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Norovirus GII.21 in Children with Diarrhea, Bhutan.
PMID: 25811105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yahiro T, Wangchuk S, Wada T, Dorji C, Matsumoto T, Mynak ML, Tshering KP, Nishizono A, Ahmed K Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999-2012.
Abstract Worldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis. They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments. To estimate the proportion of foodborne infections caused by noroviruses on a global scale, we used norovirus transmission and genotyping information from multiple international outbreak surveillance systems (Noronet, CaliciNet, EpiSurv) and from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. The proportion of outbreaks caused by food was determined by genotype and/or genogroup. Analysis resulted in the following final globa...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Verhoef L, Hewitt J, Barclay L, Ahmed SM, Lake R, Hall AJ, Lopman B, Kroneman A, Vennema H, Vinjé J, Koopmans M Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Norovirus candidate vaccine induces broad antibody responses in trial participants
A multivalent candidate vaccine elicits broad antibody responses to a range of norovirus strains, including strains not included in the vaccine or previously encountered by participants, according to a new study. The results of the study indicate that a vaccine to norovirus may be available in the future. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 24, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Norovirus candidate vaccine induces broad antibody responses in trial participants
(PLOS) A multivalent candidate vaccine elicits broad antibody responses to a range of norovirus strains, including strains not included in the vaccine or previously encountered by participants, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine. The results of the study, led by Lisa Lindesmith and Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, indicate that a vaccine to norovirus may be available in the future. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - March 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Broad Blockade Antibody Responses in Human Volunteers after Immunization with a Multivalent Norovirus VLP Candidate Vaccine: Immunological Analyses from a Phase I Clinical Trial
Conclusions Vaccination with a multivalent NoV VLP vaccine induces a broadly blocking Ab response to multiple epitopes within vaccine and non-vaccine NoV strains and to novel antigenic variants not yet circulating at the time of vaccination. These data reveal new information about complex NoV immune responses to both natural exposure and to vaccination, and support the potential feasibility of an efficacious multivalent NoV VLP vaccine for future use in human populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01168401 (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 24, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lisa C. Lindesmith et al. Source Type: research

A Prospective Multi-Center Observational Study of Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
V, Thwaites G, Baker S Abstract We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3%) children without diarrhea. Rotavirus predominated in the symptomatic children (664/1,41...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 23, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Thompson CN, Phan MV, Hoang NV, Minh PV, Vinh NT, Thuy CT, Nga TT, Rabaa MA, Duy PT, Dung TT, Phat VV, Nga TV, Tu LT, Tuyen HT, Yoshihara K, Jenkins C, Duong VT, Phuc HL, Tuyet PT, Ngoc NM, Vinh H, Chinh NT, Thuong TC, Tuan HM, Hien TT, Campbell JI, Chau Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Alternative methods to determine infectivity of Tulane virus: A surrogate for human nororvirus.
In this study, we evaluated different assays for determination of infectivity of Tulane virus (TV), a surrogate for HuNoV. The infectivity of TV was measured by RNase exposure assay, RT-PCR assays, cellular-receptor-mediated capture qRT-PCR assay, receptor-mediated in situ capture qRT-PCR assay, cell-culture-mediated amplification qRT-PCR, and confirmed by TCID50 assay. RNase exposure assay was only useful for measuring TV inactivation caused by heat. Short template RT-PCR assay did not reflect inactivation status of TV. Partial reduction in viral RNA signal could be measured by long-template RT-PCR only when TV was inacti...
Source: Food Microbiology - March 22, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Xu S, Wang D, Yang D, Liu H, Tian P Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Development of a Practical Method to Detect Noroviruses Contamination in Composite Meals
In this study, we developed a new extraction and concentration method for detecting NoVs in contaminated composite meals. We spiked NoV-GI.4 or -GII.4 stool suspension into potato salad and stir-fried noodles. The food samples were suspended in homogenizing buffer and centrifuged to obtain a food emulsion. Then, anti-NoV-GI.4 or anti-NoV-GII.4 rabbit serum raised against recombinant virus-like particles or commercially available human gamma globulin and Staphylococcus aureus fixed with formalin as a source of protein A were added to the food emulsion. NoV-IgG-protein A-containing bacterial complexes were collected by centr...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 22, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Production, characterization and immunogenicity of P particles derived from norovirus GII.4 genotype 2004 variant.
In this study, the P domain of the capsid protein of GII.4 genotype 2004 variant was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and auto-assembled into P particles of 14-25 nm. Immunization with P particles induced specific serum antibodies with titers of 245,600 and 145,700 in mice and rabbits, respectively. The GII.4 NoV 2004 variant bound to type A, B and O secretor-positive saliva and immune sera blocked this binding, suggesting induction of neutralizing activity in such sera. Thus, this study demonstrated the immunogenicity of NoV P particles generated from E. coli and provided evidence supporting the development o...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Su W, Gao J, Zang Y, Wu H, Wang L, Hu H, Yu X, Kong W, Jiang C Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Structure-Guided Design and Optimization of Dipeptidyl Inhibitors of Norovirus 3CL Protease. Structure–Activity Relationships and Biochemical, X-ray Crystallographic, Cell-Based, and In Vivo Studies
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/jm5019934 (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - March 19, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Anushka C. Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Pathum M. Weerawarna, Roxanne Adeline Z. Uy, Vishnu C. Damalanka, Sivakoteswara Rao Mandadapu, Kevin R. Alliston, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P. Battaile, Scott Lovell, Kyeong-Ok Chang and William C. Groutas Source Type: research

Removal of Surrogate Bacteriophages and Enteric Viruses from Seeded Environmental Waters Using a Semi-technical Ultrafiltration Unit
Abstract Experiments to determine the removal of viruses in different types of water (surface water from two reservoirs for drinking water treatment, treated groundwater and groundwater contaminated with either 5 or 30 % of wastewater) by ultrafiltration were performed with a semi-technical ultrafiltration unit. Concentrations of human adenoviruses (HAdVs), murine norovirus (MNV), and the bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PRD1 were measured in the feed water and the filtrate, and log removal values were calculated. Bacteria added to the feed water were not detected in the filtrates. In contrast, in most cases virus...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 19, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy and obstructive renal stones in an infant with norovirus gastroenteritis
Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy (TC) is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in adult patients with chest pain, cardiac enzyme elevations, and electrocardiographic changes. This condition mimicking an acute coronary syndrome usually occurs in elder women after a physical or emotional stress. It is extremely rare in children as well as after infective stress [1,2]. Norovirus is a common pathogen of gastroenteritis in childhood. There is an occasional association between renal stones and gastroenteritis [3]. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - March 19, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Seigo Okada, Yoshihiro Azuma, Hidenobu Kaneyasu, Makoto Mizutani, Yuno Korenaga, Setsuaki Kittaka, Yasuo Suzuki, Yuji Ohnishi, Takashi Furuta, Shouichi Ohga Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Noroviruses as a Cause of Diarrhea in Immunocompromised Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
Case reports describe significant norovirus gastroenteritis morbidity in immunocompromised patients. We evaluated norovirus pathogenesis in prospectively enrolled solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients with diarrhea who presented to Texas Children's Hospital and submitted stool for enteric testing. Noroviruses were detected by real‐time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical outcomes of norovirus diarrhea and non‐norovirus diarrhea patients, matched by transplanted organ type, were compared. Norovirus infection was identified in 25 (22%) of 116 patients, more frequen...
Source: American Journal of Transplantation - March 18, 2015 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: X. Ye, J. N. Van, F. M. Munoz, P. A. Revell, C. A. Kozinetz, R. A. Krance, R. L. Atmar, M. K. Estes, H. L. Koo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Propidium Monoazide Reverse Transcriptase PCR and RT-qPCR for Detecting Infectious Enterovirus and Norovirus.
In this study, PMA RT-PCR and RT-qPCR assays were evaluated for selective detection of infectious poliovirus, murine norovirus (MNV-1), and Norwalk virus. Viruses were inactivated using heat, chlorine, and ultraviolet light (UV). Infectious and non-infectious viruses were treated with PMA before RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and heat and chlorine inactivated poliovirus. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and noninfectious murine norovirus only when inactivated by chlorine. However, PMA RT-PCR could not differentiate infectious Norwal...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - March 18, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Karim MR, Fout GS, Johnson CH, White KM, Parshionikar S Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Norovirus genotype diversity in community‐based sporadic gastroenteritis incidents: A five‐year study
Although norovirus is a known cause of sporadic gastroenteritis, the incidence and genotypes of norovirus associated with sporadic community‐based gastroenteritis are poorly understood. The current study examined this issue by using material from alleged food poisoning incidents in the state of Victoria, Australia, for the period 2008–2012. Norovirus was identified, by either ORF (open reading frame) 1 or ORF 2 RT‐PCR methodology, in 159 of 379 (42.0%) sporadic gastroenteritis incidents, thereby showing that norovirus was an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis. The number of sporadic norovirus incidents did n...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - March 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Leesa D. Bruggink, Natalie L. Dunbar, John A. Marshall Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Large scale survey of enteric viruses in river and waste water underlines the health status of the local population.
In this study, enteric viruses (i.e., adenovirus, aichivirus, astrovirus, cosavirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A and E viruses, norovirus of genogroups I and II, rotavirus A and salivirus) were monitored in the Seine River and the origin of contamination was untangled. A total of 275 water samples were collected, twice a month for one year, from the river Seine, its tributaries and the major WWTP effluents in the Paris agglomeration. All water samples were negative for hepatitis A and E viruses. AdV, NVGI, NVGII and RV-A were the most prevalent and abundant populations in all water samples. The viral load and the detection fr...
Source: Environment International - March 17, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Prevost B, Lucas FS, Goncalves A, Richard F, Moulin L, Wurtzer S Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Viral gastroenteritis in children in Colorado 2006–2009
Acute gastroenteritis accounts for a significant burden of medically attended illness in children under the age of five. For this study, four multiplex reverse transcription PCR assays were used to determine the incidence of adenovirus, astrovirus, coronavirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and sapovirus in stool samples submitted for viral electron microscopy (EM) to the Children's Hospital Colorado. Of 1105 stool samples available, viral RNA/DNA was detected in 247 (26.2%) of 941 pediatric samples (median age = 2.97 years, 54% male) with 28 (3.0%) positive for more than one virus. Adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - March 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Christina M. Osborne, Aaron C. Montano, Christine C. Robinson, Stacey Schultz‐Cherry, Samuel R. Dominguez Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and multiple infections of rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus in outpatients with sporadic gastroenteritis in Shanghai, China, 2010–2011
This study clearly shows the diversity of the viral causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in outpatient children in Shanghai, which will provide baseline information for future vaccination strategies and development in this area. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - March 14, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999–2012
L. Verhoef et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - March 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergence in Taiwan of Novel Norovirus GII.4 Variants Causing Acute Gastroenteritis and Intestinal Hemorrhage in Children.
The objective of the study was to delineate the clinical manifestations and complications associated with these new norovirus GII.4 variants in children. We investigated norovirus infections from the community outbreak in October 2011-September 2012 and an earlier outbreak in 2006-2007 in northern Taiwan. Norovirus genotypes and their variants were validated using molecular methods. A norovirus outbreak started in mid-2011 and continued through 2012 in northern Taiwan. Hospitalized children infected by norovirus in 2012 showed a significantly higher incidence of intestinal hemorrhage, as indicated by grossly bloody feces (...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen SY, Feng Y, Chao HC, Lai MW, Huang WL, Lin CY, Tsai CN, Chen CL, Chiu CH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Waterborne norovirus outbreak during a summer excursion in Northern Italy.
Authors: Di Bartolo I, Pavoni E, Tofani S, Consoli M, Galuppini E, Losio MN, Ruggeri FM, Varisco G Abstract In September 2011, an acute gastroenteritis outbreak affected 33 children in Northern Italy. Patients had drunk river water during an excursion. Identical GI.4 norovirus genomes were detected from one patient's stools and from the river water. Improper discharge of human sewage into the river may have caused this waterborne outbreak. PMID: 25742154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - March 7, 2015 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

New tool for detecting, destroying norovirus
Norovirus infection is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis, or 'stomach flu.' A research team recently produced 'nanobodies' that could be used to better characterize the structural makeup of the virus. They discovered that these nanobodies could detect the virus in clinical stool samples and disassemble intact norovirus particles. Such nanobodies may potentially be used to not only better detect but also treat symptoms of norovirus infection in the clinic. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 6, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

A new tool for detecting and destroying norovirus
(German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ)) Norovirus infection is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis, or 'stomach flu.' A research team at the German Cancer Research Center recently produced 'nanobodies' that could be used to better characterize the structural makeup of the virus. They discovered that these nanobodies could detect the virus in clinical stool samples and disassemble intact norovirus particles. Such nanobodies may potentially be used to not only better detect but also treat symptoms of norovirus infection in the clinic. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 6, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news

The prevalence of norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus infections among hospitalised children with acute gastroenteritis in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon.
Abstract Although viruses are well-established causes of acute gastroenteritis, few data on the circulation of these pathogens in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil, are available. Thus, faecal samples from hospitalised diarrhoeic children, under six years of age, were collected and tested for the presence of norovirus (NoV), adenovirus (AdV) and astrovirus (AstV) from February 2010-February 2012. Specimens were screened by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and viruses were found in 10.7% (63/591) of the cases. NoV, AdV and AstV were detected in 7.8%, 2% and 0.8% of the samples, respectively. NoV...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 6, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amaral MS, Estevam GK, Penatti M, Lafontaine R, Lima IC, Spada PK, Gabbay YB, Matos NB Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrheal Disease in Ghanaian Infants and Children: An Outpatient Case-Control Study
Conclusions Diarrheal diseases in children from a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa are mainly due to infections with rotavirus, Shigella spp./EIEC, and norovirus. These associations are strongly age-dependent, which should be considered when diagnosing causes of diarrhea. The presented results are informative for both clinicians treating gastrointestinal infections as well as public health experts designing control programs against diarrheal diseases. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ralf Krumkamp et al. Source Type: research

Norovirus GII.21 in Children with Diarrhea, Bhutan
T. Yahiro et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - March 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Spectrum of Outpatient Illness in a School-Based Cohort in Haiti, with a Focus on Diarrheal Pathogens.
Abstract Currently, there are only limited data available on rates of major diagnostic categories of illnesses among Haitian children. We have established a cohort of 1,245 students attending schools run by the Christianville Foundation in the Gressier/Leogane region of Haiti, for whom our group provides primary medical care. Among 1,357 clinic visits during the 2012-2013 academic year, the main disease categories (with rates per 1,000 child years of observation) included acute respiratory infection (ARI) (385.6 cases/1,000 child years of observation), gastrointestinal complaints (277.8 cases/1,000 child years), fe...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 2, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Beau De Rochars VE, Alam MT, Telisma T, Masse R, Chavannes S, Anilis MG, Guillaume HJ, Gelin G, Kirkpatrick EL, Okech BA, Weppelmann TA, Rashid M, Karst S, Johnson JA, Ali A, Morris JG Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A PCR-based Rapid Neutralization Assay for GII.4 Norovirus Infection in HIEC6 Cell Culture.
According to this study, neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of convalescent-phase sera, and in 2.5% of healthy controls sera. However, all of the acute-phase serum samples could not neutralize virus efficiently. Compared to the results from ELISA (96.2% at sensitivity and 80% at specificity), the present in vitro neutralization assay is more specific and more sensitive. PMID: 25800447 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)
Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES - March 1, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fan YS, Liu C, Zhu HJ, Ding Y, Zeng WJ, Yin XF, Ding SS, Zhang J Tags: Biomed Environ Sci Source Type: research

Determination of which virus to use as a process control when testing for the presence of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in food and water.
Abstract Noroviruses (genogroup I (NoV GI) and genogroup II (NoV GII)) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) are frequently involved in foodborne infections worldwide. They are mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, direct person-to-person contact or consumption of contaminated water and foods. In food virology, detection methods are currently based on identifying viral genomes using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). One of the general requirements for detecting these viruses in food involves the use of a process control virus to monitor the quality of the entire viral extraction procedure as described...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - February 28, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Hennechart-Collette C, Martin-Latil S, Guillier L, Perelle S Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Epidemiological Investigation of a Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Outbreak in a China Elder Care Facility.
Abstract An outbreak of norovirus GII.4/Sydney_2012 affected a China elder care facility in December 2012. A total of 39 elderly people and staff met the outbreak case definition. The attack rates in the elderly and the staff were 15.9% (31/195) and 23.2% (19/82), respectively, including 13 asymptomatic cases in the staff. The result of gene sequencing revealed that the outbreak was caused by norovirus GII.4 Sydney. The mode of transmission of this outbreak was proven to be person-to-person. The first case (a self-cared elder) was affected outside the elder care facility and was not isolated after returning. Norovi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zheng QM, Zeng HT, Dai CW, Zhang SX, Zhang Z, Mei SJ, He YQ, Ma HW Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Research cracks code governing infections single-stranded RNA viruses
Researchers have cracked a code that governs infections caused by simple, single-stranded RNA viruses similar in many respects to viruses that cause the common cold, polio and the winter vomiting norovirus infections. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - February 26, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

High incidence of norovirus GII.4 outbreaks in hospitals and nursing homes in Catalonia (Spain), 2010–2011
Research Articles P. GODOY, G. FERRRUS, N. TORNER, N. CAMPS, M.R. SALA, S. GUIX, R. BARTOLOMÉ, A. MARTÍNEZ, M. DE SIMÓN, A. DOMÍNGUEZ, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 04, pp 725-733Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - February 23, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Norovirus Vaccine: One Step Closer
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vesikari, T., Blazevic, V. Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Norovirus Vaccine Against Experimental Human GII.4 Virus Illness: A Challenge Study in Healthy Adults
Conclusions. Bivalent norovirus VLP vaccine reduced norovirus-related vomiting and/or diarrhea; field efficacy studies are planned. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01609257. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bernstein, D. I., Atmar, R. L., Lyon, G. M., Treanor, J. J., Chen, W. H., Jiang, X., Vinje, J., Gregoricus, N., Frenck, R. W., Moe, C. L., Al-Ibrahim, M. S., Barrett, J., Ferreira, J., Estes, M. K., Graham, D. Y., Goodwin, R., Borkowski, A., Clemens, R., Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Impact of Genotype-Specific Herd Immunity on the Circulatory Dynamism of Norovirus: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Viral Acute Gastroenteritis
Human norovirus is a major cause of viral acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, the transition of endemic norovirus genotypes remains poorly understood. The characteristics of natural immunity against norovirus are unclear because few studies have been performed in the natural infection setting. This prospective 10-year surveillance study of acute gastroenteritis in the province of Osaka, Japan, revealed that norovirus spread shows temporal, geographic, and age group–specific features in the humans. Genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) was detected in most sporadic pediatric cases, as well as in foodborne and nursing ...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sakon, N., Yamazaki, K., Nakata, K., Kanbayashi, D., Yoda, T., Mantani, M., Kase, T., Takahashi, K., Komano, J. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Development of enhanced primer sets for detection of norovirus.
In this study, we developed advanced primer sets (NKI-F/R/F2, NKII-F/R/R2) for the detection of NV, including the variant types. The new primer sets were compared with conventional primer sets (GI-F1/R1/F2, SRI-1/2/3, GII-F1/R1/F2, and SRII-1/2/3) to evaluate their efficiency when using clinical and environmental samples. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and seminested PCR, NV GI and GII were detected in 91.7% (NKI-F/R/F2), 89.3% (NKII-F/R/R2), 54.2% (GI-F1/R1/F2), 52.5% (GII-F1/R1/F2), 25.0% (SRI-1/2/3), and 32.2% (SRII-1/2/3) of clinical and environmental specimens. Therefore, our primer set...
Source: Biomed Res - February 22, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Kong BH, Lee SG, Han SH, Jin JY, Jheong WH, Paik SY Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Control of eIF4E Activity during MNV1 Infection [Gene Regulation]
Protein synthesis is a tightly controlled process responding to several stimuli, including viral infection. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses depend on the translation machinery of the host and can manipulate it by affecting the availability and function of specific eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Human norovirus is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks. Previous studies on feline calicivirus and murine norovirus 1 (MNV1) demonstrated that the viral protein, genome-linked (VPg), acts to direct translation by hijacking the host protein synthesis machinery. Her...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - February 20, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Royall, E., Doyle, N., Abdul-Wahab, A., Emmott, E., Morley, S. J., Goodfellow, I., Roberts, L. O., Locker, N. Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the swab sampling method to recover viruses from fomites.
Abstract The monitoring of virus contamination on fomites, especially at hospitals has been used for a more effective evaluation of the microbiological quality of surfaces. Swab sampling is the method used currently, although the use of an internal control process (ICP) has not yet been assessed. The aim of this study is to determine the recovery rate of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) and bacteriophage PP7 on different surfaces in order to assess their potential use as an ICP. For this purpose both viruses were spiked experimentally both on porous and non-porous formic as well as on rubberized surfaces. Quantitative PC...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - February 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ganime AC, Leite J, Corrêa AA, Melgaço FG, Carvalho-Costa FA, Miagostovich MP Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Multicenter Evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray Gastrointestinal Panel for Etiologic Diagnosis of Infectious Gastroenteritis [Bacteriology]
This study assessed the performance of the FilmArray Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel for the simultaneous detection of 22 different enteric pathogens directly from stool specimens: Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile (toxin A/B), Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteroaggregative E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - February 19, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Buss, S. N., Leber, A., Chapin, K., Fey, P. D., Bankowski, M. J., Jones, M. K., Rogatcheva, M., Kanack, K. J., Bourzac, K. M. Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

The Burden of Norovirus Disease in Children in the European Union
Conclusion: The burden of NoV disease in children in the EU is substantial, and will grow in relative importance as rotavirus (RV) vaccines are rolled out in the EU. This burden of disease is comparable with the burden of RV disease in the EU before RV vaccine introduction. More country-specific studies are needed to better assess this burden and guide the potential introduction of a vaccine against NoV at the national level. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 18, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Diagnostic Yields in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Admitted With Diarrhea
Conclusions. In solid organ transplant recipients who presented at our institution with diarrhea, approximately one-third had infectious etiologies identified, consisting predominantly of C. difficile, norovirus, cytomegalovirus, and bacterial enterocolitis. Other infectious etiologies were rare. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - February 16, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Echenique, I. A., Penugonda, S., Stosor, V., Ison, M. G., Angarone, M. P. Tags: ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Recovery of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus from plasmids encoding EMCV IRES in stable cell lines expressing T7 polymerase.
Abstract Reverse genetics systems constitute one of the most important and powerful tools to study the molecular biology of viruses. We developed a new strategy for the recovery of murine norovirus from a single plasmid in which a bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7pol) promoter for transcription and an EMCV IRES for efficient translation were engineered immediately upstream of the viral genome. Infectious noroviruses were recovered following transfection of the newly designed plasmid into nonpermissive BHK-21 and HEK293T cell lines that were engineered to express T7pol constitutively. Recovery of the virus did not...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - February 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Sandoval-Jaime C, Green KY, Sosnovtsev SV Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Occurrence of Noroviruses and Their Correlation with Microbial Indicators in Raw Milk
This study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality of raw cow’s milk in a collection center in the city of Mashhad, Iran. A total of 19 raw cow’s milk samples were collected and simultaneously analyzed for male-specific (F+) coliphage and Escherichia coli using culture-based methods and for enteric viruses by reverse transcriptase semi-nested PCR using primer sets specific for human norovirus Group I (HNV-GI), human norovirus Group II (HNV-GII), and enteroviruses (EV). Seven out of 19 (36.8 %) raw milk samples tested positive for human noroviruses (HNV). The genotypes detected were HNV-GI and HNV-GII....
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 13, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 666-679: Evaluation of Virus Inactivation by Formaldehyde to Enhance Biosafety of Diagnostic Electron Microscopy
Formaldehyde (FA) fixation of infectious samples is a well-established protocol in diagnostic electron microscopy of viruses. However, published experimental data that demonstrate virus inactivation by these fixation procedures are lacking. Usually, fixation is performed immediately before the sample preparation for microscopy. The fixation procedure should transform viruses in a non–infectious but nonetheless structurally intact form in order to allow a proper diagnosis based on morphology. FA provides an essential advantage in comparison to other disinfectants, because it preserves the ultrastructure of biological mate...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Lars MöllerLivia SchünadelAndreas NitscheIngeborg SchwebkeManuela HanischMichael Laue Tags: Article Source Type: research

Immune deficiency - changing spectrum of pathogens.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25677249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Duraisingham SS, Manson A, Grigoriadou S, Buckland M, Tong CY, Longhurst HJ Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Burden of norovirus in healthcare facilities and strategies for outbreak control
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015 Source:Journal of Hospital Infection Author(s): A. Kambhampati , M. Koopmans , B.A. Lopman Norovirus is the most frequently occurring cause of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages. It is also one of the most frequent causes of outbreaks in healthcare settings, affecting both long-term care facilities and acute care hospitals. Whereas norovirus gastroenteritis is typically mild and resolves without medical attention, healthcare-associated infections often affect vulnerable populations, resulting in severe infections and disruption of healthcare s...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - February 8, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evidence of the internalization of animal caliciviruses via the root of growing strawberry plants and dissemination to the fruit.
The objective of this study is to determine whether human NoV surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1) and Tulane virus (TV), can attach and become internalized and disseminated in strawberries grown in soil. MNV-1 and TV were inoculated to the soil of growing strawberry plants at a level of 10(8) PFU/plant. Leaves and berries were harvested over a 14 day period and the viral titer was determined by plaque assay. Over the course of the study, 31.6% of the strawberries contained internalized MNV-1 with an average titer of 0.81 ± 0.33 log10 PFU/g. In comparison, 37.5% of strawberries were positive for infectious TV with an aver...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - February 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: DiCaprio E, Culbertson D, Li J Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research

Norovirus infections and seroprevalence of genotype gii.4‐specific antibodies in a spanish population
Genotype II.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis in children and adults worldwide. The prevalence of different NoV genotypes causing outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in the region of Valencia, Spain, during a 4‐year period (2008–11) was investigated. NoVs were detected in 42 out of 55 (76.3%) outbreaks and in 26 out of 332 (7.8%) sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis. Genogroup GII strains were predominant in outbreaks and sporadic cases. Different genotype GII.4 variants were found (Yerseke_2006a, Den Haag_2006b, Apeldoorn_2007, and New Orleans_2009), with t...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - February 5, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Noelia Carmona‐Vicente, Manuel Fernández‐Jiménez, Juan M. Ribes, Carlos J. Téllez‐Castillo, Parisá Khodayar‐Pardo, Jesús Rodríguez‐Diaz, Javier Buesa Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Genome characterization of a GII.6 norovirus strain identified in China.
In this study, the complete genome sequence of a NoV strain GZ2010-L96 isolated in China was identified and analyzed phylogenetically. The viral genome comprised 7550 nucleotides, and its phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain belonged to GII.6 genotype. All reported GII.6 NoV capsid protein sequences were also collected for comparative analysis, and GZ2010-L96 was clustered into GII.6-b with other 8 strains. Meanwhile, it was found that 53 spots on viral capsid showed subcluster specificity according to multiple alignments. Moreover, homologous modeling of GZ2010-L96 based on comparison with GII.4 VA387 strain sho...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - February 4, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xue L, Wu Q, Kou X, Cai W, Zhang J, Guo W Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology and genotype distribution of noroviruses in children in Thailand from 2004 to 2010: A multi‐site study
This study identified norovirus in children presenting with acute gastroenteritis and determined the capsid genotypes of the circulating norovirus strains in multiple regions in Thailand during October 2004 to December 2006 and March 2008 to August 2010. A total of 7,420 stool samples were collected from both cases (3621) and controls (3799). The stool samples were screened by two real‐time RT‐PCR assays to detect genogroup I and genogroup II noroviruses. Norovirus‐positive samples were identified in 516 cases (14.3%) and 181 controls (4.8%) with more than half of norovirus positive samples from 7–24 months old chi...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - February 3, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Eugenio Abente, Pimmnapar Neesanant, Kaewkanya Nakjarung, Pantip Sirichote, Gaysorn Bunyarakyothin, Niyada Vithayasai, Carl J. Mason Tags: Research Article Source Type: research