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'Cold plasma' kills off norovirus
Norovirus, the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the world, can be killed with "cold plasma", scientists report. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)
Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition - January 30, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Binding-Based RT-qPCR Assay to Assess Binding Patterns of Noroviruses to Shellfish
Abstract Outbreaks of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis are often associated with consumption of shellfish contaminated with human NoVs. Strong non-specific binding and specific binding between NoVs and histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) present in shellfish tissues may explain why depuration is ineffective. Recent studies on NoV-binding patterns in shellfish have examined the attachment of NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) to HBGAs present in shellfish using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). As NoVs are genetically diverse, it is not practical to produce a range of VLPs and specific antibodies for bind...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 29, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Nitazoxanide Is Effective Therapy for Norovirus Gastroenteritis after Chemotherapy and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)
We report our experience treating norovirus gastroenteritis occurring in 14 patients (pts) after (11) and prior (3) to HSCT with Nitazoxanide. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - January 24, 2015 Category: Hematology Authors: Joan Morris, Christopher Morris Tags: Supportive Care Source Type: research

Sources of Calicivirus Contamination in Foodborne Outbreaks in Denmark, 2005-2011--The Role of the Asymptomatic Food Handler
Conclusions Guidelines regarding exclusion of FHs where household members suffer from gastroenteritis could limit the number of outbreaks. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Franck, K. T., Lisby, M., Fonager, J., Schultz, A. C., Bottiger, B., Villif, A., Absalonsen, H., Ethelberg, S. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Advances in Laboratory Methods for Detection and Typing of Norovirus [Minireviews]
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis across all age groups. Although the disease is usually self-limiting, in the United States norovirus gastroenteritis causes an estimated 56,000 to 71,000 hospitalizations and 570 to 800 deaths each year. This minireview describes the latest data on laboratory methods (molecular, immunological) for norovirus detection, including real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and commercially available immunological assays as well as the latest FDA-cleared multi-gastrointestinal-pathogen platforms. In addition, an overview is provide...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - January 23, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vinje, J. Tags: Minireviews Source Type: research

First norovirus outbreaks associated with consumption of green seaweed ( Enteromorpha spp.) in South Korea
Research Articles J. H. PARK, H. S. JEONG, J. S. LEE, S. W. LEE, Y. H. CHOI, S. J. CHOI, I. S. JOO, Y. R. KIM, Y. K. PARK, S. K. YOUN, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 03, pp 515-521Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - January 20, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The spatial diffusion of norovirus epidemics over three seasons in Tokyo
Research Articles S. INAIDA, Y. SHOBUGAWA, S. MATSUNO, R. SAITO, H. SUZUKI, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 03, pp 522-528Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - January 20, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 378-393: Viral Etiologies of Acute Dehydrating Gastroenteritis in Pakistani Children: Confounding Role of Parechoviruses
This study was based on tertiary care hospital surveillance, from January 2009 to December 2010, including the detection of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and human parechovirus in children under the age of five using serological or molecular assays. Rotavirus, human parechovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus were detected in 66%, 21%, 19.5%, and 8.5% subjects, respectively. Human parechovirus genotypes, determined through analysis of VP1 gene sequences, showed a great diversity among co-circulating strains. Eighty percent of hospitalized children had dual or multiple viral infections, while 98% parechovirus positive cases...
Source: Viruses - January 20, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Muhammad AlamAdnan KhurshidShahzad ShaukatMuhammad RanaSalmaan SharifMehar AngezNadia NisarUzma AamirMuhammad NaeemSyed Zaidi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Norovirus-Associated Encephalitis in a Previously Healthy 2-Year-Old Girl
We describe the case of 2-year-old girl with encephalitis associated with norovirus infection. The viral genome was detected in cerebrospinal fluid and stool by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This is the first time in Spain and the second worldwide that the genome of norovirus from the stool sample and 2 cerebrospinal fluid samples were genetically characterized and matched. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - January 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Visitor restrictions at Midland Regional hospital over vomiting bug suspicions
Highly contagious: Norovirus symptoms include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea (Source: The Irish Times - Health)
Source: The Irish Times - Health - January 16, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Viral PCR positivity in stool prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is strongly associated with acute intestinal-GvHD
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) can be triggered by inflammatory conditions including infections and mucositis. We investigated the association between PCR-positivity for gastro intestinal (GI)-viruses in stool prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and intestinal aGvHD using Cox proportional hazard models.We included 48 consecutive HCT patients (28 malignancies, 20 non-malignancies) without GI-symptoms prior to HCT. 15 patients were GI-virus positive: 9 adenovirus, 3 norovirus, 2 parechovirus and 1 astrovirus. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - January 16, 2015 Category: Hematology Authors: Joris van Montfrans, Laura Schulz, Birgitta Versluys, Arianne de Wildt, Tom Wolfs, Marc Bierings, Corinne Gerhardt, Caroline Lindemans, Anne Wensing, Jaap Jan Boelens Source Type: research

Aetiology of acute paediatric gastroenteritis in Bulgaria during summer months: prevalence of the viral infections.
Abstract Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem.Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections.Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus.Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A ro...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mladenova Z, Steyer A, Steyer AF, Ganesh B, Petrov P, Tchervenjakova T, Iturriza-Gomara M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

An increasing prevalence of recombinant GII norovirus in pediatric patients with diarrhea during 2010-2013 in China.
Abstract Noroviruses are the primary cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans and are responsible for nearly half of gastroenteritis cases globally. The norovirus strain variants have been circulating in underdeveloped regions in western China, where pediatric diarrhea acts as the major public health concern. The study aims to identify the epidemic genotypes of norovirus and explore their genetic characteristics in Chongqing, China. By performing a hospital-based surveillance from 2010 to 2013, we identified a significant shift of the predominant Norovirus strains in recent 4years in the studied area. ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 16, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lu QB, Huang DD, Zhao J, Wang HY, Zhang XA, Xu HM, Qu F, Liu W, Cao WC Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

[Norovirus] Turning viral persistence on and off
Norovirus causes >90% of the world's gastroenteritis. Norovirus can establish persistent infections, which may contribute to its spread. How does norovirus establish itself as a – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)
Source: This Week in Science - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Kristen L. Mueller Tags: Norovirus Source Type: research

[Report] Commensal microbes and interferon-λ determine persistence of enteric murine norovirus infection
The capacity of human norovirus (NoV), which causes >90% of global epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis, to infect a subset of people persistently may contribute to its spread. How such enteric viruses establish persistent infections is not well understood. We found that antibiotics prevented persistent murine norovirus (MNoV) infection, an effect that was reversed by replenishment of the bacterial microbiota. Antibiotics did not prevent tissue infection or affect systemic viral replication but acted specifically in the intestine. The receptor for the antiviral cytokine interferon-λ, Ifnlr1, as well as the transcripti...
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Megan T. Baldridge Source Type: research

[Report] Interferon-λ cures persistent murine norovirus infection in the absence of adaptive immunity
We report here that although the cytokines interferon-α (IFN-α) and IFN-β prevented the systemic spread of murine norovirus (MNoV), only IFN-λ controlled persistent enteric infection. Infection-dependent induction of IFN-λ was governed by the MNoV capsid protein and correlated with diminished enteric persistence. Treatment of established infection with IFN-λ cured mice in a manner requiring nonhematopoietic cell expression of the IFN-λ receptor, Ifnlr1, and independent of adaptive immunity. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of IFN-λ for curing virus infections in the gastrointestinal tract. Authors: T...
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Timothy J. Nice Source Type: research

[This Week in Science] Turning viral persistence on and off
Author: Kristen L. Mueller (Source: Science: Current Issue)
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Kristen L. Mueller Tags: Norovirus Source Type: research

[Perspective] Interfering with interferons
Living organisms must resist viral infection. In mammals, both infected cells and innate immune cells release signals (cytokines) that program the infected cells for antiviral defense, as well as alert neighboring cells that trouble is afoot. These signals—exemplified by the type I (α and β), type II (γ), and type III (λ) interferons (IFNs)—control the mammalian response against the vast majority of viruses. The host's control of an enteric pathogen, rotavirus, requires type III IFNs (1, 2). On page 269 and 266 of this issue, Nice (3) and Baldridge (4), respectively, show that protection provided by λ IFNs is gene...
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Jessica Wilks Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Sequence Analysis of the Capsid Gene during a Genotype II.4 Dominated Norovirus Season in One University Hospital: Identification of Possible Transmission Routes
by Barbara Juliane Holzknecht, Kristina Træholt Franck, Rikke Thoft Nielsen, Blenda Böttiger, Thea Kølsen Fischer, Jannik Fonager Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and genotype II.4 (GII.4) is responsible for the majority of nosocomial NoV infections. Our objective was to examine whether sequencing of the capsid gene might be a useful tool for the hospital outbreak investigation to define possible transmission routes. All NoV positive samples submitted from one university hospital during the 2007/8 season were selected. Genotyping of selected samples by partial polymerase gene sequencing had shown t...
Source: PLoS One - January 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Barbara Juliane Holzknecht et al. Source Type: research

2014: The Year of the Virus
Ebola is now a dreaded household name. Everyone has heard of this virus, causing thousands of deaths in countries in Africa particularly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. We followed the plight of health care workers who put their lives on the line to battle the viral disease, trying to prevent the virus from spreading to the next host. But what about the Enterovirus D68? And what about Chlorovirus, Densovirus, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Ranavirus? (See Bullets below). Our understanding of the viral world is severely limited. Viruses are the most numerous and diverse entities on earth with estimates of 1.7 bi...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - January 13, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Cold plasma treatment cuts norovirus germs
Treating surfaces with cold atmospheric pressure plasma may reduce the risk of transmitting norovirus, a contagious virus leading to stomach pain, nausea and diarrhea, according to a new study. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - January 13, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Cold plasma treatment cuts norovirus germs
(American Society for Microbiology) Treating surfaces with cold atmospheric pressure plasma may reduce the risk of transmitting norovirus, a contagious virus leading to stomach pain, nausea and diarrhea, according to a new study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - January 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Possible treatments identified for highly contagious stomach virus
(Washington University School of Medicine) Antibiotics aren't supposed to be effective against viruses. But new evidence in mice suggests antibiotics may help fight norovirus, a highly contagious gastrointestinal virus, report scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The researchers found antibiotics could help prevent norovirus infections. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - January 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Strain-specific interaction of a GII.10 Norovirus with HBGAs.
In this study, we determined the saliva and oligosaccharide binding profiles of this virus and the roles of amino acids that are involved in HBGA binding. Our data showed that Vietnam 026 bound to all ABO secretor and non-secretor saliva with clear signals detected by monoclonal antibodies against H3, H1, Le(y), Le(a) and sialyl Le(a). Mutagenesis study confirmed the binding site determined by the crystallography study, in which single mutations wiped out the binding function. We also identified amino acids surrounding the central binding pocket that may participate in the binding by affecting the HBGA binding specificity ...
Source: Virology - January 12, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Jin M, Tan M, Xia M, Wei C, Huang P, Wang L, Zhong W, Duan Z, Jiang X Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Subgenomic promoter recognition by the norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases
The replication enzyme of RNA viruses must preferentially recognize their RNAs in an environment that contains an abundance of cellular RNAs. The factors responsible for specific RNA recognition are not well understood, in part because viral RNA synthesis takes place within enzyme complexes associated with modified cellular membrane compartments. Recombinant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) from the human norovirus and the murine norovirus (MNV) were found to preferentially recognize RNA segments that contain the promoter and a short template sequence for subgenomic RNA synthesis. Both the promoter and template sequen...
Source: Nucleic Acids Research - January 9, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Lin, X., Thorne, L., Jin, Z., Hammad, L. A., Li, S., Deval, J., Goodfellow, I. G., Kao, C. C. Tags: Nucleic Acid Enzymes Source Type: research

Developments in understanding acquired immunity and innate susceptibility to norovirus and rotavirus gastroenteritis in children
Purpose of reviewWe discuss recent advances in the understanding of acquired immunity and susceptibility to the two major pediatric enteric viral pathogens, norovirus and rotavirus. Recent findingsThe prominent decline in severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in areas with mature rotavirus vaccination programmes has correspondingly unmasked the significant burden of disease associated with norovirus gastroenteritis among children. As epidemiologists and vaccinologists set their sights on this next vaccine target, we provide an update on norovirus vaccine development.In addition to these developments regarding acquired immunity,...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - January 8, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND IMMUNIZATION: Edited by Robert S. Baltimore and Hal B. Jenson Source Type: research

Rapid and simultaneous detection of three major diarrhea-causing viruses by multiplex real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification
Abstract Rotaviruses, noroviruses and astroviruses are the major viral pathogens leading to diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks associated with these viruses have been impeded by the lack of methods for quick diagnosis and detection. In the current study, a multiplex real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (RT-NASBA) system was developed for the simultaneous detection of rotavirus A/norovirus genogroup II/astrovirus. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were compared with multiplex RT-PCR. The results showed that the multiplex RT-NASBA assay was established successfu...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 7, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus introduction routes into nursing homes and risk factors for spread: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2014 Source:Journal of Hospital Infection Author(s): M. Petrignani , J. van Beek , G. Borsboom , J.H. Richardus , M. Koopmans Norovirus causes substantial morbidity and mortality in nursing homes, with high attack rates in residents and staff. Immediate implementation of infection control measures is crucial. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for sources and modes of introduction of norovirus, and factors contributing to spread. A systematic review of the literature was performed, including peer-reviewed original studies on outbreaks confirmed by reverse tran...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - January 7, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Source identification of bacterial and viral pathogens and their survival/fading in the process of wastewater treatment, reclamation, and environmental reuse
Abstract Pathogenic safety is drawing wide concern in water reclamation and reuse. In order to elucidate survive/fade of pathogens during the processes of wastewater treatment and reclamation, general indicators (fecal coliform and Escherichia coli), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella and Shigella) and viruses (enterovirus, rotavirus and norovirus) were investigated in an A2O-MBR system. Attention was paid to their strengths from different sources, at various stages of the treatment, and in the product water. According to findings, black water was the main source for pathogens—at least 1–2-log higher in concentr...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 1, 2015 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Norovirus.
Abstract SUMMARY: Norovirus, an RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, is a human enteric pathogen that causes substantial morbidity across both health care and community settings. Several factors enhance the transmissibility of norovirus, including the small inoculum required to produce infection (<100 viral particles), prolonged viral shedding, and its ability to survive in the environment. In this review, we describe the basic virology and immunology of noroviruses, the clinical disease resulting from infection and its diagnosis and management, as well as host and pathogen factors that complicate vaccine deve...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - January 1, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Robilotti E, Deresinski S, Pinsky BA Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Inactivation of murine norovirus-1 and hepatitis A virus in the Korean traditional preserved raw crab product Ganjanggejang by soy sauce during storage
This study examined the effects of soy sauce containing different concentrations of NaCl (5, 10, 15, and 20%) on the survival of murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), which was used as a human NV surrogate, and HAV in experimentally contaminated raw crabs during 5 d of storage at 10 °C. Both MNV-1 and HAV titers and decimal reduction times (D-values) significantly (P &lt; 0.05) decreased with stepwise increases in the NaCl concentration of soy sauce and storage time. The overall reductions in MNV-1 and HAV titers in Ganjanggejang marinated in soy sauce containing 20%, 15%, 10%, and 5% NaCl were 0.98 and 1.09, 0.81 and 0.88,...
Source: Food Control - December 31, 2014 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Affinities of human histo-blood group antigens for norovirus capsid protein complexes
The binding profiles of many human noroviruses (huNoVs) for human histo-blood group antigens have been characterized. However, quantitative-binding data for these important virus–host interactions are lacking. Here, we report on the intrinsic (per binding site) affinities of HBGA oligosaccharides for the huNoV VA387 virus-like particles (VLPs) and the associated subviral P particles measured using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The affinities of 13 HBGA oligosaccharides, containing A, B and H epitopes, with variable sizes (disaccharide to tetrasaccharide) and different precursor chain types (types 1, 2, 3...
Source: Glycobiology - December 24, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: Han, L., Kitova, E. N., Tan, M., Jiang, X., Pluvinage, B., Boraston, A. B., Klassen, J. S. Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Effect of UV Light on the Inactivation of Recombinant Human Adenovirus and Murine Norovirus Seeded in Seawater in Shellfish Depuration Tanks
Abstract Shellfish depuration is a process that aims to eliminate pathogens from mollusk tissues. Seawater disinfection during the depuration process is important and ultraviolet (UV) light treatment is the most used method worldwide. Viral models are usually employed as surrogates of fastidious viruses in viability studies. The aim of this study was to employ methods based on green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence and plaque forming units to detect, respectively, recombinant adenovirus (rAdV–GFP) and murine norovirus (MNV) artificially seeded in environmental matrices. These assays were applied to assess ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - December 21, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Heat Inactivation of a Norovirus Surrogate in Cell Culture Lysate, Abalone Meat, and Abalone Viscera
This study suggests that 100 °C for ≥0.5 min could potentially be used to inactivate NoV in molluscan shellfishes, including viscera. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - December 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Comparison of Methods for Evaluating the Thermal Stability of Human Enteric Viruses
Abstract Human enteric viruses have been identified as one of the predominant causative agents of food-borne illnesses in developed countries, and it is estimated that human norovirus accounts for a majority of these illnesses each year. Not all of these viruses can be cultured and hence relatively little is known about their pathogenesis and physicochemical properties. To overcome this, researchers have utilized different virus surrogates for the study of non-cultivable human enteric viruses. In this review, we discuss various methods utilized for the evaluation of the thermal stability of human enteric viruses, ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - December 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Gastroenteritis Attributable to 16 Enteropathogens in Children Attending Day Care: Significant Effects of Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia
Conclusions:We demonstrate that circulating viruses and parasites, rather than bacteria, contribute to seasonal GE experienced by children in day care. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - December 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Microbiological survey of mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan.
Authors: Hayashimoto N, Morita H, Ishida T, Uchida R, Tanaka M, Ozawa M, Yasuda M, Itoh T Abstract Information regarding the prevalence of infectious agents in mice in pet shops in Japan is scarce. This information is particularly useful for minimizing the risk of potential transmission of infections to laboratory mice. Therefore, we surveyed infectious agents in mice from pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan. The survey was conducted in 28 mice from 5 pet shops to screen for 47 items (17 viruses, 22 bacteria and fungi, 10 parasites) using culture tests, serology, PCR, and microscopy. The most common viral agent ...
Source: Experimental Animals - December 18, 2014 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Emergence of Norovirus GI.2 Outbreaks in Military Camps in Singapore
Highlights (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ho Zheng Jie Marc, Vithia Gunalan, Ng Ching Ging, Maurer-Stroh Sebastian, Clive M Tan, Jimmy Loh, Lin Tzer Pin Raymond, Lee Jian Ming Vernon Source Type: research

Norovirus in Healthcare SettingsNorovirus in Healthcare Settings
Norovirus outbreaks are common in many health care settings and may lead to long-term sequelae. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - December 17, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases Journal Article Source Type: news

Prophylactic treatment with the nucleoside analogue 2'-C-methylcytidine completely prevents transmission of norovirus
Conclusions These findings constitute an important first step towards developing an efficient prophylaxis for the control of norovirus outbreaks. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - December 16, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rocha-Pereira, J., Jochmans, D., Neyts, J. Tags: Original research Source Type: research

A high-throughput drop microfluidic system for virus culture and analysis.
Abstract High mutation rates and short replication times lead to rapid evolution in RNA viruses. New tools for high-throughput culture and analysis of viral phenotypes will enable more effective studies of viral evolutionary processes. A water-in-oil drop microfluidic system to study virus-cell interactions at the single event level on a massively parallel scale is described here. Murine norovirus (MNV-1) particles were co-encapsulated with individual RAW 264.7 cells in 65pL aqueous drops formed by flow focusing in 50μm microchannels. At low multiplicity of infection (MOI), viral titers increased greatly, reaching...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - December 16, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Fischer AE, Wu SK, Proescher JB, Rotem A, Chang CB, Zhang H, Tao Y, Mehoke TS, Thielen PM, Kolawole AO, Smith TJ, Wobus CE, Weitz DA, Lin JS, Feldman AB, Wolfe JT Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Norovirus and Rotavirus infection in children aged less than five years in a paediatric hospital, Havana, Cuba
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2014 Source:The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases Author(s): María de los Angeles Ribas , Yuselis Castaño , Marlon Daniel Martínez , Yahisel Tejero , Yanislet Cordero (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 15, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Norovirus and Rotavirus infection in children aged less than five years in a paediatric hospital, Havana, Cuba.
PMID: 25523074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - December 15, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Los Angeles Ribas M, Castaño Y, Martínez MD, Tejero Y, Cordero Y Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A decade of norovirus genetic diversity in Belgium.
This study shows a high frequency and genetic diversity of norovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis in health care facilities in Flanders, Belgium. PMID: 25497349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - December 10, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wollants E, De Coster S, Van Ranst M, Maes P Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Development of Lactobacillus paracasei harboring nucleic acid-hydrolyzing 3D8 scFv as a preventive probiotic against murine norovirus infection.
Abstract The protein 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (3D8 scFv) has potential anti-viral activity due to its ability to penetrate into cells and hydrolyze nucleic acids. Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei engineered to secrete 3D8 scFv for oral administration was used to test the anti-viral effects of 3D8 scFv against gastrointestinal virus infections. We found that injection of 3D8 scFv into the intestinal lumen resulted in the penetration of 3D8 scFv into the intestinal villi and lamina propria. 3D8 scFv secreted from engineered L. paracasei retained its cell-penetrating and nucleic acid-hydrolyzing activities,...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - December 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hoang PM, Cho S, Kim KE, Byun SJ, Lee TK, Lee S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses detected in Nepalese children with acute diarrhea between 2005 and 2011: Increase and predominance of minor genotype GII.13.
Abstract Noroviruses, an important cause of acute gastroenteritis, possess a highly divergent genome which was classified into five genogroups and dozens of genotypes. However, changes in genotype distribution over time were poorly understood, particularly in developing countries. We therefore conducted a molecular epidemiological study which characterized the norovirus strains detected in 4437 Nepalese children with acute diarrhea between November 2005 and January 2011 to gain insight into how their genotypes changed over time. Of the 356 samples positive for noroviruses, 277 (78%) were successfully genotyped into...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - December 9, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hoa-Tran TN, Nakagomi T, Sano D, Sherchand JB, Pandey BD, Cunliffe NA, Nakagomi O Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Norovirus outbreak sickens cruise ship passengers
About 200 passengers leaving from Australia came down with the gastrointestinal illness and were isolated once diagnosed (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - December 8, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

High prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses among children with sporadic acute gastroenteritis in Nanning City, China, 2010–2011
A molecular epidemiological study of Norovirus (NoV) infections in children aged <5 years was conducted in the outpatient department of a hospital between January 2010 and December 2011 in Nanning City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. Fecal samples were collected from 354 pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis, and were screened for the presence of NoV with one‐step real‐time reverse‐transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR). NoV genogroup II (GII) was detected in 28.5% (101/342) of samples, but no NoV GI was found. Eighty‐four of the NoV GII strains were successfully sequenced, and th...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - December 8, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Tan Dongmei, Deng Lili, Wang Mingliu, Li Xiugui, Ma Yuyan, Liu Wei Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Autophagy and checkpoints for intracellular pathogen defense
Purpose of review: Autophagy plays a crucial role in intracellular defense against various pathogens. Xenophagy is a form of selective autophagy that targets intracellular pathogens for degradation. In addition, several related, yet distinct, intracellular defense responses depend on autophagy-related genes. This review gives an overview of these processes, pathogen strategies to subvert them, and their crosstalk with various cell death programs. Recent findings: The recruitment of autophagy-related proteins plays a key role in multiple intracellular defense programs, specifically xenophagy, microtubule-associated protein ...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Mitchell B. Cohen Source Type: research

Primary school closes after 150 pupils get norovirus
150 pupils and 14 teachers catch winter vomiting bug, leading the school to close its doors for a week (Source: Telegraph Health)
Source: Telegraph Health - December 3, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news