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Estimating the under-reporting of norovirus illness in Germany utilizing enhanced awareness of diarrhoea during a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 in 2011 - a time series analysis
Background: Laboratory-confirmed norovirus illness is reportable in Germany since 2001. Reported case numbers are known to be undercounts, and a valid estimate of the actual incidence in Germany does not exist. An increase of reported norovirus illness was observed simultaneously to a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 in Germany in 2011 - likely due to enhanced (but not complete) awareness of diarrhoea at that time. We aimed at estimating age- and sex-specific factors of that excess, which should be interpretable as (minimal) under-reporting factors of norovirus illness in Germany. Methods: We used na...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Helen BernardDirk WerberMichael Höhle Source Type: research
Large multistate outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with frozen strawberries, Germany, 2012
(Source: Eurosurveillance latest news)
Source: Eurosurveillance latest news - February 27, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
How dangerous are norovirus infections in patients with rheumatic diseases treated with biologics and DMARDs? Follow-up on a local outbreak and comparison with a control cohort
Norovirus causes acute gastroenteritis and is highly contagious. In healthy individuals, the symptoms, which mostly are heavy vomiting and diarrhoea, resolve spontaneously after a couple of days. However, in transplantation medicine norovirus infections attained much attention currently, as it was found that immunocompromised transplant recipients are at risk of developing chronic norovirus infections.1 2 Although exact numbers are missing, the estimated rate for this complication is 17%–18% in children and adults after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell or renal transplantation. These patients show prolonged diarrh...
Source: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases - February 27, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Fiehn, C., Miehle, N. Tags: Letter Source Type: research
CDC Investigating Fourth Possible Outbreak of Norovirus on Cruise Ship
Health officials are investigating numerous possible cases of norovirus that occurred onboard Holland America’s ms Veendam cruise ship in mid-February. If the cases are confirmed, it would mark the fourth time this year a cruise ship has suffered an... (Source: RWJF News Digest - Public Health)
Source: RWJF News Digest - Public Health - February 24, 2014 Category: American Health Authors: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Source Type: news
Standardized multiplex one-step qRT-PCR for hepatitis A virus, norovirus GI and GII quantification in bivalve mollusks and water.
Abstract A quadruplex Real-Time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous quantitative detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NoV) GI and GII, and mengovirus (used as process control for determination of the virus/nucleic acid extraction efficiency) has been developed. This multiplex assay has been comparatively evaluated with the individual monoplex assays and showed to be slightly less sensitive, with average ΔCq values of 0.90, 0.28 and 0.44 for HAV, NoV GI and NoV GII, respectively, in standard curves of viral RNA, or 0.32, 0.37 and 0.51 for the same viruses respectively, in naturally-contaminated samples. T...
Source: Food Microbiology - February 21, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Fuentes C, Guix S, Pérez-Rodriguez FJ, Fuster N, Carol M, Pintó RM, Bosch A Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
Disease course and viral shedding in experimental Norwalk virus and Snow Mountain virus infection
Norovirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis, causing approximately 21 million cases annually in the USA. The virus is highly contagious and resistant to decontamination, making outbreaks difficult to control. To facilitate the development of better control methods, this study characterized the viral shedding patterns in stools from subjects experimentally infected with genogroup I or II norovirus. Viral stool titers were determined by quantitative real‐time RT‐PCR for all stools produced in the first 7 days post‐challenge and representative stools through day 35 post‐challenge. The sheddi...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - February 14, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: A.E. Kirby, J. Shi, J. Montes, M. Lichtenstein, C.L. Moe Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Rapid and sensitive detection of human astrovirus in water samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye
Conclusions: The LAMP technique described in this study is a cheap, sensitive, specific and rapid method for the detection of astrovirus. The RT-LAMP method can be simply applied for the specific detection of astrovirus and has the potential to be utilized in the field as a screening test. (Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles - February 14, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bo-Yun YangXiao-Lu LiuYu-Mei WeiJing-Qi WangXiao-Qing HeYi JinZi-Jian Wang Source Type: research
Clinical characteristics and genetic diversity of noroviruses in adults with acute gastroenteritis in Beijing, China in 2008–2009
This study was conducted to investigate the clinical features and molecular epidemiology of NoVs in adult outpatients with acute gastroenteritis in Beijing, China from August 2008 to July 2009. Five hundred nineteen patients were enrolled, their stool specimens were collected, and 136 (26.2%) were positive for NoV. The elderly were found to be more susceptible to NoVs than other age groups. The greatest number of gastroenteritis cases associated with occurred in October. Six GI and eleven GII NoV genotypes were isolated; among these, the GII.4 genotype was most prevalent (70/140 and 50% were the 2006b variant). The elderly...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - February 13, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Geng Tian, Miao Jin, Huiying Li, Quanrui Li, Jing Wang, Zhao‐jun Duan Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Carvacrol found in oregano 'may help ward off winter vomiting bug'
Researchers at the University of Arizona found carvacrol strips the norovirus of its tough outer protein coat making it easier to destroy. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - February 12, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Antiviral efficacy and mechanisms of action of oregano essential oil and its primary component carvacrol against murine norovirus
ConclusionsOur results demonstrate that carvacrol is effective in inactivating MNV within 1 h of exposure by acting directly on the viral capsid and subsequently the RNA. Significance and Impact of the StudyThis study provides novel findings on the antiviral properties of oregano oil and carvacrol against MNV and demonstrates the potential of carvacrol as a natural food and surface (fomite) sanitizer to control human norovirus. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - February 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: D.H. Gilling, M. Kitajima, J.R. Torrey, K.R. Bright Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Could pizza herb prevent winter vomiting disease?
(Wiley) Scientists have found that carvacrol -- the substance in oregano oil that gives the pizza herb its distinctive warm, aromatic smell and flavor -- is effective against norovirus, causing the breakdown of the virus' tough outer coat. The research is published today (12 February) in the Society for Applied Microbiology's Journal of Applied Microbiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - February 11, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Molecular Epidemiology of Norovirus Associated with Gastroenteritis and Emergence of Norovirus GII.4 Variant 2012 in Japanese Pediatric Patients.
In this study, we described surveillance study of the incidence of norovirus infections among Japanese pediatric patients in association with gastroenteritis and investigated the antigenic change of the new variant Sydney_2012 circulated in Japanese populations. A total of 2,381 fecal specimens collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Hokkaido, Tokyo, Shizuoka, Kyoto, Osaka, and Saga from 2009 to 2013 were examined for norovirus and further analyzed molecularly. A high proportion (39.3%) of norovirus positive samples and several genotypes were detected. Norovirus GII.4 dominated over other genotypes (71.4%). T...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - February 4, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Thongprachum A, Chan-It W, Khamrin P, Saparpakorn P, Okitsu S, Takanashi S, Mizuguchi M, Hayakawa S, Maneekarn N, Ushijima H Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Norovirus outbreak in Cornwall
A norovirus outbreak has hit a care home, nursery and hospital in Cornwall Hide related content: Show related content read more (Source: Nursing in Practice)
Source: Nursing in Practice - February 3, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Lalah-Simone Springer Tags: Family health Infections Editor ' s pick Latest News Source Type: news
Occurrence and molecular characterization of noroviruses in Korean surface water between 2007 and 2010.
Abstract The occurrence of human norovirus (NoV) genogroup I (GI) and genogroup II (GII) strains were investigated in Korea. Between 2007 and 2010, 265 samples were collected from 89 Korean water source locations. NoV GI was detected in 4.5% and NoV GII in 1.5%. Samples collected in winter had the highest occurrence; 9.4% for NoV GI and 6.3% for NoV GII. NoV GI detection was highest in groundwater, next highest in river water, and lowest in lake water (5.9%, 5.4%, and 1.6%, respectively), and NoV GII was found only in river water. When three representative Korean basin systems (Han (H)-, Geum/Seom (G/S)-, and Nakdo...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 3, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee GC, Kim MJ, Kim JI, Lee CH Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Analysis of early strains of the norovirus pandemic variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 identifies mutations in adaptive sites of the capsid protein.
Abstract Global surveillance for norovirus identified in 2012 the emergence of a novel pandemic GII.4 variant, termed Sydney 2012. In Italy, the novel pandemic variant was identified as early as November 2011 but became predominant only in the winter season 2012-2013. Upon sequencing and comparison with strains of global origin, the early Sydney 2012 strains were found to differ from those spreading in 2012-2013 in the capsid (ORF2) putative epitopes B, C and D, segregating into a distinct phylogenetic clade. At least three residues (333, 340 and 393, in epitopes B, C and D, respectively) of the VP1 varied among Sy...
Source: Virology - February 1, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Giammanco GM, De Grazia S, Terio V, Lanave G, Catella C, Bonura F, Saporito L, Medici MC, Tummolo F, Calderaro A, Bányai K, Hansman G, Martella V Tags: Virology Source Type: research
The emergence and evolution of the novel epidemic norovirus GII.4 variant Sydney 2012.
Abstract Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis with most infections caused by GII.4 variants. To understand the evolutionary processes that contribute to the emergence of GII.4 variants, we examined the molecular epidemiology of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis in Australia and New Zealand from 893 outbreaks between 2009 and 2012. Throughout the study GII.4 New Orleans 2009 was predominant; however, during 2012 it was replaced by an emergent GII.4 variant, Sydney 2012. An evolutionary analysis of capsid gene sequences was performed to determine the origins and selective pressures driving...
Source: Virology - February 1, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Eden JS, Hewitt J, Lim KL, Boni MF, Merif J, Greening G, Ratcliff RM, Holmes EC, Tanaka MM, Rawlinson WD, White PA Tags: Virology Source Type: research
What You Should Know About The Norovirus
With a number of cruise ships pulling into port with sick passengers, the norovirus--previously referred to as the Norwalk virus--has been brought to our attention again. This virus, the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the US--characterized by nausea, vomiting and diarrhea- continues to be a major public health issue, with no viable vaccine in sight. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - January 31, 2014 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Robert Glatter, MD Source Type: news
Epidemiologic Implications of Asymptomatic Reinfection: A Mathematical Modeling Study of Norovirus
The pathogenicity of norovirus is definitively established. However, norovirus is frequently detected in the stool of healthy individuals. To gain understanding of the apparent high prevalence of asymptomatic infection, we analyzed a dynamic transmission model of norovirus infection, disease, and immunity. We simulated norovirus epidemiology in low- and high-transmission settings by varying the basic reproduction number (R0). We predicted annual disease incidence values in children aged 0–4 years of 25% with a low R0 and 29% with a high R0. However, the point prevalence of asymptomatic infection rose sharply from 3% ...
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology - January 31, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lopman, B., Simmons, K., Gambhir, M., Vinje, J., Parashar, U. Tags: RESEARCH-ARTICLE Source Type: research
Emergence of GII.e as a major ORF 1 norovirus genotype and its associated ORF 2 GII.4 variant forms.
Abstract The noroviruses are a major cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. The norovirus genotype "GII.e", identified by ORF (Open Reading Frame) 1 nucleotide sequencing, appears to be an obligatory recombinant, in that no unique GII.e ORF 2 genotype has been identified. In 2012 GII.e norovirus became the predominant ORF 1 genotype in norovirus outbreaks in Victoria, Australia, and the current study documents changes in the ORF 1 region of GII.e norovirus since it first emerged in 2008, as well as in the ORF 2 genotypes associated with GII.e norovirus. GII.e norovirus underwent significant genetic change in ORF 1 ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 28, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bruggink LD, Dunbar NL, Marshall JA Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Comparison of nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription-qPCR approaches for detection of GI and GII noroviruses in drinking water.
The objective of this study was to compare three nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) approaches for norovirus (NoV) detection in drinking water with respect to performance, costs, and analysis time. The approaches evaluated were: (A) an approach that utilizes the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit and multiplex primers and probes for detection; (B) a procedure which includes the NucliSENS Magnetic Extraction kit and other components of a proposed European Union standard method for NoV detection in foods; and (C) a commercialized assay which uses NucliSENS extraction and...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - January 22, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Griffin SM, Brinkman NE, Hedrick EJ, Rhodes ER, Fout GS Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
Cases of acute gastroenteritis due to calicivirus in outbreaks: clinical differences by age and aetiological agent
Abstract The Caliciviridae family includes norovirus and sapovirus, which both cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Currently, norovirus is the most common cause of AGE in all age groups in many countries. We analysed clinical differences in reported cases of acute gastroenteritis caused by caliciviruses (AGC) by age group and agent involved. We conducted a descriptive study of AGE outbreaks reported to the Public Health Agency of Catalonia (Spain) in 2010 and 2011. The odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between clinical symptoms and age. Clinical di...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 21, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: M. R. Sala, S. Broner, A. Moreno, C. Arias, P. Godoy, S. Minguell, A. Martínez, N. Torner, R. Bartolomé, M. Simón, S. Guix, A. Domínguez, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Thermal inactivation kinetic modeling of human norovirus surrogates in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) homogenate.
In this study, the effect of thermal treatment on inactivation of human norovirus surrogates in blue mussels was investigated at 50, 56, 60, 65, and 72°C for various times (0-6min). The results obtained were analyzed using the Weibull and first-order models. The Theil error splitting method was used for model comparison. This method splits the error in the predicted data into fixed and random error. This method was applied to select satisfactory models for determination of thermal inactivation of norovirus surrogates and kinetic modeling. The D-values calculated from the first-order model (50-72°C) were in the range of 0...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - January 19, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Bozkurt H, Leiser S, Davidson PM, D'Souza DH Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research
Triplex real‐time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection and quantification of norovirus (GI and GII) and sapovirus
ABSTRACT To improve detection of norovirus (NoVGI, NoVGII) and sapovirus (SaV), a simultaneous quantitative RT‐PCR method was established. This triplex real‐time PCR method was evaluated using a combination of optimized specific primers and probes. The performance of the developed PCR assay was equivalent to that of monoplex real‐time PCR across a broad dynamic range of 102–107 copies/assay using plasmid DNA standards. The limit of detection was 102 copies/assay. The quantitative value was comparable with that of monoplex real‐time PCR of stool samples. Our triplex real‐time PCR is useful for detection of NoV a...
Source: Microbiology and Immunology - January 14, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shoichi Niwa, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Taisei Ishioka, Yoshiko Sasaki, Masakazu Yoshizumi, Yukio Morita, Hirokazu Kimura, Kunihisa Kozawa Tags: Note Source Type: research
Detection and genetic characterization of human enteric viruses in oyster‐associated gastroenteritis outbreaks between 2001 and 2012 in Osaka City, Japan
In this study, 286 fecal specimens from 88 oyster‐associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were examined for the presence of 10 human enteric viruses using antigenic or genetic detection methods in order to determine the prevalence of these infections. All virus‐positive patients were over 18 years old. The most common enteric virus in outbreaks (96.6%) and fecal specimens (68.9%) was norovirus (NoV), indicating a high prevalence of NoV infection associated with the consumption of raw or under‐cooked oysters. Five other enteric viruses, aichiviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses (EVs), and rotavirus A, were d...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - January 11, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Nobuhiro Iritani, Atsushi Kaida, Niichiro Abe, Hideyuki Kubo, Jun‐Ichiro Sekiguchi, Seiji P. Yamamoto, Kaoru Goto, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Mamoru Noda Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
NHS' annual scramble to avert winter crisis.
Abstract The NHS is facing its toughest ever winter. There are fears that trusts may be forced to use beds in private nursing homes, reopen wards that have been disused and create new ones to enhance capacity. Trusts are attempting to recruit nurses from abroad to address staff shortages in a bid to cope with the expected impact of flu, norovirus and predicted bad weather. PMID: 24406488 [PubMed - in process] (Source: British Journal of Nursing)
Source: British Journal of Nursing - January 9, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Peate I Tags: Br J Nurs Source Type: research
Norovirus Diagnostics and Serology in Travelers' Diarrhea—Where Do We Go From Here?
(Source: Journal of Travel Medicine)
Source: Journal of Travel Medicine - January 3, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mark S. Riddle Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research
Persistence of viral genomes after autoclaving.
Abstract The ability of autoclaving to degrade viral genomes was investigated by real-time PCR and real-time reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. Several factors were considered: the nucleic acid composition of the virus (DNA or RNA), hydration state of the sample, and the duration of autoclaving. Viral genomes were damaged more easily under hydrated conditions compared to dry conditions. The genomes of RNA viruses, such as MS2 and norovirus degraded more readily than DNA virus (adenovirus). MS2 genome was the most vulnerable among those tested, with no amplification observed after 18min of autoclaving. Adenovirus genom...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - December 31, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Choi WS, Rodríguez RA, Sobsey MD Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
Cases Of Acute Gastroenteritis Due To Calicivirus In Outbreaks: Clinical Differences By Age And Etiologic Agent
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - December 30, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: M. R. Sala‐Farré, S. Broner, A. Moreno, C. Arias, P Godoy, S Minguell, A. Martínez, N. Torner, R. Bartolomé, M. Simón, S. Guix, A Domínguez, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Effect of handling and storage conditions and stabilizing agent on the recovery of viral RNA from oral fluid of pigs.
The objectives of the study were to determine optimum handling conditions of the oral fluid before RNA extraction and to compare the performance of the RNeasy Protect Saliva Mini kit, which contains a stabilizing agent, with that of the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit, which does not contain a stabilizing agent. Preliminary studies with oral fluid inoculated with HEV indicated that a heat treatment of 60°C for 15min was detrimental to HEV RNA. HEV was recovered from 25/25 and 24/25 samples of oral fluid when samples were incubated for ≤24h at 4°C and 30days at -20°C, respectively, without a stabilizing agent and extracted w...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - December 30, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Jones TH, Muehlhauser V Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
Erratum to: Emergence of GII.4 Sydney Norovirus in South Korea During the Winter of 2012-2013.
Abstract This erratum is being published to correct a date error in the abstract of the paper by Kim et al. The Date of 'December 2013' should read 'December 2012' in the abstract (line 4) at Page 1641. The corrected version of this article is available in the Archive (http://jmb.or.kr). PMID: 24378669 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - December 28, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kim HS, Hyun J, Kim HS, Kim JS, Song W, Lee KM Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Molecular Epidemiologic Trends of Diarrhea‐Causing Virus Infection From Clinical Specimens in Cheonan, Korea, in 2010–2012
ConclusionWe described the epidemiological analytic data of the diarrhea‐causing viruses in the population of local society of Korea. These results could be helpful for the diagnosis and subsequent epidemiological surveillance of enteric viral infections. (Source: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis)
Source: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis - December 27, 2013 Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Jae Kyung Kim, Jong Wan Kim Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Applicability of Bio‐wipes for the collection of human faecal specimens for detection and characterisation of enteric viruses
ConclusionsBio‐wipes provide a user friendly, easier method for stool collection that facilitates enteric virus detection and genetic characterisation. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health - December 24, 2013 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: J. Mans, W. B. Zyl, M. B. Taylor, N. A. Page, M. D. Sobsey, T. G. Barnard, N. Potgieter Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Selection of a DNA Aptamer against Norovirus Capsid Protein VP1
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters)
Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters - December 24, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rico Beier, Claudia Pahlke, Philipp Quenzel, Anja Henseleit, Elke Boschke, Gianaurelio Cuniberti, Dirk Labudde Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research
Characterization of the chemokine response of RAW264.7 cells to infection by murine norovirus.
In this study, we have conducted microarray analysis of RAW264.7 macrophages infected with MNV-1 and examined the changes in chemokine transcriptional expression during infection. While the majority of chemokines showed no change, there was specific up-regulation in chemokines reflective of a bias toward a Th1 response, specifically CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL2, CXCL10 and CXCL11. These changes in gene expression were reflected in protein levels as determined by ELISA assay. This virus-induced chemokine response will affect the resolution of infection and may limit the humoral response to norovirus infection. PMID: 24...
Source: Virus Research - December 24, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Waugh E, Chen A, Baird MA, Brown CM, Ward VK Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Pensioner died of blood clot after hospital misdiagnosed it as winter vomiting bug and sent her home TWICE
George Andrews, 69, claimed his partner Jean Graham, 77, died of a blood clot in her bowel the night after Glasgow Royal Infirmary sent her home with 'norovirus'. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - December 22, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Naphthalene-sulfonate inhibitors of human norovirus RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase.
Abstract Noroviruses are members of the Caliciviridae family of positive sense RNA viruses. In humans Noroviruses cause rapid onset diarrhea and vomiting. Currently Norovirus infection is responsible for 21 million gastroenteritis yearly cases in the USA. Nevertheless, despite the obvious public health and socio-economic relevance, no effective vaccines/antivirals are yet available to treat Norovirus infection. Since the activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) plays a key role in genome replication and in the synthesis/amplification of subgenomic RNA, the enzyme is considered a promising target for antivira...
Source: Antiviral Research - December 4, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Tarantino D, Pezzullo M, Mastrangelo E, Croci R, Rohayem J, Robel I, Bolognesi M, Milani M Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Inactivation conditions for human norovirus measured by an in situ capture-qRT-PCR method.
Abstract Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis. Unfortunately, the inactivation parameters for HuNoV in clinical, food and environmental samples have not been established. Due to the inability to cultivate HuNoV in vitro, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely-used for detecting HuNoVs. However, qRT-PCR does not indicate viral infectivity. Our method employs histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as viral receptors/co-receptors and container-affixed capture agents to concentrate HuNoVs. The captured viruses are denatured and its genome is amplified in the same module by in s...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - December 4, 2013 Category: Food Science Authors: Wang D, Tian P Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research
Epidemiologic Implications of Asymptomatic Reinfection: A Mathematical Modeling Study of Norovirus.
Abstract The pathogenicity of norovirus is definitively established. However, norovirus is frequently detected in the stool of healthy individuals. To gain understanding of the apparent high prevalence of asymptomatic infection, we analyzed a dynamic transmission model of norovirus infection, disease, and immunity. We simulated norovirus epidemiology in low- and high-transmission settings by varying the basic reproduction number (R0). We predicted annual disease incidence values in children aged 0-4 years of 25% with a low R0 and 29% with a high R0. However, the point prevalence of asymptomatic infection rose sharp...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - December 3, 2013 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lopman B, Simmons K, Gambhir M, Vinjé J, Parashar U Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research
A dual vaccine candidate against norovirus and hepatitis E virus.
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both enterically-transmitted viruses causing gastroenteritis and hepatitis, respectively, in humans. While a vaccine against HEVs recently became available in China, there is no prophylactic or therapeutic approach against NoVs. Both NoV and HEV have surface protrusions formed by dimers of the protruding (P) domains of the viral capsids, which is responsible for virus-host interactions and eliciting viral neutralizing antibody. We developed in this study a bivalent vaccine against the two viruses through a recently developed polyvalent complex platform. The d...
Source: Vaccine - November 27, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wang L, Cao D, Wei C, Meng XJ, Jiang X, Tan M Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.
Abstract The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10% stool filtrate. One-minute free chlorine treatments at concentrations of 33 and 189ppm reduced virus binding in the PGM-MB assay by 1.48 and 4.14 log10, respectively, suggesting that chlorine is an efficient sanitizer for inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV). Five minute treatments with 5% trisodium phosphate (pH~12) reduced HuNoV binding by 1.6 log10, suggesting that TSP, or s...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - November 22, 2013 Category: Food Science Authors: Kingsley DH, Vincent EM, Meade GK, Watson CL, Fan X Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research
Systematic analysis of funding awarded for norovirus research to institutions in the United Kingdom, 1997-2010.
ConclusionsResearch funding for norovirus infections in the UK appears to be unacceptably low, given the burden of disease and disability produced by these infections. There is a clear need for new research initiatives along the R&D value chain: from pre-clinical through to implementation research, including trials to assess cost-effectiveness of infection control policies as well as clinical, public health and environmental interventions in hospitals, congregate settings and in the community. PMID: 24262891 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J R Soc Med AND (has...)
Source: J R Soc Med AND (has... - November 21, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Head MG, Fitchett JR, Atun R Tags: J R Soc Med Source Type: research
Infection Prevention and Control Standards in Assisted Living Facilities: Are Residents' Needs Being Met?
Conclusions: There is wide variation in how assisted living facilities are regulated in the United States. States may wish to consider regulatory changes that ensure safe health care delivery, and minimize risks of infections, outbreaks of disease, and other forms of harm among assisted living residents. (Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association)
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - November 18, 2013 Category: Health Management Authors: Rachel A. Kossover, Carolyn J. Chi, Matthew E. Wise, Alvin H. Tran, Neha D. Chande, Joseph F. Perz Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Beaumont Hospital access restricted due to vomiting bug
Visitors will only be allowed in ‘exceptional circumstances’ after Norovirus outbreak (Source: The Irish Times - Health)
Source: The Irish Times - Health - November 15, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Enhanced enteric virus detection in sporadic gastroenteritis using a multi‐target real‐time PCR panel: A one‐year study
This study is to develop an EV testing panel using real‐time PCR (EVPrtPCR) to simultaneously detect rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, and enteric adenovirus in stool samples. EVPrtPCR using universal amplification conditions was run in a single instrument run. EVPrtPCR was used to test 2,486 sporadic gastroenteritis samples submitted for EV testing using electron microscopy (EM) between July 2008 and July 2009. Retesting spiked negative stool samples and Salmon DNA as internal control were used to evaluate inhibition. EVPrtPCR detected viruses in significantly more samples: 748 (34%) as compared to 94 (3.8%) ...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - November 14, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Xiaoli L. Pang, Jutta K. Preiksaitis, Bonita E. Lee Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Whole genome sequencing and de novo assembly identifies Sydney-like variant noroviruses and recombinants during the winter 2012/2013 outbreak in England
Background: Norovirus is the commonest cause of epidemic gastroenteritis among people of all ages. Outbreaks frequently occur in hospitals and the community, costing the UK an estimated [pound sign]110 m per annum. An evolutionary explanation for periodic increases in norovirus cases, despite some host-specific post immunity is currently limited to the identification of obvious recombinants. Our understanding could be significantly enhanced by full length genome sequences for large numbers of intensively sampled viruses, which would also assist control and vaccine design. Our objective is to develop rapid, high-throughput,...
Source: Virology Journal - November 13, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: T WongBethany DearloveJessica HedgeAdam GiessPaolo PiazzaAmy TrebesJohn PaulErasmus SmitE SmithJulian SuttonMark WilcoxKate DingleTim PetoDerrick CrookDaniel WilsonDavid Wyllie Source Type: research
Vomiting bug restrictions in force at Beaumont
Limitations also in place at Raheny hospital to contain norovirus (Source: The Irish Times - Health)
Source: The Irish Times - Health - November 9, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Progress towards the prevention and treatment of norovirus infections
Future Microbiology , November 2013, Vol. 8, No. 11, Pages 1475-1487. (Source: Future Microbiology)
Source: Future Microbiology - November 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Tags: article Source Type: research
Virus Occupational Exposure in Solid Waste Processing Facilities
In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk. (Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene)
Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene - November 7, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Carducci, A., Federigi, I., Verani, M. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Identifying human milk glycans that inhibit norovirus binding using surface plasmon resonance
Human milk glycans inhibit binding between norovirus and its host glycan receptor; such competitive inhibition by human milk glycans is associated with a reduced risk of infection. The relationship between the presence of specific structural motifs in the human milk glycan and its ability to inhibit binding by specific norovirus strains requires facile, accurate and miniaturized-binding assays. Toward this end, a high-throughput biosensor platform was developed based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) of glycan microarrays. The SPRi was validated, and its utility was tested, by measuring binding specificities betw...
Source: Glycobiology - November 4, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Shang, J., Piskarev, V. E., Xia, M., Huang, P., Jiang, X., Likhosherstov, L. M., Novikova, O. S., Newburg, D. S., Ratner, D. M. Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
Nosocomial infections and infection control
Abstract: Hospital patients are susceptible to infection because of underlying diseases and medical interventions such as surgery, intubation or antibiotic use, and also their exposure to microorganisms from other patients, the hospital environment or hospital staff. An average of 5–10% of in-patients have a nosocomial infection, with highest rates in surgical and intensive care units. Most of these infections fall into one of five categories: line-associated infections and bacteraemia, surgical wound infection, nosocomial pneumonia, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and gastrointestinal infection, including C...
Source: Medicine - November 1, 2013 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Aodhán S. Breathnach Tags: Prevention and control of infection Source Type: research