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Calcyclin‐binding protein/Siah‐1‐interacting protein as a regulator of transcriptional responses in brain cells
The calcyclin‐binding protein/Siah‐1‐interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) is highly expressed in the brain and has been shown to regulate β‐catenin‐driven transcription in thymocytes. Therefore, we investigated whether CacyBP/SIP plays a role as a transcriptional regulator in brain cells. In brain‐derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)‐ and forskolin‐stimulated rat primary cortical neurons, overexpression of CacyBP/SIP enhanced transcriptional activity of the cAMP‐response element (CRE). In addition, overexpressed CacyBP/SIP enhanced BDNF‐mediated activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) bu...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - August 28, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ewa Kilanczyk, Anna Filipek, Michal Hetman Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Polysialic acid is associated with better prognosis and IDH1-mutation in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas
Conclusions: Expression of polySia is common in adult grade II-IV astrocytomas, whereas it is nearly absent in pediatric grade I pilocytic astrocytomas. PolySia positivity is associated with longer survival rates in patients with a grade II-IV astrocytomas and also grade IV glioblastomas assessed separately. The results of this study suggest that IDH1 mutation may be associated with polySia expression pathways in malignant gliomas. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - August 28, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Katri MäkeläKristiina NordforsJukka FinneAnne JokilammiTimo PaavonenHannu HaapasaloMiikka KorjaJoonas Haapasalo Source Type: research

P2X7 receptors are a potential novel target for anti-glioma therapies
Conclusions: P2X7R was found to be over-expressed in grade IV human gliomas and its pore capacity was functional. Antagonism of P2X7R with BBG resulted in a decrease in tumour cell number. This identifies P2X7R as a promising therapeutic target to combat human glioma proliferation. (Source: Journal of Inflammation)
Source: Journal of Inflammation - August 28, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mastura MonifTerence O¿BrienKate DrummondChristopher ReidSimon LiubinasDavid Williams Source Type: research

Differences among brain tumor stem cell types and fetal neural stem cells in focal regions of histone modifications and DNA methylation, broad regions of modifications, and bivalent promoters
Conclusions: Overall, our "core set" data establishes sets of potential therapeutic targets, but the diversity in sets of sites and broad modifications among cell types underscores the need to carefully consider BTSC subtype variation in epigenetic therapy. Our results point toward substantial differences among cell types in the activity of the production/maintenance systems for H3K9me3 and for broad regions of modification (H3K27me3 or H3K9me3). Finally, the unexpected diversity in bivalent promoter sets among these multipotent cells indicates that bivalent promoters may play complex roles in the overall biology of these ...
Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles - August 27, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sally YooMark Bieda Source Type: research

miR‐372 regulates glioma cell proliferation and invasion by directly targeting PHLPP2
In this study, we confirmed that miR‐372 was commonly upregulated in glioma cell lines and tissues. Downregulation of miR‐372 markedly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion and induced G1/S arrest and apoptosis. Consistently, the xenograft mouse model also unveiled the suppressive effects of miR‐372 knockdown on tumor growth. Further studies revealed that miR‐372 modulated the expression of PHLPP2 by directly targeting its 3′‐untranslated region (3′‐UTR) and that miR‐372 expression was inversely correlated with PHLPP2 expression in glioma samples. Silencing of PHLPP2 could rescue the inhibitory effect...
Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - August 27, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xin Chen, Bin Hao, Ying Liu, Dongwei Dai, Guosheng Han, Yanan Li, Xi Wu, Xiaoping Zhou, Zhijian Yue, Laixing Wang, Yiqun Cao, Jianmin Liu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Click Conjugation of Peptide to Hydrogel Nanoparticles for Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery.
Abstract Here we introduce a modified peptide-decorated polymeric nanoparticle (NP) for cancer cell targeting, which can deliver drugs, such as doxorubicin (Dox), to several kinds of cancer cells. Specifically, we employ a nucleolin-targeting NP, with a matrix based on a copolymer of acrylamide (AAm) and 2-carboxyethyl acrylate (CEA). The negatively charged co(CEA-AAm) NP was conjugated with a nucleolin-targeting F3 peptide using a highly efficient and specific copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne click reaction. F3 peptide binds to angiogenic tumor vasculatures and other nucleolin overexpressing tumor cells. Attaching...
Source: Biomacromolecules - August 27, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Qin M, Zong H, Kopelman R Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Upregulation of NHE1 protein expression enables glioblastoma cells to escape TMZ-mediated toxicity via increased H+ extrusion, cell migration and survival
In this study, we detected high levels of NHE1 protein only in primary human glioma cells (GC), glioma xenografts and glioblastoma, but not in human neural stem cells or astrocytes. GC exhibited an alkaline resting pHi (7.46±0.04) maintained by robust NHE1-mediated H+ extrusion. GC treatment with TMZ for 2–24h triggered a transient decrease in pHi, which recovered by 48h and correlated with concurrent upregulation of NHE1 protein expression. NHE1 protein was colocalized with ezrin at lamellipodia and probably involved in GC migration. The TMZ-treated GC exhibited increased migration and invasion, which was att...
Source: Carcinogenesis - August 27, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cong, D., Zhu, W., Shi, Y., Pointer, K. B., Clark, P. A., Shen, H., Kuo, J. S., Hu, S., Sun, D. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Malignancy-associated metabolic profiling of human glioma cell lines using 1H NMR spectroscopy
Conclusions: Our results reveal the metabolic heterogeneity of glioma cell lines with different degrees of malignancy. The obtained metabolic profiles and characteristic metabolites are closely associated with the malignant features of glioma cells, which may lay the basis for both determining the molecular mechanisms underlying glioma malignant transformation and exploiting non-invasive biomarkers for prognosis monitoring. (Source: Molecular Cancer)
Source: Molecular Cancer - August 27, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wei ShaoJinping GuCaihua HuangDan LiuHuiying HuangZicheng HuangZhen LinWensheng YangKun LiuDonghai LinTianhai Ji Source Type: research

Effects of temozolomide (TMZ) on the expression and interaction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and DNA repair proteins in human malignant glioma cells.
Abstract We previously reported the association of HSPA1A and HSPB1 with high-grade astrocytomas, suggesting that these proteins might be involved in disease outcome and response to treatment. With the aim to better understand the resistance/susceptibility processes associated to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, the current study was performed in three human malignant glioma cell lines by focusing on several levels: (a) apoptotic index and senescence, (b) DNA damage, and (c) interaction of HSPB1 with players of the DNA damage response. Three human glioma cell lines, Gli36, U87, and DBTRG, were treated with TMZ evaluat...
Source: Cell Stress and Chaperones - August 26, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Castro GN, Cayado-Gutiérrez N, Zoppino FC, Fanelli MA, Cuello-Carrión FD, Sottile M, Nadin SB, Ciocca DR Tags: Cell Stress Chaperones Source Type: research

Evaluation of Prognostic Integrin α2β1 PET Tracer and Concurrent Targeting Delivery Using Focused Ultrasound for Brain Glioma Detection
Molecular PharmaceuticsDOI: 10.1021/mp500296n (Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics)
Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics - August 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yi-Hsiu Chung, Po-Hung Hsu, Chiun-Wei Huang, Wen-Chuan Hsieh, Feng-Ting Huang, Wen-Chi Chang, Han Chiu, Shih-Ting Hsu and Tzu-Chen Yen Source Type: research

MiR-181b sensitizes glioma cells to teniposide by targeting MDM2
Conclusions: MiR-181b is an important positive regulator on glioma cell sensitivity to teniposide. It confers glioma cell sensitivity to teniposide through binding to the 3'-UTR region of MDM2 leading to its reduced expression. Our findings not only reveal the novel mechanism involved in teniposide resistance, but also shed light on the optimization of glioma treatment in the future. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - August 25, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Yan-chang SunJing WangCheng-cheng GuoKe SaiJian WangFu-rong ChenQun-ying YangYin-sheng ChenJie WangTony Shing-shun ToZong-ping ZhangYong-gao MuZhong-ping Chen Source Type: research

GOLPH3 promotes glioblastoma cell migration and invasion via the mTOR‐YB1 pathway in vitro
In this study, we explored the mechanism of GOLPH3 affecting cell migration and invasion and found that GOLPH3 promotes glioblastoma (GBM) cell migration and invasion via the mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)‐Y‐box binding protein‐1 (YB1) pathway in vitro. Both the protein levels of GOLPH3 and YB1 were up‐regulated in human glioma tissues and they exhibited direct correlation with each other. In addition, down‐regulation of GOLPH3 inhibited glioma cell migration and invasion, while over‐expression of GOLPH3 enhanced them. Meanwhile, GOLPH3 down‐regulation led to a significant decrease of YB1 level as well a...
Source: Molecular Carcinogenesis - August 23, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Xu Zhang, Zhijun Ding, Jianbing Mo, Ben Sang, Qiong Shi, Jinxia Hu, Shao Xie, Wenjian Zhan, Dong Lu, Minglin Yang, Wenbin Bian, Xiuping Zhou, Rutong Yu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of gliomas using chlorotoxin-based bioconjugates.
Abstract Malignant gliomas, especially glioblastoma multiforme, are the most widely distributed and deadliest brain tumors because of their resistance to surgical and medical treatment. Research of glioma-specific bioconjugates for diagnosis and therapy developed rapidly during the past several years. Many studies have demonstrated that chlorotoxin (CTX) and Buthus martensii Karsch chlorotoxin (BmK CT) specifically inhibited glioma cells growth and metastasis, and accelerated tumor apoptosis. The bioconjugates of CTX or BmK CT with other molecules have played an increasing role in diagnostic imaging and treatment o...
Source: Molecular Medicine - August 22, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Cheng Y, Zhao J, Qiao W, Chen K Tags: Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging Source Type: research

Proneural–mesenchymal transformation of glioma stem cells: do therapies cause evolution of target in glioblastoma?
Future Oncology August 2014, Vol. 10, No. 9, Pages 1527-1530. (Source: Future Oncology)
Source: Future Oncology - August 22, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: article Source Type: research

Overexpression of Notch1 in temporal lobe epilepsy
(Neural Regeneration Research) Notch1 signaling can induce astrogliosis in glioma. However, it remains unknown whether Notch1 signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - August 21, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news

Fatal intratumoral hemorrhage in tectal plate glioblastoma multiforme following ventriculoperitoneal shunt
We report an 8-year-old girl who presented with severe headache, double vision, and bilateral papilledema. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with and without gadolinium administration revealed a large tectal plate tumor compressing the aqueduct which caused hydrocephalus. Due to progressive decline in consciousness level, an emergency CSF diversion was planned and she underwent left side posterior parietal V-P shunt placement. Eight hours after V-P shunt insertion, she suddenly developed tonic-clonic seizures and collapsed into deep coma with dilated pupils and stopped breathing and died 1-day later. Histological examinatio...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences - August 21, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mahmoud Reza KhalatbariSepehrdad KhalatbariYashar Moharamzad Source Type: research

The effects of sonic hedgehog signaling pathway components on non-small-cell lung cancer progression and clinical outcome
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this the first report of the relationship between components of the Shh signaling pathway and prognosis in NSCLC. The expression of Shh, Gli1 and LYVE-1 was found to be associated with clinicopathological factors and survival. Thus, the overexpression of the Shh signaling pathway could serve as a predictor of malignant behavior, including lymphangiogenesis, in NSCLC. (Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology)
Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology - August 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jinwook HwangMyoung Hee KangYoung A YooYu Hua QuanHyun Koo KimSang Cheul OhYoung Ho Choi Source Type: research

Anaplastic transformation of low-grade gliomas (WHO II) on magnetic resonance imaging.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiparametric MR examination allows the detection of LGGs with high probability of rapid anaplastic transformation and the detection of transformation prior to the occurrence of contrast enhancement. The value of nrCBV is the most useful in the diagnosis of anaplastic transformation. The resection of contrast enhancement area of the tumour significantly increases time to anaplastic transformation of LGGs. PMID: 25118898 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - August 20, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Bobek-Billewicz B, Stasik-Pres G, Hebda A, Majchrzak K, Kaspera W, Jurkowski M Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Markey researchers develop web-based app to predict glioma mutations
(University of Kentucky) A new web-based program developed by University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center researchers will provide a simple, free way for healthcare providers to determine which brain tumor cases require testing for a genetic mutation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 19, 2014 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Brain-Targeted Delivery of Docetaxel by Glutathione-Coated Nanoparticles for Brain Cancer.
Abstract Gliomas are some of the most aggressive types of cancers but the blood-brain barrier acts as an obstacle to therapeutic intervention in brain-related diseases. The blood-brain barrier blocks the permeation of potentially toxic compounds into neural tissue through the interactions of brain endothelial cells with glial cells (astrocytes and pericytes) which induce the formation of tight junctions in endothelial cells lining the blood capillaries. In the present study, we characterize a glutathione-coated docetaxel-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticle, show its in vitro drug release data along with cytotoxicity data ...
Source: AAPS PharmSciTech - August 19, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Grover A, Hirani A, Pathak Y, Sutariya V Tags: AAPS PharmSciTech Source Type: research

Evaluation of N-[11C]Methyl-AMD3465 as a PET Tracer for Imaging of CXCR4 Receptor Expression in a C6 Glioma Tumor Model
Molecular PharmaceuticsDOI: 10.1021/mp500398r (Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics)
Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics - August 18, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: S. V. Hartimath, A. van Waarde, R. A. J. O. Dierckx and E. F. J. de Vries Source Type: research

Expression of α‐subunit of α‐glucosidase II in adult mouse brain regions and selected organs
α‐Glucosidase II (GII), a resident of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and an important enzyme in the folding of nascent glycoproteins, is heterodimeric, consisting of α (GIIα) and β (GIIβ) subunits. The catalytic GIIα subunit, with the help of mannose 6‐phosphate receptor homology domain of GIIβ, sequentially hydrolyzes two α1‐3‐linked glucose residues in the second step of N‐linked oligosaccharide‐mediated protein folding. The soluble GIIα subunit is retained in the ER through its interaction with the HDEL‐containing GIIβ subunit. N‐glycosylation and correct protein folding are crucial for protein sta...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - August 18, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Antje Anji, Hayley Miller, Chandrasekar Raman, Mathew Phillips, Gary Ciment, Meena Kumari Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

RNA-seq of 272 gliomas revealed a novel, recurrent PTPRZ1-MET fusion transcript in secondary glioblastomas [RESEARCH]
Studies of gene rearrangements and the consequent oncogenic fusion proteins have laid the foundation for targeted cancer therapy. To identify oncogenic fusions associated with glioma progression, we catalogued fusion transcripts by RNA-seq of 272 WHO grade II, III, and IV gliomas. Fusion transcripts were more frequently found in high grade gliomas, in the classical subtype of gliomas, and in gliomas treated with radiation / temozolomide. 67 in-frame fusion transcripts were identified, including three recurrent fusion transcripts: FGFR3-TACC3, RNF213-SLC26A11, and PTPRZ1-MET (ZM). Interestingly, the ZM fusion was found only...
Source: Genome Research - August 18, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bao, Z.-S., Chen, H.-M., Yang, M.-Y., Zhang, C.-B., Yu, K., Ye, W.-L., Hu, B.-Q., Yan, W., Zhang, W., Akers, J., Ramakrishnan, V., Li, J., Carter, B., Liu, Y.-W., Hu, H.-M., Wang, Z., Li, M.-Y., Yao, K., Qiu, X.-G., Kang, C.-S., You, Y.-P., Fan, X.-L., So Tags: RESEARCH Source Type: research

Tetra-sulfonate phthalocyanine zinc-bovine serum albumin conjugate-mediated photodynamic therapy of human glioma
Conclusion PDT using ZnPcS4-BSA may be effective for the therapy of gliomas. (Source: Journal of Biomaterials Applications)
Source: Journal of Biomaterials Applications - August 18, 2014 Category: Materials Science Authors: Xu, D., Chen, X., Chen, K., Peng, Y., Li, Y., Ke, Y., Gan, D. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Manipulating MicroRNAs to Regulate Macrophage Polarization in Gliomas
(Source: JNCI)
Source: JNCI - August 18, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anand, S., Coussens, L. M. Tags: Solicited Editorial Source Type: research

Hypoxic signature of microRNAs in glioblastoma: insights from small RNA deep sequencing
Conclusions: Overall, our study reveals a novel miRNA signature of hypoxia in GBM and suggests miR-210-3p to be an oncogenic player and a novel potential intrinsic marker of hypoxia in glioblastoma. (Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles - August 17, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rahul AgrawalPriyatama PandeyPrerana JhaVivek DwivediChitra SarkarRitu Kulshreshtha Source Type: research

Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in glioma patients after long-term seizure freedom: design of a prospective observational study
This study addresses two issues that are currently unexplored. First, it will explore the willingness to withdraw AEDs in glioma patients, and second, it will assess the risk of seizure recurrence in case AEDs are withdrawn in this specific patient population. This study aims to contribute to a more tailored AED treatment, and prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful use of AEDs in glioma patients. (Source: BMC Neurology)
Source: BMC Neurology - August 15, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Johan KoekkoekMelissa KerkhofLinda DirvenJan HeimansTjeerd PostmaMaaike VosJacoline BrombergMartin van den BentJaap ReijneveldMartin Taphoorn Source Type: research

Practical surgical indicators to identify candidates for radical resection of insulo-opercular gliomas.
Conclusions The authors propose 4 simple indicators that can be used to identify ideal candidates for radical resection of insulo-opercular gliomas, improve the outcomes, and promote maximum resection without introducing neurological complications. The indicators are clear tumor boundaries, negative enhancement, intact lenticulostriate arteries, and intact superior extremity of the central insular sulcus. PMID: 25127416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - August 15, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Kawaguchi T, Kumabe T, Saito R, Kanamori M, Iwasaki M, Yamashita Y, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Association of genetic variants in the retinoblastoma binding protein 6 gene with the risk of glioma: a case-control study in a Chinese Han population.
Conclusions The authors' results suggested that RBBP6 gene variants are associated with glioma and contribute to glioma susceptibility, which was first reported elsewhere. Individuals with the so-called risk alleles might have an increased risk of glioma. These results might provide new insight into the occurrence of glioma. PMID: 25127414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - August 15, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Hu D, Zhang S, Zhao Y, Wang S, Wang Q, Song X, Lu D, Mao Y, Chen H Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Intratumor distribution and test–retest comparisons of physiological parameters quantified by dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI in rat U251 glioma
The distribution of dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI (DCE‐MRI) parametric estimates in a rat U251 glioma model was analyzed. Using Magnevist as contrast agent (CA), 17 nude rats implanted with U251 cerebral glioma were studied by DCE‐MRI twice in a 24 h interval. A data‐driven analysis selected one of three models to estimate either (1) plasma volume (vp), (2) vp and forward volume transfer constant (Ktrans) or (3) vp, Ktrans and interstitial volume fraction (ve), constituting Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. CA distribution volume (VD) was estimated in Model 3 regions by Logan plots. Regions of interest (ROIs) were...
Source: NMR in Biomedicine - August 14, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Madhava P. Aryal, Tavarekere N. Nagaraja, Stephen L. Brown, Mei Lu, Hassan Bagher‐Ebadian, Guangliang Ding, Swayamprava Panda, Kelly Keenan, Glauber Cabral, Tom Mikkelsen, James R. Ewing Tags: Research article Source Type: research

MRS water resonance frequency in childhood brain tumours: a novel potential biomarker of temperature and tumour environment
This study has shown that the water PRF value has the potential to be used for characterizing childhood brain tumours, which has not been reported previously. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. MRS thermometry was used to find significant differences in the chemical shift between two childhood brain tumour types. While temperature may be the main cause, questions have arisen as to whether the tumour environment significantly affects the chemical shift and is the main cause of the difference. (Source: NMR in Biomedicine)
Source: NMR in Biomedicine - August 14, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Ben Babourina‐Brooks, Martin Wilson, Theodoros N. Arvanitis, Andrew C. Peet, Nigel P. Davies Tags: Research article Source Type: research

OX26/CTX-conjugated PEGylated liposome as a dual-targeting gene delivery system for brain glioma
Conclusions: The PEGylated liposomes modified with OX26 and CTX are able to significantly promote cell transfection, increase the transport of plasmid DNA across the BBB and afterwards target the brain glioma cells in vitro and in vivo, exhibit the most significant therapeutic efficacy. The ligand OX26 plays a critical role in transporting the lipoplexes across the BBB, and CTX acts as a major role in targeting brain glioma cells. The results would encourage further developments for non-invasive targeting therapy of brain gliomas by intravenous injection. (Source: Molecular Cancer)
Source: Molecular Cancer - August 13, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pei-jian YueLei HeShu-wei QiuYi LiYi-ji LiaoXiang-pen LiDan XieYing Peng Source Type: research

Hyperpolarized Glutamate as an Imaging Marker of Mutant IDH1
Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene are among the most prevalent in low-grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma, represent an early pathogenic event, and are associated with epigenetically driven modulations of metabolism. Of particular interest is the recently uncovered relationship between the IDH1 mutation and decreased activity of the branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) enzyme. Noninvasive imaging methods that can assess BCAT1 activity could therefore improve detection of mutant IDH1 tumors and aid in developing and monitoring new targeted therapies. BCAT1 catalyzes the transamination o...
Source: Cancer Research - August 13, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chaumeil, M. M., Larson, P. E. Z., Woods, S. M., Cai, L., Eriksson, P., Robinson, A. E., Lupo, J. M., Vigneron, D. B., Nelson, S. J., Pieper, R. O., Phillips, J. J., Ronen, S. M. Tags: Integrated Systems and Technologies Source Type: research

Activation of PDGF-NOS-ID4-miR129 Axis in Glioma
Glioma-initiating cells (GIC), which reside within the perivascular microenvironment to maintain self-renewal capacity, are responsible for glioblastoma initiation, progression, and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling crosstalk between GICs and endothelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we report that, in both GICs and endothelial cells, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)–driven activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase increases NO-dependent inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) expression, which in turn promotes JAGGED1–NOTCH activity through suppression of miR129 that specifically represse...
Source: Cancer Research - August 13, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jeon, H.-M., Kim, S.-H., Jin, X., Park, J. B., Kim, S. H., Joshi, K., Nakano, I., Kim, H. Tags: Tumor and Stem Cell Biology Source Type: research

TRIM3 Regulates Asymmetric Cell Division in Glioblastoma
Cancer stem cells, capable of self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, influence tumor behavior through a complex balance of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. Mechanisms regulating the dynamics of stem cells and their progeny in human cancer are poorly understood. In Drosophila, mutation of brain tumor (brat) leads to loss of normal asymmetric cell division by developing neural cells and results in a massively enlarged brain composed of neuroblasts with neoplastic properties. Brat promotes asymmetric cell division and directs neural differentiation at least partially through its suppression on Myc. We identifie...
Source: Cancer Research - August 13, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chen, G., Kong, J., Tucker-Burden, C., Anand, M., Rong, Y., Rahman, F., Moreno, C. S., Van Meir, E. G., Hadjipanayis, C. G., Brat, D. J. Tags: Tumor and Stem Cell Biology Source Type: research

Statistical analysis of multi‐b factor diffusion weighted images can help distinguish between vasogenic and tumor‐infiltrated edema
ConclusionDiscrimination between tumor‐infiltrated edema and vasogenic edema can be achieved by means of a 90‐s multi‐b factor diffusion‐weighted sequence and factorial analysis. Simplified visual and quantitative interpretation of the results should also allow integration of multi‐b factor analysis into routine neuroradiology practice. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014;40:622–629. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 13, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Christophe Vandendries, Denis Ducreux, Catherine Lacroix, Béatrice Ducot, Guillaume Saliou Tags: Cover Image Source Type: research

PRC2 loss amplifies Ras-driven transcription and confers sensitivity to BRD4-based therapies
Nature advance online publication 13 August 2014. doi:10.1038/nature13561 Authors: Thomas De Raedt, Eline Beert, Eric Pasmant, Armelle Luscan, Hilde Brems, Nicolas Ortonne, Kristian Helin, Jason L. Hornick, Victor Mautner, Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki, Wade Clapp, James Bradner, Michel Vidaud, Meena Upadhyaya, Eric Legius & Karen Cichowski The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) exerts oncogenic effects in many tumour types. However, loss-of-function mutations in PRC2 components occur in a subset of haematopoietic malignancies, suggesting that this complex plays a dichotomous and poorly understood role in cancer. Here w...
Source: Nature AOP - August 13, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Thomas De RaedtEline BeertEric PasmantArmelle LuscanHilde BremsNicolas OrtonneKristian HelinJason L. HornickVictor MautnerHildegard Kehrer-SawatzkiWade ClappJames BradnerMichel VidaudMeena UpadhyayaEric LegiusKaren Cichowski Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Astrocytic growth through the autocrine/paracrine production of IL-1β in the early infectious phase of fowl glioma-inducing virus.
In this study, we investigated the relationship between intracerebral viral replication and astrocytic growth in the early infectious phase. Replication abilities of two ALV strains, Sp-53 (a FGV variant) and ALV-based replication-competent vector RCAS(A) without glioma-inducibility, were compared in the brains of C/O specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 35 days of age. Sp-53 replicated faster than RCAS (A), and the histological score and the level of IL-1β in brains increased depending on the level of intracerebral viral RNA. Up-regulation of IL-1β was also demonstrated in primary cultured astrocytes. These results ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 13, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Nakamura S, Ochiai K, Abe A, Kishi S, Takayama K, Sunden Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Reirradiation as part of a salvage treatment approach for progressive non-pontine pediatric high-grade gliomas: preliminary experiences from the German HIT-HGG study group
Conclusion: Our analysis, although based on a limited patient number, suggests that reirradiation of progressive non-pontine HGG is feasible in children. Benefit in terms of quality of life and/or survival needs to be assessed in a prospective and ideally in a randomized manner. (Source: Radiation Oncology)
Source: Radiation Oncology - August 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Klaus MüllerHeike ScheithauerSophie PietschmannMarion HoffmannJochen RösslerNorbert GrafBrigitta BaumertHans ChristiansenRolf-Dieter KortmannChristof KrammAndré von Bueren Source Type: research

Girdin, an actin‐binding protein, is critical for migration, adhesion, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells
In this study, through over‐expression and siRNA experiments, we found that Girdin increased migration of LN229 human glioblastoma cells. On the other hand, reducing Girdin impaired F‐actin polymerization, which is essential for cell morphogenesis and motility. Matrix metalloproteinase 2, critical in human glioma migration and invasion, was down‐regulated upon Girdin reduction and led to decreased invasion in vitro and in vivo. In addition, silencing Girdin expression impaired the phosphorylation of two important adhesion molecules, integrin β1 and focal adhesion kinase, resulting in cell adhesion defects. Our immun...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - August 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng Gu, Li Wang, Jia He, Xiaoli Liu, Huikun Zhang, Wenliang Li, Li Fu, Yongjie Ma Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

68Ga-PRGD2 PET/CT in the Evaluation of Glioma: A Prospective Study
Molecular PharmaceuticsDOI: 10.1021/mp5003224 (Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics)
Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics - August 11, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Deling Li, Xiaobin Zhao, Liwei Zhang, Fang Li, Nan Ji, Zhixian Gao, Jisheng Wang, Peng Kang, Zhaofei Liu, Jiyun Shi, Xiaoyuan Chen and Zhaohui Zhu Source Type: research

Monitoring oxygen levels in orthotopic human glioma xenograft following carbogen inhalation and chemotherapy by implantable resonator based oximetry
In conclusion, EPR oximetry with implantable resonators can be used to monitor the efficacy of carbogen inhalation and chemotherapy on orthotopic glioma in mice. The increase in glioma pO2 of mice breathing carbogen can be used to improve treatment outcome. The treatment with gemcitabine + MK‐8776 is a promising strategy that warrants further investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: International Journal of Cancer)
Source: International Journal of Cancer - August 11, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Huagang Hou, Venkata Krishnamurthy Nemani, Gaixin Du, Ryan Montano, Rui Song, Barjor Gimi, Harold M. Swartz, Alan Eastman, Nadeem Khan Tags: Cancer Therapy Source Type: research

C-methinine uptake correlates with promoter methylation in nonenhancing gliomas
A strong predictive and prognostic role for promoter methylation in the O6-methylguanylmethyltransferase (MGMT) gene in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients treated with temozolomide has been suggested [1,2]. MGMT promoter methylation predicted a favorable outcome in patients with WHO grade III and grade IV tumors who were treated with either alkylating agent chemotherapy or radiotherapy [1,3,4]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - August 8, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Yoshiko Okita, Masahiro Nonaka, Tomoko Shofuda, Daisuke Kanematsu, Ema Yoshioka, Yoshinori Kodama, Masayuki Mano, Shin Nakajima, Yonehiro Kanemura Source Type: research

Incidence of pineal tumours. A review of the literature.
Abstract The knowledge of the incidence of pineal tumours is important not only for diagnostic care but also for its therapeutic programme. We reviewed the incidence of pineal tumours reported in literature in an attempt to establish if a difference existed between pineal gland tumours and the pineal region tumours as different authors use both expressions to indicate the same thing. The rate of frequency of these tumours is useful to guide the therapeutic choice for patients as the decisional tree is completely different for either germ cell tumours, pineal gland tumours or pineal gliomas and eventually papillary ...
Source: Neuro-Chirurgie - August 8, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Mottolese C, Szathmari A, Beuriat PA Tags: Neurochirurgie Source Type: research

Awake craniotomy for gliomas in a high-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suite: analysis of 42 cases.
Conclusions There was a learning curve with regard to patient positioning and setup times, although it did not adversely affect patient outcomes. Awake craniotomy can be safely performed in a high-field (1.5 T) iMRI suite to maximize tumor resection in eloquent brain areas with an acceptable morbidity profile at 1 month. PMID: 25105702 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - August 8, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Maldaun MV, Khawja SN, Levine NB, Rao G, Lang FF, Weinberg JS, Tummala S, Cowles CE, Ferson D, Nguyen AT, Sawaya R, Suki D, Prabhu SS Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Is the absolute value of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene messenger RNA a prognostic factor, and does it predict the results of treatment of glioblastoma with temozolomide?
Conclusions MGMT mRNA might be useful as a prognostic factor and for predicting the results of therapy for GBMs treated by temozolomide. New individual adjuvant therapy based on the results of MGMT mRNA quantitation has been proposed. PMID: 25105699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - August 8, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tanaka S, Akimoto J, Narita Y, Oka H, Tashiro T Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Long-term tumor control of spinal dissemination of cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme by combined adjuvant bevacizumab antibody therapy: a case report.
Conclusion: Due to the limited overall prognosis of the disease, spinal manifestations of glioma are rarely clinically relevant. The results of our instructive case, however, with a positive effect on both life quality and survival warrant treating future patients in the frame of a prospective clinical study. (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - August 7, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Thomas LinsenmannCamelia MonoranuGiles VinceThomas WestermaierCarsten HagemannAlmuth KesslerRalf-Ingo ErnestusMario Löhr Source Type: research

Methylation Silencing of ULK2 and Glioma Development [Cell Biology]
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor and shows very poor prognosis. Here, using genome-wide methylation analysis, we show that G-CIMP+ and G-CIMP-subtypes enrich distinct classes of biological processes. One of the hypermethylated genes in GBM, ULK2, an upstream autophagy inducer, was found to be down-regulated in GBM. Promoter hypermethylation of ULK2 was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. GBM and glioma cell lines had low levels of ULK2 transcripts, which could be reversed upon methylation inhibitor treatment. ULK2 promoter methylation and transcript levels showed significant negative correlation...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - August 7, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Shukla, S., Patric, I. R. P., Patil, V., Shwetha, S. D., Hegde, A. S., Chandramouli, B. A., Arivazhagan, A., Santosh, V., Somasundaram, K. Tags: Gene Regulation Source Type: research

The Tailless Root of Glioma: Cancer Stem Cells.
Abstract In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Zhu et al. (2014) demonstrate that a genetically engineered glioma model displays a functional cellular hierarchy defined by expression of the nuclear orphan receptor Tlx. Targeting cancer stem cells through genetic deletion of TLX promotes cancer stem cell death and differentiation and extends survival. PMID: 25105574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cell Stem Cell)
Source: Cell Stem Cell - August 7, 2014 Category: Stem Cells Authors: Xie Q, Flavahan WA, Bao S, Rich J Tags: Cell Stem Cell Source Type: research

Radiation promotes malignant progression of glioma cells through HIF-1alpha stabilization
Glioblastoma is the most lethal primary brain tumor. Despite the advent of modern surgical and medical treatments, glioblastoma remains an incurable brain disease [1,2]. Post-operative radiotherapy extends survival, but yields a median survival of less than a year; long-term survival is extremely rare [3]. This poor prognosis of glioblastoma patients reflects the prevalence of cancer recurrence after surgery, infiltration into other sites, and intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy [4]. (Source: Cancer Letters)
Source: Cancer Letters - August 7, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Young-Heon Kim, Ki-Chun Yoo, Yan-Hong Cui, Nizam Uddin, Eun-Jung Lim, Min-Jung Kim, Seon-Young Nam, In-Gyu Kim, Yongjoon Suh, Su-Jae Lee Source Type: research