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Kansas confirms one norovirus case related to Buffalo Wild Wings
(Reuters) - One positive case of norovirus related to an investigation at restaurant chain operator Buffalo Wild Wings Inc has been confirmed, the Kansas health department's Johnson County office said on Friday. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - February 5, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

Increase in Norovirus Activity in New HampshireIncrease in Norovirus Activity in New Hampshire
With 16 reports of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in institutional settings, 7 outbreaks reported in the last week alone, the state is recommending policies for the prevention of norovirus outbreaks. State Health Alerts (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - February 5, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: News Source Type: news

18 Sickened By GI Illness At 2 Boston Schools
BOSTON (CBS)  — More than a dozen people from two Boston area schools have been sickened by a gastrointestinal illness, the Boston Public Health Commission confirmed Thursday. The agency says 14 cases of the illness were confirmed at UP Academy in Dorchester, and four cases were at Young Achievers School in Mattapan. These cases are not unusual this time of the year, the commission’s communication director Ché Knight told WBZ-TV. The norovirus-like illness is typically caused by contact with stool or vomit from an infected individual. Inspectors have been sent to the schools as a precaution to disinfect...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - February 4, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: larasalahi Tags: Health Local News Syndicated Local CBS Boston WBZ Source Type: news

Molecular detection and characterization of noroviruses in river water in Thailand
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) generally exists as a mixture of multiple genotype variants in nature. However, there has been no published report monitoring NoV in natural settings in Thailand. To obtain information on mixed presence of the NoV RNA genome, we conducted viral genome analysis of 15 water specimens collected from five sites in a river near Bangkok between August 2013 and August 2014. The number of viral RNA copies per specimen declined progressively from the most upstream to the most downstream site. Following direct nucleotide sequencing of the PCR products, we obtained three partial genome sequences of the NoV GI...
Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology - February 4, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: K. Inoue, K. Motomura, M. Boonchan, N. Takeda, K. Ruchusatsawa, R. Guntapong, R. Tacharoenmuang, S. Sangkitporn, S. Chantaroj Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Chipotle's sales outlook uncertain as it recovers from E.coli
(Reuters) - Chipotle Mexican Grill Inc's plans to spend heavily on marketing and food safety after a spate of E.coli and norovirus outbreaks will help the burrito chain regain its popularity, analysts said, but it's anyone's guess when sales will recover. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - February 3, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

Norovirus outbreak grows to more than 600
As New Theatre Restaurant tries to contain the spread of a norovirus outbreak, health officials said that more than 600 possible cases have been reported. The Kansas Department of Health and Environment has been investigating illnesses that appear to have resulted from attending the Overland Park dinner theater at 9229 Foster St. The KDHE has been asking anyone who had been at the theater since Jan. 15 to take an online survey at: http://tinyurl.com/newtheatre2016 Early reports indicated that… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - February 2, 2016 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Teenage girl dies of Toxic Shock Syndrome after doctors mistook illness for Norovirus
(NaturalNews) Though rare, toxic shock syndrome is not unheard of. It primarily affects young menstruating women, unaware of the hidden dangers of using tampons. Sometimes fatal, TSS is an infection caused by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, which can begin to colonize, reaching... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - February 2, 2016 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Quality Improvement Initiative Reduces Norovirus Outbreaks.
PMID: 26817561 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Nursing)
Source: The American Journal of Nursing - January 30, 2016 Category: Nursing Authors: Rosenberg K Tags: Am J Nurs Source Type: research

Quality Improvement Initiative Reduces Norovirus Outbreaks
According to this study: * A multidimensional quality improvement initiative focused on the early identification and treatment of norovirus-like symptoms virtually eliminated outbreaks of hospital-acquired norovirus infection. * Prompt identification of index patients is crucial to preventing outbreaks. (Source: AJN)
Source: AJN - January 30, 2016 Category: Nursing Tags: Journal Watch Source Type: research

Norovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals: Cytokines and viral shedding
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - January 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kira L Newman, Christine L Moe, Amy E Kirby, W Dana Flanders, Charles A Parkos, Juan S Leon Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Nearly 400 people ill after attending Kansas dinner theater
KANSAS CITY, Missouri (Reuters) - Nearly 400 people have reported feeling ill after recently dining at a suburban Kansas City dinner theater, with some testing positive for norovirus, health officials said on Thursday. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - January 29, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

Resolution of diarrhea in an immunocompromised patient with chronic norovirus gastroenteritis correlates with constitution of specific antibody blockade titer
We present a case of chronic norovirus disease during rituximab-bendamustine chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. We show for the first time a correlation between norovirus strain-specific antibody blockade titers and symptom improvement in an immunocompromised host. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - January 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Norovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals: Cytokines and viral shedding.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26822517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - January 29, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Newman KL, Moe CL, Kirby AE, Flanders WD, Parkos CA, Leon JS Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Evaluation of immunochromatographic tests for the rapid detection of the emerging GII.17 norovirus in stool samples, January 2016
A novel GII.17 norovirus emerged in Asia in the winter of 2014/15. A worldwide spread is conceivable and norovirus diagnostic assays need to be evaluated to investigate if they adequately detect this emerging genotype. Seven immunochromatographic kits commercially available in Europe were evaluated on ten stool samples where GII.17 virus had been quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. All the kits detected GII.17 with various sensitivities, partly depending on the virus titre. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Wide-spectrum activity of a silver-impregnated fabric
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016 Source:American Journal of Infection Control Author(s): Charles P. Gerba, Laura Y. Sifuentes, Gerardo U. Lopez, Sherif Abd-Elmaksoud, Jesse Calabrese, Benjamin Tanner Fabrics, such as clothing, drapes, pillowcases, and bedsheets are potential sources of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. We found fabrics (ie, professional clothing, pillowcases, and lab coats) treated with a silver-impregnated material to be effective in significantly reducing a wide spectrum of ordinary and drug-resistant microorganisms, including Salmonella, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aure...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Metagenomic Approach for Identification of the Pathogens Associated with Diarrhea in Stool Specimens [Bacteriology]
The potential to rapidly capture the entire microbial community structure and/or gene content makes metagenomic sequencing an attractive tool for pathogen identification and the detection of resistance/virulence genes in clinical settings. Here, we assessed the consistency between PCR from a diagnostic laboratory, quantitative PCR (qPCR) from a research laboratory, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) for Clostridium difficile identification in diarrhea stool samples. Twenty-two C. difficile-positive diarrhea samples identified by PCR and qPCR and five C. difficile-negative diarrhea controls w...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - January 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhou, Y., Wylie, K. M., El Feghaly, R. E., Mihindukulasuriya, K. A., Elward, A., Haslam, D. B., Storch, G. A., Weinstock, G. M. Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

An Improved One-Step Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for Detection of Norovirus [Letters To The Editor]
(Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - January 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Glowacka, I., Harste, G., Witthuhn, J., Heim, A. Tags: Letters To The Editor Source Type: research

QMRA for Drinking Water: 2. The Effect of Pathogen Clustering in Single‐Hit Dose‐Response Models
Spatial and/or temporal clustering of pathogens will invalidate the commonly used assumption of Poisson‐distributed pathogen counts (doses) in quantitative microbial risk assessment. In this work, the theoretically predicted effect of spatial clustering in conventional “single‐hit” dose‐response models is investigated by employing the stuttering Poisson distribution, a very general family of count distributions that naturally models pathogen clustering and contains the Poisson and negative binomial distributions as special cases. The analysis is facilitated by formulating the dose‐response models in terms of pr...
Source: Risk Analysis - January 26, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Vegard Nilsen, John Wyller Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Norovirus and the anatomy of a scientific discovery
The process of scientific discovery is far from mysterious, even if it is often more convoluted than you might imagine“A virus,” wrote the celebrated immunologist Peter Medawar, “is a piece of bad news wrapped in protein.”The bad news from norovirus, one of the main preoccupations of my research group, is that you will soon be scuttling to the toilet for two days of misery. Its other name – winter vomiting bug – doesn’t do this tiny pathogen justice because, as well as throwing up, you will have to endure a prolonged dose of diaorrhea. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - January 24, 2016 Category: Science Authors: Stephen Curry Tags: Science Source Type: news

Establishment of a novel method without sequence modification for developing NoV P particle-based chimeric vaccines
In conclusion, we have successfully established a novel method for preparing vaccines based on the NoV PP which would not affect PP sequence and function. (Source: Protein Expression and Purification)
Source: Protein Expression and Purification - January 24, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

This Food Safety Expert Says Chipotle Is 'Focused On Bulls**t'
It’s been six months since the start of Chipotle’s food safety crisis -- a series of six outbreaks that have sickened at least 500 people. The company has apologized for the outbreaks of norovirus and E. coli, tweaked its cooking methods and announced that it will temporarily close all its stores for a companywide food safety meeting on Feb. 8. But with an investigation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention still underway, it appears the company still hasn't identified the source of the contamination. Chipotle spokesman Chris Arnold pointed The Huffington Post to a Jan. 19 press relea...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - January 22, 2016 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Test and validation of methods to sample and detect human virus from environmental surfaces using norovirus as a model virus
Conclusion The results indicate that it is possible to detect low concentrations of virus on environmental surfaces. We therefore suggest that a polyester swab, followed by direct lysis, combined with a multiplex qPCR detection assay is an efficient screening tool that merits study of different respiratory and gastrointestinal viruses on environment surfaces. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - January 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

HiberGene Closes First Tranche of Series B Financing
€1.5 Million Raised from Private Investors DUBLIN--(Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network)--HiberGene Diagnostics, a company focused on the application of molecular technology to infectious disease testing, has raised a first tranche of €1.5 million as p... Diagnostics, Venture CapitalHiberGene Diagnostics, Streptococcus, Clostridium difficile, Norovirus (Source: HSMN NewsFeed)
Source: HSMN NewsFeed - January 19, 2016 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Norovirus molecular detection in Uruguayan sewage samples reveals a high genetic diversity and GII.4 variant replacement along time
ConclusionThis study reveals a high circulation of different NoV GI and GII genotypes in sewage evidencing a replacement of GII.4 variants. Significance and Impact of StudyThis approach can be used as an indicator of the presence of a new GII.4 variant which can originate an increase of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - January 19, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: M Victoria, L F L Tort, A Lizasoain, M García, M Castells, M Berois, M Divizia, J P G Leite, M P Miagostovich, J Cristina, R Colina Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Content analysis of web-based norovirus education materials targeting consumers who handle food: An assessment of alignment and readability
Publication date: July 2016 Source:Food Control, Volume 65 Author(s): Hillary Evans, Morgan G. Chao, Cortney M. Leone, Michael Finney, Angela Fraser Human noroviruses sicken 19–21 million people in the U.S. each year, suggesting the need for education. The World Wide Web is an accessible source of information about how to prevent a norovirus infection but the accuracy and readability of information targeting consumers is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the alignment and readability of web-based norovirus education materials targeting consumers using CDC evidence-based guidelines and Microsoft Word re...
Source: Food Control - January 19, 2016 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Infection models of human norovirus: challenges and recent progress
Abstract Human norovirus (hNoV) infections cause acute gastroenteritis, accounting for millions of disease cases and more than 200,000 deaths annually. However, the lack of in vitro infection models and robust small-animal models has posed barriers to the development of virus-specific therapies and preventive vaccines. Promising recent progress in the development of a norovirus infection model is reviewed in this article, as well as attempts and efforts made since the discovery of hNoV more than 40 years ago. Because suitable experimental animal models for human norovirus are lacking, attractive alternatives are ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 18, 2016 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viruses Surveillance Under Different Season Scenarios of the Negro River Basin, Amazonia, Brazil
Abstract The Negro River is located in the Amazon basin, the largest hydrological catchment in the world. Its water is used for drinking, domestic activities, recreation and transportation and water quality is significantly affected by anthropogenic impacts. The goals of this study were to determine the presence and concentrations of the main viral etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis, such as group A rotavirus (RVA) and genogroup II norovirus (NoV GII), and to assess the use of human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) as viral indicators of human faecal contamination in the aquatic environment o...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 18, 2016 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development of single-tube nested real-time PCR assays with long internally quenched probes for detection of norovirus genogroup II.
Abstract The high sequence variation of RNA viruses necessitates use of degenerate primers and probes or multiple primers and probes in molecular diagnostic assays. We showed previously that PCR amplification in two rounds, first with long target-specific primers and then with short generic primers, followed by detection using long probes, can tolerate sequence variation. Here we demonstrate that long primers and probes of up to 56 nucleotides can also be applied in real-time PCR for the detection of norovirus genogroup II with improved sensitivity. Probe design (method of incorporating quenchers, use of Zen intern...
Source: BioTechniques - January 16, 2016 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xia H, Gravelsina S, Öhrmalm C, Ottoson J, Blomberg J Tags: Biotechniques Source Type: research

Acute Gastroenteritis on Cruise Ships - United States, 2008-2014.
Abstract From 1990 to 2004, the reported rates of diarrheal disease (three or more loose stools or a greater than normal frequency in a 24-hour period) on cruise ships decreased 2.4%, from 29.2 cases per 100,000 travel days to 28.5 cases (1,2). Increased rates of acute gastroenteritis illness (diarrhea or vomiting that is associated with loose stools, bloody stools, abdominal cramps, headache, muscle aches, or fever) occurred in years that novel strains of norovirus, the most common etiologic agent in cruise ship outbreaks, emerged (3). To determine recent rates of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships, CDC analyze...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - January 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Freeland AL, Vaughan GH, Banerjee SN Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Fewer Cruises Rocked by Gastro Illness Outbreaks
Vacation fun dampened on less than 1 percent of voyages, report finds Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Gastroenteritis, Norovirus Infections, Traveler's Health (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - January 14, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of childhood gastroenteritis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - January 13, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Yoshiki Kawamura, Kensei Gotoh, Nao Takeuchi, Hiroki Miura, Naoko Nishimura, Takao Ozaki, Tetsushi Yoshikawa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Preventing and controlling human noroviruses in South Carolina long-term care facilities: An analysis of institutional policies and procedures
Conclusion Most LTC policies and procedures were not consistent with CDC recommendations for HuNoV. Moreover, readability of all procedures is needed so LTC workers can easily understand and implement prevention and control procedures. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - January 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Acceptability of temporary suspension of visiting during norovirus outbreaks: investigating patient, visitor and public opinion
Conclusions There is greater service user and public support for the use of TSV than concerns around impinging upon patients’ rights to have visitors. TSV should be considered as an acceptable infection control measure that could be implemented consistently during norovirus outbreaks. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - January 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Direct sequencing and analysis of the genomes of newly emerging GII.17 norovirus strains in South China
ConclusionsBased on the new amplification strategy, a quick and sensitive method for direct sequencing of GII.17 norovirus genomes was successfully established. Significance and Impact of the StudyThe newly developed method can be used as an important tool to collect genetic information of GII.17 noroviruses, and new obtained viral genomes in Guangzhou also provide reference data for norovirus research in future.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - January 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liang Xue, Weicheng Cai, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Weipeng Guo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The efficacy of X-ray doses on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi, and tuna salad
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Food Control, Volume 64 Author(s): Yuwei Wu, Sam Chang, Ramakrishna Nannapaneni, Randy Coker, Zee Haque, Barakat S.M. Mahmoud In this investigation, we determined the efficacy of X-ray doses on reducing a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate [murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1)] in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna salad. The pure culture (phosphate-buffer saline, pH 7.4), half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna salad were inoculated with propagated MNV-1 virus stock solution. Half-shell oyster, tuna salad, and salmon sushi samples were then air-dried at 22 °C for 30 ...
Source: Food Control - January 11, 2016 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

How To Avoid Restaurant Food Poisoning: Lessons From Recent Norovirus Outbreaks
As with the recent norovirus outbreaks, whatever claims that a restaurant may make about its food being organic, locally sourced, or from animals that were naturally raised, treated well, unstressed, did yoga, etc. have little to do with the risk of food poisoning. So how do you avoid food poisoning from a restaurant? (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - January 9, 2016 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Bruce Y. Lee Source Type: news

Optimization of Norovirus Virus‐Like Particle Production in Pichia Pastoris Using a Real‐Time Near‐Infrared Bioprocess Monitor
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Biotechnology Progress)
Source: Biotechnology Progress - January 9, 2016 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stephanie A. Parker, Mitchell H. Maloy, Jaime Tome‐Amat, Cameron L. Bardliving, Kaylee J. Lanz, Jonathon T. Olesberg, Mark A. Arnold, Carl A. Batt Tags: Process Sensing and Control Source Type: research

A trivalent vaccine candidate against hepatitis E virus, norovirus, and astrovirus.
We report here our development of a trivalent vaccine against the three viral pathogens through our new polymer vaccine technology. All HEV, NoV, and AstV are non-enveloped RNA viruses covered by a protein capsid, featuring surface protruding (P) proteins that are responsible for virus-host interaction. These dimeric P proteins elicit neutralizing antibody and are good targets for subunit vaccine development. The trivalent subunit vaccine was developed by fusion of the dimeric P domains of the three viruses together that formed tetramers. This trivalent vaccine elicited significantly higher antibody responses in mice again...
Source: Vaccine - January 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xia M, Wei C, Wang L, Cao D, Meng XJ, Jiang X, Tan M Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Norovirus in 2016--Emesis Aplenty but Clear Signs of Progress
The key theme emerging from the articles in this supplement is that burden of norovirus in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is substantial and that new tools for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are required. Basic understanding of norovirus biology continues to accelerate, but parallel increases in capacity and research funding are going to be needed to translate this knowledge into clinical trials and translational research that can result in public health gains. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Head, M. G., Lopman, B. A. Tags: NOROVIRUS IN 2016 Source Type: research

Mapping Investments and Published Outputs in Norovirus Research: A Systematic Analysis of Research Funded in the United States and United Kingdom During 1997-2013
Conclusions. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Head, M. G., Fitchett, J. R., Lichtman, A. B., Soyode, D. T., Harris, J. N., Atun, R. Tags: NOROVIRUS IN 2016 Source Type: research

Norovirus Surveillance: An Epidemiological Perspective
Surveillance for norovirus is challenging because the nature of illness due to norovirus is such that the majority of people who are infected will not have any contact with medical services and are highly unlikely to have a sample collected for diagnosis. Public health advice urges people to not visit hospitals or their family physicians, to prevent the risk further spread. The recognition of the importance of this pathogen was quickly established following the introduction of surveillance of outbreaks of gastrointestinal infection in England and Wales in 1992. This period saw >1800 outbreaks of norovirus infection repo...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Harris, J. P. Tags: NOROVIRUS IN 2016 Source Type: research

Role of the Hospital Environment in Norovirus Containment
Norovirus is an important cause of gastroenteritis in healthcare settings; these infections occur frequently, are highly contagious, and can be difficult to control. Norovirus outbreaks were investigated during a 3-month enhanced surveillance period from 1 February to 30 April 2015 in 6 London, United Kingdom, hospitals (coded A–E). During this surveillance period, 1379 stool samples were tested for the presence of norovirus. Of these, 129 (9.4%) demonstrated the presence of norovirus RNA. Two of these hospitals (A and D) reported 0 outbreaks, 2 (hospitals C and F) reported 1 outbreak, 1 hospital (B) reported 2 outbr...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cummins, M., Ready, D. Tags: NOROVIRUS IN 2016 Source Type: research

Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom
This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: O'Brien, S. J., Donaldson, A. L., Iturriza-Gomara, M., Tam, C. C. Tags: NOROVIRUS IN 2016 Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of Ward Closure to Control Outbreaks of Norovirus Infection in United Kingdom National Health Service Hospitals
Conclusions. Ward closure may be cost-effective, particularly if targeted to high-throughput units. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sadique, Z., Lopman, B., Cooper, B. S., Edmunds, W. J. Tags: NOROVIRUS IN 2016 Source Type: research

Advances Toward a Norovirus Antiviral: From Classical Inhibitors to Lethal Mutagenesis
Human noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, yet there are no licensed antivirals. There is an urgent need for norovirus therapeutics, particularly for chronic infections in immunocompromised individuals, but also a potential need for prophylactic use in epidemics. Continued research has led to the identification of compounds that inhibit norovirus replication in vitro and, at least in some cases, are also effective in vivo against murine norovirus. Progress has included classical approaches targeting viral proteins and harnessing the antiviral action of interferon, strategies targeting essential hos...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Thorne, L., Arias, A., Goodfellow, I. Tags: NOROVIRUS IN 2016 Source Type: research

Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic
Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus, highlighting the urgent need to introduce the rotavirus vaccine within the CAR’s Expanded Program on Immunization. The development of new medicines, vaccines and rapid diagnostic tests that can be conducted at the bedside should be high priority for low-resource countries. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 5, 2016 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sébastien Breurec et al. Source Type: research

Comparative genome analysis of a norovirus GII.4 strain GZ2013-L10 isolated from South China
In this study, the genome sequence of a norovirus GII.4 strain isolated from South China was comparatively analyzed. The RNA genome of the strain GZ2013-L10 was composed of 7513 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses based on three ORFs confirmed its genotype as GII.Pe/GII.4-2012. Compared with other 22 genomes of the same variant, nine distinct nucleotide substitutions were found in the new genome, which resulted in three amino acid changes. All 138 capsid protein VP1 sequences of GII.4-2012 variants were also collected, and multiple alignments revealed 35 variable codons. Evolutionary analyses of GII.4-2012 variants were per...
Source: Virus Genes - January 4, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Multicenter Evaluation of the Xpert Norovirus Assay for Detection of Norovirus Genogroups I and II in Fecal Specimens [Virology]
In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Xpert Norovirus assay with both fresh, prospectively collected (n = 914) and frozen, archived (n = 489) fecal specimens. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) composite reference method was used as the gold standard for comparison. For both prospective and frozen specimens, the Xpert Norovirus assay showed positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) values of 98.3% and 98.1% for GI and of 99.4% and 98.2% for GII, respectively. Norovirus prevalence in the prospective specimens (collected from March to May of 2014) was 9.9% (n = 90), wi...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - December 30, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gonzalez, M. D., Langley, L. C., Buchan, B. W., Faron, M. L., Maier, M., Templeton, K., Walker, K., Popowitch, E. B., Miller, M. B., Rao, A., Liebert, U. G., Ledeboer, N. A., Vinje, J., Burnham, C.-A. D. Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Boston Health Inspector Eats at Chipotle After Norovirus Outbreak
A norovius outbreak infected dozens earlier this month. (Source: ABC News: Health)
Source: ABC News: Health - December 29, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news