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MicroRNA‐302b‐inhibited E2F3 transcription factor is related to all trans retinoic acid‐induced glioma cell apoptosis
This study investigated the effects of ATRA‐mediated miRNA expression in activating apoptotic pathways in glioblastoma. First, we found that high‐dose ATRA treatment significantly reduced cell viability, caspase‐dependent apoptosis, endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress activation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. From microarray data, miR‐302b was analyzed as a putative downstream regulator upon ATRA treatment. Furthermore, we found that ATRA up‐regulated miR‐302b expression in a dose‐ and time‐dependent manner through retinoic acid receptor α‐mediated pathway. Overexpression and knoc...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - July 31, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Peng‐Hsu Chen, Chwen‐Ming Shih, Wei‐Chiao Chang, Chia‐Hsiung Cheng, Cheng‐Wei Lin, Kuo‐hao Ho, Po‐Chia Su, Ku‐Chung Chen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

[Review] EANO guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of anaplastic gliomas and glioblastoma
This guideline provides recommendations for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for patients with malignant gliomas. We differentiate evidence-based standards from reasonable options or non-evidence-based measures that should no longer be considered. The recommendations herein should provide a framework and assurance for the choice of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic measures and aim to reduce complications from unnecessary treatment and cost. The guideline contributes to a critical appreciation of concurrent drugs with a focus on the controlled use of anticonvulsants and steroids. (Source: The Lancet Oncology)
Source: The Lancet Oncology - July 29, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Michael Weller, Martin van den Bent, Kirsten Hopkins, Jörg C Tonn, Roger Stupp, Andrea Falini, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Didier Frappaz, Roger Henriksson, Carmen Balana, Olivier Chinot, Zvi Ram, Guido Reifenberger, Riccardo Soffietti, Wolfgang Wick Tags: Review Source Type: research

Eliminating barriers to personalized medicine: Learning from neurofibromatosis type 1
With the emergence of high-throughput discovery platforms, robust preclinical small-animal models, and efficient clinical trial pipelines, it is becoming possible to envision a time when the treatment of human neurologic diseases will become personalized. The emergence of precision medicine will require the identification of subgroups of patients most likely to respond to specific biologically based therapies. This stratification only becomes possible when the determinants that contribute to disease heterogeneity become more fully elucidated. This review discusses the defining factors that underlie disease heterogeneity re...
Source: Neurology - July 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Gutmann, D. H. Tags: Outcome research, Primary brain tumor, Nerve tumor, All Genetics, Neurofibromatosis VIEWS & amp;amp; REVIEWS Source Type: research

Hypoxia-induced miR-497 decreases glioma cell sensitivity to TMZ by inhibiting apoptosis
Hypoxia is a common characteristic of rapidly growing tumors [1]. Hypoxic conditions induce many different types of physiological or pathophysiological responses, including high-altitude adaptation, stroke, wound healing, myocardial infarction, and cancer [2]. These changes are carefully controlled by a large number of hypoxia-inducible genes [2]. Among these genes, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) is the key transcription factor induced by hypoxia, increasing the expression of many genes that are involved in metastasis, tumor recurrence, and angiogenesis [3–5]. (Source: FEBS Letters)
Source: FEBS Letters - July 28, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jin Lan, Yajun Xue, Huairui Chen, Sanhu Zhao, Zhijian Wu, Jun Fang, Cong Han, Meiqing Lou Source Type: research

GABAergic disinhibition and impaired KCC2 cotransporter activity underlie tumor‐associated epilepsy
Seizures frequently accompany gliomas and often escalate to peritumoral epilepsy. Previous work revealed the importance of tumor‐derived excitatory glutamate (Glu) release mediated by the cystine‐glutamate transporter (SXC) in epileptogenesis. We now show a novel contribution of GABAergic disinhibition to disease pathophysiology. In a validated mouse glioma model, we found that peritumoral parvalbumin‐positive GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are significantly reduced, corresponding with deficits in spontaneous and evoked inhibitory neurotransmission. Most remaining peritumoral neurons exhibit elevated intracellular...
Source: Glia - July 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Susan L. Campbell, Stefanie Robel, Vishnu A. Cuddapah, Stephanie Robert, Susan C. Buckingham, Kristopher T. Kahle, Harald Sontheimer Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

EGFR phosphorylation of DCBLD2 recruits TRAF6 and stimulates AKT-promoted tumorigenesis
Aberrant activation of EGFR in human cancers promotes tumorigenesis through stimulation of AKT signaling. Here, we determined that the discoidina neuropilin-like membrane protein DCBLD2 is upregulated in clinical specimens of glioblastomas and head and neck cancers (HNCs) and is required for EGFR-stimulated tumorigenesis. In multiple cancer cell lines, EGFR activated phosphorylation of tyrosine 750 (Y750) of DCBLD2, which is located within a recently identified binding motif for TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). Consequently, phosphorylation of DCBLD2 Y750 recruited TRAF6, leading to increased TRAF6 E3 ubiquitin li...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Haizhong Feng, Giselle Y. Lopez, Chung Kwon Kim, Angel Alvarez, Christopher G. Duncan, Ryo Nishikawa, Motoo Nagane, An-Jey A. Su, Philip E. Auron, Matthew L. Hedberg, Lin Wang, Jeffery J. Raizer, John A. Kessler, Andrew T. Parsa, Wei-Qiang Gao, Sung-Hak K Source Type: research

The Inhibitory Effects of a Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Neuropilin-1 on Adhesion of Glioma Cells to Fibronectin
(Source: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology)
Source: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology - July 25, 2014 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Chen, LukuiMiao, WeiZhang, HaipengZeng, FanweiCao, ChangQiu, RongYang, JinqiuLuo, FanghongYan, JianghuaLv, HeliXu, Qiang Tags: Articles Source Type: research

LRIG1 Enhances Chemosensitivity by Modulating BCL-2 Expression and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Glioma Cells.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that LRIG1 can improve chemosensitivity by modulating BCL-2 expression and RTK signaling in glioma cells. PMID: 25048475 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yonsei Medical Journal)
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - July 25, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Guo Z, Chen Q, Liu B, Tian D, Zhang S, Li M Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research

[Glial fibrillary acidic protein in patients with symptoms of acute stroke : Diagnostic marker of cerebral hemorrhage.]
Abstract Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a highly brain-specific protein that is expressed in large quantities in astrocytes and has important functions in terms of maintaining and stabilizing the cytoskeleton. Acute intracerebral hemorrhage leads to an immediate mechanical destruction of astroglial cells with the subsequent release of GFAP into the extracellular space and the bloodstream. On the other hand, necrosis, cytolysis and GFAP release does not occur before 6-12 h after symptom onset in ischemic stroke. Thus, in the early hours after stroke increased GFAP values could indicate intracerebral hemo...
Source: Der Nervenarzt - July 25, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Foerch C, Pfeilschifter W, Zeiner P, Brunkhorst R Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

Intra- and Inter-visit Reproducibility of Ganglion Cell – Inner Plexiform Layer Measurements Using Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Children with Optic Pathway Gliomas
To determine the intra- and inter-visit reproducibility of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measures using handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) in sedated children with optic pathway gliomas and/or Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). (Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology - July 25, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Robert A. Avery, Avital Cnaan, Joel S. Schuman, Chieh-Li Chen, Natalie C. Glaug, Roger J. Packer, Graham E. Quinn, Hiroshi Ishikawa Source Type: research

Tumour detection: Molecular detection to improve surgery
Nature Reviews Cancer 14, 515 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrc3796 Author: Gemma K. Alderton Using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry to detect the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) in surgically resected gliomas, Santagata, Eberlin and colleagues showed that those gliomas with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) could be rapidly identified during surgery. Detection of 2-HG revealed the tumour margins and could (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)
Source: Nature Reviews Cancer - July 24, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gemma K. Alderton Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Girdin, an actin‐binding protein, is critical for migration, adhesion and invasion of human glioblastoma cells
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - July 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng Gu, Li Wang, Jia He, Xiaoli Liu, Huikun Zhang, Wenliang Li, Li Fu, Yongjie Ma Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

MicroRNA-204, a direct negative regulator of ezrin gene expression, inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion.
Abstract Ezrin is overexpressed in a variety of neoplastic cells and involved in the later stages of tumor progression and metastasis. Ezrin expression can be regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We used a combination of bioinformatics and experimental techniques to demonstrate that the miR-204 is a direct negative regulator of ezrin. Overexpression of miR-204 mimics decreased the activity of a luciferase reporter containing the ezrin 3' UTR and led to repression of ezrin protein. In contrast, ectopic expression of miR-204 inhibitor elevated ezrin expression. We also show that miR-...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry - July 24, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mao J, Zhang M, Zhong M, Zhang Y, Lv K Tags: Mol Cell Biochem Source Type: research

Rcor2 underexpression in senescent mice: a target for inflammaging?
Conclusions: Data presented here show interplay between Rcor2 downregulation and increased inflammation and suggest that Rcor2 may be a key regulator of inflammaging. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)
Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation - July 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: María Alvarez-LópezPatricia Molina-MartínezMarco Castro-FreireMarta Cosín-TomásRosa CristòfolMarcelina PárrizasRosa EscorihuelaMerce PallàsCoral SanfeliuPerla Kaliman Source Type: research

The mTOR kinase inhibitors polarize glioma-activated microglia to express a M1 phenotype
Conclusions: These data suggest that mTOR inhibition may prevent glioma induced M2 polarization of microglial cells and increase their cytotoxic potential, possibly resulting in antitumor actions. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)
Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation - July 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Lucia LisiEmilia LaudatiPierluigi NavarraCinzia Dello Russo Source Type: research

Inhibition of glioma progression by a newly discovered CD38 inhibitor
Abstract Glioma, the most common cancer of the central nervous system, has very poor prognosis and no effective treatment. It has been shown that activated microglia/macrophages in the glioma tumor microenvironment support progression. Hence, inhibition of the supporting effect of these cells may constitute a useful therapeutic approach. Recently, using a syngeneic mouse glioma progression model, we showed that the ectoenzyme CD38 regulated microglia activation and, moreover, that the loss of CD38 from the tumor microenvironment attenuated glioma progression and prolonged the life span of the tumor‐bearing mice. These st...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - July 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Eran Blacher, Bar Ben Baruch, Ayelet Levy, Nurit Geva, Keith D. Green, Sylvie Garneau‐Tsodikova, Micha Fridman, Reuven Stein Tags: Cancer Therapy Source Type: research

IL-1β microenvironment promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioma cells.
This study examines the effect of IL-1β microenvironment on proliferation, migration and invasion in human glioma cell line U87MG that expresses wild-type p53 protein, and U251MG which expresses mutant p53. Proliferation was investigated by MTT assay, migration by wound-healing migration assay and invasion by in vitro transwell Matrigel invasion assay. An IL-1β microenvironment significantly increased migration and invasion of both wild-type and mutant p53 expressing glioma cells, but significantly increased proliferation only in U87MG glioma cells. These effects were inhibited by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), thus ...
Source: Cell Biology International - July 23, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Fathima Hurmath K, Palaniswamy R, Nandakumar DN Tags: Cell Biol Int Source Type: research

Polyphyllin D Induces Apoptosis in U87 Human Glioma Cells Through the c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Pathway
Journal of Medicinal Food , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Medicinal Food)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Food - July 22, 2014 Category: Nutrition Tags: article Source Type: research

Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) Family as potential diagnostic and prognostic tumor markers for human gliomas
Conclusions: High expression of MCM 2, MCM3 and MCM7 mRNA correlated with poor outcome and may be clinically useful molecular prognostic markers in glioma. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - July 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cong HuaGang ZhaoYunqian LiLi Bie Source Type: research

Mathematical modeling to efficient protocols to control glioma growth.
Abstract In this paper we propose a mathematical model to describe the evolution of glioma cells taking into account the viscoelastic properties of brain tissue. The mathematical model is established considering that the glioma cells are of two phenotypes: migratory and proliferative. The evolution of the migratory cells is described by a diffusion-reaction equation of non Fickian type deduced considering a mass conservation law with a non Fickian migratory mass flux. The evolution of the proliferative cells is described by a reaction equation. A stability analysis that leads to the design of efficient protocols is...
Source: Mathematical Biosciences - July 21, 2014 Category: Statistics Authors: Branco JR, Ferreira JA, de Oliveira P Tags: Math Biosci Source Type: research

The E3 ligase PARC mediates the degradation of cytosolic cytochrome c to promote survival in neurons and cancer cells.
Abstract The ability to withstand mitochondrial damage is especially critical for the survival of postmitotic cells, such as neurons. Likewise, cancer cells can also survive mitochondrial stress. We found that cytochrome c (Cyt c), which induces apoptosis upon its release from damaged mitochondria, is targeted for proteasome-mediated degradation in mouse neurons, cardiomyocytes, and myotubes and in human glioma and neuroblastoma cells, but not in proliferating human fibroblasts. In mouse neurons, apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) prevented the proteasome-dependent degradation of Cyt c in response to i...
Source: Science Signaling - July 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gama V, Swahari V, Schafer J, Kole AJ, Evans A, Huang Y, Cliffe A, Golitz B, Sciaky N, Pei XH, Xiong Y, Deshmukh M Tags: Sci Signal Source Type: research

[Interdisciplinary neuro-oncology : Part 2: systemic therapy of primary brain tumors.]
This article gives an overview of the state of the art of interdisciplinary neuro-oncology whereby part 1 deals with the diagnostics and surgical therapy of primary brain tumors and part 2 describes the medical therapy of primary brain tumors. PMID: 25037494 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Nervenarzt)
Source: Der Nervenarzt - July 20, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tabatabai G, Hattingen E, Schlegel J, Stummer W, Schlegel U Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

[Interdisciplinary neuro-oncology : Part 1: diagnostics and operative therapy of primary brain tumors.]
This article gives an overview of the state of the art of interdisciplinary neuro-oncology whereby part 1 deals with the diagnostics and surgical therapy of primary brain tumors and part 2 describes the medical therapy of primary brain tumors. PMID: 25037493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Nervenarzt)
Source: Der Nervenarzt - July 20, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tabatabai G, Hattingen E, Schlegel J, Stummer W, Schlegel U Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

STAT3 serine 727 phosphorylation influences clinical outcome in glioblastoma.
In conclusion, the high proportion of pSer727-STAT3 positive neoplastic cells in GBM is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor, and increased expression of both pTyr705-STAT3 and pSer727-STAT3 is predictive of poorer clinical outcome, thereby adding to the growing evidence that STAT3 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma. PMID: 25031733 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology)
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - July 19, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Lin GS, Chen YP, Lin ZX, Wang XF, Zheng ZQ, Chen L Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

LncRNA TSLC1-AS1 is a novel tumor suppressor in glioma.
Abstract Growing evidence demonstrates that long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in cancer origination and progression. A novel lncRNA, TSLC1-AS1, is the antisense transcript of tumor suppressor TSLC1. The expression profile and function of TSLC1-AS1 in glioma were investigated using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and siRNA knockdown. The data showed that TSLC1-AS1 expression was down-regulated in tumor tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and negatively associated with the WHO criteria of the tumors. Overexpression of TSLC1-AS1 resulted in up-regulation of TSLC1 and significant inhib...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - July 19, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Qin X, Yao J, Geng P, Fu X, Xue J, Zhang Z Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Revisiting TP53 mutations and immunohistochemistry – a comparative study in 157 diffuse gliomas
Abstract The association between p53 immunohistochemistry and TP53 mutation status has been controversial. The present study aims to re‐evaluate the efficacy of p53 immunohistochemistry to predict the mutational status of TP53. A total of 157 diffuse gliomas (World Health Organization grade II to IV) were assessed by exon‐by‐exon DNA sequencing from exon 4 through 10 of TP53 using frozen tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry with a p53 antibody (DO‐7) on paired formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded materials was assessed for the extent and intensity of reactivity in all cases. A total of 72 mutations were detected in...
Source: Brain Pathology - July 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Hirokazu Takami, Akihiko Yoshida, Shintaro Fukushima, Hideyuki Arita, Yuko Matsushita, Taishi Nakamura, Makoto Ohno, Yasuji Miyakita, Soichiro Shibui, Yoshitaka Narita, Koichi Ichimura Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

A Diphtheria Toxin Negative Selection in RNA Interference Screening
RNA interference (RNAi) screening is a powerful technique for understanding the molecular biology of cancer and searching drug targets. Genes and their upstream activators that are essential for the survival of cancer cells often dictate cancer formation/progression. Hence, they are preferable therapeutic targets. Identifying these genes using RNAi is, however, problematic because knocking them down leads to cell death. Here we describe a diphtheria toxin (DT) negative selection method to circumvent the problem of cell death in RNAi screening. DT fails to kill mouse cells due to the lack of functional DT receptor (DTR). Th...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Cancer Research - July 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

TP53, MSH4, and LATS1 Germline Mutations in a Family with Clustering of Nervous System Tumors.
Abstract Exome DNA sequencing of blood samples from a Li-Fraumeni family with a TP53 germline mutation (codon 236 deletion) and multiple nervous system tumors revealed additional germline mutations. Missense mutations in the MSH4 DNA repair gene (c.2480T>A; p.I827N) were detected in three patients with gliomas (two anaplastic astrocytomas, two glioblastomas). Two family members without a TP53 germline mutation who developed peripheral schwannomas also carried the MSH4 germline mutation, and in addition, a germline mutation of the LATS1 gene (c.286C>T; p.R96W). LATS1 is a downstream mediator of the NF2, but ha...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - July 17, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Kim YH, Ohta T, Oh JE, Le Calvez-Kelm F, McKay J, Voegele C, Durand G, Mittelbronn M, Kleihues P, Paulus W, Ohgaki H Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research

Norcantharidin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of glioma cells by blocking the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that norcantharidin is effective for growth inhibition of glioma cell lines and suggest that norcantharidin may be a new therapeutic option for patients with glioma. (Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology)
Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology - July 15, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jie ZhengWei DuLai-jun SongRui ZhangLai-guang SunFeng-guo ChenXin-ting Wei Source Type: research

hMOB3 Inhibits MST1 Apoptotic Cleavage and Promotes Tumor Growth
New therapeutic targets are needed that circumvent inherent therapeutic resistance of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Here, we report such a candidate target in the uncharacterized adaptor protein hMOB3, which we show is upregulated in GBM. In a search for its biochemical function, we found that hMOB3 specifically interacts with MST1 kinase in response to apoptotic stimuli and cell–cell contact. Moreover, hMOB3 negatively regulated apoptotic signaling by MST1 in GBM cells by inhibiting the MST1 cleavage-based activation process. Physical interaction between hMOB3 and MST1 was essential for this process. In vivo investigat...
Source: Cancer Research - July 14, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tang, F., Zhang, L., Xue, G., Hynx, D., Wang, Y., Cron, P. D., Hundsrucker, C., Hergovich, A., Frank, S., Hemmings, B. A., Schmitz-Rohmer, D. Tags: Molecular and Cellular Pathobiology Source Type: research

Correlation of preoperative seizures with clinicopathological factors and prognosis in anaplastic gliomas: a report of 198 patients from China
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 14, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Pei Yang, Gan You, Wei Zhang, Yongzhi Wang, Yinyan Wang, Kun Yao, Tao Jiang Source Type: research

St. Jude awarded $3.4 million in federal grants
Congressman Steve Cohen (D-Memphis) today announced three federal grants totaling more than $3.4 million in funding for St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. The funding comes through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and will be used for a variety of programs and research projects. The funding includes $2.8 million for the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium; $369,350 from the National Cancer Institute to study and treat mutations in childhood glioma; and another $218,750… (Source: Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Source: Health Care:Hospitals headlines - July 11, 2014 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Rob Robertson Source Type: research

This Week in Science
Probing interfaces with electrons | Balancing your incomings and outgoings | Up and down go the cyanobacteria | Chloride causes seizures in glioma | Staying one step ahead of tumors | Interfering with the signal to relax | How the ionosphere gains influence | Optically probed superconductor | For HIV: Location, location, location | HIV needs to be fit to transmit | Building the cell wall is flipping difficult | Identifying a cuprate look-alike | Assessing calculated DFT properties | Peroxidase proton placement | Supershear rupture down below | Observing an embryonic Doppler effect | Seas are awash with microplastics (Sourc...
Source: Science: Current Issue - July 11, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Marc S. Lavine Tags: Imaging Techniques Source Type: research

[Cancer] Chloride causes seizures in glioma
Gliomas, a common brain tumor, frequently induce epileptic seizures as they grow, but it is not clear why. Pallud et al. show that the epileptic activity in the brain around – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)
Source: This Week in Science - July 11, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Yevgeniya Nusinovich Tags: Cancer Source Type: research

Tumor penetrability and anti-angiogenesis using iRGD-mediated delivery of doxorubicin-polymer conjugates.
Abstract Tumor-penetrating peptide, iRGD (internalizing RGD, CRGDK/RGPD/EC) with the similar affinity to αv integrins as conventional RGD cyclopeptide could enhance the tumor penetrability of drugs by binding to neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) that over-expressed on both angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. Comparing with our previous study, in which a RGD cyclopeptide (RGDyC) was bound to PEGylated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer with doxorubicin (DOX) by acid-sensitive cis-aconityl linkage (PEG-PAMAM-cis-aconityl-DOX, PPCD), the present study selected iRGD instead of previous RGD to produce iRGD-PPCD conjugate. The e...
Source: Biomaterials - July 11, 2014 Category: Materials Science Authors: Wang K, Zhang X, Liu Y, Liu C, Jiang B, Jiang Y Tags: Biomaterials Source Type: research

Stability of the CpG island methylator phenotype during glioma progression and identification of methylated loci in secondary glioblastomas
Conclusion: This is the first study to have documented genome-wide methylation changes within paired early/late astrocytic gliomas on such a large CpG probe set, revealing a number of genes that maybe relevant to secondary gliomagenesis. (Source: BMC Cancer)
Source: BMC Cancer - July 10, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Victoria HillThoraia ShinawiChristopher RickettsDietmar KrexGabriele SchackertJulien BauerWenbin WeiGarth CruickshankEamonn MaherFarida Latif Source Type: research

In vivo models of brain tumors: roles of genetically engineered mouse models in understanding tumor biology and use in preclinical studies.
We describe how they provide critical insights into the molecular and cellular events involved in the initiation and maintenance of brain tumors, and illustrate their use in preclinical drug testing. PMID: 25008045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - July 10, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Simeonova I, Huillard E Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Local Melatonin Regulates Inflammation Resolution: A Common Factor in Neurodegenerative, Psychiatric and Systemic Inflammatory Disorders.
Abstract In many psychiatric, neurodegenerative and systemic inflammatory disorders circadian melatonin is decreased whilst melatonin enzymes and melatonin receptors are genetic susceptibility factors. Treatment with melatonin is useful in a diverse range of medical conditions, including bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, depression and fibromyalgia. Decreased melatonin effects are classically attributed to lost pineal production. However, melatonin, along with its immediate precursor N-acetylserotonin (NAS), is produced by many, if not all, mitochondrial containing cells, including immune cells and central gli...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - July 10, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anderson G, Maes M Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Detoxification of oxidative stress in glioma stem cells: Mechanism, clinical relevance, and therapeutic development
Neural oncogenesis is currently incurable and invariably lethal. The development of innovative treatments for this devastating cancer will require a deeper molecular understanding of how cancer cells survive, proliferate, and escape from current therapies. In high‐grade gliomas (HGGs), glioma stem cells (GSCs) may causally contribute to tumor initiation and propagation, therapeutic resistance, and subsequent recurrence of tumors. Within a tumor mass, GSCs are enriched in a hypoxic niche in which the oxidative stress levels are substantially elevated. Paradoxically, however, recent studies suggest that GSCs appear to gene...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - July 9, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sung‐Hak Kim, Chang‐Hyuk Kwon, Ichiro Nakano Tags: Review Source Type: research

Clinical Outcomes and Late Endocrine, Neurocognitive, and Visual Profiles of Proton Radiation for Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas
We report our experience with 32 pediatric patients treated with proton RT.Methods and Materials: Thirty-two pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas of the brain or spinal cord were treated with proton RT from 1995 to 2007. Sixteen patients received at least 1 regimen of chemotherapy before definitive RT. The median radiation dose was 52.2 GyRBE (48.6-54 GyRBE).Results: The median age at treatment was 11.0 years (range, 2.7-21.5 years), with a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range, 3.2-18.2 years). The 6-year and 8-year rates of progression-free survival were 89.7% and 82.8%, respectively, with an 8-year overall ...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - July 8, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Benjamin A. Greenberger, Margaret B. Pulsifer, David H. Ebb, Shannon M. MacDonald, Robin M. Jones, William E. Butler, Mary S. Huang, Karen J. Marcus, Jennifer A. Oberg, Nancy J. Tarbell, Torunn I. Yock Tags: Pediatric Cancer Source Type: research

Interleukin‐17 Facilitates the Immune Suppressor Capacity of High‐Grade Glioma‐Derived CD4 (+) CD25 (+) Foxp3 (+) T Cells Via Releasing Transforming Growth Factor Beta
In conclusion, IL‐17+ Tregs exist in the high‐grade glioma tissue; this subset of T cells can suppress CD8+ T cell activities via releasing TGF‐beta and IL‐17. (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology - July 8, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: H. Liang, L. Yi, X. Wang, C. Zhou, L. Xu Tags: Human Immunology Source Type: research

Dexamethasone Suppresses Neurosteroid Biosynthesis via Downregulation of Steroidogenic Enzyme Gene Expression in Human Glioma GI-1 Cells.
Abstract Emerging evidence indicates that stress hormone glucocorticoids (GC) are an important modulator of brain development and function. To investigate whether GCs modulate neurosteroid biosynthesis in neural cells, we studied the effects of GCs on steroidogenic gene expression in human glioma GI-1 cells. The GC dexamethasone (Dex) reduced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), CYP11A1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression in a dose- and GC receptor-dependent manner. In addition to its effects on steroidogenic gene expression, Dex also reduced de novo synthesis of progesterone (PROG). Furt...
Source: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - July 7, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koibuchi F, Ritoh N, Aoyagi R, Funakoshi-Tago M, Tamura H Tags: Biol Pharm Bull Source Type: research

Proton T2 measurement and quantification of lactate in brain tumors by MRS at 3 Tesla in vivo
ConclusionThe Lac T2 was similar among gliomas regardless of their tumor grades. This suggests that the T2 value from this study may be applicable to obtain the T2 relaxation‐free estimates of Lac in a subset of brain tumors. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - July 7, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Akshay Madan, Sandeep K. Ganji, Zhongxu An, Kevin S. Choe, Marco C. Pinho, Robert M. Bachoo, Elizabeth M. Maher, Changho Choi Tags: Note Source Type: research

Glioma grading using apparent diffusion coefficient map: application of histogram analysis based on automatic segmentation
The accurate diagnosis of glioma subtypes is critical for appropriate treatment, but conventional histopathologic diagnosis often exhibits significant intra‐observer variability and sampling error. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histogram analysis using an automatically segmented region of interest (ROI), excluding cystic or necrotic portions, could improve the differentiation between low‐grade and high‐grade gliomas. Thirty‐two patients (nine low‐grade and 23 high‐grade gliomas) were included in this retrospective investigation. The outer boundaries of the entire tumors were manually drawn in...
Source: NMR in Biomedicine - July 7, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Jeongwon Lee, Seung Hong Choi, Ji‐Hoon Kim, Chul‐Ho Sohn, Sooyeul Lee, Jaeseung Jeong Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Proton T2 measurement and quantification of lactate in brain tumors by MRS at 3 Tesla in vivo.
CONCLUSION: The Lac T2 was similar among gliomas regardless of their tumor grades. This suggests that the T2 value from this study may be applicable to obtain the T2 relaxation-free estimates of Lac in a subset of brain tumors. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 25046359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - July 7, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Madan A, Ganji SK, An Z, Choe KS, Pinho MC, Bachoo RM, Maher EM, Choi C Tags: Magn Reson Med Source Type: research

Autocrine/paracrine sphingosine‐1‐phosphate fuels proliferative and stemness qualities of glioblastoma stem cells
Accumulating reports suggest that human glioblastoma contains glioma stem‐like cells (GSCs) which act as key determinants driving tumor growth, angiogenesis, and contributing to therapeutic resistance. The proliferative signals involved in GSC proliferation and progression remain unclear. Using GSC lines derived from human glioblastoma specimens with different proliferative index and stemness marker expression, we assessed the hypothesis that sphingosine‐1‐phosphate (S1P) affects the proliferative and stemness properties of GSCs. The results of metabolic studies demonstrated that GSCs rapidly consume newly synthesize...
Source: Glia - July 6, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Giovanni Marfia, Rolando Campanella, Stefania Elena Navone, Clara Vito, Elena Riccitelli, Loubna Abdel Hadi, Andrea Bornati, Gisele Rezende, Paola Giussani, Cristina Tringali, Paola Viani, Paolo Rampini, Giulio Alessandri, Eugenio Parati, Laura Riboni Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Chromosome band 7q34 deletions resulting in KIAA1549‐BRAF and FAM131B‐BRAF fusions in pediatric low grade gliomas
Abstract The majority of pediatric low grade gliomas (LGGs) are characterized by constitutive activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through various mechanisms including BRAF mutations, inactivation of NF1, and KIAA1549‐BRAF and FAM131B‐BRAF fusions. The KIAA1549‐BRAF fusion typically results from a 2.0 Mb tandem duplication in chromosome band 7q34. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)‐based array analysis of three LGGs demonstrated deletions in 7q34 that resulted in a BRAF fusion. Case 1 was likely a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with three deletions in 7q33q34 and an ...
Source: Brain Pathology - July 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Jacquelyn J Roth, Mariarita Santi, Avrum N Pollock, Brian N Harding, Lucy B Rorke‐Adams, Laura S Tooke, Jaclyn A Biegel Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

P53 induction accompanying G2/M arrest upon knockdown of tumor suppressor HIC1 in U87MG glioma cells.
In this study, we investigated the role of HIC1 in cell cycle and proliferation of glioma cell line U87MG which has wild type p53, in both serum-containing and serum-deprived medium. Microscopic analysis and MTT assay showed reduced cell number and rate of proliferation upon HIC1 knock down compared to control siRNA (p = 0.025) and untreated cells (p = 0.03) in serum-containing medium and serum-free medium (p = 0.014 vs control siRNA; p = 0.018 vs untreated cells). Cell cycle analysis revealed an arrest at G2/M phase of cell cycle with no demonstrable increase in apoptosis with both medium. An increased expression ...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry - July 4, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kumar S Tags: Mol Cell Biochem Source Type: research

Lack of rearrangement in adult human gliomas
(Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - July 3, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: L. Karayan-Tapon, U. Cortes, P. Rivet, C. Jermidi, G. Vassal, M. Wager, L. Taillandier Source Type: research

Elevated expression of fatty acid synthase and nuclear localization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C are common among human gliomas
We examined the expression and subcellular localization of these fatty acid metabolism‐related molecules in human gliomas. We performed immunostaining of two glioma cell lines (U373MG and U87MG) and 41 surgical specimens of diffuse gliomas with various histological grades (21 with the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) R132H mutation and 20 without the mutation). In the cultured glioma cells, CPT1C and phosphorylated ACC (p‐ACC) were mainly localized to the nuclei, whereas FASN localized to the cytoplasm. In the surgical specimens, most glioma tissues showed nuclear staining for CPT1C and p‐ACC, and cytoplasmic stainin...
Source: Neuropathology - July 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tomihiro Wakamiya, Satoshi O. Suzuki, Hideomi Hamasaki, Hiroyuki Honda, Masahiro Mizoguchi, Koji Yoshimoto, Toru Iwaki Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research