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A split G-quadruplex-based DNA nano-tweezers structure as a signal-transducing molecule for the homogeneous detection of specific nucleic acids
Publication date: 15 December 2015 Source:Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 74 Author(s): Keisuke Nakatsuka , Hajime Shigeto , Akio Kuroda , Hisakage Funabashi A portable method of specific nucleic acid detection would be very useful for monitoring public health in a variety of settings for point-of-care and point-of-need testing. However, conventional methods for the detection of nucleic acids are not ideal for use in the field, as they require skilled operators and complex equipment. Here, we constructed a method for specific nucleic acid detection using a split G-quadruplex (Gq) structure that can recognize target...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - July 3, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Detection and molecular characterization of caliciviruses (vesivirus and norovirus) in an outbreak of acute diarrhea in kittens from brazil
In this study, molecular characterization of FCV and feline norovirus (FNoV) was undertaken using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis of the ORF1 region in fecal specimens from 29 diarrheic cats. The specimens were also screened for parvovirus, coronavirus, astrovirus and group A rotavirus. A quantitative one step RT-PCR was also performed to detect and quantitate NoV genogroup IV and the role of these animal caliciviruses in feline gastroenteritis was investigated. This is the first description of enteric FCV and FNoV in South America. (Source: The Veterinary Journal)
Source: The Veterinary Journal - July 3, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

What the Media Gets Completely Wrong About Cruising
This is what we see when we watch cruise coverage on cable news. - Photo by iofoto / Thinkstock There are plenty of myths about cruising floating around the Internet: they’re full of old people, there’s nothing to do, and so on. Most of them are fairly harmless and easily disproven, but if you’re a true lover of cruising, nothing irks you more than the media shining its sensationalist spotlight on your favorite vacation.    During a slow week, major news networks (we’re looking at you, CNN) salivate over the chance to fill the gaps of a 24-hour news cycle with stories of cruise ships bro...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - July 2, 2015 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Genetic analyses of GII.17 norovirus strains in diarrheal disease outbreaks from December 2014 to March 2015 in Japan reveal a novel polymerase sequence and amino acid substitutions in the capsid region
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 2, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergence of a novel GII.17 norovirus - End of the GII.4 era?
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 2, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Separate norovirus outbreaks linked to one source of imported frozen raspberries by molecular analysis, Denmark, 2010–2011
Research Articles L. MÜLLER, A. C. SCHULTZ, J. FONAGER, T. JENSEN, M. LISBY, K. HINDSDAL, L. KRUSELL, A. ESHØJ, L. T. MØLLER, L. J. PORSBO, B. E. BÖTTIGER, K. KUHN, J. ENGBERG, S. ETHELBERG, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 11, pp 2299-2307Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - June 30, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of host, agent and environment characteristics and the duration of incubation and symptomatic periods of norovirus gastroenteritis
Research Articles T. DEVASIA, B. LOPMAN, J. LEON, A. HANDEL, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 11, pp 2308-2314Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - June 30, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Emergence of a new GII.17 norovirus variant in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Jiangsu, China, September 2014 to March 2015.
PMID: 26111236 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 28, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fu J, Ai J, Jin M, Jiang C, Zhang J, Shi C, Lin Q, Yuan Z, Qi X, Bao C, Tang F, Zhu Y Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Diarrhea in solid organ transplant recipients
Purpose of review: Diarrhea is a common complaint in the solid organ transplant recipient. Unlike the immune-competent patient, diarrhea in an organ transplant recipient may result in dehydration, increased toxicity of medications, and rejection. There is a wide range of causes for diarrhea in transplant recipients, but the most common causes are Clostridium difficile infection, cytomegalovirus, and norovirus. This review will focus on new epidemiology data as to the cause of diarrhea in the transplant population. Recent findings: Recent data have identified C. difficile, cytomegalovirus, and norovirus as important causes ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - June 25, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Jose G. Montoya Source Type: research

Virucidal Efficacy of Treatment with Photodynamically Activated Curcumin on Murine Norovirus Bio-accumulated in Oysters
Norovirus (NoV), belongs to the family Caliciviridae, and causes the majority of human acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and sporadic cases worldwide [1,2]. Human NoV is transmitted mainly through the fecal-oral route, with infected food handlers thought to be the major source of food-borne NoV transmission [3]. NoV is also transmitted by consumption of shellfish harvested from contaminated aquaculture areas and exposure of fresh produce to contaminated irrigation water (either surface water or untreated wastewater) [4]. (Source: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy)
Source: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy - June 24, 2015 Category: Laser Surgery Authors: Juan Wu, Wei Hou, Binbin Cao, Tao Zuo, Changhu Xue, Albert Wingnang Leung, Chuanshan Xu, Qing-Juan Tang Source Type: research

14 Most Dangerous Summer Foods
This article originally appeared on Health.com. More from Health.com: 25 Fresh Corn Recipes for Summer 17 Easy Ways to Burn Calories This Summer 12 Reasons Dehydration Is Bad for Your Body -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post)
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - June 23, 2015 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Detection and Genetic Analysis of Noroviruses and Sapoviruses in Sea Snail
This study demonstrates that sea snail contains multiple genogroups and genotypes of NoV and SaV strains. We conclude that the sea snail presents a risk of gastroenteritis when consumed raw. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 23, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Healthcare workers' decision-making about transmission-based infection control precautions is improved by a guidance summary card
Conclusion There is a lack of knowledge about TBP among HCWs. This study demonstrates how an inexpensive TBP summary card is an effective mechanism for improving (i) point-of-care access to TBP guidance and (ii) decision-making about appropriate implementation of TBP. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - June 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Burden of gastroenteritis outbreaks: specific epidemiology in a cohort of institutions caring for dependent people
Conclusion Specific surveillance that takes into account the precise epidemiology needs to be developed in institutions caring for dependent people in order to improve infectious disease control and information for healthcare workers. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - June 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Physicochemical stability profile of Tulane virus —A human norovirus surrogate
ConclusionsTulane virus is likely a suitable surrogate to study HuNoV thermal stability as well as ethanol tolerance below 90%. Tulane virus also is a promising surrogate to study HuNoV pH stability and chlorine tolerance. Significance and ImpactBased on current work, in vitro studies demonstrate that TV is an overall more conservative and suitable surrogate for the study of HuNoV physicochemical propertiesThis article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - June 22, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sabastine E. Arthur, Kristen E. Gibson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Generation and Characterization of Nucleic Acid Aptamers Targeting the Capsid P Domain of a Human Norovirus GII.4 Strain
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015 Source:Journal of Biotechnology Author(s): Matthew D. Moore , Blanca I. Escudero-Abarca , Soo Hwan Suh , Lee-Ann Jaykus Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Significant antigenic diversity of NoV strains has limited the availability of broadly reactive ligands for design of detection assays. The purpose of this work was to produce and characterize single stranded (ss)DNA aptamers with binding specificity to human NoV using an easily produced NoV target—the P domain protein. Aptamer selection was done using SELEX (Systemat...
Source: Journal of Biotechnology - June 21, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Aichi Virus Positivity in HIV-1 Seropositive Children Hospitalized with Diarrheal Disease.
Abstract Aichi viruses (AiV) have been detected in patients with diarrheal diseases (DD). The aim of this study was to assess AiV infection rates in hospitalized children with DD, including 123 HIV-1 seropositive and 125 HIV-1 seronegative patients, in two public pediatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AiV was investigated by nested RT-PCR. The AiV-positive samples were also tested for specie A rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, enteric adenovirus and bocavirus in order to assess co-infections. AiV parcial genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. AiV were detected in 9/123 (7.32%) of the HI...
Source: Current HIV Research - June 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rodrigues Portes SA, Mello Volotao Ed, Rose TL, Rocha MS, Trindade Pinheiro Xavier Mda P, de Assis RM, Fialho AM, Rocha MS, Miagostovich MP, Gagliardi Leite JP, Carvalho-Costa FA Tags: Curr HIV Res Source Type: research

Incidence, Serogroups and Genotypes of Rotavirus and Norovirus Causing Acute Diarrhea and to Compare Their Disease Severity, Estimated From a Prospective Study in Mumbai, India
To study the incidence of Rotavirus and Norovirus diarrhea, their serogroups, genotypes and to compare disease severity between them. (Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - June 19, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ahmar Shamim, Nimain Mohanty Tags: International Digestive Disease Forum, Hong Kong, 2015 Source Type: research

Low Serum Levels of CCL5 Are Associated With Longer Duration of Viral Shedding in Norovirus Infection
Norovirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis [1,2] and can be detected in stool for several weeks following symptomatic infection [3]. The duration of shedding varies among individuals [4], but the factors behind this variation are not well understood. Longer duration of shedding is common in infants [5] and immunocompromised patients [6], suggesting that immune mechanisms are involved. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - June 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Lars Gustavsson, Susann Skovbjerg, Magnus Lindh, Johan Westin, Lars-Magnus Andersson Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus vectors expressing Norwalk virus capsid protein in the presence or absence of VP2 protein.
Abstract Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was simil...
Source: Virology - June 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Kim SH, Chen S, Jiang X, Green KY, Samal SK Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Emergence of a new GII.17 norovirus variant in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Jiangsu, China, September 2014 to March 2015
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 18, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Norovirus Outbreak Associated With a Natural Lake Used for Recreation—Oregon, 2014
Summertime norovirus infections can arise from freshwater swimming and can cause major, chronic infections in transplant patients. Also see the article by Ye et al on page 1874. (Source: American Journal of Transplantation)
Source: American Journal of Transplantation - June 18, 2015 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Reports From the CDC: MMWR Source Type: research

Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus GII.17, Guangdong Province, China, 2014-2015.
Abstract In the past decade, the most prevalent norovirus genotype causing viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide, including China, has been GII.4. In winter 2014-15, norovirus outbreaks in Guangdong, China, increased. Sequence analysis indicated that 82% of the outbreaks were caused by a norovirus GII.17 variant. PMID: 26080037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lu J, Sun L, Fang L, Yang F, Mo Y, Lao J, Zheng H, Tan X, Lin H, Rutherford S, Guo L, Ke C, Hui L Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of a genogroup GVI feline norovirus
Publication date: 5 August 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Tomomi Takano , Hajime Kusuhara , Akira Kuroishi , Midori Takashina , Tomoyoshi Doki , Takamichi Nishinaka , Tsutomu Hohdatsu Norovirus (NoV) has been classified into 6 genogroups, GI-GVI. In the present study, we identified novel feline NoV (FNoV) M49-1 strain. The C-terminal of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the FNoV M49-1 strain was highly homologous with GIV FNoV and GIV lion norovirus, whereas VP1 was highly homologous with GVI canine NoV (CNoV). Based on the results of the Simplot analysis, the FNoV M49-1 strain may...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - June 17, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Donor Recruitment for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
Conclusions: Recruitment of fecal donors for FMT is challenging with only a small percentage ultimately serving as donors. Many were unable or unwilling to meet the donor commitment requirements. A surprisingly large proportion of healthy asymptomatic donors failed stool testing, primarily due to gastrointestinal parasites. (Source: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases)
Source: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - June 16, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Clinical Articles Source Type: research

Norovirus genotype diversity associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria in 2013.
This study examined the incidence of norovirus outbreaks in Victoria over 1 year (2013) and documented the genotypes occurring in the different outbreak settings (healthcare and non-healthcare) and age groups. It was found that 63.1% of gastroenteritis outbreaks were associated with norovirus, thereby showing norovirus to be the major viral cause of illness in gastroenteritis outbreaks. Sixteen capsid genotypes were identified and included GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.6, GI.7, GI.8, GI.9, GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.5, GII.6, GII.7, GII.13 and an as yet unclassified GII genotype. All genotypes found in the study, with the exce...
Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report - June 14, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commun Dis Intell Q Rep Source Type: research

Viral Agents of Diarrhea in Young Children in Two Primary Health Centers in Edo State, Nigeria.
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus infection in young children with diarrhea in two primary health centers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 223 stool specimens were collected from children aged 0-36 months with clinical signs of diarrhea and 59 apparently healthy age-matched children as control. These specimens were investigated for three viral agents using immunochromatographic technique (ICT). The overall results showed that at least one viral agent was detected in 95/223 (42.6%) of the children with diarrhea while the control had none. The prevalence of rotavi...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

A norovirus GII.P21 outbreak in a boarding school, Austria 2014
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yung-Ching Lin, Elisabeth Hipfl, Ingeborg Lederer, Franz Allerberger, Daniela Schmid Source Type: research

Human Bocavirus in acute gastroenteritis in children in Brazil
This study shows that HBoV is another viral pathogen in the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Brazil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - June 9, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Gubio Soares Campos, Madina Lyve Da Silva Sampaio, Aline Dorea Luz Menezes, Dellane Martins Tigre, Lilia Ferreira Moura Costa, Fabio Alexandre Chinalia, Silvia Ines Sardi Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Norovirus infection in Belarus: occurrence and molecular epidemiology.
The objective of the study is to analyze molecular epidemiologic surveillance for norovirus infection in Belarus over the past five years (2009-2013). Laboratory diagnostics was carried out by RT-PCR in 684 patients. Two regions of norovirus genome, localized in RNA-polymerase and capsid protein genes, were used for phylogenetic analysis. Noroviruses were predominant causative agents in adults and second only to rotaviruses in children, they also prevailed among aetiological agents of outbreaks (66.7% of outbreaks). In 2009-2013, the major norovirus genotype was GII.4 (58.3% of all genotyped isolates). Genovariant GII.4 20...
Source: Central European Journal of Public Health - June 5, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Cent Eur J Public Health Source Type: research

Molecular characteristics of noroviruses genogroup I and genogroup II detected in patients with acute gastroenteritis.
Authors: Ham H, Oh S, Seung H, Jo S Abstract Noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis, including foodborne outbreak, in Korea. The prevalence of human noroviruses was studied in diarrheal stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis by conventional duplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Diarrheal stool samples were collected from 1,685 patients from the local hospitals in Seoul. The prevalence of the noroviruses was 22.8% (222/972 patients) in 2012 and 11.2% (80/713 patients) in 2013, with a total of 17.9% (302/1,685 patients). Genotyping was performed on 302 norovirus-positive stool sa...
Source: Annals of Laboratory Medicine - June 3, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Ann Lab Med Source Type: research

Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by contamination of drinking water in a factory, the Basque Country.
Authors: Altzibar JM, Zigorraga C, Rodriguez R, Leturia N, Garmendia A, Rodriguez A, Alkorta M, Arriola L Abstract On 18 September 2013, the Gipuzkoa Epidemiology Unit was notified of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among employees at a domestic appliance factory. The first signs of the outbreak had emerged at the end of June and at the time of the notification 30 workers were on sick leave for gastroenteritis. Some employees had had more than one episode and the main symptoms were diarrhoea and vomiting. An investigation began to identify the causative agent, assess exposure and determine the route of t...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 3, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Serological Correlates of Protection against a GII.4 Norovirus.
This report assesses the impact of pre-challenge serum antibody levels on infection and illness outcomes. Serum antibody responses were observed in vaccine recipients by all antibody assays, with first dose seroresponse frequencies ranging from 88-100% for the GI.1 antigen and from 69-84% for the GII.4 antigen. There was little increase in antibody level after the second vaccine dose. Among placebo subjects, higher pre-challenge serum anti-GII.4 HBGA-blocking and IgA antibody levels, but not IgG or total antibody levels, were associated with a lower frequency of virus infection and associated illness. Notably, some placebo...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - June 3, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Atmar RL, Bernstein DI, Lyon GM, Treanor JJ, Al-Ibrahim MS, Graham DY, Vinjé J, Jiang X, Gregoricus N, Frenck RW, Moe CL, Chen WH, Ferreira J, Barrett J, Opekun AR, Estes MK, Borkowski A, Baehner F, Goodwin R, Edmonds A, Mendelman PM Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research

Takeda Pharmaceuticals to move U.S. vaccine headquarters to Cambridge area
Takeda Pharmaceuticals announced it will move the U.S. headquarters for its unit devoted to developing vaccines for diseases like norovirus, dengue and seasonal influenza to the Cambridge area. A spokeswoman for the company told the Boston Business Journal that over the next two years the Vaccine Business Unit operations in the U.S. will be consolidated here. While she didn't say how many jobs would be added here, the global consolidation would affect approximately 150 employees, she said. A final… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines - June 2, 2015 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Don Seiffert Source Type: news

Abdominal compartment syndrome associated with Norovirus infection
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2015 Source:Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports Author(s): Michael H. Liu , S. Julie-Ann Lloyd , Colin Gause , Federico Seifarth , Anthony Deross Norovirus infection is a leading cause of infectious gastroenteritis and is typically self-limited. Abdominal compartment syndrome is rare in the pediatric population. To date, there have been no reports of abdominal compartment syndrome secondary to Norovirus infection. This patient is a 7-year old female who presented with abdominal compartment syndrome and fulminant sepsis attributed to acute Norovirus infection. The patient wa...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - June 2, 2015 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Norovirus vaccine may not be cost effective in Peru
(Source: PharmacoEconomics and Outcomes News)
Source: PharmacoEconomics and Outcomes News - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news

Toby Carvery sickness horror: How to avoid vomiting bug norovirus
OVER 200 people were affected by a sickness and diarrhoea bug picked up in their local Toby Carvery recently - but there's an easy way to avoid the nasty infection. (Source: Daily Express - Health)
Source: Daily Express - Health - May 26, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Detection of enteropathogens associated with travelers’ diarrhea using a multiplex Luminex-based assay performed on stool samples smeared on Whatman FTA Elute cards
We evaluated the limits of detection (LoD) for an 11-plex PCR-Luminex assay performed on Whatman ™ FTA Elute cards smeared with stool containing pathogens associated with travelers’ diarrhea. LoDs ranged between 102-105 CFU, PFU or cysts/g for most pathogens except Cryptosporidium. Campylobacter and norovirus LoD increased with prolonged storage of cards. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tahaniyat Lalani, Michele D. Tisdale, Jason D. Maguire, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai, Mark S. Riddle, David R. Tribble Source Type: research

Detection of enteropathogens associated with travelers' diarrhea using a multiplex Luminex-based assay performed on stool samples smeared on Whatman FTA Elute cards
We evaluated the limits of detection (LoD) for an 11-plex PCR-Luminex assay performed on Whatman™ FTA Elute cards smeared with stool containing pathogens associated with travelers' diarrhea. LoDs ranged from 102 to 105CFU, PFU, or cysts/g for most pathogens except Cryptosporidium. Campylobacter and norovirus LoDs increased with prolonged storage of cards. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tahaniyat Lalani, Michele D. Tisdale, Jason D. Maguire, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai, Mark S. Riddle, David R. Tribble Source Type: research

Control of human norovirus surrogates in fresh foods by gaseous ozone and a proposed mechanism of inactivation.
This study determined the effectiveness of gaseous ozone for the sanitization of two norovirus surrogates (MNV-1 and TV) from both liquid media and popular fresh foods where viral contamination is common-lettuce and strawberries. Foods were treated with gaseous ozone at 6% wt/wt ozone in oxygen for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min, and surviving viruses were quantified by viral plaque assay. Our results showed that gaseous ozone inactivated norovirus in both liquid media and fresh produce in a dose-dependent manner. These results are promising because ozone treatment significantly reduced two important norovirus surrogates in bo...
Source: Food Microbiology - May 25, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Predmore A, Sanglay G, Li J, Lee K Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

A 1-Year Quantitative Survey of Noro-, Adeno-, Human Boca-, and Hepatitis E Viruses in Raw and Secondarily Treated Sewage from Two Plants in Norway
Abstract A study of enteric viruses in raw and treated sewage from two secondary treatment plants, which received sewage from Oslo city (plant A) and small municipalities in Hedmark county in Norway (plant B), showed high levels of noro-, adeno-, and bocavirus throughout the year. A seasonal variation was observed for adeno- and GII norovirus with higher levels during winter and bocavirus that had more positive samples during winter. The virus concentrations in raw sewage were comparable in the two plants, with medians (log10 genome copies per liter) of 6.1, 6.3, 6.0, and 4.5 for noro GI, noro GII, adeno-, and boc...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 24, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Zeta Potential and Aggregation of Virus-Like Particle of Human Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus Under Different Physicochemical Conditions
Abstract Although the spread of human norovirus reportedly depends on its ability to bind to food materials, the mechanism of the phenomenon remains unknown. Since protein size and electrical charge are reportedly important parameters in their adsorption, the current work is focused on determining human noroviruses isoelectric point (IEP), electrical charge and aggregate size at different pH, ionic strength (IS), and temperature. Using the baculovirus expression vector system, we produced and purified virus-like particles (VLPs) of GI.1 and GII.4 noroviruses and feline calicivirus, determined their IEP, and exami...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 23, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Transfer of Acanthamoeba spp. to Fresh Produce from Water and Environmental Surfaces
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology)
Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology - May 20, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tun‐Yun Hsueh, Kristen E. Gibson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Long‐term viral shedding and viral genome mutation in norovirus infection
The duration of viral shedding in the patients from two outbreaks and four sporadic cases of norovirus (NoV) infections was investigated. The longest period of viral shedding into feces was for 173 days in an inpatient from one case of outbreak. The VP1 sequence from two long‐term viral shedding cases in the outbreak revealed four synonymous and one non‐synonymous mutations in one inpatient at 26 days from the onset of illness, and nine synonymous and two non‐synonymous mutations and a deletion, 10 synonymous mutations and a deletion in other inpatient at 29 days and 54 days from the onset of illness, respectively. T...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - May 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Tatsuya Miyoshi, Kiyoko Uchino, Hisayoshi Yoshida, Kazushi Motomura, Naokazu Takeda, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Tomoyuki Tanaka Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Impact of Adenoviral Stool Load on Adenoviremia in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients
Conclusions: Quantitative detection of adenovirus in stool may have implications for preemptive therapy. Testing for other enteric viruses may have implications for infection control. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 16, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Summer swimming hazard: Norovirus lurked in lake
Health officials traced outbreak to a popular summer destination, and offer some tips to stay safe in the water (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - May 15, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Norovirus Outbreak Associated with a Natural Lake Used for Recreation — Oregon, 2014
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - May 15, 2015 Category: American Health Source Type: news

Norovirus Outbreak Associated with a Natural Lake Used for Recreation - Oregon, 2014.
Abstract In July 2014, Multnomah County public health officials investigated a norovirus outbreak among persons visiting Blue Lake Regional Park in Oregon. During the weekend of the reported illnesses (Friday, July 11-Sunday, July 13) approximately 15,400 persons visited the park. The investigation identified 65 probable and five laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus infection (70 total cases). No hospitalizations or deaths were reported. Analyses from a retrospective cohort study revealed that swimming at Blue Lake during July 12-13 was significantly associated with illness during July 13-14 (adjusted relative r...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 15, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zlot A, Simckes M, Vines J, Reynolds L, Sullivan A, Scott AK, McLuckie JM, Kromer D, Hill VR, Yoder JS, Hlavsa MC Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Group a rotavirus and norovirus genotypes circulating in the northeastern Brazil in the post‐monovalent vaccination era
This study aims to investigate the epidemiological profile of NoV and RVA infections from children with AGE in the Northeastern region of Brazil in the post vaccine season. Two‐hundred fecal samples collected from children up to 10 years old in Fortaleza, Ceará between 2008–2009 were screened for the presence of RVA and NoV. Positive samples were genotyped and sequenced. The RVA screening revealed 12% prevalence and all RVA strains belonged to G2P[4] genotype. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 11 RVA genome segments sequenced from eight samples revealed a DS‐1‐like genotype constellation: I2‐R2‐C2‐M2‐A2...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - May 15, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ana Caroline C. Sá, Mariela M. Gómez, Ila Fernanda N. Lima, Josiane S. Quetz, Alexandre Havt, Reinaldo B. Oriá, Aldo A. Lima, José Paulo G. Leite Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Application of salivary antibody immunoassays for the detection of incident infections with Norwalk virus in a group of volunteers.
Abstract Norovirus infection is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in developed countries. Developing an assay based on a non-invasive biomarker for detecting incident norovirus infections could improve disease surveillance and epidemiological investigations. This project involved analysis of IgA and IgG norovirus-specific antibody responses in saliva samples from a Norwalk virus (Genogroup I, genotype 1 norovirus) challenge study involving infected and symptomatic, and non-infected asymptomatic individuals. Saliva was collected at the challenge, and two weeks and 40days post-challenge. Samples were ana...
Source: Journal of Immunological Methods - May 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Griffin SM, Converse RR, Leon JS, Wade TJ, Jiang X, Moe CL, Egorov AI Tags: J Immunol Methods Source Type: research