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Training for brain tumour resection: a realistic model with easy accessibility
Conclusions The described in vitro sheep brain tumour model is simple and realistic, available practically everywhere and cheap. Therefore, it could be useful for young neurosurgical residents to acquire basic neuro-oncological skills, experiencing properties of the cerebral brain texture and its haptic perception and to learn handling of neurosurgical equipment. (Source: Acta Neurochirurgica)
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - October 13, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

A novel amplification-based approach to enable gene expression profiling from small clinical tumor specimens
In this study, we have shown the feasibility of consolidating high-throughput data into a single functional panel capable of accurately classifying glioma specimens based solely on semiquantitative gene expression profiling. (Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 13, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tip60 regulates MT1-MMP transcription and invasion of glioblastoma cells through NF-κB pathway
In this study, we investigated the role of Tip60 in the malignant behavior of human gliomas. By quantitative RT-PCR analysis using fresh human brain tumor tissues from 55 patients, we found that lower Tip60 expression and higher membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression are associated with advanced tumor grade in glioma tissues. Knockdown of Tip60 in glioblastoma cells promoted cell adhesion, spreading and MT1-MMP transcription and thereby invasion, which was suppressed by inhibition of MT1-MMP and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. We demonstrate for the first time that tumor suppressor Tip60 do...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - October 13, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Methylation of the miR-126 gene associated with glioma progression
Abstract Gliomas are the most common and the most malignant brain tumors, accouting for 45–55 % of all intracranial tumors. The incidence of glioma worldwide is about 6–12 per 100,000. Recently, several studies showed that the activation of the oncogenes and the inactivation and/or loss of the tumor suppressor genes, especially for miRNA-21, let-7 and so on, are the most primary molecule event in gliomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenously expressed small noncoding RNAs which are usually 21–23 nucleotides long. miRNAs regulate gene expression and play important roles in a variety of physiolo...
Source: Familial Cancer - October 13, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Venous thrombosis in patients with high-grade glioma
We report here the specificities of VTE management in HGG patients relative to other cancer patients. Particular aspects such as anticoagulation under targeted therapies, primary and secondary prophylaxis, and the role of new oral anticoagulants are discussed as well. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Management of diffusely infiltrating glioma in the elderly
Purpose of review: Genetic, epigenetic, and expression analyses have refined the traditional, histopathology-based classification of diffusely infiltrating gliomas. This review summarizes these trends and implications for elderly patients. Recent findings: The vast majority of diffusely infiltrating gliomas in elderly patients share an unfavorable molecular phenotype, that is, telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation in the absence of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. Histopathologically, these are mostly astrocytic tumors and treatment is guided by the methylation status of the O6-me...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Downregulation of nitrogen permease regulator like‐2 activates PDK1‐AKT1 and contributes to the malignant growth of glioma cells
Nitrogen permease regulator like‐2(NPRL2) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene(TSG) located on chromosome 3p21.3 and deletions frequently occur in this region, leading to canceration. Recently, molecular pathologic researches have provided valuable insights into the downregulation of NPRL2 in carcinogenesis in some types of cancers. However, very little is known about genetic changes of NPRL2 involved in glioma. Here, for the first time, we aimed to understand the expression levels, functions and mechanisms of NPRL2 for progression of glioma. We clearly demonstrated that NPRL2 expression was decreased in glioma and was n...
Source: Molecular Carcinogenesis - October 12, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Ning Huang, Si Cheng, Xiujuan Mi, Qin Tian, Qin Huang, Feng Wang, Zongye Xu, Zongyi Xie, Jin Chen, Yuan Cheng Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Allelic loss of 9p21.3 is a prognostic factor in 1p/19q codeleted anaplastic gliomas
Conclusion: Our study highlights a novel potential prognostic biomarker in 1p/19q codeleted AOT. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate our finding. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - October 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Alentorn, A., Dehais, C., Ducray, F., Carpentier, C., Mokhtari, K., Figarella-Branger, D., Chinot, O., Cohen-Moyal, E., Ramirez, C., Loiseau, H., Elouahdani-Hamdi, S., Beauchesne, P., Langlois, O., Desenclos, C., Guillamo, J.-S., Dam-Hieu, P., Ghiringhell Tags: Prognosis, Primary brain tumor, Chromosomes ARTICLE Source Type: research

Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of adult meningioma and glioma: A meta-analysis
Conclusions: Adiposity is related to enhanced risk for meningioma but is unassociated with risk for glioma. Based on a limited body of evidence, physical activity is related to decreased risk of meningioma but shows little association with risk of glioma. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - October 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Niedermaier, T., Behrens, G., Schmid, D., Schlecht, I., Fischer, B., Leitzmann, M. F. Tags: Primary brain tumor, Risk factors in epidemiology VIEWS & amp;amp; REVIEWS Source Type: research

Low-Dose DMC Significantly Enhances the Effect of TMZ on Glioma Cells by Targeting Multiple Signaling Pathways Both In Vivo and In Vitro
In this study, we found low-dose demethoxycurcumin (DMC) could enhance the sensitivity of TMZ on glioma cells, and high-dose DMC has more significant effects on GBM cells compared with TMZ treatment alone both in vitro and in vivo. And co-administration of DMC and TMZ resulted in a significant increase in GBM apoptosis and a marked inhibition of cell growth pathogenesis of GBM. Mechanistically, DMC and TMZ synergistically increase intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, activate caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway, and inactivate of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in GBMs, which account for the cell ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

MAGI3 negatively regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and suppresses malignant phenotypes of glioma cells.
Authors: Ma Q, Yang Y, Feng D, Zheng S, Meng R, Fa P, Zhao C, Liu H, Song R, Tao T, Yang L, Dai J, Wang S, Jiang WG, He J Abstract Gliomas are the most common primary brain malignancies and are associated with a poor prognosis. Here, we showed that the PDZ domain-containing protein membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 3 (MAGI3) was downregulated at the both mRNA and protein levels in human glioma samples. MAGI3 inhibited proliferation, migration, and cell cycle progression of glioma cells in its overexpression and knockdown studies. By using GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we found that MA...
Source: Oncotarget - October 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Fluorescence in Cerebellar Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: A Case Report and Literature Review.
Abstract 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced fluorescence-guided resection is a widely used procedure for patients with malignant gliomas. However, the clinical application of 5-ALA for surgery in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is uncommon. Here, we present a case of PCNSL treated using 5-ALA-induced fluorescence-guided resective surgery. A 70-year-old woman presented with cerebellar ataxia, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an irregularly shaped and homogenously enhanced mass with surrounding brain edema in the vermis that extended to the right hemisphere of the cerebellum. Under the preop...
Source: Turkish Neurosurgery - October 10, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Yamamoto J, Kitagawa T, Akiba D, Nishizawa S Tags: Turk Neurosurg Source Type: research

Congenital glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands
We report an autopsy case of an in-utero demise of a 38-week-gestation female fetus in a 29-year-old female. At autopsy, a previously detected supratentorial tectal mass (by fetal MRI) was identified. Histology showed a biphasic neoplasm marked by island of gray matter-like parenchyma rimmed by mature-appearing neuronal cells intermixed with variably cellular areas resembling a low grade astrocytoma. Focally, the tumor was noted to involve the overlying meninges. The neuronal cell components were highlighted with synaptophysin and neuN antibodies and the glioma areas stained with glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. T...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - October 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurosurgical management of adult diffuse low grade gliomas in Canada: a multi-center survey
Abstract Adult diffuse low-grade gliomas are slow growing, World Health Organization grade II lesions with insidious onset and ultimate anaplastic transformation. The timing of surgery remains controversial with polarized practices continuing to govern patient management. As a result, the management of these patients is variable. The goal of this questionnaire was to evaluate practice patterns in Canada. An online invitation for a questionnaire including diagnostic, preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative parameters and three cases with magnetic resonance imaging data with questions to various treatment o...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - October 10, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Inhibition of autophagy induced by quercetin at a late stage enhances cytotoxic effects on glioma cells
Abstract Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor in the central nervous system (CNS) with high morbidity and mortality in adults. Although standardized comprehensive therapy has been adapted, the prognosis of glioma patients is still frustrating and thus novel therapeutic strategies are urgently in need. Quercetin (Quer), an important flavonoid compound found in many herbs, is shown to be effective in some tumor models including glioma. Recently, it is reported that adequate regulation of autophagy can strengthen cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs. However, it is not yet fully clear how we should modulate ...
Source: Tumor Biology - October 10, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The effect of neurosphere culture conditions on the cellular metabolism of glioma cells.
Abstract Malignant gliomas, with an average survival time of 16-19 months after initial diagnosis, account for one of the most lethal tumours overall. Current standards in patient care provide only unsatisfying strategies in diagnostic and treatment for high-grade gliomas. Here we describe metabolic phenomena in the choline and glycine network associated with stem cell culture conditions in the classical glioma cell line U87. Using high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cell culture metabolic extracts we compare the metabolic composition of U87 chronically propagated as adherent culture in medium...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Dietrich U, Koch K, Suwala AK, Hartmann R, Cheng M, Maciaczyk D, Willbold D, Eberhart CG, Glunde K, Maciaczyk J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Anatomical specificity of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in glioblastomas: a voxel-based mapping analysis
Conclusion Voxel-based neuroimaging analysis revealed the anatomic specificity of VEGF expression in glioblastoma, which may further our understanding of genetic heterogeneity during tumor origination. This finding provides primary theoretical support for potential future application of customized antiangiogenic therapy. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 9, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The CD40/CD40L axis in glioma progression and therapy
(Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Walker, P. R., Migliorini, D. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

From the clinician's point of view - What is the status quo of positron emission tomography in patients with brain tumors?
The most common type of primary brain tumor is malignant glioma. Despite intensive therapeutic efforts, the majority of these neoplasms remain incurable. Imaging techniques are important for initial tumor detection and comprise indispensable tools for monitoring treatment. Structural imaging using contrast-enhanced MRI is the method of choice for brain tumor surveillance, but its capacity to differentiate tumor from nonspecific tissue changes can be limited, particularly with posttreatment gliomas. Metabolic imaging using positron-emission-tomography (PET) can provide relevant additional information, which may allow for be...
Source: Neuro-Oncology - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Galldiks, N., Langen, K.-J., Pope, W. B. Tags: Invited Reviews Source Type: research

Telomere maintenance and the etiology of adult glioma
A growing body of epidemiologic and tumor genomic research has identified an important role for telomere maintenance in glioma susceptibility, initiation, and prognosis. Telomere length has long been investigated in relation to cancer, but whether longer or shorter telomere length might be associated with glioma risk has remained elusive. Recent data address this question and are reviewed here. Common inherited variants near the telomerase-component genes TERC and TERT are associated both with longer telomere length and increased risk of glioma. Exome sequencing of glioma patients from families with multiple affected membe...
Source: Neuro-Oncology - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Walsh, K. M., Wiencke, J. K., Lachance, D. H., Wiemels, J. L., Molinaro, A. M., Eckel-Passow, J. E., Jenkins, R. B., Wrensch, M. R. Tags: Invited Reviews Source Type: research

CD40/CD40L expression correlates with the survival of patients with glioblastomas and an augmentation in CD40 signaling enhances the efficacy of vaccinations against glioma models
Conclusions The high expression of CD40/CD40L can be used as a biomarker for better prognoses in patients with gliomas. Immunotherapy using FGK45 significantly prolonged survival and represents a potential therapeutic strategy for gliomas including glioma-initiating cells. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chonan, M., Saito, R., Shoji, T., Shibahara, I., Kanamori, M., Sonoda, Y., Watanabe, M., Kikuchi, T., Ishii, N., Tominaga, T. Tags: Basic and Translational Investigations Source Type: research

Preclinical activity of combined HDAC and KDM1A inhibition in glioblastoma
Conclusions These data support targeting HDACs and KDM1A in combination as a strategy for GBM and identifies TP53 and TP73 as being altered in response to treatment. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Singh, M. M., Johnson, B., Venkatarayan, A., Flores, E. R., Zhang, J., Su, X., Barton, M., Lang, F., Chandra, J. Tags: Basic and Translational Investigations Source Type: research

Expression profiles of 151 pediatric low-grade gliomas reveal molecular differences associated with location and histological subtype
Conclusion Expression profiling of PLGGs reveals significant differences associated with tumor location, histology, and BRAF genomic status. Supratentorial PAs, in particular, are enriched in inflammatory pathways that appear to be tumor-related. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bergthold, G., Bandopadhayay, P., Hoshida, Y., Ramkissoon, S., Ramkissoon, L., Rich, B., Maire, C. L., Paolella, B. R., Schumacher, S. E., Tabak, B., Ferrer-Luna, R., Ozek, M., Sav, A., Santagata, S., Wen, P. Y., Goumnerova, L. C., Ligon, A. H., Stiles, C Tags: Basic and Translational Investigations Source Type: research

CSF neopterin level as a diagnostic marker in primary central nervous system lymphoma
Conclusion Assessing CSF neopterin levels in patients with a suspected brain tumor might be helpful for the positive and differential diagnosis of PCNSL. A prospective study is warranted to confirm these results. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Viaccoz, A., Ducray, F., Tholance, Y., Barcelos, G. K., Thomas-Maisonneuve, L., Ghesquieres, H., Meyronet, D., Quadrio, I., Cartalat-Carel, S., Louis-Tisserand, G., Jouanneau, E., Guyotat, J., Honnorat, J., Perret-Liaudet, A. Tags: Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

pH-weighted molecular imaging of gliomas using amine chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI
Conclusion Results suggest pH-weighted MRI may provide new insight into brain tumor physiology beyond traditional imaging technologies. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Neuro-Oncology - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Harris, R. J., Cloughesy, T. F., Liau, L. M., Prins, R. M., Antonios, J. P., Li, D., Yong, W. H., Pope, W. B., Lai, A., Nghiemphu, P. L., Ellingson, B. M. Tags: Neuroimaging Source Type: research

3-Bromopyruvate inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in CD133+ population in human glioma
Abstract The study was aimed to investigate the role of 3-bromopyruvate in inhibition of CD133+ U87 human glioma cell population growth. The results demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate inhibited the viability of both CD133+ and parental cells derived from U87 human glioma cell line. However, the 3-bromopyruvate-induced inhibition in viability was more prominent in CD133+ cells at 10 μM concentration after 48 h. Treatment of CD133+ cells with 3-bromopyruvate caused reduction in cell population and cell size, membrane bubbling, and degradation of cell membranes. Hoechst 33258 staining showed condensation of chromat...
Source: Tumor Biology - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Carboplatin Rechallenge After Hypersensitivity Reactions in Pediatric Patients With Low‐Grade Glioma: How Far Should we Push?
(Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lucie Lafay‐Cousin Tags: Highlight Source Type: research

Plasma miR-185 as a predictive biomarker for prognosis of malignant glioma
Conclusion: These findings suggest that plasma miR-185 has become potential biomarkers for glioma and may be useful in clinical management for glioma patients. (Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics)
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hailin TangQing LiuXiaoping LiuFeng YeXinhua XieXiaoming XieMinghua Wu Source Type: research

Identification of high risk anaplastic gliomas by a diagnostic and prognostic signature derived from mRNA expression profiling.
Authors: Zhang CB, Zhu P, Yang P, Cai JQ, Wang ZL, Li QB, Bao ZS, Zhang W, Jiang T Abstract Anaplastic gliomas are characterized by variable clinical and genetic features, but there are few studies focusing on the substratification of anaplastic gliomas. To identify a more objective and applicable classification of anaplastic gliomas, we analyzed whole genome mRNA expression profiling of four independent datasets. Univariate Cox regression, linear risk score formula and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were applied to derive a gene signature with best prognostic performance. The corresponding clinical ...
Source: Oncotarget - October 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Neurosurgical Quality Metrics: Seeking the Right Question
Publication date: October 2015 Source:World Neurosurgery, Volume 84, Issue 4 Author(s): James Richard Bean Quality of care measurement was a late addition to managed care. As a small specialty, neurosurgery quality of care metrics have a low priority for Medicare and other health care payers. Frequency of complications of glioma surgery derived from a large administrative database can be used as a quality measure, but the results may be inaccurate and inadequate. Prospective voluntary outcome registries offer a better alternative. (Source: World Neurosurgery)
Source: World Neurosurgery - October 8, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Predicting Outcomes After Glioma Surgery: Model Behavior
Publication date: October 2015 Source:World Neurosurgery, Volume 84, Issue 4 Author(s): Randy L. Jensen (Source: World Neurosurgery)
Source: World Neurosurgery - October 8, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The Safety of Surgery in Elderly Patients with Primary and Recurrent Glioblastoma
Conclusions We conclude that in select patients, age alone should not preclude the decision to pursue aggressive surgical management. (Source: World Neurosurgery)
Source: World Neurosurgery - October 8, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Multicentric Low-Grade Gliomas
Conclusion Tumor growth rate, detailed pathologic findings, imaging characteristics, and molecular signatures influence the clinical course of multicentric low-grade gliomas. PDGFRA amplifications and IDH1 wild-type status may act in a concerted fashion to produce an accelerated course of radiologic changes and tumor recurrence, as noted in our case. Additional research is needed to stratify the risk of transformation in patients with multicentric low-grade glioma and to guide management strategies. (Source: World Neurosurgery)
Source: World Neurosurgery - October 8, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Regulation of IL-8 gene expression in gliomas by microRNA miR-93
Conclusion: In conclusion, our results suggest an increasing role of miR-93 in regulating the level of expression of several genes involved in the angiogenesis of gliomas. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - October 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Enrica FabbriEleonora BrognaraGiulia MontagnerClaudio GhimentonAlbino EccherCinzia CantùSusanna KhalilValentino BezzerriLisa ProvezzaNicoletta BianchiAlessia FinottiMonica BorgattiGiuseppe MorettoMarco ChilosiGiulio CabriniRoberto Gambari Source Type: research

Caffeine-induced nuclear translocation of FoxO1 triggers Bim-mediated apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of caffeine-induced apoptosis in U251 cells (human glioma cell line). We analyzed the inhibitory effects of caffeine on cell proliferation by performing WST-8 and colony formation assays; in addition, cell survival was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and flow cytometric analysis. Western blotting was used to investigate the role played by FoxO1 in the proapoptotic effects of caffeine on glioma cells. Results showed that caffeine inhibited proliferation and survival of human glioma cells, induced apoptosis, and increased the...
Source: Tumor Biology - October 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MRI Tractography of Corticospinal Tract and Arcuate Fasciculus in High-Grade Gliomas Performed by Constrained Spherical Deconvolution: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis [ADULT BRAIN]
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrated that probabilistic constrained spherical deconvolution can provide essential qualitative and quantitative information in presurgical planning, which was not otherwise achievable with DTI. These findings can have important implications for the surgical approach and postoperative outcome in patients with glioma. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - October 8, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Mormina, E., Longo, M., Arrigo, A., Alafaci, C., Tomasello, F., Calamuneri, A., Marino, S., Gaeta, M., Vinci, S. L., Granata, F. Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research

MicroRNA-203 modulates the radiosensitivity of human malignant glioma cells
The ability of miR-203 to modulate the radiosensitivity of human malignant glioma (MG) cells was investigated. Overexpression of miR-203 increased the radiosensitivity of the MG cells. Our study demonstrated that miR-203 downregulated genes related to the DNA repair, PI3K/AKT, and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways; inhibited the invasion and migration potentials; downregulated SLUG and Vimentin; and upregulated Claudin-1 and ZO1, which may contribute to the modulation of radiosensitivity in the MG cells. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - October 8, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Ji Hyun Chang, Yeo Hyun Hwang, David J. Lee, Dan Hyo Kim, Ji Min Park, Hong-Gyun Wu, In Ah Kim Tags: Biology Contribution Source Type: research

Enhanced Performance of Brain Tumor Classification via Tumor Region Augmentation and Partition
by Jun Cheng, Wei Huang, Shuangliang Cao, Ru Yang, Wei Yang, Zhaoqiang Yun, Zhijian Wang, Qianjin Feng Automatic classification of tissue types of region of interest (ROI) plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. In the current study, we focus on the classification of three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor) in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images. Spatial pyramid matching (SPM), which splits the image into increasingly fine rectangular subregions and computes histograms of local features from each subregion, exhibits excellent results for natural scene classific...
Source: PLoS One - October 8, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jun Cheng et al. Source Type: research

BRAF V600E-mutated diffuse glioma in an adult patient: a case report and review
Abstract Recent advances in genomic technology and genome-wide analysis have identified key molecular alterations that are relevant to the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumors. Molecular information such as mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes or 1p/19q co-deletion status will be more actively incorporated into the histological classification of diffuse gliomas. BRAF V600E mutations are found frequently in circumscribed low-grade gliomas such as pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and extra-cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, or epithelioid glioblastomas (E–GBM), a rare variant of GBM. This mutatio...
Source: Brain Tumor Pathology - October 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hierarchical non‐negative matrix factorization to characterize brain tumor heterogeneity using multi‐parametric MRI
This study presents a method for the detection of the relevant tumor substructures (i.e. viable tumor, necrosis and edema), which could be of added value for the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow‐up of individual patients. Twenty‐four patients with glioma [10 low‐grade gliomas (LGGs), 14 high‐grade gliomas (HGGs)] underwent a multi‐parametric MRI (MP‐MRI) scheme, including conventional MRI (cMRI), perfusion‐weighted imaging (PWI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and short‐TE 1H MRSI. MP‐MRI parameters were derived: T2, T1 + contrast, fluid‐attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), relative cere...
Source: NMR in Biomedicine - October 7, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Nicolas Sauwen, Diana M. Sima, Sofie Van Cauter, Jelle Veraart, Alexander Leemans, Frederik Maes, Uwe Himmelreich, Sabine Van Huffel Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Selective increase in subtelomeric DNA methylation: an epigenetic biomarker for malignant glioma
Conclusions: DNA methylation level dramatically increased at the subtelomere of Chr.8q, 21q, and XpYp in malignant glioma, which could be used as an early epigenetic diagnostic biomarker of the disease. Alterations in subtelomeric methylation, however, have no effects on the TL. (Source: Clinical Epigenetics)
Source: Clinical Epigenetics - October 7, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Samrat ChoudhuryYi CuiJacob MiltonJian LiJoseph Irudayaraj Source Type: research

Physico-chemical characterization of asolectin -genistein liposomal system: an approach to analyze its in vitro antioxidant potential and effect in glioma cells viability.
In this study, the interaction between soy isoflavone genistein and asolectin liposomes was investigated by monitoring the effects of isoflavone on lipidic hydration, mobility, location and order. These properties were analyzed by the following techniques: horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR), low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-field (31)P- NMR, zeta potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The antioxidant and antitumoral activities of the genistein liposomal system were also studied. The genistein saturation con...
Source: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids - October 7, 2015 Category: Lipidology Authors: Lopes de Azambuja CR, Santos LG, Rodrigues MR, Rodrigues RF, da Silveira EF, Azambuja JH, Flores AF, Horn AP, Dora CL, Muccillo-Baisch AL, Braganhol E, da Sliva Pinto L, Parize AL, de Lima VR Tags: Chem Phys Lipids Source Type: research

Navigated intraoperative ultrasound for resection of gliomas: Predictive value, influence on resection and survival
Conclusions: NUS is a useful intraoperative adjunct in controlling resections. It positively and decisively influences the intraoperative course of the surgery. Understanding its correct technique and limitations, along with experience in image interpretation can help in maximizing its accuracy without compromising functional outcomes. Optimally utilized, it can improve survival. (Source: Neurology India)
Source: Neurology India - October 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Aliasgar V MoiyadiSadhana KannanPrakash Shetty Source Type: research

A new high-throughput screening-compatible gap junctional intercellular communication assay
Conclusions: We developed a new HTS system for GJ modulators. The system had a high assay quality with a Z’ factor ≥ 0.70, was rapid and required only 10 s per well, was inexpensive in requiring no additional reagents, and was predicted to have a low rate of false-positive hits. (Source: BMC Biotechnology)
Source: BMC Biotechnology - October 6, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ju LeeEun ChoiJinu Lee Source Type: research

Silencing Egr1 Radioprotects Normal but Not Cancer Cells
Normal tissue toxicity reduces the therapeutic index of radiotherapy and decreases the quality of life for cancer survivors. Apoptosis is a key element of the radiation response in normal tissues like the hippocampus and small intestine, resulting in neurocognitive disorders and intestinal malabsorption. The Early Growth Response 1 (Egr1) transcription factor mediates radiation-induced apoptosis by activating the transcription of proapoptosis genes in response to ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we hypothesized that the genetic abrogation of Egr1 and the pharmacologic inhibition of its transcriptional activity could att...
Source: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics - October 5, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhao, D. Y., Jacobs, K. M., Hallahan, D. E., Thotala, D. Tags: Cancer Biology and Signal Transduction Source Type: research

MicroRNA-139-5p acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting ELTD1 and regulating cell cycle in glioblastoma multiforme.
In this report we aimed to clarify its biological function, molecular mechanisms and direct target gene in GBM. Twelve patients with GBM were analyzed for the expression of miR-139-5p by quantitative RT-PCR. miR-139-5p overexpression was established by transfecting miR-139-5p-mimic into U87MG and T98G cells, and its effects on cell proliferation were studied using MTT assay and colony formation assays. We concluded that ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in GBM cell lines significantly suppressed cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Bioinformatics coupled with luciferase and western blot assays also revealed that miR-1...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - October 5, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dai S, Wang X, Li X, Cao Y Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of SASH1 Expression in Glioma.
Conclusions. SASH1 was widely expressed in normal and low-grade glioma tissues. SASH1 expression strongly correlated with glioma grades, showing higher expression at a lower grade, which decreased significantly as grade increased. Furthermore, SASH1 expression was positively correlated with better postoperative survival in patients with glioma. PMID: 26424902 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Disease Markers)
Source: Disease Markers - October 3, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research

Metformin and temozolomide act synergistically to inhibit growth of glioma cells and glioma stem cells in vitro and in vivo.
In conclusion, TMZ in combination with MET synergistically inhibits the GSCs proliferation through downregulation of AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. The combined treatment of two drugs inhibits GSCs self-renewal capability and partly eliminates GSCs in vitro and in vivo. This combined treatment could be a promising option for patients with advanced GBM. PMID: 26431379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)
Source: Oncotarget - October 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Focused ultrasound enhanced molecular imaging and gene therapy for multifusion reporter gene in glioma-bearing rat model.
This study demonstrated that FUS may be used to deliver a wide variety of theranostic agents to the brain for molecular imaging and gene therapy in brain diseases. PMID: 26429860 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)
Source: Oncotarget - October 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Down-regulation of IKKβ expression in glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages is associated with defective inflammatory/immune gene responses in glioblastoma.
Authors: Mieczkowski J, Kocyk M, Nauman P, Gabrusiewicz K, Sielska MG, Przanowski P, Maleszewska M, Rajan WD, Pszczolkowska D, Tykocki T, Grajkowska W, Kotulska K, Roszkowski M, Kostkiewicz B, Kaminska B Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive malignancy associated with profound host immunosuppression. Microglia and macrophages infiltrating GBM acquire the pro-tumorigenic, M2 phenotype and support tumor invasion, proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and block immune responses both locally and systematically. Mechanisms responsible for immunological deficits in GBM patients are poorly understood. We analyzed i...
Source: Oncotarget - October 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research