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Cancer Research - July 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Norcantharidin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of glioma cells by blocking the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that norcantharidin is effective for growth inhibition of glioma cell lines and suggest that norcantharidin may be a new therapeutic option for patients with glioma. (Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology)
Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology - July 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jie ZhengWei DuLai-jun SongRui ZhangLai-guang SunFeng-guo ChenXin-ting Wei Source Type: research

hMOB3 Inhibits MST1 Apoptotic Cleavage and Promotes Tumor Growth
New therapeutic targets are needed that circumvent inherent therapeutic resistance of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Here, we report such a candidate target in the uncharacterized adaptor protein hMOB3, which we show is upregulated in GBM. In a search for its biochemical function, we found that hMOB3 specifically interacts with MST1 kinase in response to apoptotic stimuli and cell–cell contact. Moreover, hMOB3 negatively regulated apoptotic signaling by MST1 in GBM cells by inhibiting the MST1 cleavage-based activation process. Physical interaction between hMOB3 and MST1 was essential for this process. In vivo investigat...
Source: Cancer Research - July 14, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tang, F., Zhang, L., Xue, G., Hynx, D., Wang, Y., Cron, P. D., Hundsrucker, C., Hergovich, A., Frank, S., Hemmings, B. A., Schmitz-Rohmer, D. Tags: Molecular and Cellular Pathobiology Source Type: research

Correlation of preoperative seizures with clinicopathological factors and prognosis in anaplastic gliomas: a report of 198 patients from China
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 14, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Pei Yang, Gan You, Wei Zhang, Yongzhi Wang, Yinyan Wang, Kun Yao, Tao Jiang Source Type: research

St. Jude awarded $3.4 million in federal grants
Congressman Steve Cohen (D-Memphis) today announced three federal grants totaling more than $3.4 million in funding for St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. The funding comes through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and will be used for a variety of programs and research projects. The funding includes $2.8 million for the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium; $369,350 from the National Cancer Institute to study and treat mutations in childhood glioma; and another $218,750… (Source: Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Source: Health Care:Hospitals headlines - July 11, 2014 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Rob Robertson Source Type: research

This Week in Science
Probing interfaces with electrons | Balancing your incomings and outgoings | Up and down go the cyanobacteria | Chloride causes seizures in glioma | Staying one step ahead of tumors | Interfering with the signal to relax | How the ionosphere gains influence | Optically probed superconductor | For HIV: Location, location, location | HIV needs to be fit to transmit | Building the cell wall is flipping difficult | Identifying a cuprate look-alike | Assessing calculated DFT properties | Peroxidase proton placement | Supershear rupture down below | Observing an embryonic Doppler effect | Seas are awash with microplastics (Sourc...
Source: Science: Current Issue - July 11, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Marc S. Lavine Tags: Imaging Techniques Source Type: research

[Cancer] Chloride causes seizures in glioma
Gliomas, a common brain tumor, frequently induce epileptic seizures as they grow, but it is not clear why. Pallud et al. show that the epileptic activity in the brain around – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)
Source: This Week in Science - July 11, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Yevgeniya Nusinovich Tags: Cancer Source Type: research

Tumor penetrability and anti-angiogenesis using iRGD-mediated delivery of doxorubicin-polymer conjugates.
Abstract Tumor-penetrating peptide, iRGD (internalizing RGD, CRGDK/RGPD/EC) with the similar affinity to αv integrins as conventional RGD cyclopeptide could enhance the tumor penetrability of drugs by binding to neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) that over-expressed on both angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. Comparing with our previous study, in which a RGD cyclopeptide (RGDyC) was bound to PEGylated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer with doxorubicin (DOX) by acid-sensitive cis-aconityl linkage (PEG-PAMAM-cis-aconityl-DOX, PPCD), the present study selected iRGD instead of previous RGD to produce iRGD-PPCD conjugate. The e...
Source: Biomaterials - July 11, 2014 Category: Materials Science Authors: Wang K, Zhang X, Liu Y, Liu C, Jiang B, Jiang Y Tags: Biomaterials Source Type: research

Stability of the CpG island methylator phenotype during glioma progression and identification of methylated loci in secondary glioblastomas
Conclusion: This is the first study to have documented genome-wide methylation changes within paired early/late astrocytic gliomas on such a large CpG probe set, revealing a number of genes that maybe relevant to secondary gliomagenesis. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - July 10, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Victoria HillThoraia ShinawiChristopher RickettsDietmar KrexGabriele SchackertJulien BauerWenbin WeiGarth CruickshankEamonn MaherFarida Latif Source Type: research

In vivo models of brain tumors: roles of genetically engineered mouse models in understanding tumor biology and use in preclinical studies.
We describe how they provide critical insights into the molecular and cellular events involved in the initiation and maintenance of brain tumors, and illustrate their use in preclinical drug testing. PMID: 25008045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - July 10, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Simeonova I, Huillard E Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Local Melatonin Regulates Inflammation Resolution: A Common Factor in Neurodegenerative, Psychiatric and Systemic Inflammatory Disorders.
Abstract In many psychiatric, neurodegenerative and systemic inflammatory disorders circadian melatonin is decreased whilst melatonin enzymes and melatonin receptors are genetic susceptibility factors. Treatment with melatonin is useful in a diverse range of medical conditions, including bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, depression and fibromyalgia. Decreased melatonin effects are classically attributed to lost pineal production. However, melatonin, along with its immediate precursor N-acetylserotonin (NAS), is produced by many, if not all, mitochondrial containing cells, including immune cells and central gli...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - July 10, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anderson G, Maes M Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Detoxification of oxidative stress in glioma stem cells: Mechanism, clinical relevance, and therapeutic development
Neural oncogenesis is currently incurable and invariably lethal. The development of innovative treatments for this devastating cancer will require a deeper molecular understanding of how cancer cells survive, proliferate, and escape from current therapies. In high‐grade gliomas (HGGs), glioma stem cells (GSCs) may causally contribute to tumor initiation and propagation, therapeutic resistance, and subsequent recurrence of tumors. Within a tumor mass, GSCs are enriched in a hypoxic niche in which the oxidative stress levels are substantially elevated. Paradoxically, however, recent studies suggest that GSCs appear to gene...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - July 9, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sung‐Hak Kim, Chang‐Hyuk Kwon, Ichiro Nakano Tags: Review Source Type: research

Clinical Outcomes and Late Endocrine, Neurocognitive, and Visual Profiles of Proton Radiation for Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas
We report our experience with 32 pediatric patients treated with proton RT.Methods and Materials: Thirty-two pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas of the brain or spinal cord were treated with proton RT from 1995 to 2007. Sixteen patients received at least 1 regimen of chemotherapy before definitive RT. The median radiation dose was 52.2 GyRBE (48.6-54 GyRBE).Results: The median age at treatment was 11.0 years (range, 2.7-21.5 years), with a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range, 3.2-18.2 years). The 6-year and 8-year rates of progression-free survival were 89.7% and 82.8%, respectively, with an 8-year overall ...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - July 8, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Benjamin A. Greenberger, Margaret B. Pulsifer, David H. Ebb, Shannon M. MacDonald, Robin M. Jones, William E. Butler, Mary S. Huang, Karen J. Marcus, Jennifer A. Oberg, Nancy J. Tarbell, Torunn I. Yock Tags: Pediatric Cancer Source Type: research

Interleukin‐17 Facilitates the Immune Suppressor Capacity of High‐Grade Glioma‐Derived CD4 (+) CD25 (+) Foxp3 (+) T Cells Via Releasing Transforming Growth Factor Beta
In conclusion, IL‐17+ Tregs exist in the high‐grade glioma tissue; this subset of T cells can suppress CD8+ T cell activities via releasing TGF‐beta and IL‐17. (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology - July 8, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: H. Liang, L. Yi, X. Wang, C. Zhou, L. Xu Tags: Human Immunology Source Type: research

Dexamethasone Suppresses Neurosteroid Biosynthesis via Downregulation of Steroidogenic Enzyme Gene Expression in Human Glioma GI-1 Cells.
Abstract Emerging evidence indicates that stress hormone glucocorticoids (GC) are an important modulator of brain development and function. To investigate whether GCs modulate neurosteroid biosynthesis in neural cells, we studied the effects of GCs on steroidogenic gene expression in human glioma GI-1 cells. The GC dexamethasone (Dex) reduced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), CYP11A1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression in a dose- and GC receptor-dependent manner. In addition to its effects on steroidogenic gene expression, Dex also reduced de novo synthesis of progesterone (PROG). Furt...
Source: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - July 7, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koibuchi F, Ritoh N, Aoyagi R, Funakoshi-Tago M, Tamura H Tags: Biol Pharm Bull Source Type: research

Proton T2 measurement and quantification of lactate in brain tumors by MRS at 3 Tesla in vivo
ConclusionThe Lac T2 was similar among gliomas regardless of their tumor grades. This suggests that the T2 value from this study may be applicable to obtain the T2 relaxation‐free estimates of Lac in a subset of brain tumors. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - July 7, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Akshay Madan, Sandeep K. Ganji, Zhongxu An, Kevin S. Choe, Marco C. Pinho, Robert M. Bachoo, Elizabeth M. Maher, Changho Choi Tags: Note Source Type: research

Glioma grading using apparent diffusion coefficient map: application of histogram analysis based on automatic segmentation
The accurate diagnosis of glioma subtypes is critical for appropriate treatment, but conventional histopathologic diagnosis often exhibits significant intra‐observer variability and sampling error. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histogram analysis using an automatically segmented region of interest (ROI), excluding cystic or necrotic portions, could improve the differentiation between low‐grade and high‐grade gliomas. Thirty‐two patients (nine low‐grade and 23 high‐grade gliomas) were included in this retrospective investigation. The outer boundaries of the entire tumors were manually drawn in...
Source: NMR in Biomedicine - July 7, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Jeongwon Lee, Seung Hong Choi, Ji‐Hoon Kim, Chul‐Ho Sohn, Sooyeul Lee, Jaeseung Jeong Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Autocrine/paracrine sphingosine‐1‐phosphate fuels proliferative and stemness qualities of glioblastoma stem cells
Accumulating reports suggest that human glioblastoma contains glioma stem‐like cells (GSCs) which act as key determinants driving tumor growth, angiogenesis, and contributing to therapeutic resistance. The proliferative signals involved in GSC proliferation and progression remain unclear. Using GSC lines derived from human glioblastoma specimens with different proliferative index and stemness marker expression, we assessed the hypothesis that sphingosine‐1‐phosphate (S1P) affects the proliferative and stemness properties of GSCs. The results of metabolic studies demonstrated that GSCs rapidly consume newly synthesize...
Source: Glia - July 6, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Giovanni Marfia, Rolando Campanella, Stefania Elena Navone, Clara Vito, Elena Riccitelli, Loubna Abdel Hadi, Andrea Bornati, Gisele Rezende, Paola Giussani, Cristina Tringali, Paola Viani, Paolo Rampini, Giulio Alessandri, Eugenio Parati, Laura Riboni Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Chromosome band 7q34 deletions resulting in KIAA1549‐BRAF and FAM131B‐BRAF fusions in pediatric low grade gliomas
Abstract The majority of pediatric low grade gliomas (LGGs) are characterized by constitutive activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through various mechanisms including BRAF mutations, inactivation of NF1, and KIAA1549‐BRAF and FAM131B‐BRAF fusions. The KIAA1549‐BRAF fusion typically results from a 2.0 Mb tandem duplication in chromosome band 7q34. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)‐based array analysis of three LGGs demonstrated deletions in 7q34 that resulted in a BRAF fusion. Case 1 was likely a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with three deletions in 7q33q34 and an ...
Source: Brain Pathology - July 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Jacquelyn J Roth, Mariarita Santi, Avrum N Pollock, Brian N Harding, Lucy B Rorke‐Adams, Laura S Tooke, Jaclyn A Biegel Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

P53 induction accompanying G2/M arrest upon knockdown of tumor suppressor HIC1 in U87MG glioma cells.
In this study, we investigated the role of HIC1 in cell cycle and proliferation of glioma cell line U87MG which has wild type p53, in both serum-containing and serum-deprived medium. Microscopic analysis and MTT assay showed reduced cell number and rate of proliferation upon HIC1 knock down compared to control siRNA (p = 0.025) and untreated cells (p = 0.03) in serum-containing medium and serum-free medium (p = 0.014 vs control siRNA; p = 0.018 vs untreated cells). Cell cycle analysis revealed an arrest at G2/M phase of cell cycle with no demonstrable increase in apoptosis with both medium. An increased expression ...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry - July 4, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kumar S Tags: Mol Cell Biochem Source Type: research

Lack of rearrangement in adult human gliomas
(Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - July 3, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: L. Karayan-Tapon, U. Cortes, P. Rivet, C. Jermidi, G. Vassal, M. Wager, L. Taillandier Source Type: research

Elevated expression of fatty acid synthase and nuclear localization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C are common among human gliomas
We examined the expression and subcellular localization of these fatty acid metabolism‐related molecules in human gliomas. We performed immunostaining of two glioma cell lines (U373MG and U87MG) and 41 surgical specimens of diffuse gliomas with various histological grades (21 with the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) R132H mutation and 20 without the mutation). In the cultured glioma cells, CPT1C and phosphorylated ACC (p‐ACC) were mainly localized to the nuclei, whereas FASN localized to the cytoplasm. In the surgical specimens, most glioma tissues showed nuclear staining for CPT1C and p‐ACC, and cytoplasmic stainin...
Source: Neuropathology - July 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tomihiro Wakamiya, Satoshi O. Suzuki, Hideomi Hamasaki, Hiroyuki Honda, Masahiro Mizoguchi, Koji Yoshimoto, Toru Iwaki Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Akt-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming Regulates Tumor Cell Histone Acetylation.
Abstract Histone acetylation plays important roles in gene regulation, DNA replication, and the response to DNA damage, and it is frequently deregulated in tumors. We postulated that tumor cell histone acetylation levels are determined in part by changes in acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) availability mediated by oncogenic metabolic reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that acetyl-CoA is dynamically regulated by glucose availability in cancer cells and that the ratio of acetyl-CoA:coenzyme A within the nucleus modulates global histone acetylation levels. In vivo, expression of oncogenic Kras or Akt stimulates histo...
Source: Cell Metabolism - July 2, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Lee JV, Carrer A, Shah S, Snyder NW, Wei S, Venneti S, Worth AJ, Yuan ZF, Lim HW, Liu S, Jackson E, Aiello NM, Haas NB, Rebbeck TR, Judkins A, Won KJ, Chodosh LA, Garcia BA, Stanger BZ, Feldman MD, Blair IA, Wellen KE Tags: Cell Metab Source Type: research

Angiopep-2 and Activatable Cell-Penetrating Peptide Dual-Functionalized Nanoparticles for Systemic Glioma-Targeting Delivery
Molecular PharmaceuticsDOI: 10.1021/mp500113p (Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics)
Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics - July 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huile Gao, Shuang Zhang, Shijie Cao, Zhi Yang, Zhiqing Pang and Xinguo Jiang Source Type: research

Gamma-tocotrienol and hydroxy-chavicol synergistically inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human glioma cells
Conclusion: In conclusion, combined treatments with sub-effective doses of GTT and HC resulted in synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis of human glioma cells in vitro. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - July 1, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Amirah Abdul RahmanA Rahman A JamalRoslan HarunNorfilza Mohd MokhtarWan Zurinah Wan Ngah Source Type: research

Ubiquitin-specific protease 2a stabilizes MDM4 and facilitates the p53-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway in glioblastoma
The mouse double minute 4 (MDM4) oncoprotein may inhibit tumorigenesis by regulating the apoptotic mediator p53. Ubiquitin-specific protease 2a (USP2a) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that protects MDM4 against degradation, so USP2–MDM4 interaction may be a key determinant of the malignant potential of human cancers. MDM4 and USP2a, as well as the MDM4–USP2a complex, were more highly expressed in glioblastoma multiforme tissue samples from patients with good prognosis compared with patients with poor prognosis. Analysis of the prognostic parameters indicated that MDM4 expression was positively correlated with an i...
Source: Carcinogenesis - July 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang, C.-L., Wang, J.-Y., Liu, Z.-Y., Ma, X.-M., Wang, X.-W., Jin, H., Zhang, X.-P., Fu, D., Hou, L.-J., Lu, Y.-C. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Comprehensive characterization of glioblastoma tumor tissues for biomarker identification using mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics
The objective of our study is to identify and characterize proteins that are differentially expressed in GBM to better understand their interactions and functions that lead to the disease condition. Further identification of upstream regulators will provide new potential therapeutic targets. We analyzed GBM tumors by SDS-PAGE fractionation with internal DNA markers followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Brain tissue specimens obtained for clinical purposes during epilepsy surgeries were used as controls, and the quantification of MS data was performed by label-free spectral counting. The different...
Source: Physiological Genomics - July 1, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Heroux, M. S., Chesnik, M. A., Halligan, B. D., Al-Gizawiy, M., Connelly, J. M., Mueller, W. M., Rand, S. D., Cochran, E. J., LaViolette, P. S., Malkin, M. G., Schmainda, K. M., Mirza, S. P. Tags: General Interest Source Type: research

Delineation of gliomas using radial metabolite indexing
In this study, we present an objective analysis method for MRSI data to delineate tumour abnormality regions. The presented method is a development of the choline‐to‐N‐acetylaspartate index (CNI), which uses perpendicular distances in a choline versus N‐acetylaspartate plot as a measure of abnormality. We propose a radial CNI (rCNI) method that uses the choline to N‐acetylaspartate ratio directly as an abnormality measure. To avoid problems with small or zero denominators, we perform an arctangent transformation. CNI abnormality contours were evaluated using a z‐score threshold of 2 (CNI2) and 2.5 (CNI2.5) and ...
Source: NMR in Biomedicine - July 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: F. Raschke, T. L. Jones, T. R. Barrick, F. A. Howe Tags: Research article Source Type: research

[Acute demyelination secondary to radiation therapy in a patient with glioma.]
PMID: 24997055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Presse Medicale)
Source: Presse Medicale - July 1, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Madani O, Bompaire F, Mokhtari K, Sanson M, Ricard D Tags: Presse Med Source Type: research

Genetic features of oligodendrogliomas and presence of seizures. The relationship of seizures and genetics in LGOs.
This study, although of limited statistical power, did not demonstrate an association between 1p19q status and seizure occurrence in LGO's. Replication in a larger cohort would further support our hypothesis that 1p19q status alone cannot be used as a reliable predictor of seizure occurrence in LGO's. PMID: 24986208 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Neuropathology)
Source: Clinical Neuropathology - July 1, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Mulligan L, Ryan E, O'Brien M, Looby S, Heffernan J, O'Sullivan J, Clarke M, Buckley P, O'Brien D, Farrell M, Brett FM Tags: Clin Neuropathol Source Type: research

Intra-operative visualization of brain tumors with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence.
Abstract Precise histopathological diagnosis of brain tumors is essential for the correct patient management. Furthermore, complete resection of brain tumors is associated with an improved patient prognosis. However, histopathological undergrading and incomplete tumor removal are not uncommon, especially due to insufficient intra-operative visualization of brain tumor tissue. The fluorescent dye 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is currently applied for fluorescence-guided resections of high-grade gliomas. The value of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence for intra-operative visualization of other tumors th...
Source: Clinical Neuropathology - July 1, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Widhalm G Tags: Clin Neuropathol Source Type: research

MicroRNA‐302b‐inhibited E2F3 transcription factor is related to all‐trans retinoic acid‐induced glioma cell apoptosis
This study investigated the effects of ATRA‐mediated miRNA expression in activating apoptotic pathways in glioblastoma. First, we found that high‐dose ATRA treatment significantly reduced cell viability, caspase‐dependent apoptosis, endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress activation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. From microarray data, miR‐302b was analyzed as a putative downstream regulator upon ATRA treatment. Furthermore, we found that ATRA upregulated miR‐302b expression in dose‐ and time‐dependent manners through retinoic acid receptor (RAR)α‐mediated pathway. Overexpression a...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - July 1, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Peng‐Hsu Chen, Chwen‐Ming Shih, Wei‐Chiao Chang, Chia‐Hsiung Cheng, Cheng‐Wei Lin, Kuo‐hao Ho, Po‐Chia Su, Ku‐Chung Chen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Nonneurotoxic VSV for Glioma Therapy
In this study, we have engineered a chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that is devoid of its natural neurotoxicity while retaining potent oncolytic activity. The envelope glycoprotein (G) of VSV was replaced with a variant glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-GP), creating a replicating therapeutic, rVSV(GP), that is benign in normal brain but can effectively eliminate brain cancer in multiple preclinical tumor models in vivo. Furthermore, it can be safely administered systemically to mice and displays greater potency against a spectrum of human cancer cell lines than current OV candidates. R...
Source: Cancer Research - June 30, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Muik, A., Stubbert, L. J., Jahedi, R. Z., Gei{beta}, Y., Kimpel, J., Dold, C., Tober, R., Volk, A., Klein, S., Dietrich, U., Yadollahi, B., Falls, T., Miletic, H., Stoȷdl, D., Bell, J. C., von Laer, D. Tags: Therapeutics, Targets, and Chemical Biology Source Type: research

A soluble form of GAS1 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in a triple negative breast cancer model.
Abstract We previously demonstrated the capacity of GAS1 (Growth Arrest Specific 1) to inhibit the growth of gliomas by blocking the GDNF-RET signaling pathway. Here, we show that a soluble form of GAS1 (tGAS1), decreases the number of viable MDA MB 231 human breast cancer cells, acting in both autocrine and paracrine manners when secreted from producing cells. Moreover, tGAS1 inhibits the growth of tumors implanted in female nu/nu mice through a RET-independent mechanism which involves interfering with the Artemin (ARTN)-GFRα3-(GDNF Family Receptor alpha 3) mediated intracellular signaling and the activation of E...
Source: Experimental Cell Research - June 30, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Jiménez A, López-Ornelas A, Estudillo E, González-Mariscal L, González RO, Segovia J Tags: Exp Cell Res Source Type: research

Bradykinin antagonists and thiazolidinone derivatives as new potential anti-cancer compounds.
Abstract Glioblastoma (GB), the most aggressive brain tumour, and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a rare but very aggressive type of lymphoma, are highly resistant to chemotherapy. GB and MCL chemotherapy gives very modest results, the vast majority of patients experience recurrent disease. To find out the new treatment modality for drug-resistant GB and MCL cells, combining of bradykinin (BK) antagonists with conventional temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, and screening of thiazolidinones derivatives were the main objectives of this work. As it was revealed here, BKM-570 was the lead compound among BK antagonists under inv...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry - June 30, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Avdieiev S, Gera L, Havrylyuk D, Hodges RS, Lesyk R, Ribrag V, Vassetzky Y, Kavsan V Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Source Type: research

High-grade glioma in a patient with breast cancer.
Abstract Breast cancer is one of the most common origins of metastatic lesions in the central nervous system. Many patients with a breast cancer and concurrent brain tumor(s) were diagnosed to have a metastatic lesion or lesions in the brain, based exclusively on their image findings without further pathologic verification, and received radiotherapy alone thereafter. It is, however, possible that a different pathology such as primary brain malignancy, which actually warrants a specific treatment modality, may occur in such patients with an already known malignancy. We, herein, reported a 61-year-old female patient ...
Source: Asian Journal of Surgery - June 29, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Chang CC, Tien CH, Tai SH, Chuang MT, Sze CI, Hung YC, Lee EJ Tags: Asian J Surg Source Type: research

Effect of miR-142-3p on the M2 Macrophage and Therapeutic Efficacy Against Murine Glioblastoma
Conclusions These data indicate a unique role of miR-142-3p in glioma immunity by modulating M2 macrophages through the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway. (Source: JNCI)
Source: JNCI - June 28, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xu, S., Wei, J., Wang, F., Kong, L.-Y., Ling, X.-Y., Nduom, E., Gabrusiewicz, K., Doucette, T., Yang, Y., Yaghi, N. K., Fajt, V., Levine, J. M., Qiao, W., Li, X.-G., Lang, F. F., Rao, G., Fuller, G. N., Calin, G. A., Heimberger, A. B. Tags: Article Source Type: research

Osseous metaplasia in gliosarcoma: an unusual histologic finding. Case report
Gliosarcoma (GS) is a malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system that has coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. GSs are rarely related to osseous metaplasia. The authors report a case of GS in a male patient presenting apathy and catatonia. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging showed an expansive process affecting the left frontal lobe. At microscopy, a malignant glioma constituted by highly atypical glial cells intermingled with spindle-shaped cells was identified. The lesion showed areas of necrosis with pseudopalisading formation, focus of osseous metaplasia, and positive immunoexpression of S100,...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial - June 27, 2014 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Brain tumours and cigarette smoking: analysis of the interphone Canada case-control study
Conclusion: Except for an unexplained and possibly artefactual excess risk in one population subgroup, we found little or no evidence of an association between smoking and either glioma or meningioma. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - June 27, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Stephen VidaLesley RichardsonElisabeth CardisDaniel KrewskiMary McBrideMarie-Elise ParentMichal AbrahamowiczKaren LeffondréJack Siemiatycki Source Type: research

Antigen-Specific Immune Responses and Clinical Outcome After Vaccination With Glioma-Associated Antigen Peptides and Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid Stabilized by Lysine and Carboxymethylcellulose in Children With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Brainstem and Nonbrainstem Gliomas [Pediatric Oncology]
Conclusion GAA peptide vaccination in children with gliomas is generally well tolerated and has preliminary evidence of immunologic and clinical responses. Careful monitoring and management of pseudoprogression is essential. (Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology - June 27, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pollack, Jakacki, Butterfield, Hamilton, Panigrahy, Potter, Connelly, Dibridge, Whiteside, Okada Tags: Brain Tumors, CNS Tumors Pediatric Oncology Source Type: research

CXCR7 and CXCR4 Expressions in Infiltrative Astrocytomas and Their Interactions with HIF1α Expression and IDH1 Mutation.
Abstract The CXCR7, a new receptor for CXCL12 with higher affinity than CXCR4 has raised key issues on glioma cell migration. The aim of this study is to investigate the CXCR7 mRNA expression in diffuse astrocytomas tissues and to evaluate its interactions with CXCR4 and HIF1α expression and IDH1 mutation. CXCR7, CXCR4 and HIF1α mRNA expression were evaluated in 129 frozen samples of astrocytomas. IDH1 mutation status was analyzed with gene expressions, matched with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival time. Protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in different grades of astrocytoma ...
Source: Pathology Oncology Research - June 27, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Bianco AM, Uno M, Oba-Shinjo SM, Clara CA, de Almeida Galatro TF, Rosemberg S, Teixeira MJ, Nagahashi Marie SK Tags: Pathol Oncol Res Source Type: research

Second brain tumors following central nervous system radiotherapy in childhood.
Conclusions: Our data suggests that the second tumors usually develop in the brain tissues that received dose >25 Gy in patients irradiated at young age. Advances in knowledge: The low dose volume seems to be not so significant for second brain neoplasm induction. Therefore, the modern IMRT technique could be safely applied in pediatric patients. PMID: 24968876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 27, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Chojnacka M, Pędziwiatr K, Skowrońska-Gardas A, Perek-Polnik M, Perek D, Olasek P Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Brain tumours and cigarette smoking: analysis of the INTERPHONE Canada case¿control study
Conclusion: Except for an unexplained and possibly artefactual excess risk in one population subgroup, we found little or no evidence of an association between smoking and either glioma or meningioma. (Source: Environmental Health)
Source: Environmental Health - June 27, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Stephen VidaLesley RichardsonElisabeth CardisDaniel KrewskiMary McBrideMarie-Elise ParentMichal AbrahamowiczKaren LeffondréJack Siemiatycki Source Type: research

Anti-tumor innate immunity activated by intermittent metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment of 9L brain tumor xenografts is preserved by anti-angiogenic drugs that spare VEGF receptor 2
Conclusions: The interference by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the immunogenic actions of intermittent metronomic chemotherapy is not a consequence of anti-angiogenesis per se, as demonstrated in an implanted 9L tumor model. Furthermore, this undesirable interaction with tyrosine kinase inhibitors can be avoided by using anti-angiogenic drugs that spare the VEGFR2 pathway. (Source: Molecular Cancer)
Source: Molecular Cancer - June 26, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Joshua DoloffChong-Sheng ChenDavid Waxman Source Type: research