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TRAIL-Based Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Pediatric Malignancies.
We describe the extrinsic and intrinsic pro-apoptotic pathways of TRAIL, together with the evidences for its pro-survival signaling, and with the relevance of these pathways in therapy. Possible mechanisms of resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis are highlighted (i.e. c-FLIP, Bcl-2, IAPs, p53, NF-κ B) and the rationale for the combined administration of TRAIL with drugs targeting these mechanisms is provided. Preclinical data are reported and show encouraging evidences for TRAIL consideration in pediatric malignancies (i.e., leukemia, lymphomas, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, medulloblastoma). Clinical trials of TRAIL-based...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - May 22, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Gasparini C, Brumatti LV, Monasta L, Zauli G Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
Tumor–Stromal Interactions in Medulloblastoma
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 368, Issue 20, Page 1942-1943, May 2013. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - May 15, 2013 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research
Inhibitory effects of epigenetic modulators and differentiation inducers on human medulloblastoma cell lines
Conclusion: The observed significant decrease in metabolic activity by combinatorial treatment of MB cells with 5-aza-dC and resveratrol does not translate into long-term reproductive survival deficiency in vitro. Further studies in animal models are needed to clarify the resveratrol-mediated anticancer mechanisms in vivo. (Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research)
Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research - May 14, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ina PattiesRolf-Dieter KortmannAnnegret Glasow Source Type: research
Clinic‐pathological description of three paediatric medulloblastoma cases with MLL2/3 gene mutations
(Source: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology)
Source: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology - May 10, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Giselle Y. Lopez, Gerald A. Grant, Herbert E. Fuchs, Linda G. Leithe, Sridharan Gururangan, Darell D. Bigner, Hai Yan, Roger E. McLendon, Yiping He Tags: Scientific Correspondence Source Type: research
Inhibition of Hedgehog/Gli Signaling by Botanicals: A Review of Compounds with Potential Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitory Activities.
Abstract The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is an important therapeutic target in cancer; involvement of the Hh pathway has been shown in a variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma, leukemia, and gastrointestinal, breast, prostate, lung, and pancreatic cancers.Currently, several Hh pathway inhibitory drugs are in clinical development, and the FDA recently approved Erivedge (vismodegib) from Curis/Genentech.These new drugs are effective in many, but not all patients. In fact there are documented reports of tumors developing mutations that confer resistance to the drugs.This highlights the ...
Source: Current Cancer Drug Targets - May 9, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Drenkhahn SK, Jackson GA, Slusarz A, Starkey NJ, Lubahn DB Tags: Curr Cancer Drug Targets Source Type: research
A mechanistic model for medulloblastoma induction in mice.
Abstract Medulloblastomas in Patched heterozygous mice (Ptc1(+/-) mice) are induced with high probability by ionizing radiation applied in the immediate post-natal period. A mathematical model is described here that accommodates the dependence of the medulloblastoma incidence on dose, age at exposure and age. The model assumes that the first step in the development of the cancer is already present in all cells of the patched mouse due to germ-line inactivation of one allele of the patched tumor suppressor gene. The subsequent rate-limiting step is dependent linearly on dose at least up to 3 Gy. The observed strong ...
Source: Radiation Research - May 1, 2013 Category: Physics Authors: Heidenreich WF, Saran A, Atkinson M, Pazzaglia S Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research
Use of brightness wavelet transformation for automated analysis of serum metallothioneins‐ and zinc‐containing proteins by Western blots to subclassify childhood solid tumours
In this study, we determined serum levels of metallothioneins (MTs) and zinc in children with solid tumours (neuroblastoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, medulloblastoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and nephroblastoma) by differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction and ELISA. Zn(II) level in patients sera was 40% compared to controls, contrariwise, MT level was 4.2 × higher in patients. No significant differences among single diagnoses were found both for Zn(II) and MT. When determined Zn(II)/MT ratio, in controls its value was 24.6, but it was 2.6 in patients. After Western‐blotting with anti‐MT and anti‐Zn chicken antibod...
Source: Electrophoresis - April 26, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lenka Vyslouzilova, Sona Krizkova, Jiri Anyz, David Hynek, Jan Hrabeta, Jarmila Kruseova, Tomas Eckschlager, Vojtech Adam, Olga Stepankova, Rene Kizek Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Acute Toxicity of Proton Beam Radiation for Pediatric Central Nervous System Malignancies
ConclusionsPBT appears to be well tolerated in pediatric patients with CNS malignancies. Acute toxicity can be managed with supportive care. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013;9999:XX–XX. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - April 22, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gita Suneja, Philip D. Poorvu, Christine Hill‐Kayser, Robert A. Lustig Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Impact of Tumor Location on Medulloblastoma Subtyping and Treatment (Commentary on Teo et al., page XXX)
(Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - April 20, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Giles W. Robinson Tags: Highlight Source Type: research
Nonglial Tumors of the Brainstem
Nonglial tumors of the brainstem constitute a histologically heterogeneous group of lesions with quite a different behavior and aggressiveness. Therefore, the diverse therapeutic options depend on a correct and prompt diagnosis. We can limit their differential diagnosis by using clinical and demographic data and imaging findings, which in most cases will be a translation of their histologic characteristics. The main clinical, neuroimaging, and pathologic features of these lesions are described according to the last updated classification of the World Health Organization for central nervous system tumors. We provide some us...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound CT and MRI - April 1, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Pilar Piñero-González de la Peña, Rafael Rodríguez-Romero Source Type: research
Deconstruction of medulloblastoma cellular heterogeneity reveals differences between the most highly invasive and self-renewing phenotypes.
Abstract Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain tumor. Major research efforts have focused on characterizing and targeting putative brain tumor stem or propagating cell populations from the tumor mass. However, less is known about the relationship between these cells and highly invasive MB cells that evade current therapies. Here, we dissected MB cellular heterogeneity and directly compared invasion and self-renewal. Analysis of higher versus lower self-renewing tumor spheres and stationary versus migrating adherent MB cells revealed differential expression of the cell surface mar...
Source: Neoplasia - April 1, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Morrison LC, McClelland R, Aiken C, Bridges M, Liang L, Wang X, Di Curzio D, Del Bigio MR, Taylor MD, Werbowetski-Ogilvie TE Tags: Neoplasia Source Type: research
Implications of Tumor Location on Subtypes of Medulloblastoma
ConclusionsTumor location should not be generalized to MB subtypes. SHH‐subtype MBs are not exclusively hemispheric and hemispheric MBs are not always SHH‐activated. It is imperative to identify subtypes in conjunction with tumor location when exploring currently available targeted therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013;9999:XX–XX. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - March 19, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wan‐Yee Teo, Jianhe Shen, Jack Meng Fen Su, Alexander Yu, Jian Wang, Wing‐Yuk Chow, Xiaonan Li, Jeremy Jones, Robert Dauser, William Whitehead, Adekunle M. Adesina, Murali Chintagumpala, Tsz‐Kwong Man, Ching C. Lau Tags: Priority Report Source Type: research
Medulloblastoma: Fuelling the debate
Nature Reviews Cancer 13, 222 (2013). doi:10.1038/nrc3494 Author: Sarah Seton-Rogers In medulloblastoma, placental growth factor (PLGF) may signal through a non-tyrosine kinase receptor, neuropilin 1 (NRP1), to promote tumour cell survival without having a substantial effect on angiogenesis, thus providing a rationale for targeting this pathway in these tumours. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)
Source: Nature Reviews Cancer - March 14, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sarah Seton-Rogers Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research
Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study
Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - March 7, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Jinsoo Uh, Thomas E. Merchant, Yimei Li, Tianshu Feng, Amar Gajjar, Robert J. Ogg, Chiaho Hua Tags: Pediatric Cancer Source Type: research
Growth Factor Identified That Is Essential To Medulloblastoma
A multi-institutional team led by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) researchers has identified a molecular pathway that appears to be essential for the growth and spread of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children. In their report in the journal Cell, they show that blocking this pathway - which involves interactions between tumor cells and the surrounding tissues - leads to regression of all four molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma in several mouse models... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - March 3, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Cancer / Oncology Source Type: news
New Angle To Combat Malignant Brain Tumors In Children
A medulloblastoma is a malignant brain tumor that occurs primarily in children and is currently untreatable. Peter Carmeliet and his team (VIB-KU Leuven) joined forces with scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital in Harvard to study the role of the placental growth factor (PIGF) in the growth of this brain tumor. They demonstrated that blocking PIGF inhibits the growth and metastasis of this cancer. This creates hope for a new therapy for the treatment of children with a medulloblastoma, with fewer side effects than the current treatments... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - March 2, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Pediatrics / Children's Health Source Type: news
Study identifies growth factor essential to the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor
(Massachusetts General Hospital) A multi-institutional team has identified a molecular pathway that appears to be essential for the growth and spread of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children. In their report they show that blocking this pathway leads to regression of all four molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma in several mouse models. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 28, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
[Congenital medulloblastoma associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst.]
We describe the case of a neonate diagnosed with an arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern treated by endoscopy. After the operation, the child's condition worsened; a CT scan revealed a midline posterior fossa tumour not visible in the preoperative neuroradiological tests. The tumour, a medulloblastoma, was partially removed. Given the child's age and the poor prognosis, oncological treatment was not undertaken. The association between medulloblastoma and arachnoid cyst is very rare, and we could find only one such case in the literature. PMID: 23453310 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurocirugia)
Source: Neurocirugia - February 28, 2013 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Gelabert González M, Serramito-García R, Liñares Paz M, Aran-Echabe E, García-Allut A Tags: Neurocirugia (Astur) Source Type: research
Targeting Placental Growth Factor/Neuropilin 1 Pathway Inhibits Growth and Spread of Medulloblastoma
Matija Snuderl, Ana Batista, Nathaniel D. Kirkpatrick, Carmen Ruiz de Almodovar, Lars Riedemann, Elisa C. Walsh, Rachel Anolik, Yuhui Huang, John D. Martin, Walid Kamoun, Ellen Knevels, Thomas Schmidt, Christian T. Farrar, Benjamin J. Vakoc, Nishant Mohan, Euiheon Chung, Sylvie Roberge, Teresa Peterson, Carlos Bais, Boryana H. Zhelyazkova, Stephen Yip, Martin Hasselblatt, Claudia Rossig, Elisabeth Niemeyer, Napoleone Ferrara, Michael Klagsbrun, Dan G. Duda, Dai Fukumura, Lei Xu, Peter Carmeliet, Rakesh K. Jain. Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor. Although current therapies improve ...
Source: Cell - February 27, 2013 Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Intellectual and Academic Outcome Following Two Chemotherapy Regimens and Radiotherapy for Average‐Risk Medulloblastoma: COG A9961
ConclusionThese results show progressive decline over several years post‐treatment in standardized intellectual and academic scores. Despite recent improvements in therapies for these children, most notably a decrease dose of craniospinal radiation, they remain at risk. The pursuit of less toxic treatments, particularly for younger children, should continue. Neuropsychological surveillance should be routine at centers treating children with brain tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - February 26, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M. Douglas Ris, Karin Walsh, Dana Wallace, F. Daniel Armstrong, Emi Holmes, Amar Gajjar, Tianni Zhou, Roger J. Packer Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
The Role of Chromatin Remodeling in Medulloblastoma
Abstract The unexpectedly high frequency and universality of alterations to the chromatin machinery is one of the most striking themes emerging from the current deluge of cancer genomics data. Medulloblastoma (MB), a malignant pediatric brain tumor, is no exception to this trend, with a wealth of recent studies indicating multiple alterations at all levels of chromatin processing. MB is typically now regarded as being composed of four major molecular entities (WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4), which vary in their clinical and biological characteristics. Similarities and differences across these subgroups are also reflected i...
Source: Brain Pathology - February 25, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: David T. W. Jones, Paul A. Northcott, Marcel Kool, Stefan M. Pfister Tags: MINI‐SYMPOSIUM: When Genetics Meets Epigenetics—A New Option for Therapeutic Intervention in Brain Tumors? Symposium Editor: Stefan M. Pfister, MD Source Type: research
MiR-124 targets Slug to regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of breast cancer
In this study, we show that the miR-124 expression is significantly suppressed in human breast cancer specimens, which is reversely correlated to histological grade of the cancer. More intriguingly, ectopic expression of miR-124 in aggressive breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 strongly inhibits cell motility and invasive capacity, as well as the epithelial–mesenchymal transition process. Also, lentivirus-delivered miR-124 endows MDA-MB-231 cells with the ability to suppress cell colony formation in vitro and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Further studies have identified the E-cadherin transcription repress...
Source: Carcinogenesis - February 25, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liang, Y.-J., Wang, Q.-Y., Zhou, C.-X., Yin, Q.-Q., He, M., Yu, X.-T., Cao, D.-X., Chen, G.-Q., He, J.-R., Zhao, Q. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research
Proton Beam Craniospinal Irradiation Reduces Acute Toxicity for Adults With Medulloblastoma
Purpose: Efficacy and acute toxicity of proton craniospinal irradiation (p-CSI) were compared with conventional photon CSI (x-CSI) for adults with medulloblastoma.Methods and Materials: Forty adult medulloblastoma patients treated with x-CSI (n=21) or p-CSI (n=19) at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Median CSI and total doses were 30.6 and 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 57 months (range 4-103) for x-CSI patients and 26 months (range 11-63) for p-CSI.Results: p-CSI patients lost less weight than x-CSI patients (1.2% vs 5.8%; P=.004), and less p...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - February 21, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Aaron P. Brown, Christian L. Barney, David R. Grosshans, Mary Frances McAleer, John F. de Groot, Vinay K. Puduvalli, Susan L. Tucker, Cody N. Crawford, Meena Khan, Soumen Khatua, Mark R. Gilbert, Paul D. Brown, Anita Mahajan Tags: Central Nervous System Tumors Source Type: research
Using of brightness wavelet transformation for automated analysis of serum metallothioneins and zinc‐containing‐proteins by western blots to subclassify the childhood solid tumours
In this study, we determined serum levels of metallothioneins (MTs) and zinc in children with solid tumours (neuroblastoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, medulloblastoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and nephroblastoma) by differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction and enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. Zn(II) level in patients sera was 40% compared to controls, contrariwise, MT level was 4.2× higher in patients. No significant differences among single diagnoses were found both for Zn(II) and MT. When determined Zn(II)/MT ratio, in controls its value was 24.6, but it was 2.6 in patients. After western‐blotting with anti‐MT ...
Source: Electrophoresis - February 18, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lenka Vyslouzilova, Sona Krizkova, Jiri Anyz, David Hynek, Jan Hrabeta, Jarmila Kruseova, Tomas Eckschlager, Vojtech Adam, Olga Stepankova, Rene Kizek Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
REST: an oncogene or a tumor suppressor?
Abstract The Repressor Element-1 (RE-1) Silencing Transcription (REST) factor, which is highly expressed in stem cells and non-neural cells, with low expression in neurons and other neural cells, orchestrates neural differentiation and preserves the unique neural phenotype. REST also plays a role in proliferation, although its effect differs depending on the cell type. It acts as an oncogene in neural cells and tumors (medulloblastomas, neuroblastomas, glioblastomas) and as a tumor suppressor in carcinomas of the lung, breast, and colon. The mechanisms underlying this duality have started to emerge recently and new...
Source: Trends in Cell Biology - February 13, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Negrini S, Prada I, D'Alessandro R, Meldolesi J Tags: Trends Cell Biol Source Type: research
Expression Pattern of Id Proteins in Medulloblastoma.
This study shows that Id1 expression in endothelial cells may contribute to angiogenic processes and that increased expression of Id2 and Id3 in medulloblastoma is potentially involved in tumor cell proliferation and survival. PMID: 23397264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology Oncology Research)
Source: Pathology Oncology Research - February 9, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Snyder AD, Dulin-Smith AN, Houston RH, Durban AN, Brisbin BJ, Oostra TD, Marshall JT, Kahwash BM, Pierson CR Tags: Pathol Oncol Res Source Type: research
Hepatocyte growth factor sensitizes brain tumors to c-Met kinase inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings allow the identification of a subset of patients that will be responsive to c-MET inhibition, and propose ligand pre-treatment as a potential new strategy for improving the anti-cancer efficacy of RTK inhibitors. PMID: 23386689 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Cancer Research)
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - February 5, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhang Y, Farenholtz K, Yang Y, Guessous F, Dipierro CG, Calvert V, Deng J, Schiff D, Xin W, Lee J, Purow BW, Christensen JG, Petricoin EF, Abounader R Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Role of infectious agents in the carcinogenesis of brain and head and neck cancers
This review concentrates on tumours that are anatomically localised in head and neck regions. Brain cancers and head and neck cancers together account for more than 873,000 cases annually worldwide, with an increasing incidence each year. With poor survival rates at late stages, brain and head and neck cancers represent serious conditions. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process and the role of infectious agents in this progression has not been fully identified. A major problem with such research is that the role of many infectious agents may be underestimated due to the lack of or inconsistency in experimental data obtaine...
Source: Infectious Agents and Cancer - February 2, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kenneth AlibekAinur KakpenovaYeldar Baiken Source Type: research
Twenty-fourth Annual Pezcoller Report
The mechanisms of genetically determined mechanisms of resistance to several target drugs were discussed in breast cancer, melanoma, colorectal and prostate cancers, chronic myelogenous leukemia, small cell lung cancer, and medulloblastoma. In each case, heterogeneity of mechanisms was emphasized. In melanoma, therapeutic interference with the effects of BRAF mutations was repeatedly discussed. It was also reported that anti-CTLA4 antibodies provided the first treatment improving survival of patients with stage IV melanoma. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) was introduced as a mechanism of resistance, particularly ...
Source: Cancer Research - January 31, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marais, R., Sellers, W., Livingston, D., Mihich, E. Tags: Meeting Report Source Type: research
Signals that regulate the oncogenic fate of neural stem cells and progenitors.
Abstract Brain tumors have frequently been associated with a neural stem cell (NSC) origin and contain stem-like tumor cells, so-called brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) that share many features with normal NSCs. A stem cell state of BTSCs confers resistance to radiotherapy and treatment with alkylating agents. It is also a hallmark of aggressive brain tumors and is maintained by transcriptional networks that are also active in embryonic stem cells. Advances in reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have further identified genes that drive stemness. In this review, we will highlight t...
Source: Experimental Neurology - January 31, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Swartling FJ, Bolin S, Phillips JJ, Persson AI Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
Thickened area of external granular layer and Ki-67 positive focus are early events of medulloblastoma in Ptch1(+/-) mice.
Abstract Patched1 (Ptch1) encodes a receptor for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and is major gene related to human medulloblastoma (MB) in the Shh subgroup. MB is thought to arise from residual granule cell precursors (GCPs) located in the external granular layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum. As the detailed preneoplastic changes of MB remain obscure, we immunohistochemically clarified the derived cell, early events of MBs, and the cerebellar developmental processes of Ptch1(+/-) (Ptch1) mice, an animal model of human MB of the Shh subgroup. In Ptch1 mice, the earliest proliferative lesions were detected at PND10 as fo...
Source: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology - January 28, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Matsuo S, Takahashi M, Inoue K, Tamura K, Irie K, Kodama Y, Nishikawa A, Yoshida M Tags: Exp Toxicol Pathol Source Type: research
Medulloblastoma Spurred On By Oxygen-Free Energy Designed To Fuel Brain Development
The metabolic process which fuels the growth of many cancers has its origins in normal brain growth finds a new study published in BioMed Central's open access journal Cancer & Metabolism. Using knock-out mice the study shows that interfering with Hexokinase-2 (Hk2), an enzyme integral to glucose metabolism, reduces the aggressiveness of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, and allows long term survival of mice. Most cells only convert glucose to lactate in the absence of oxygen, for example, during a short burst of intensive exercise (anaerobic glycolysis)... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - January 24, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Cancer / Oncology Source Type: news
Child cruelty on the NHS: Neon Roberts appeal fund launches
Why won’t UK National Health Service pay for humane treatment? (Source: Alliance for Natural Health)
Source: Alliance for Natural Health - January 23, 2013 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Sophie Tags: brain cancer europe international medulloblastoma Neon Roberts NHS oncology Proton Beam Therapy radiotherapy Source Type: news
Oxygen-free energy designed to fuel brain development spurs on growth of cancer
The metabolic process which fuels the growth of many cancers has its origins in normal brain growth finds a new study. Using knock-out mice the study shows that interfering with Hexokinase-2 (Hk2), an enzyme integral to glucose metabolism, reduces the aggressiveness of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, and allows long term survival of mice. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - January 22, 2013 Category: Science Source Type: news
Oxygen-free energy designed to fuel brain development spurs on growth of cancer
(BioMed Central) The metabolic process which fuels the growth of many cancers has its origins in normal brain growth finds a new study published in BioMed Central's open access journal Cancer & Metabolism. Using knock-out mice the study shows that interfering with Hexokinase-2, an enzyme integral to glucose metabolism, reduces the aggressiveness of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, and allows long term survival of mice. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 22, 2013 Category: Biology Source Type: news
miR-218 as a Tumor Suppressor in Medulloblastoma [Gene Regulation]
In this study, the regulation and function of microRNA 218 (miR-218), which is significantly underexpressed in medulloblastoma, was evaluated. Re-expression of miR-218 resulted in a significant decrease in medulloblastoma cell growth, cell colony formation, cell migration, invasion, and tumor sphere size. We used C17.2 neural stem cells as a model to show that increased miR-218 expression results in increased cell differentiation and also decreased malignant transformation when transfected with the oncogene REST. These results suggest that miR-218 acts as a tumor suppressor in medulloblastoma. MicroRNAs function by down-re...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - January 18, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Venkataraman, S., Birks, D. K., Balakrishnan, I., Alimova, I., Harris, P. S., Patel, P. R., Handler, M. H., Dubuc, A., Taylor, M. D., Foreman, N. K., Vibhakar, R. Tags: Cell Biology Source Type: research
Germline mutations in FGF receptors and medulloblastomas
(Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A)
Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A - January 16, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Franck Bourdeaut, Catherine Miquel, Federico Di Rocco, Camille Grison, Wilfrid Richer, Laurence Brugieres, Gaelle Pierron, Syril James, Genevieve Baujat, Olivier Delattre, Corinne Collet Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research
New Research Method to Identify Brain Tumors Could Enhance Neurosurgery
Developed by researchers in the Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) at Stony Brook University, the contrast agent adheres to a molecular marker of medulloblastoma, a form of brain cancer, and can be seen by the optical microscope system, also developed by the research team.01/11/2013 (Source: Kidney Cancer Association)
Source: Kidney Cancer Association - January 11, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Cytotoxicity of Withaferin A in Pediatric Medulloblastomas Involves Induction of an Oxidative Stress-Mediated Heat Shock Response While Altering Akt/mTOR and Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Pathways
(Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - January 10, 2013 Category: Surgery Authors: P.T. Grogan, T.A. Fields, B.N. Timmermann, M.S. Cohen Tags: Quickshot Session: Tuesday 2/5 7:30 AM to 9:30 AM Source Type: research
New research method to identify brain tumors could enhance neurosurgery
The use of a new brain tumor-targeting contrast agent that differentiates between normal and cancer cells in conjunction with a high-powered microscopy system could potentially lead to a method of more precise neurosurgery for brain tumors, according to research paper. The contrast agent adheres to a molecular marker of medulloblastoma, a form of brain cancer, and can be seen by the optical microscope system, also developed by the research team. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - January 9, 2013 Category: Science Source Type: news
Integrative deep-sequencing analysis of cancer samples: discoveries and clinical challenges
The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, January 8 2013. doi:10.1038/tpj.2012.51 Author: D Roukos (Source: The Pharmacogenomics Journal)
Source: The Pharmacogenomics Journal - January 8, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: D Roukos Tags: breast cancer copy number changes heterogeneity medulloblastoma mutations transcriptome Source Type: research
Brain cancer in 2012: Molecular characterization leads the way
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 10, 69 (2013). doi:10.1038/nrclinonc.2012.240 Authors: Roger Stupp & Monika E. Hegi In 2012, advances in molecular profiling of primary brain tumours allowed identification of subgroups of glioma and medulloblastoma that were associated with distinct prognoses and predicted treatment response. Adjuvant chemotherapy is now established for 1p/19q co-deleted anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and may be the preferred treatment in elderly patients with glioblastoma with a methylated MGMT promoter. (Source: Nature Clinical Practice Oncology)
Source: Nature Clinical Practice Oncology - January 8, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Roger StuppMonika E. Hegi Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research
Malnutrition in pediatric patients with cancer at diagnosis and throughout therapy: A multicenter cohort study
ConclusionsThe rapid increase of malnutrition after the start of treatment underlines the need to develop evidence‐based and efficient methods to provide nutritional support for children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - December 31, 2012 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Karin Zimmermann, Roland A. Ammann, Claudia E. Kuehni, Sabina De Geest, Eva Cignacco Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Differentiation between high and low grade tumours in paediatric patients by using apparent diffusion coefficients.
CONCLUSION: Combining the information obtained from conventional MR imaging with the ADC values may increase the accuracy of pre-operative differentiation between low grade and high grade paediatric tumours. Cut-off values can help to discern low from high grade tumours. However, it has to be considered that there is a substantial overlap between tumour types previously described in the literature. PMID: 23273960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology)
Source: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology - December 26, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Porto L, Jurcoane A, Schwabe D, Kieslich M, Hattingen E Tags: Eur J Paediatr Neurol Source Type: research
Local Perspective On A Rare Brain Tumour: Adult Medulloblastoma
ConclusionsCombined modality therapy (surgery followed by post‐operative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy) was well tolerated and associated with good outcomes in standard‐risk de novo patients. High‐risk and recurrent disease patients do extremely poorly regardless of treatment and better treatment strategies are needed in these patients. (Source: Internal Medicine Journal)
Source: Internal Medicine Journal - December 24, 2012 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Shu Fen Wong, Gabriel Mak, Mark A. Rosenthal, Lawrence Cher, Hui Gan Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Prognostic significance of Ror2 and Wnt5a expression in medulloblastoma
In conclusion, our study demonstrates the first attempt to identify Wnt5a and Ror2 as additional mechanisms contributing to dysregulation of the non‐canonical WNT signaling pathway in MB. Ror2 may play a role as an oncosuppressor in MB. (Source: Brain Pathology)
Source: Brain Pathology - December 20, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Seung Eun Lee, So Dug Lim, So Young Kang, Sang Bum Suh, Yeon‐Lim Suh Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Progress from clinical trials and emerging non-conventional therapies for the treatment of Medulloblastomas
In conclusion, novel therapies based on a better understanding of the biology of Medulloblastomas are pivotal in improving non-conventional therapies in the treatment of this deadly disease. (Source: Cancer Letters)
Source: Cancer Letters - December 20, 2012 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Norbert Fonya Ajeawung, Hao Yang Wang, Deepak Kamnasaran Tags: Mini-reviews Source Type: research
Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: Central nervous system tumors
Abstract In the US, approximately 2,500 children are diagnosed annually with brain tumors. Their survival ranges from >90% to <10%. For children with medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor, 5‐year survival ranges from >80% (standard‐risk) to 60% (high‐risk). For those with high‐grade gliomas (HGGs) including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, 5‐year survival remains <10%. Sixty‐five percent patients with ependymoma are cured after surgery and radiation therapy depending on the degree of resection and histopathology of the tumor. Phase II trials for brain tumors will investigate agent...
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - December 19, 2012 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Amar Gajjar, Roger J. Packer, N.K. Foreman, Kenneth Cohen, Daphne Haas‐Kogan, Thomas E. Merchant, Tags: Review Source Type: research
Medulloblastoma Targeted By MicroRNA-218
Between the blueprint of the genome and the products of its expression lie microRNAs, which can boost or lower the rate at which genes become stuff. In fact, many cancers use microRNA to magnify the expression of faulty genes or shrink the expression of helpful genes that would otherwise suppress tumors. A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the December issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry shows that in medulloblastoma, a malignant brain tumor of children, microRNA-218 is especially low... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - December 18, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Cancer / Oncology Source Type: news
Paediatric intra-axial posterior fossa tumours: pictorial review
Paediatric brain tumours commonly arise in the posterior cranial fossa. Early diagnosis is often challenging due to initial non-specific clinical symptoms, especially in very young children. The typical MR features of tumours in this region including medulloblastoma, ependymoma, juvenile pilocytic subtype of cerebellar astrocytoma, brain stem glioma and atypical teratoid–rhabdoid tumour are illustrated. Diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient values combined with signal characteristics on conventional MR sequences can usually differentiate low-grade from high-grade tumours. Prompt diagnosis is c...
Source: Postgraduate Medical Journal - December 17, 2012 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Rasalkar, D. D., Chu, W. C.-w., Paunipagar, B. K., Cheng, F. W. T., Li, C. K. Tags: Reviews Source Type: research