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[Articles] Global prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Norovirus is a key gastroenteritis pathogen associated with almost a fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, and targeted intervention to reduce norovirus burden, such as vaccines, should be considered. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 22, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sharia M Ahmed, Aron J Hall, Anne E Robinson, Linda Verhoef, Prasanna Premkumar, Umesh D Parashar, Marion Koopmans, Benjamin A Lopman Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Comment] Noroviruses: a global cause of acute gastroenteritis
Norwalk virus, the prototype norovirus, was identified in 1972 by the late Albert Kapikian in a fecal sample from an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis at an elementary school in Norwalk, Ohio, USA. During this outbreak, almost 50% of the students and teachers were infected during 2 days, highlighting the rapid spread of norovirus outbreaks. The advent and wide availability of molecular diagnostic techniques has resulted in increased awareness of the importance of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 22, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ulrich Desselberger, Ian Goodfellow Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Detection of circulating norovirus genotypes: hitting a moving target
Conclusions: This study emphasizes the benefits of a real-time method and provides support for routine surveillance to monitor norovirus epidemiology and ongoing proficiency testing to ensure detection of circulating norovirus genotypes. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - July 18, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Brenda-Lee RooneyJanice PettipasElsie GrudeskiOksana MykytczukXiao-Li PangTim BoothTodd HatchetteJason LeBlanc Source Type: research

Oregano oil inhibits cancer growth, breaks down norovirus and removes warts
(NaturalNews) You may already be familiar with oregano. It's a warm and savory herb that adds great flavor to sauces in pasta or pizza. What you may not know is that the active component in this herb has impressive healing properties. The active component in oregano that is responsible... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - July 14, 2014 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks -- United States, 2009-2012Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks -- United States, 2009-2012
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease in the United States, with 19-21 million cases annually. What actions can be taken to reduce its transmission? Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - July 11, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Public Health & Prevention Journal Article Source Type: news

Norovirus Infection in Immunocompromised Hosts
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - July 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kim Y. Green Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Norovirus disease today
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - July 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pierre Pothier, Laurent Kaiser Tags: Invited Editorial Source Type: research

Norovirus May Cause 20% of Acute Gastroenteritis WorldwideNorovirus May Cause 20% of Acute Gastroenteritis Worldwide
Norovirus is associated with nearly one fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, suggesting the need for vaccines or other targeted interventions to reduce norovirus burden. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Gastroenterology Headlines)
Source: Medscape Gastroenterology Headlines - July 2, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news

Norovirus May Cause 20% of Acute Gastroenteritis Worldwide‏Norovirus May Cause 20% of Acute Gastroenteritis Worldwide‏
Norovirus is associated with nearly one fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide‏, suggesting the need for vaccines or other targeted interventions to reduce norovirus burden. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - July 1, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news

Gastroenteric Virus Dissemination And Influence Of Rainfall Events In Urban Beaches In Brazil
ConclusionsThe results highlight the need for further monitoring using viral parameters to determine the microbiological quality of recreational waters in order to allow bath in these waters, especially during rainy events.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: M Victoria, TM Fumian, Rocha, F Dalmao, JPG Leite, R Girones, MP Miagostovich Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evolution of Norovirus
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - July 1, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peter A. White Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

[Does the Hospital Cost of Care Differ for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients with or without Gastrointestinal Infections? - A Case-Control Study].
Conclusion: Inpatient hospital costs differ significantly for IBD patients with and without gastrointestinal infections, especially in ulcerative colitis, when care was provided in a single university hospital. PMID: 25026005 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie)
Source: Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie - July 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Schmidt C, Köhler F, Kräplin T, Hartmann M, Lerch MM, Stallmach A Tags: Z Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Branched-linear and agglomerate protein polymers as vaccine platforms.
In this study, technologies were developed to produce more sophisticated polyvalent complexes through both the dimerization and oligomerization natures of viral antigens. As proof of concept, branched-linear and agglomerate polymers were made via fusions of the dimeric glutathione-s-transferase (GST) with either a tetrameric hepatitis E virus (HEV) protruding protein or a 24-meric norovirus (NoV) protruding protein. Furthermore, a monomeric antigen, either the M2e epitope of influenza A virus or the VP8* antigen of rotavirus, was inserted and displayed by the polymer platform. All resulting polymers were easily produced in...
Source: Biomaterials - June 28, 2014 Category: Materials Science Authors: Wang L, Xia M, Huang P, Fang H, Cao D, Meng XJ, McNeal M, Jiang X, Tan M Tags: Biomaterials Source Type: research

Your Stomach Bug May Well Be Norovirus
Nearly 20 percent of gastroenteritis cases stem from the 'cruise-ship virus,' study finds Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: Norovirus Infections (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - June 27, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Your Stomach Bug May Well Be Norovirus
Title: Your Stomach Bug May Well Be NorovirusCategory: Health NewsCreated: 6/27/2014 9:35:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 6/27/2014 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)
Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General - June 27, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Norovirus a huge cause of gastroenteritis worldwide
High figures highlight need for a vaccineRelated items from OnMedicaUK rotavirus vaccination programme for next yearCases of norovirus – up 83% on last yearCopper kills norovirusDiarrhoea in kids mostly caused by just four pathogensRotavirus vaccine offered to babies from today (Source: OnMedica Latest News)
Source: OnMedica Latest News - June 27, 2014 Category: UK Health Source Type: news

Assessment of airborne virus contamination in wastewater treatment plants.
CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of potentially pathogenic viral particles in WWTP air are non-negligible and could partly explain the work-related gastrointestinal symptoms often reported in employees in this sector. PMID: 24981824 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environmental Research)
Source: Environmental Research - June 27, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Masclaux FG, Hotz P, Gashi D, Savova-Bianchi D, Oppliger A Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research

Noroviruses cause around a fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide
Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) across all age groups, responsible for almost one-fifth of all cases worldwide. New estimates highlight the importance of developing norovirus vaccines, say the authors. "Our findings show that norovirus infection contributes substantially to the global burden of acute gastroenteritis, causing both severe and mild cases and across all age groups. Diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of death of children in developing regions of the world." (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - June 26, 2014 Category: Science Source Type: news

Norovirus Narita 104 Virus-Like Particles Expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana Induce Serum and Mucosal Immune Responses.
In this study, an optimized method to express and partially purify NaVCP is described. Further, partially purified NaVCP was used to immunize mice by intranasal delivery and generated significant mucosal and serum antibody responses. Thus, plant-derived Narita 104 VLPs have potential for use as a candidate subunit vaccine or as a component of a multivalent subunit vaccine, along with other genotype-specific plant-derived VLPs. PMID: 24949472 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomed Res)
Source: Biomed Res - June 23, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Mathew LG, Herbst-Kralovetz MM, Mason HS Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

A comparison of the thermal inactivation kinetics of human norovirus surrogates and hepatitis A virus in buffered cell culture medium.
The objectives of this research were to compare the thermal inactivation kinetics of human norovirus surrogates (murine norovirus (MNV-1), and feline calicivirus (FCV-F9)) and HAV in buffered medium (2-ml vials), compare first-order and Weibull models to describe the data, calculate Arrhenius activation energy for each model, and evaluate model efficiency using selected statistical criteria. The D-values calculated from the first-order model (50-72 °C) ranged from 0.21-19.75 min for FCV-F9, 0.25-36.28 min for MNV-1, and 0.88-56.22 min for HAV. Using the Weibull model, the tD = 1 (time to destroy 1 log) for FCV-F9, M...
Source: Food Microbiology - June 21, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Bozkurt H, D'Souza DH, Davidson PM Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of norovirus in hospitalised diarrhoeic children and asymptomatic controls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
This study investigated and reports norovirus diarrhoea, genetic diversity and associated clinical symptoms, HIV status and seasonality in a paediatric population of Tanzania. Stool specimens and demographic/clinical information, were prospectively collected from 705 hospitalised children with diarrhoea (cases) and 561 children without diarrhoea (controls) between 2010-2011. Norovirus detection was done by real-time RT-PCR. Genotype was determined using Gel-based and real time RT-PCR methods and sequencing targeting the polymerase and the capsid region respectively. Norovirus was detected in 14.3%, 181/1266 children. The p...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - June 21, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Moyo S, Hanevik K, Blomberg B, Kommedal O, Vainio K, Maselle S, Langeland N Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Health Tip: Preventing the Spread of Norovirus
Title: Health Tip: Preventing the Spread of NorovirusCategory: Health NewsCreated: 6/18/2014 7:35:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 6/18/2014 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)
Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General - June 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Rectal swab for detection of norovirus by real‐time PCR: similar sensitivity compared to faecal specimens
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - June 18, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: J. A. Sidler, R. Käch, C. Noppen, M. Dangel, M. Battegay, R. Bingisser, O. Dubuis, A. F. Widmer Tags: Research Note ‐ online only Source Type: research

The Burden of Norovirus gastroenteritis: an important foodborne and healthcare‐related infection
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - June 18, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gaël Belliot, Benjamin A. Lopman, Katia Ambert‐Balay, Pierre Pothier Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Development of a Norovirus P Particle Platform for Eliciting Neutralizing Antibody Responses to the Membrane Proximal External Region of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope.
In this study, we introduce Norovirus P particles as a new platform to display the MPER epitope of HIV-1 as a vaccine with the aim of enhancing immune responses. The results showed that HIV-1 chimeric P particles were capable of inducing MPER-specific antibody responses in immunized guinea pigs, although only weakly neutralizing activity could be detected. These findings are consistent with other previous studies which have also focused on the well-studied 2F5 and 4E10 BnAbs. Our findings provide an alternate strategy for design of vaccines against HIV-1. However, great challenges remain in the effort to develop vaccines t...
Source: Protein and Peptide Letters - June 16, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zang Y, Jinpeng BI, Dongchuan DU, Xintao LI, Zhang Y, Weiheng SU, Jiaxin WU, Shan Y, Wang S, Kong W, Qiu A, Jiang C Tags: Protein Pept Lett Source Type: research

Advances in Norovirus Biology.
Abstract Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trial...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - June 11, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karst SM, Wobus CE, Goodfellow IG, Green KY, Virgin HW Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Observation of Inflammatory Responses in Mice Orally Fed with Bacteriophage T7
ConclusionThe bacteriophage diet only caused a minimal inflammatory response in the mice. Significance and Impact of the StudyThis study provides insights into safety concerns of orally fed bacteriophage therapy.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - June 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kwangseo Park, Kyung Eun Cha, Heejoon Myung Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Molecular surveillance of non‐polio enterovirus infections in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Western India: 2004–2009
Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rotavirus (RV) and Norovirus (NoV) are the leading cause of the disease. Despite the use of improved diagnostic methods a significant proportion of gastroenteritis cases remained undiagnosed. Though nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have been reported frequently in children with acute gastroenteritis, their etiologic role has not been established. To investigate the epidemiology of NPEVs in gastroenteritis cases which remained negative for leading causative agents, 955 RV and NoV negative stool specimens from children hospitalized for acute...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - June 6, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Pooja R. Patil, Shobha D. Chitambar, V. Gopalkrishna Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Norovirus Is the Leading Cause of Food Disease
Norovirus Is the Leading Cause of Disease Outbreaks From Contaminated Food in the U.S. (Source: eMedicineHealth.com)
Source: eMedicineHealth.com - June 6, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: news

Vital Signs: Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks — United States, 2009–2012
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - June 6, 2014 Category: American Health Source Type: news

Vital signs: foodborne norovirus outbreaks - United States, 2009-2012.
Abstract Introduction: Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease in the United States, causing an estimated one in 15 U.S. residents to become ill each year as well as 56,000-71,000 hospitalizations and 570-800 deaths, predominantly among young children and the elderly. Whereas noroviruses often spread through person-to-person contact, foodborne transmission can cause widespread exposures and presents important prevention opportunities. PMID: 24898166 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 6, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hall AJ, Wikswo ME, Pringle K, Gould LH, Parashar UD, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Mechanisms of antiviral action of plant antimicrobials against murine norovirus.
This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses. PMID: 24907316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology)
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - June 6, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gilling DH, Kitajima M, Torrey JR, Bright KR Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research

20 million get sick each year from norovirus -- stomach flu -- in the United States
Alex CukanATLANTA, June 3 (UPI) -- About 20 million people get sick from norovirus each year, mostly from eating in restaurants, catering or banquet facilities. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Source: Health News - UPI.com - June 4, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Most norovirus spread by food prep workers
CDC report says at least 1 in 5 food service employees admits coming to work with a stomach bug (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - June 3, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Food Handlers Cause Most Food-Poisoning Cases
Norovirus spread in restaurants accounts for two-thirds of all outbreaks, CDC says (Source: WebMD Health)
Source: WebMD Health - June 3, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Food Handlers Cause Most Food-Poisoning Cases
Norovirus spread in restaurants accounts for two-thirds of all outbreaks, CDC says Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Food Safety, Foodborne Illness, Norovirus Infections (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - June 3, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Food poisoning? It was likely a restaurant worker, CDC says
Approximately 20 million people fall ill every year due to norovirus, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which says the food service industry could do much to decrease that number. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)
Source: WDSU.com - Health - June 3, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Rotavirus and Norovirus infections among acute gastroenteritis children in Morocco
Conclusion: This study suggests that in Morocco, norovirus is the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis after rotavirus, but further enteric viruses need to be integrated in the surveillance system so that a conclusion could be drawn. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - June 3, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria El QazouiHicham OumzilLarbi BaassiNezha El OmariKhalid SadkiSaaid AmzaziMohamed BenhafidRajae El Aouad Source Type: research

Effectiveness of cooking to reduce Norovirus and infectious F‐specific RNA bacteriophage concentrations in Mytilus edulis
ConclusionsDomestic cooking practices based on shell opening alone do not inactivate infectious virus in mussels, however, cooking mussels at high temperatures is effective to reduce infectious virus concentrations and the risk of illness in consumers. Significance and Impact of the StudyThe data will contribute towards evidence‐based cooking recommendations for shellfish to provide a safe product for human consumption. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - June 2, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: J. Flannery, P. Rajko‐Nenow, J.B. Winterbourn, S.K. Malham, D.L. Jones Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The enterovirus protease inhibitor rupintrivir exerts broad-spectrum anti-norovirus activity and clears cells from the norovirus replicon.
Abstract Potent and safe inhibitors of norovirus replication are needed for the treatment and prophylaxis of norovirus infections. We here report that the in vitro anti-norovirus activity of the protease inhibitor rupintrivir is extended to murine noroviruses and that rupintrivir clears human cells from their Norwalk replicon after only two passages of antiviral pressure. In addition we demonstrate that rupintrivir inhibits the human norovirus (genogroup II) protease and further explain the inhibitory effect of the molecule by means of molecular modelling on the basis of the crystal structure of the Norwalk virus p...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - June 2, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rocha-Pereira J, Nascimento MS, Ma Q, Hilgenfeld R, Neyts J, Jochmans D Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Norovirus: Targets and tools in antiviral drug discovery.
Abstract The development of antiviral strategies to treat or prevent norovirus infections is a pressing matter. Noroviruses are the number #1 cause of acute gastroenteritis, of foodborne illness, of sporadic gastroenteritis in all age groups and of severe acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years old seeking medical assistance [USA/CDC]. In developing countries, noroviruses are linked to significant mortality (̃200.000 children ˂5 years old). Noroviruses are a major culprit for the closure of hospital wards, and associated with increased hospitalization and mortality among the elderly. Transplant patien...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - May 31, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rocha-Pereira J, Neyts J, Jochmans D Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Hawaii health officials supervise cleanup at Waikiki hotel after norovirus outbreak
Officials from the Hawaii State Department of Health are supervising disinfection measures at The Royal Hawaiian hotel in Waikiki, where some 100 guests and workers became sick from a norovirus last week. The Honolulu Star-Advertiser reports state epidemiologist Sarah Park said Monday that state sanitation workers were supervising the cleaning at The Royal Hawaiian, which voluntarily closed its kitchen for 72 hours as a precautionary measure. The newspaper reports a spokeswoman for The Royal Hawaiian… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - May 27, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

MNV primarily surveillance by a recombination VP1 derived ELISA in Beijing area in China.
In this study, the caspid VP1 protein was proved to be the mostly predominant antigen in MNV virions. An ELISA method using the recombination VP1 as antigen was developed (rVP1 ELISA). The rVP1 ELISA is more sensitive and less specific than the MNV virions derived IFA method. To address the prevalence of MNV in China, a totally 600 mouse serum samples from Beijing area were tested by rVP1 ELISA and confirmed by IFA and WB. The MNV infection rate was 11.67%, but most of the MNV positive samples were from experimental facilities (MNV rate=30.94%), not from commercial vendors (MNV rate=0.27%). Collectively, a sensitive rVP1 E...
Source: Journal of Immunological Methods - May 22, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xiang Z, Tian S, Tong W, Chang H, Su J, Zhang L, Liu X, Li Y, Wei Q, Liu Y Tags: J Immunol Methods Source Type: research

Thermal Inactivation of Murine Norovirus‐1 in Suspension and in Dried Mussels (Mytilus edulis)
Abstract The current study examined the effects of three different temperatures (60, 85 and 100C) and duration of heat treatment (ranging from 1 min at 100C to 30 min at 60C) on murine norovirus‐1 (MNV‐1) as a human norovirus model both from viral suspension and experimentally contaminated dried mussels. The log10 tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)50/mL values of 3.03, 3.69, 4.35, 5.05 and 5.88 were reduced in suspensions at 60C for 5 min, 60C for 15 min, 60C for 30 min, 85C for 3 min and 85C for 6 min, respectively. The log10TCID50/mL values of 0.78, 2.00, 3.35, 1.95 and 3.20 were reduced from dried m...
Source: Journal of Food Safety - May 20, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: S.Y. Park, S.‐H. Kim, I.‐S. Ju, J.‐I. Cho, S.‐D. Ha Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Adenovirus presence in surfaces and equipment from ambulatories, internship units, and operating rooms in a Brazilian hospital
There are very few studies about the importance of viruses as markers for the monitoring and control of hospital infections (HI). On the other hand, there is a large amount of studies in the literature regarding bacterial and fungal contaminations of nosocomial environments; the literature shows that viruses are responsible for less than 5% of cases reported of HI. However, this number may be surely underestimated because other authors have suggested that viruses are responsible for more than 30% of cases. Viral infections acquired in hospitals may delay the recovery of patients, prolonging the hospitalizations for up to 9...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - May 16, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Joseane Vanessa dos Santos da Silva, Mateus Henrique de Mello, Rodrigo Staggemeier, Andréia Henzel, Caroline Rigotto, Fernando Rosado Spilki Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Knowledge of norovirus prevention and control among infection preventionists
A Web-based survey was administered to infection preventionists (IPs) (N = 941) to characterize awareness and knowledge of norovirus (NoV). Only 44% of respondents correctly identified NoV as one of the 3 most common foodborne pathogens in the United States, and 5% correctly identified the 3 most common settings for NoV outbreaks. Several gaps in IPs’ knowledge of NoV were identified; specifically, IPs could benefit from learning more about the natural history of NoV, modes of transmission, and cleaning and disinfection processes. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - May 16, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katherine M. Kosa, Sheryl C. Cates, Aron J. Hall, Jenna E. Brophy, Angela Frasier Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Genetic analyses of norovirus GII.4 variants in Finnish children from 1998 to 2013.
Abstract Noroviruses (NoVs) are the major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in outbreaks and in sporadic AGE in young children. Since the mid-1990s, NoV genotype GII.4 has been predominant worldwide. New GII.4 variants appear every two to three years, and antigenic variation is focused on the highly variable protruding domain (P2) of the NoV capsid protein which contains the receptor-binding regions. We studied NoV GII.4 variants in cases of endemic AGE in Finnish children from 1998 to 2013. Fecal specimens were collected from cases of AGE followed prospectively in rotavirus vaccine trials from 1998 t...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - May 13, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Huhti L, Blazevic V, Puustinen L, Hemming M, Salminen M, Vesikari T Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Viral contamination of aerosol and surfaces through toilet use in health care and other settings
Conclusions: The data collected in our study confirm that toilets are an important source of viral contamination, mainly in health care settings, where disinfection can have a crucial role in preventing virus spread. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - May 12, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marco Verani, Roberto Bigazzi, Annalaura Carducci Tags: Major Articles Source Type: research

Infection control for norovirus
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - May 11, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Leslie Barclay, Geun Woo Park, Everardo Vega, Aron Hall, Umesh Parashar, Jan Vinjé, Ben Lopman Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research