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Detection and molecular characterization of zoonotic viruses in swine fecal samples in Italian pig herds
In this study, the prevalence of astrovirus (AstV), group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in pigs was investigated. During 2012-2014, 242 fecal samples were collected from pigs at different production stages (5 to 220 days old) on eight swine farms located in northern, central and southern Italy. Seven out of eight farms analyzed were positive for AstV, which was detected in 163 out of 242 (67.4 %) samples and was the most prevalent virus; 61 of the 163 AstV-positive animals (37.4 %) had diarrhea. HEV was detected on six farms and in 45 (18.6 %) of the 242 samples analyzed. Twen...
Source: Archives of Virology - July 29, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Human norovirus genogroup II recombinants in Thailand, 2009–2014
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. New strains emerge partly due to viral recombination. In Thailand, there is a lack of data on NoV recombinants among clinical isolates. We screened stool samples from pediatric diarrheal patients for norovirus by RT-PCR and found GII.4 to be the most prevalent genotype. Phylogenetic and SimPlot analyses detected seven intra-genogroup recombinant strains: three GII.21/GII.3, two GII.12/GII.3, and two GII.12/GII.1 recombinants. Maximum chi-square analysis indicated that all had similar breakpoints near the ORF1/ORF2 junction (...
Source: Archives of Virology - July 29, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Adults Due to Rotavirus Genotype G12P[8]
Conclusions. Rotavirus outbreaks can occur among adults, including young adults. Health professionals should consider rotavirus as a cause of acute gastroenteritis in adults. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pacilli, M., Cortese, M. M., Smith, S., Siston, A., Samala, U., Bowen, M. D., Parada, J. P., Tam, K. I., Rungsrisuriyachai, K., Roy, S., Esona, M. D., Black, S. R. Tags: ELECTRONIC ARTICLES Source Type: research

Evaluation of immunochromatography tests for detection of novel GII.17 norovirus in stool samples.
PMID: 26212141 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 28, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khamrin P, Thongprachum A, Takanashi S, Okitsu S, Maneekarn N, Hayakawa S, Ushijima H Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Physicochemical stability profile of Tulane virus: a human norovirus surrogate
ConclusionsTulane virus is likely a suitable surrogate to study HuNoV thermal stability as well as ethanol tolerance below 90%. Tulane virus also is a promising surrogate to study HuNoV pH stability and chlorine tolerance. Significance and Impact of the StudyBased on current work, in vitro studies demonstrate that TV is an overall more conservative and suitable surrogate for the study of HuNoV physicochemical properties. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - July 25, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: S.E. Arthur, K.E. Gibson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of the antiviral activity of flavonoids against murine norovirus and feline calicivirus
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Food Control, Volume 60 Author(s): Dong Joo Seo, Su Been Jeon, Hyejin Oh, Bog-Hieu Lee, Sook-Young Lee, Seung Hyun Oh, Ji Youn Jung, Changsun Choi Antiviral effect of 10 flavonoids against feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) was investigated on Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells and RAW 264.7 cells. Each cells infected with FCV or MNV was treated with different flavonoids at concentrations between 50 and 300 μM. A 200 μM dose of kaempferol and daidzein significantly reduced the FCV titer by 69.76 ± 8.71 and 63.47 ± 9.82%, respectively. A 300...
Source: Food Control - July 25, 2015 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Genome of Emerging Norovirus GII.17, United States, 2014.
Abstract To determine whether the norovirus strain GII.17 recently detected in Maryland, USA, (Hu/GII.17/Gaithersburg/2014/US) is spreading globally, we characterized the genome. High similarity with the norovirus GII.17 that caused recent outbreaks in Asia indicates that the same strain was present in the United States during the 2014-15 norovirus season (winter). PMID: 26196235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Parra GI, Green KY Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Norovirus is not just on cruise ships
(Source: CNN.com - Health)
Source: CNN.com - Health - July 23, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Aerosol-Transmitted Infections—a New Consideration for Public Health and Infection Control Teams
This article reviews the evidence and characteristics of some of the accepted (tuberculosis, measles, chickenpox, whooping cough) and some of the more opportunistic (influenza, Clostridium difficile, norovirus) aerosol-transmitted infectious agents and outlines methods of detecting and quantifying transmission. (Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - July 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pathogen-specific burdens of community diarrhoea in developing countries: a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED)
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2015 Source:The Lancet Global Health Author(s): James A Platts-Mills, Sudhir Babji, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Jean Gratz, Rashidul Haque, Alexandre Havt, Benjamin JJ McCormick, Monica McGrath, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Amidou Samie, Sadia Shakoor, Dinesh Mondal, Ila FN Lima, Dinesh Hariraju, Bishnu B Rayamajhi, Shahida Qureshi, Furqan Kabir, Pablo P Yori, Brenda Mufamadi, Caroline Amour, J Daniel Carreon, Stephanie A Richard, Dennis Lang, Pascal Bessong, Esto Mduma, Tahmeed Ahmed, Aldo AAM Lima, Carl J Mason, Anita KM Zaidi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Margaret ...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - July 20, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

GII.4 Sydney_2012 norovirus infection in immunocompromised patients in Beijing and its rapid evolution in vivo
ConclusionsGII.4 Sydney_2012 strain tends to undergo stable mutations during the asymptomatic shedding phase and may generate new variants in chronic diarrhea patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - July 18, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Huan Mai, Yan Gao, Xu Cong, Hui Wang, Ning Liu, Xiaojun Huang, Lanping Xu, Yuhong Chen, Lai Wei Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of immunochromatography tests for detection of novel GII.17 norovirus in stool samples
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 16, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Detection and Quantification of Airborne Norovirus During Outbreaks in Healthcare Facilities
Conclusions. Norovirus genomes are frequently detected in the air of healthcare facilities during outbreaks, even outside patients' rooms. In addition, in vitro models suggest that this virus may withstand aerosolization. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - July 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bonifait, L., Charlebois, R., Vimont, A., Turgeon, N., Veillette, M., Longtin, Y., Jean, J., Duchaine, C. Tags: ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of norovirus strains in hospitalized children from Pakistan
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - July 14, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Amna Alam, Sohail A. Qureshi, Jan Vinjé, Anita Zaidi Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Human norovirus infection and the acute serum cytokine response
This study presents the first comprehensive description of the acute cytokine response to GI.1 NoV in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - July 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kira L Newman, Christine L Moe, Amy E Kirby, W. Dana Flanders, Charles A Parkos, Juan S Leon Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Immune deficiency: changing spectrum of pathogens
Summary Current UK national standards recommend routine bacteriology surveillance in severe antibody‐deficient patients, but less guidance exists on virology screening and viral infections in these patients. In this retrospective audit, we assessed the proportion of positive virology or bacteriology respiratory and stool samples from patients with severe, partial or no immune deficiency during a 2‐year period. Medical notes were reviewed to identify symptomatic viral infections and to describe the course of persistent viral infections. During the 2‐year period, 31 of 78 (39·7%) severe immune‐deficient patients tes...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - July 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: S. S. Duraisingham, A. Manson, S. Grigoriadou, M. Buckland, C. Y. W. Tong, H. J. Longhurst Tags: Translational Source Type: research

Human norovirus infection and the acute serum cytokine response.
This study presents the first comprehensive description of the acute cytokine response to GI.1 NoV in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26178578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - July 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Newman KL, Moe CL, Kirby AE, Flanders WD, Parkos CA, Leon JS Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Emergence of a novel GII.17 norovirus - End of the GII.4 era?
PMID: 26159308 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Graaf M, van Beek J, Vennema H, Podkolzin AT, Hewitt J, Bucardo F, Templeton K, Mans J, Nordgren J, Reuter G, Lynch M, Rasmussen LD, Iritani N, Chan MC, Martella V, Ambert-Balay K, Vinje J, White PA, Koopmans MP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Genetic analyses of GII.17 norovirus strains in diarrheal disease outbreaks from December 2014 to March 2015 in Japan reveal a novel polymerase sequence and amino acid substitutions in the capsid region.
PMID: 26159307 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsushima Y, Ishikawa M, Shimizu T, Komane A, Kasuo S, Shinohara M, Nagasawa K, Kimura H, Ryo A, Okabe N, Haga K, Doan YH, Katayama K, Shimizu H Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Control of norovirus outbreak on a pediatric oncology unit
Conclusion We describe interventions for controlling NV on a pediatric oncology unit. High-risk chronic shedders pose ongoing transmission risks. PCR is a valuable diagnostic tool but may be overly sensitive. Surrogate markers to assess NV burden in stool and studies on NV screening are needed to develop guidelines for high-risk chronic shedders. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan
Abstract Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7–1.5 % w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolve...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 11, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Mucosal and Cellular Immune Responses to Norwalk Virus
Conclusions. NV-specific salivary IgA and NV-specific memory IgG cells were identified as new correlates of protection against NV gastroenteritis. Understanding the relative importance of mucosal, cellular, and humoral immunity is important in developing vaccine strategies for norovirus disease prevention. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ramani, S., Neill, F. H., Opekun, A. R., Gilger, M. A., Graham, D. Y., Estes, M. K., Atmar, R. L. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

His-tagged norovirus-like particles: A versatile platform for cellular delivery and surface display.
Abstract In addition to vaccines, noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) that mimic the viral capsid show an attractive possibility of presenting immunogenic epitopes or targeting molecules on their surface. Here, functionalization of norovirus-derived VLPs by simple non-covalent conjugation of various molecules is shown. By using the affinity between a surface-exposed polyhistidine-tag and multivalent tris-nitrilotriacetic acid (trisNTA), fluorescent dye molecules and streptavidin-biotin conjugated to trisNTA are displayed on the VLPs to demonstrate the use of these VLPs as easily modifiable nanocarriers as wel...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - July 10, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koho T, Ihalainen TO, Stark M, Uusi-Kerttula H, Wieneke R, Rahikainen R, Blazevic V, Marjomäki V, Tampé R, Kulomaa MS, Hytönen VP Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research

Ultraviolet-C efficacy against a norovirus surrogate and hepatitis A virus on a stainless steel surface.
In this study, the effects of 10-300mWs/cm(2) of ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) at 260nm were investigated for the inactivation of two foodborne viruses: murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1; a human norovirus [NoV] surrogate) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). We used an experimentally contaminated stainless steel surface, a common food-contact surface, to examine the effects of low doses of UV-C radiation on MNV-1 and HAV titers. The modified Gompertz equation was used to generate non-linear survival curves and calculate dR-values as the UV-C dose of 90% reduction for MNV-1 (R(2)=0.95, RMSE=0.038) and HAV (R(2)=0.97, RMSE=0.016). Total MNV...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - July 10, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Park SY, Kim AN, Lee KH, Ha SD Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Multiple consecutive norovirus infections in the first 2 years of life
Conclusion: This study describes norovirus-specific serological responses in a child with four consecutive norovirus infection during the first 2 years of life. The response is type-specific and does not protect from a subsequent infection with a heterologous virus. What is Known: • Correlates of protection to norovirus infection and disease are not yet determined, and most of the presently available data concern adult population. ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - July 9, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Comparison of five commercially available immunochromatographic tests for the detection of norovirus in faecal specimens
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2015 Source:Journal of Hospital Infection Author(s): K. Vyas , C. Atkinson , D.A. Clark , D. Irish Five CE-marked immunochromatography assay kits for the rapid detection of norovirus were compared with the reference method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of acute norovirus infection. The sensitivity of the assays ranged between 23% and 59% with specificity being 75‒100% when compared with real-time PCR. The data suggest that a reactive immunochromatographic assay indicates norovirus infection. However, the sensitivity of the assay would need to be...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 8, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013
Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis across all age groups [1]. NoV are a genetically and antigenically diverse group of RNA viruses grouped in 6 different genogroups (G), further subdivided into 40 genotypes [2]. Only genogroups GI, GII and GIV are found in humans, but the most commonly detected norovirus strains belong to the genetically diverse genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4) genocluster. The GII.4 noroviruses have been the main cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide, accounting for 80% of norovirus infections [3]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - July 6, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: I. Costa, J.R. Mesquita, E. Veiga, M. Oleastro, M.J.S Nascimento Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Quantification of Human Norovirus GII on Hands of Mothers with Children Under the Age of Five in Bagamoyo, Tanzania.
This study examines the prevalence and concentration of human norovirus GII on the hands of mothers in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, during the rainy and dry seasons. Norovirus GII was detected in approximately 5% of hand rinse samples during both the rainy and dry seasons. Fecal indicator bacteria levels, Escherichia coli and enterococci, in hand rinse samples were not associated with norovirus hand contamination. Turbidity of the hand rinses was found to be associated with norovirus presence on mothers' hands; however, this relationship was only observed during the rainy season. The results suggest mothers' hands serve as a source...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 6, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mattioli MC, Davis J, Mrisho M, Boehm AB Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011–2013
Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis across all age groups [1]. NoV are a genetically and antigenically diverse group of RNA viruses grouped in 6 different genogroups (G), further subdivided into 40 genotypes [2]. Only genogroups GI, GII and GIV are found in humans, but the most commonly detected norovirus strains belong to the genetically diverse genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4) genocluster. The GII.4 noroviruses have been the main cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide, accounting for 80% of norovirus infections [3]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - July 6, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: I. Costa, J.R. Mesquita, E. Veiga, M. Oleastro, M.J.S Nascimento Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers
The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FC...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 4, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A split G-quadruplex-based DNA nano-tweezers structure as a signal-transducing molecule for the homogeneous detection of specific nucleic acids
Publication date: 15 December 2015 Source:Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 74 Author(s): Keisuke Nakatsuka , Hajime Shigeto , Akio Kuroda , Hisakage Funabashi A portable method of specific nucleic acid detection would be very useful for monitoring public health in a variety of settings for point-of-care and point-of-need testing. However, conventional methods for the detection of nucleic acids are not ideal for use in the field, as they require skilled operators and complex equipment. Here, we constructed a method for specific nucleic acid detection using a split G-quadruplex (Gq) structure that can recognize target...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - July 3, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Detection and molecular characterization of caliciviruses (vesivirus and norovirus) in an outbreak of acute diarrhea in kittens from brazil
In this study, molecular characterization of FCV and feline norovirus (FNoV) was undertaken using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis of the ORF1 region in fecal specimens from 29 diarrheic cats. The specimens were also screened for parvovirus, coronavirus, astrovirus and group A rotavirus. A quantitative one step RT-PCR was also performed to detect and quantitate NoV genogroup IV and the role of these animal caliciviruses in feline gastroenteritis was investigated. This is the first description of enteric FCV and FNoV in South America. (Source: The Veterinary Journal)
Source: The Veterinary Journal - July 3, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

What the Media Gets Completely Wrong About Cruising
This is what we see when we watch cruise coverage on cable news. - Photo by iofoto / Thinkstock There are plenty of myths about cruising floating around the Internet: they’re full of old people, there’s nothing to do, and so on. Most of them are fairly harmless and easily disproven, but if you’re a true lover of cruising, nothing irks you more than the media shining its sensationalist spotlight on your favorite vacation.    During a slow week, major news networks (we’re looking at you, CNN) salivate over the chance to fill the gaps of a 24-hour news cycle with stories of cruise ships bro...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - July 2, 2015 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Genetic analyses of GII.17 norovirus strains in diarrheal disease outbreaks from December 2014 to March 2015 in Japan reveal a novel polymerase sequence and amino acid substitutions in the capsid region
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 2, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergence of a novel GII.17 norovirus - End of the GII.4 era?
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 2, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus and other common enteric viruses are not commonly associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis
ConclusionAlthough case reports indicate an episodic association of enteric viruses in NEC, the inability to detect any of these viruses in our 17 NEC infants suggests that a viral aetiology is unlikely to be causative for most sporadic forms of NEC.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Paediatrica)
Source: Acta Paediatrica - July 1, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Thomas Skeath, Christopher Stewart, Sheila Waugh, Nicholas Embleton, Stephen Cummings, Janet Berrington Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Separate norovirus outbreaks linked to one source of imported frozen raspberries by molecular analysis, Denmark, 2010–2011
Research Articles L. MÜLLER, A. C. SCHULTZ, J. FONAGER, T. JENSEN, M. LISBY, K. HINDSDAL, L. KRUSELL, A. ESHØJ, L. T. MØLLER, L. J. PORSBO, B. E. BÖTTIGER, K. KUHN, J. ENGBERG, S. ETHELBERG, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 11, pp 2299-2307Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - June 30, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of host, agent and environment characteristics and the duration of incubation and symptomatic periods of norovirus gastroenteritis
Research Articles T. DEVASIA, B. LOPMAN, J. LEON, A. HANDEL, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 11, pp 2308-2314Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - June 30, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Emergence of a new GII.17 norovirus variant in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Jiangsu, China, September 2014 to March 2015.
PMID: 26111236 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 28, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fu J, Ai J, Jin M, Jiang C, Zhang J, Shi C, Lin Q, Yuan Z, Qi X, Bao C, Tang F, Zhu Y Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Diarrhea in solid organ transplant recipients
Purpose of review: Diarrhea is a common complaint in the solid organ transplant recipient. Unlike the immune-competent patient, diarrhea in an organ transplant recipient may result in dehydration, increased toxicity of medications, and rejection. There is a wide range of causes for diarrhea in transplant recipients, but the most common causes are Clostridium difficile infection, cytomegalovirus, and norovirus. This review will focus on new epidemiology data as to the cause of diarrhea in the transplant population. Recent findings: Recent data have identified C. difficile, cytomegalovirus, and norovirus as important causes ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - June 25, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: INFECTIONS OF THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: Edited by Jose G. Montoya Source Type: research

A split G-quadruplex-based DNA nano-tweezers structure as a signal-transducing molecule for the homogeneous detection of specific nucleic acids.
Abstract A portable method of specific nucleic acid detection would be very useful for monitoring public health in a variety of settings for point-of-care and point-of-need testing. However, conventional methods for the detection of nucleic acids are not ideal for use in the field, as they require skilled operators and complex equipment. Here, we constructed a method for specific nucleic acid detection using a split G-quadruplex (Gq) structure that can recognize target nucleic acids without competitive reactions in a bimolecular reaction and directly produce a detectable signal based on peroxidase activity. We deve...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - June 25, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nakatsuka K, Shigeto H, Kuroda A, Funabashi H Tags: Biosens Bioelectron Source Type: research

Virucidal Efficacy of Treatment with Photodynamically Activated Curcumin on Murine Norovirus Bio-accumulated in Oysters
Norovirus (NoV), belongs to the family Caliciviridae, and causes the majority of human acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and sporadic cases worldwide [1,2]. Human NoV is transmitted mainly through the fecal-oral route, with infected food handlers thought to be the major source of food-borne NoV transmission [3]. NoV is also transmitted by consumption of shellfish harvested from contaminated aquaculture areas and exposure of fresh produce to contaminated irrigation water (either surface water or untreated wastewater) [4]. (Source: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy)
Source: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy - June 24, 2015 Category: Laser Surgery Authors: Juan Wu, Wei Hou, Binbin Cao, Tao Zuo, Changhu Xue, Albert Wingnang Leung, Chuanshan Xu, Qing-Juan Tang Source Type: research

14 Most Dangerous Summer Foods
This article originally appeared on Health.com. More from Health.com: 25 Fresh Corn Recipes for Summer 17 Easy Ways to Burn Calories This Summer 12 Reasons Dehydration Is Bad for Your Body -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post)
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - June 23, 2015 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Detection and Genetic Analysis of Noroviruses and Sapoviruses in Sea Snail
This study demonstrates that sea snail contains multiple genogroups and genotypes of NoV and SaV strains. We conclude that the sea snail presents a risk of gastroenteritis when consumed raw. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 23, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Healthcare workers' decision-making about transmission-based infection control precautions is improved by a guidance summary card
Conclusion There is a lack of knowledge about TBP among HCWs. This study demonstrates how an inexpensive TBP summary card is an effective mechanism for improving (i) point-of-care access to TBP guidance and (ii) decision-making about appropriate implementation of TBP. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - June 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Burden of gastroenteritis outbreaks: specific epidemiology in a cohort of institutions caring for dependent people
Conclusion Specific surveillance that takes into account the precise epidemiology needs to be developed in institutions caring for dependent people in order to improve infectious disease control and information for healthcare workers. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - June 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Physicochemical stability profile of Tulane virus —A human norovirus surrogate
ConclusionsTulane virus is likely a suitable surrogate to study HuNoV thermal stability as well as ethanol tolerance below 90%. Tulane virus also is a promising surrogate to study HuNoV pH stability and chlorine tolerance. Significance and ImpactBased on current work, in vitro studies demonstrate that TV is an overall more conservative and suitable surrogate for the study of HuNoV physicochemical propertiesThis article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - June 22, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sabastine E. Arthur, Kristen E. Gibson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Generation and Characterization of Nucleic Acid Aptamers Targeting the Capsid P Domain of a Human Norovirus GII.4 Strain
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015 Source:Journal of Biotechnology Author(s): Matthew D. Moore , Blanca I. Escudero-Abarca , Soo Hwan Suh , Lee-Ann Jaykus Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Significant antigenic diversity of NoV strains has limited the availability of broadly reactive ligands for design of detection assays. The purpose of this work was to produce and characterize single stranded (ss)DNA aptamers with binding specificity to human NoV using an easily produced NoV target—the P domain protein. Aptamer selection was done using SELEX (Systemat...
Source: Journal of Biotechnology - June 21, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Aichi Virus Positivity in HIV-1 Seropositive Children Hospitalized with Diarrheal Disease.
Abstract Aichi viruses (AiV) have been detected in patients with diarrheal diseases (DD). The aim of this study was to assess AiV infection rates in hospitalized children with DD, including 123 HIV-1 seropositive and 125 HIV-1 seronegative patients, in two public pediatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AiV was investigated by nested RT-PCR. The AiV-positive samples were also tested for specie A rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, enteric adenovirus and bocavirus in order to assess co-infections. AiV parcial genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. AiV were detected in 9/123 (7.32%) of the HI...
Source: Current HIV Research - June 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rodrigues Portes SA, Mello Volotao Ed, Rose TL, Rocha MS, Trindade Pinheiro Xavier Mda P, de Assis RM, Fialho AM, Rocha MS, Miagostovich MP, Gagliardi Leite JP, Carvalho-Costa FA Tags: Curr HIV Res Source Type: research

Incidence, Serogroups and Genotypes of Rotavirus and Norovirus Causing Acute Diarrhea and to Compare Their Disease Severity, Estimated From a Prospective Study in Mumbai, India
To study the incidence of Rotavirus and Norovirus diarrhea, their serogroups, genotypes and to compare disease severity between them. (Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology - June 19, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ahmar Shamim, Nimain Mohanty Tags: International Digestive Disease Forum, Hong Kong, 2015 Source Type: research