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Norovirus

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Novel norovirus recombinants detected in South Africa
Conclusions: Over the past four years, remarkably diverse NoV recombinants have been circulating in SA. Pandemic strains such as the GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012 recombinant co-circulated with novel and emerging recombinant strains. Combined polymerase- and capsid-based NoV genotyping is essential to determine the true diversity and global prevalence of these viruses. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - September 17, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Janet MansTanya MurrayMaureen Taylor Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in outpatient pediatric clinics in Beijing, China 2010-2012.
This study aimed to determine the genotypic characteristics of noroviruses from infants and children in Beijing. Stool samples (n=1128) were collected from patients with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis in the past 3years from 2010 to 2012. The norovirus positivity rate was 16.1% (182/1128) by using RT-PCR, including 122 with primer set covering polymerase region, 177 with primer set covering capsid region, and 117 with both polymerase and capsid regions. By sequence analysis for capsid genes, all the noroviruses identified were belonging to genogroup II (GII). Among these positive samples, GII.4 (61.0%) was the most comm...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - September 11, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jia LP, Qian Y, Zhang Y, Deng L, Liu LY, Zhu RN, Zhao LQ, Huang H, Zheng CG, Dong HJ Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Secreted production of assembled Norovirus virus-like particles from Pichia pastoris
Conclusions: In this study we describe the expression and characterization of fully assembled Norovirus virus-like particles obtained from P. pastoris. The particles are similar in size, morphology and binding capacity, as previously described, for the original NoV. Our results detail the successful expression and secretion of VLPs in P. pastoris, improving their candidacy as a vaccine platform. (Source: Microbial Cell Factories)
Source: Microbial Cell Factories - September 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jaime Tomé-AmatLauren FleischerStephanie ParkerCameron BardlivingCarl Batt Source Type: research

New Ligand For Human Norovirus Could Inspire Treatments For Stomach Flu
Molecular Medicine: Pathogen infects by binding to gangliosides in addition to blood group antigens (Source: Chemical and Engineering News)
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - September 5, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Stu Borman Source Type: research

Remote health advice bulletin
It monitors patterns in phone calls to the service each day across England, tracking the spread of infectious diseases like flu and norovirus. The data provides early warning of community-based infectious diseases. (Source: NHS Networks)
Source: NHS Networks - August 29, 2014 Category: UK Health Authors: Maria Axford Source Type: news

A helminth-mediated viral awakening.
Abstract Co-infections may have unpredictable consequences for the health of a host beyond the sum of the individual infections. Two recent papers in Science provide mechanistic insights into how acute helminth infections alter the outcome of Herpesvirus and Norovirus infections by triggering changes in the local cytokine environment. PMID: 25174993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Immunology)
Source: Trends in Immunology - August 28, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Veldhoen M, Heeney JL Tags: Trends Immunol Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of a rotavirus G8P[1] detected in a child with diarrhea reveal direct animal-to-human transmission.
Abstract Group A rotavirus is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children and young animals. During a retrospective analysis of samples collected from Paraguayan children under 5 years old with diarrhea, and previously negative for rotavirus and norovirus, we detected the presence of bovine rotavirus sequences by viral metagenomics. Nucleic acid was extracted direct from stool sample and determined to be G8P[1]. The genomic analyzes revealed that the strain presents an Artiodactyl-like genome (G8-P[1]-I2-R2-C2-M1-Ax-N2-T6-E12-H3) suggesting a direct animal-to-human transmission. PMID: 25169054 [PubMed -...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - August 25, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Martinez M, Phan TG, Galeano ME, Russomando G, Parreno V, Delwart E, Parra GI Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Detection of human norovirus GIV.1 in China: A case report
Highlights: Abstract: Noroviruses (NoVs) are a common cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) around the world; however, reports of genogroup IV (GIV) NoVs are rare. Here we report a human GIV genotype 1 (GIV.1) NoV strain (named CHNNGIV2011) identified by 454 high-throughput sequencing from stool samples of children with diarrhea. This is the first documented human GIV.1 NoVs infection in China. The complete genome of the virus is 7525 nucleotides in length. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses showed that CHNNGIV2011 shared high sequence similarity to other GIV.1 NoVs from all over the world, especially to the recently repo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - August 13, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Yuan-yun Ao, Jie-mei Yu, Li-li Li, Miao Jin, Zhao-jun Duan Tags: Case reports Source Type: research

Rapid detection and differentiation of human noroviruses using RT-PCR coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Abstract The goal of this study was to develop an assay for the detection and differentiation of noroviruses using RT-PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Detection of hepatitis A virus was also considered. Thirteen primer pairs were designed for use in this assay and a reference database was created using GenBank sequences and reference norovirus samples. The assay was tested for inclusivity and exclusivity using 160 clinical norovirus samples, 3 samples of hepatitis A virus and 3 other closely related viral strains. Results showed that the assay was able to detect norovirus with a s...
Source: Food Microbiology - August 7, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Hellberg RS, Li F, Sampath R, Yasuda IJ, Carolan HE, Wolfe JM, Brown MK, Alexander RC, Williams-Hill DM, Martin WB Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Inactivation of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus during oyster fermentation.
This study examined the survival of feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) during oyster fermentation. Oysters spiked with FCV and MNV were fermented with 5% or 10% salt at 18 °C for 15 days, and MNV and FCV titers, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations, pH, and enzymatic activity were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days post-fermentation (DPF). Reductions in MNV and FCV were greater in 5% NaCl-supplemented oysters than in 10% NaCl-supplemented oysters. In 5% NaCl oysters, MNV and FCV titers significantly decreased by 1.60 log and 3.01 log, respectively, at 15 DPF. Populations of LAB increased from...
Source: Food Microbiology - August 7, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Seo DJ, Lee MH, Seo J, Ha SD, Choi C Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

A survey of Australian oysters for the presence of human noroviruses.
Abstract Impending international policies for norovirus in oysters and the lack of Australian data suggested there was a need to undertake a national survey of norovirus in oysters. Two geographically distinct oyster-growing areas from each of three Australian states were sampled on 4 occasions during 2010 and 2011. The sites selected were considered by state shellfish authorities to be the most compromised with respect to the potential for human faecal contamination as identified by shoreline surveys. The oysters were tested for norovirus GI, GII and Escherichia coli. Norovirus GII was detected in two of 120 (1.7%...
Source: Food Microbiology - August 7, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Brake F, Ross T, Holds G, Kiermeier A, McLeod C Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Endosomal acidification and cathepsin L activity is required for calicivirus replication.
Abstract The role of cellular proteases and endosome maturation in the entry of caliciviruses including porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC), murine norovirus (MNV)-1 and feline calicivirus (FCV) were investigated. Treatment with chloroquine or cathepsin L inhibitors, but not cathepsin B inhibitors, significantly reduced the replication of PEC, MNV and FCV. When concentrated PEC, MNV or FCV were incubated with recombinant cathepsin L, the minor capsid protein VP2 of PEC and the major capsid protein VP1 of MNV and FCV were cleaved by the protease based on the Western blot analysis. Confocal microscopy analysis of PEC a...
Source: Virology - August 7, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Shivanna V, Kim Y, Chang KO Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Nitazoxanide: A first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent.
Abstract Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral drug and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. A Phase 2b/3 clinical trial recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases found that oral administration of nitazoxanide 600mg twice daily for five days reduced the duration of clinical symptoms and reduced viral shedding compared to placebo in persons with laboratory-confirmed influenza. The same study also suggested a potential benefit for subjects with influenza-like illness who did not have i...
Source: Antiviral Research - August 7, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Rossignol JF Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of Viral Inactivation of Pseudorabies Virus, Encephalomyocarditis Virus, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus And Porcine Parvovirus in Pancreatin of Porcine Origin.
Abstract Pancreatin is a substance containing enzymes, principally amylase, lipase, and protease. It is obtained from bovine or porcine pancreas and used in the treatment of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency in humans. Regulations and safety concerns mandate viral clearance (virus removal or inactivation) in biopharmaceuticals such as pancreatin. A virus validation study was performed to evaluate virus clearance achieved in the final step of drying under vacuum by testing a panel of four animal viruses: Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Porcine par...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - August 7, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Caruso C, Gobbi E, Biosa T, Andra M, Cavallazzi U, Masoero L Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

The enantiomers of the 1',6'-isomer of neplanocin A: Synthesis and antiviral properties.
Abstract Both enantiomers of 1',6'-isoneplanocin have been prepared from a common substituted cyclopentane epoxide in 7 steps. Both compounds were subjected to DNA and RNA viral assessments with moderate to high activity found for both towards human cytomegalovirus, measles, Ebola, norovirus, and dengue. The D-like congener also showed vaccinia and HBV effectiveness. In many of the other antiviral assays both compounds showed cytotoxicity making, in some cases, an EC50 determination not possible. The S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitory effects showed the D-like target to be equal that of neplanocin itself a...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry - August 7, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ye W, Schneller SW Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Source Type: research

A VPg-eIF4G Interaction Is Involved in Norovirus Translation [Microbiology]
Viruses have evolved a variety of mechanisms to usurp the host cell translation machinery to enable translation of the viral genome in the presence of high levels of cellular mRNAs. Noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in man, have evolved a mechanism that relies on the interaction of translation initiation factors with the virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5′ end of the viral RNA. To further characterize this novel mechanism of translation initiation, we have used proteomics to identify the components of the norovirus translation initiation factor complex. This approach revealed that VPg binds ...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - July 31, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chung, L., Bailey, D., Leen, E. N., Emmott, E. P., Chaudhry, Y., Roberts, L. O., Curry, S., Locker, N., Goodfellow, I. G. Tags: Protein Synthesis and Degradation Source Type: research

Relative cost-effectiveness of a norovirus vaccine in the deployed military setting compared to a vaccine against Campylobacter sp., ETEC, and Shigella sp.
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) has been identified as a significant cause of acute gastrointestinal illness among deployed military troops. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for the use of a NoV vaccine in the military using a previously developed model that evaluated vaccines for ETEC, Campylobacter, and Shigella for prevention of non-outbreak associated travelers' diarrhea. Under conservative assumptions, acquisition of a NoV vaccine by the Department of Defense is estimated to result in a cost-effectiveness ratio per duty day lost to illness (CERDDL) of $1344 compared to a CERDDL of $776, $800, and $1275 for ...
Source: Vaccine - July 30, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tallant A, Porter CK, Putnam SD, Tribble DR, Hooper TI, Riddle MS Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Detection and analysis of recombination in GII.4 norovirus strains causing gastroenteritis outbreaks in Alberta.
The objective of this study was to determine whether any NoV GII.4 strains causing outbreaks in Alberta are recombinants. Twenty stool samples collected during outbreaks occurring between July 2004 and January 2012 were selected to include the GII.4 variants Farmington Hills 2002, Hunter 2004, Yerseke 2006a, Den Haag 2006b, Apeldoorn 2007, New Orleans 2009, and Sydney 2012 based on previous NoV ORF2-genotyping results. Near full-length NoV genome sequences were obtained, aligned with reference sequences from GenBank and analyzed with RDPv4.13. Two sequences corresponding to Apeldoorn 2007, and Sydney 2012 were identified a...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - July 24, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hasing ME, Hazes B, Lee BE, Preiksaitis JK, Pang XL Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

[Articles] Global prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Norovirus is a key gastroenteritis pathogen associated with almost a fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, and targeted intervention to reduce norovirus burden, such as vaccines, should be considered. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 22, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sharia M Ahmed, Aron J Hall, Anne E Robinson, Linda Verhoef, Prasanna Premkumar, Umesh D Parashar, Marion Koopmans, Benjamin A Lopman Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Comment] Noroviruses: a global cause of acute gastroenteritis
Norwalk virus, the prototype norovirus, was identified in 1972 by the late Albert Kapikian in a fecal sample from an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis at an elementary school in Norwalk, Ohio, USA. During this outbreak, almost 50% of the students and teachers were infected during 2 days, highlighting the rapid spread of norovirus outbreaks. The advent and wide availability of molecular diagnostic techniques has resulted in increased awareness of the importance of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 22, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ulrich Desselberger, Ian Goodfellow Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Detection of circulating norovirus genotypes: hitting a moving target
Conclusions: This study emphasizes the benefits of a real-time method and provides support for routine surveillance to monitor norovirus epidemiology and ongoing proficiency testing to ensure detection of circulating norovirus genotypes. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - July 18, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Brenda-Lee RooneyJanice PettipasElsie GrudeskiOksana MykytczukXiao-Li PangTim BoothTodd HatchetteJason LeBlanc Source Type: research

Oregano oil inhibits cancer growth, breaks down norovirus and removes warts
(NaturalNews) You may already be familiar with oregano. It's a warm and savory herb that adds great flavor to sauces in pasta or pizza. What you may not know is that the active component in this herb has impressive healing properties. The active component in oregano that is responsible... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - July 14, 2014 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks -- United States, 2009-2012Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks -- United States, 2009-2012
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease in the United States, with 19-21 million cases annually. What actions can be taken to reduce its transmission? Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - July 11, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Public Health & Prevention Journal Article Source Type: news

Norovirus Infection in Immunocompromised Hosts
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - July 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kim Y. Green Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Norovirus disease today
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - July 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pierre Pothier, Laurent Kaiser Tags: Invited Editorial Source Type: research

Norovirus May Cause 20% of Acute Gastroenteritis WorldwideNorovirus May Cause 20% of Acute Gastroenteritis Worldwide
Norovirus is associated with nearly one fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, suggesting the need for vaccines or other targeted interventions to reduce norovirus burden. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Gastroenterology Headlines)
Source: Medscape Gastroenterology Headlines - July 2, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news

Norovirus May Cause 20% of Acute Gastroenteritis Worldwide‏Norovirus May Cause 20% of Acute Gastroenteritis Worldwide‏
Norovirus is associated with nearly one fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide‏, suggesting the need for vaccines or other targeted interventions to reduce norovirus burden. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - July 1, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news

Gastroenteric Virus Dissemination And Influence Of Rainfall Events In Urban Beaches In Brazil
ConclusionsThe results highlight the need for further monitoring using viral parameters to determine the microbiological quality of recreational waters in order to allow bath in these waters, especially during rainy events.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: M Victoria, TM Fumian, Rocha, F Dalmao, JPG Leite, R Girones, MP Miagostovich Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evolution of Norovirus
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - July 1, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peter A. White Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

[Does the Hospital Cost of Care Differ for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients with or without Gastrointestinal Infections? - A Case-Control Study].
Conclusion: Inpatient hospital costs differ significantly for IBD patients with and without gastrointestinal infections, especially in ulcerative colitis, when care was provided in a single university hospital. PMID: 25026005 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie)
Source: Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie - July 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Schmidt C, Köhler F, Kräplin T, Hartmann M, Lerch MM, Stallmach A Tags: Z Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Branched-linear and agglomerate protein polymers as vaccine platforms.
In this study, technologies were developed to produce more sophisticated polyvalent complexes through both the dimerization and oligomerization natures of viral antigens. As proof of concept, branched-linear and agglomerate polymers were made via fusions of the dimeric glutathione-s-transferase (GST) with either a tetrameric hepatitis E virus (HEV) protruding protein or a 24-meric norovirus (NoV) protruding protein. Furthermore, a monomeric antigen, either the M2e epitope of influenza A virus or the VP8* antigen of rotavirus, was inserted and displayed by the polymer platform. All resulting polymers were easily produced in...
Source: Biomaterials - June 28, 2014 Category: Materials Science Authors: Wang L, Xia M, Huang P, Fang H, Cao D, Meng XJ, McNeal M, Jiang X, Tan M Tags: Biomaterials Source Type: research

Your Stomach Bug May Well Be Norovirus
Nearly 20 percent of gastroenteritis cases stem from the 'cruise-ship virus,' study finds Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: Norovirus Infections (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - June 27, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Your Stomach Bug May Well Be Norovirus
Title: Your Stomach Bug May Well Be NorovirusCategory: Health NewsCreated: 6/27/2014 9:35:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 6/27/2014 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)
Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General - June 27, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Norovirus a huge cause of gastroenteritis worldwide
High figures highlight need for a vaccineRelated items from OnMedicaUK rotavirus vaccination programme for next yearCases of norovirus – up 83% on last yearCopper kills norovirusDiarrhoea in kids mostly caused by just four pathogensRotavirus vaccine offered to babies from today (Source: OnMedica Latest News)
Source: OnMedica Latest News - June 27, 2014 Category: UK Health Source Type: news

Assessment of airborne virus contamination in wastewater treatment plants.
CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of potentially pathogenic viral particles in WWTP air are non-negligible and could partly explain the work-related gastrointestinal symptoms often reported in employees in this sector. PMID: 24981824 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environmental Research)
Source: Environmental Research - June 27, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Masclaux FG, Hotz P, Gashi D, Savova-Bianchi D, Oppliger A Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research

Noroviruses cause around a fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide
Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) across all age groups, responsible for almost one-fifth of all cases worldwide. New estimates highlight the importance of developing norovirus vaccines, say the authors. "Our findings show that norovirus infection contributes substantially to the global burden of acute gastroenteritis, causing both severe and mild cases and across all age groups. Diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of death of children in developing regions of the world." (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - June 26, 2014 Category: Science Source Type: news

Norovirus Narita 104 Virus-Like Particles Expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana Induce Serum and Mucosal Immune Responses.
In this study, an optimized method to express and partially purify NaVCP is described. Further, partially purified NaVCP was used to immunize mice by intranasal delivery and generated significant mucosal and serum antibody responses. Thus, plant-derived Narita 104 VLPs have potential for use as a candidate subunit vaccine or as a component of a multivalent subunit vaccine, along with other genotype-specific plant-derived VLPs. PMID: 24949472 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomed Res)
Source: Biomed Res - June 23, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Mathew LG, Herbst-Kralovetz MM, Mason HS Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

A comparison of the thermal inactivation kinetics of human norovirus surrogates and hepatitis A virus in buffered cell culture medium.
The objectives of this research were to compare the thermal inactivation kinetics of human norovirus surrogates (murine norovirus (MNV-1), and feline calicivirus (FCV-F9)) and HAV in buffered medium (2-ml vials), compare first-order and Weibull models to describe the data, calculate Arrhenius activation energy for each model, and evaluate model efficiency using selected statistical criteria. The D-values calculated from the first-order model (50-72 °C) ranged from 0.21-19.75 min for FCV-F9, 0.25-36.28 min for MNV-1, and 0.88-56.22 min for HAV. Using the Weibull model, the tD = 1 (time to destroy 1 log) for FCV-F9, M...
Source: Food Microbiology - June 21, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Bozkurt H, D'Souza DH, Davidson PM Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of norovirus in hospitalised diarrhoeic children and asymptomatic controls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
This study investigated and reports norovirus diarrhoea, genetic diversity and associated clinical symptoms, HIV status and seasonality in a paediatric population of Tanzania. Stool specimens and demographic/clinical information, were prospectively collected from 705 hospitalised children with diarrhoea (cases) and 561 children without diarrhoea (controls) between 2010-2011. Norovirus detection was done by real-time RT-PCR. Genotype was determined using Gel-based and real time RT-PCR methods and sequencing targeting the polymerase and the capsid region respectively. Norovirus was detected in 14.3%, 181/1266 children. The p...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - June 21, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Moyo S, Hanevik K, Blomberg B, Kommedal O, Vainio K, Maselle S, Langeland N Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Health Tip: Preventing the Spread of Norovirus
Title: Health Tip: Preventing the Spread of NorovirusCategory: Health NewsCreated: 6/18/2014 7:35:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 6/18/2014 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)
Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General - June 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Rectal swab for detection of norovirus by real‐time PCR: similar sensitivity compared to faecal specimens
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - June 18, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: J. A. Sidler, R. Käch, C. Noppen, M. Dangel, M. Battegay, R. Bingisser, O. Dubuis, A. F. Widmer Tags: Research Note ‐ online only Source Type: research

The Burden of Norovirus gastroenteritis: an important foodborne and healthcare‐related infection
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - June 18, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gaël Belliot, Benjamin A. Lopman, Katia Ambert‐Balay, Pierre Pothier Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Development of a Norovirus P Particle Platform for Eliciting Neutralizing Antibody Responses to the Membrane Proximal External Region of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope.
In this study, we introduce Norovirus P particles as a new platform to display the MPER epitope of HIV-1 as a vaccine with the aim of enhancing immune responses. The results showed that HIV-1 chimeric P particles were capable of inducing MPER-specific antibody responses in immunized guinea pigs, although only weakly neutralizing activity could be detected. These findings are consistent with other previous studies which have also focused on the well-studied 2F5 and 4E10 BnAbs. Our findings provide an alternate strategy for design of vaccines against HIV-1. However, great challenges remain in the effort to develop vaccines t...
Source: Protein and Peptide Letters - June 16, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zang Y, Jinpeng BI, Dongchuan DU, Xintao LI, Zhang Y, Weiheng SU, Jiaxin WU, Shan Y, Wang S, Kong W, Qiu A, Jiang C Tags: Protein Pept Lett Source Type: research

Advances in Norovirus Biology.
Abstract Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trial...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - June 11, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karst SM, Wobus CE, Goodfellow IG, Green KY, Virgin HW Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Observation of Inflammatory Responses in Mice Orally Fed with Bacteriophage T7
ConclusionThe bacteriophage diet only caused a minimal inflammatory response in the mice. Significance and Impact of the StudyThis study provides insights into safety concerns of orally fed bacteriophage therapy.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - June 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kwangseo Park, Kyung Eun Cha, Heejoon Myung Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Molecular surveillance of non‐polio enterovirus infections in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Western India: 2004–2009
Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rotavirus (RV) and Norovirus (NoV) are the leading cause of the disease. Despite the use of improved diagnostic methods a significant proportion of gastroenteritis cases remained undiagnosed. Though nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have been reported frequently in children with acute gastroenteritis, their etiologic role has not been established. To investigate the epidemiology of NPEVs in gastroenteritis cases which remained negative for leading causative agents, 955 RV and NoV negative stool specimens from children hospitalized for acute...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - June 6, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Pooja R. Patil, Shobha D. Chitambar, V. Gopalkrishna Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Norovirus Is the Leading Cause of Food Disease
Norovirus Is the Leading Cause of Disease Outbreaks From Contaminated Food in the U.S. (Source: eMedicineHealth.com)
Source: eMedicineHealth.com - June 6, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: news

Vital Signs: Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks — United States, 2009–2012
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - June 6, 2014 Category: American Health Source Type: news

Vital signs: foodborne norovirus outbreaks - United States, 2009-2012.
Abstract Introduction: Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease in the United States, causing an estimated one in 15 U.S. residents to become ill each year as well as 56,000-71,000 hospitalizations and 570-800 deaths, predominantly among young children and the elderly. Whereas noroviruses often spread through person-to-person contact, foodborne transmission can cause widespread exposures and presents important prevention opportunities. PMID: 24898166 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 6, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hall AJ, Wikswo ME, Pringle K, Gould LH, Parashar UD, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Mechanisms of antiviral action of plant antimicrobials against murine norovirus.
This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses. PMID: 24907316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology)
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - June 6, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gilling DH, Kitajima M, Torrey JR, Bright KR Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research