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An outbreak of acute norovirus gastroenteritis in a boarding school in Shanghai: a retrospective cohort study
Conclusion: The study detected that the outbreak was caused by Norovirus and should be controlled by thorough disinfection and excluding asymptomatic food handlers from food preparation. Early identification of the predominant mode of transmission in this outbreak was necessary to prevent new cases. Furthermore, good hygiene practices such as regular hand washing and efficient daily disinfection should be promoted to prevent such infection and outbreaks. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - October 22, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Caoyi XueYifei FuWeiping ZhuYi FeiLinying ZhuHong ZhangLifeng PanHongmei XuYong WangWenqin WangQiao Sun Source Type: research

Flu Drug Aimed at Ebola May Also Fight Norovirus, Study FindsFlu Drug Aimed at Ebola May Also Fight Norovirus, Study Finds
An experimental Japanese flu drug that has hit the headlines because of its potential to fight Ebola may also work against norovirus, the winter vomiting bug, British researchers said. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - October 21, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news

Norovirus stomach bug: Scientists take step towards drug to treat
An experimental drug currently being trialled for influenza and Ebola viruses could have a new target: norovirus, often known as the winter vomiting virus. A team of researchers has shown that the drug, favipiravir, is effective at reducing -- and in some cases eliminating -- norovirus infection in mice. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - October 21, 2014 Category: Science Source Type: news

Flu drug aimed at Ebola may also fight norovirus, study finds
LONDON (Reuters) - An experimental Japanese flu drug that has hit the headlines because of its potential to fight Ebola may also work against norovirus, the winter vomiting bug, British researchers said on Tuesday. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - October 21, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

Scientists take step towards drug to treat norovirus stomach bug
(University of Cambridge) An experimental drug currently being trialled for influenza and Ebola viruses could have a new target: norovirus, often known as the winter vomiting virus. A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has shown that the drug, favipiravir, is effective at reducing -- and in some cases eliminating -- norovirus infection in mice. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 21, 2014 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Diarrhea After Kidney Transplantation: A New Look at a Frequent Symptom
Diarrhea is a frequent but overlooked complication of kidney transplantation. Diarrhea is repeatedly neglected, often considered by patients and clinicians an unavoidable side effect of immunosuppressive regimens. It is, however, associated with a significant impairment in life quality. Severe and chronic posttransplant diarrhea may lead to dehydration, malabsorption, rehospitalization, immunosuppression, noncompliance, and a greater risk of graft loss and death. There is thus a need to optimize and standardize the management of posttransplant diarrhea with consistent diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A recent study h...
Source: Transplantation - October 16, 2014 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Editorials and Perspectives: Overview Source Type: research

The molecular pathology of noroviruses
Abstract Norovirus infection in humans typically results in acute gastroenteritis but may also occur in many animal species. They are recognized as one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis in the world, being responsible for almost 20% of all cases. Despite their prevalence and impact, our knowledge of the norovirus life cycle and the pathological processes associated with norovirus‐induced disease are limited. Whilst infection of the intestine is the norm, extraintestinal spread and associated pathologies have also been described. In addition, long‐term chronic infections are now recognized as a signific...
Source: The Journal of Pathology - October 14, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Stephanie M. Karst, Shu Zhu, Ian G. Goodfellow Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.
Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of d...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 14, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Umetsu S, Sogo T, Iwasawa K, Kondo T, Tsunoda T, Oikawa-Kawamoto M, Komatsu H, Inui A, Fujisawa T Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

The effect of carvacrol on enteric viruses.
Abstract Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, is said to have extensive antimicrobial activity in a wide range of food spoilage or pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess its antiviral activity on norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as its potential in food applications. Initially, different concentrations of carvacrol (0.25, 0.5, 1%) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log TCID50/ml and incubated 2h at 37°C. Carvacrol at 0.5% completely inactivated the two norovirus surrogates, whereas ...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - October 10, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Sánchez C, Aznar R, Sánchez G Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Infection with Murine Norovirus 4 Does Not Alter Helicobacter-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Il10(-/-) Mice.
Abstract Infection of laboratory mice with murine noroviruses (MNV) is widely prevalent. MNV alters various mouse models of disease, including the Helicobacter bilis-induced mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Mdr1a(--) mice. To further characterize the effect of MNV on IBD, we used mice deficient in the immunoregulatory cytokine IL10 (Il10(-/-) mice). In vitro infection of Il10(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) with MNV4 cocultured with H. bilis antigens increased the gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL6, and TNFα as compared with that of BMDM cultured with H. bilis...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 9, 2014 Category: Zoology Authors: Hsu CC, Paik J, Treuting PM, Seamons A, Meeker SM, Brabb TL, Maggio-Price L Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

High frequency of porcine norovirus infection in finisher units of Brazilian pig-production systems
This study aimed to investigate the natural PoNoV infection from adult animals of an important Brazilian pig-production region. Faecal samples (n = 112) of asymptomatic pigs aged 9 to 24 weeks old were collected from 16 grower-to-finish herds located in Paraná state, Brazilian Southern region, and evaluated for PoNoV presence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed using specific primers that target a conserved region of the virus capsid gene (VP1). PoNoV was detected in 58 (51.8 %) of the 112 faecal samples and in 14 (87.5 %) of the 16 herds evaluated. Six of the obtained am...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - October 3, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Structure-based Design and Functional studies of Novel Noroviral 3C Protease Chimeras Offers Insights into Substrate Specificity
This study also shows that chimeric murine noroviruses provide improved models for studying human norovirus protein function in the context of a full ORF1 polyprotein. (Source: BJ Cell)
Source: BJ Cell - October 2, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: M R. Herod, C A. Prince, R J. Skilton, V K. Ward, J B. Cooper, I N. Clarke Tags: BJ Disease Source Type: research

Norovirus in healthcare settings
Purpose of reviewTo provide an overview of the burden of norovirus disease in healthcare settings and the factors responsible for outbreaks in these institutions; to assess progress on interventions aimed at reducing the burden of norovirus disease. Recent findingsNorovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings are driven by confluence of viral diversity, the built environment, and host factors. Some of these characteristics may be modifiable and the target of successful interventions. SummaryMost norovirus outbreaks in hospital and residential care institutions are associated with a particular genotype, known as GII.4. The per...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Nicholas J. Beeching and A. Clinton White Source Type: research

Review: Applications of omics approaches to the development of microbiological risk assessment using RNA virus dose response models as a case study
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - October 1, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Paul Gale, Andrew Hill, Louise Kelly, John Bassett, Peter McClure, Yvan Le Marc, Ilias Soumpasis Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Controlling Hospital-Acquired Infection: Focus on the Role of the Environment and New Technologies for Decontamination.
Abstract SUMMARY: There is increasing interest in the role of cleaning for managing hospital-acquired infections (HAI). Pathogens such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli, norovirus, and Clostridium difficile persist in the health care environment for days. Both detergent- and disinfectant-based cleaning can help control these pathogens, although difficulties with measuring cleanliness have compromised the quality of published evidence. Traditional cleaning methods are notoriously inefficient for decontamination, and new...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - October 1, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dancer SJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Disease burden of selected gastrointestinal pathogens in Australia, 2010
To estimate and compare disease burden attributable to six gastrointestinal pathogens (norovirus, rotavirus, Campylobacter, non-typhoidal Salmonella, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium) in Australia, 2010. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katherine B. Gibney, Joanne O’Toole, Martha Sinclair, Karin Leder Source Type: research

Sensitive and rapid detection of campylobacter species from stools of children with diarrhea in Japan by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.
Abstract We detected Campylobacter spp. in 5% (20/380) of diarrheal stool samples collected at an outpatient clinic in Kyoto using a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit with a fluorescent detection reagent after DNA extraction. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% in comparison with those of semi-nested PCR for the differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Fourteen of the 20 samples were already determined as C. jejuni by the culture method. All 20 samples were also positive for C. jejuni by the PCR method. Among the 58 cultured samples, the sensitivity of the cul...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ushijima H, Nishimura S, Thongprachum A, Shimizu-Onda Y, Tran DN, Pham NT, Takanashi S, Dey SK, Okitsu S, Yamazaki W, Mizuguchi M, Hayakawa S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genetic heterogeneity of bovine noroviruses in Italy
Abstract By screening 104 faecal samples from asymptomatic calves in Italy, bovine norovirus RNA was detected with a prevalence rate of 10.5 % (11/104). A continuous sequence spanning the RdRp region and the 5′ end of the capsid gene was generated for 7 of the 11 strains. Upon phylogenetic analysis, five strains were grouped with GIII.2 Newbury2-like viruses, and one strain was grouped with GIII.1 Jena-like noroviruses. Interestingly, one strain (80TE/IT) was genetically related to the GIII.1/Jena/80/De in the RdRp but resembled the GIII.2/Newbury2/76/UK in the capsid gene, suggesting a recombination event occ...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 25, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China
Noroviruses (NoVs) are members of the Caliciviridae family and are recognized as a cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide.1,2 NoVs can be divided into five genogroups, designated GI–GV.3 The majority of human NoVs can be classified into three genogroups, GI, GII, and GIV, which are subdivided into the following genotypes: at least eight GI, 21 GII, and two GIV.3,4 GII.4 has been associated with the majority of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide in recent years.5 (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhinan Guo, Jianwei Huang, Guoqing Shi, Cheng-hao Su, Jian Jun Niu Source Type: research

Human norovirus reverse genetics system [Microbiology]
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. HuNoV replication studies have been hampered by the inability to grow the virus in cultured cells. The HuNoV genome is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecule with three open reading frames (ORFs). We established a reverse genetics system driven by... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 23, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Katayama, K., Murakami, K., Sharp, T. M., Guix, S., Oka, T., Takai-Todaka, R., Nakanishi, A., Crawford, S. E., Atmar, R. L., Estes, M. K. Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Novel norovirus recombinants detected in South Africa
Conclusions: Over the past four years, remarkably diverse NoV recombinants have been circulating in SA. Pandemic strains such as the GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012 recombinant co-circulated with novel and emerging recombinant strains. Combined polymerase- and capsid-based NoV genotyping is essential to determine the true diversity and global prevalence of these viruses. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - September 17, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Janet MansTanya MurrayMaureen Taylor Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in outpatient pediatric clinics in Beijing, China 2010-2012.
This study aimed to determine the genotypic characteristics of noroviruses from infants and children in Beijing. Stool samples (n=1128) were collected from patients with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis in the past 3years from 2010 to 2012. The norovirus positivity rate was 16.1% (182/1128) by using RT-PCR, including 122 with primer set covering polymerase region, 177 with primer set covering capsid region, and 117 with both polymerase and capsid regions. By sequence analysis for capsid genes, all the noroviruses identified were belonging to genogroup II (GII). Among these positive samples, GII.4 (61.0%) was the most comm...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - September 11, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jia LP, Qian Y, Zhang Y, Deng L, Liu LY, Zhu RN, Zhao LQ, Huang H, Zheng CG, Dong HJ Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Secreted production of assembled Norovirus virus-like particles from Pichia pastoris
Conclusions: In this study we describe the expression and characterization of fully assembled Norovirus virus-like particles obtained from P. pastoris. The particles are similar in size, morphology and binding capacity, as previously described, for the original NoV. Our results detail the successful expression and secretion of VLPs in P. pastoris, improving their candidacy as a vaccine platform. (Source: Microbial Cell Factories)
Source: Microbial Cell Factories - September 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jaime Tomé-AmatLauren FleischerStephanie ParkerCameron BardlivingCarl Batt Source Type: research

New Ligand For Human Norovirus Could Inspire Treatments For Stomach Flu
Molecular Medicine: Pathogen infects by binding to gangliosides in addition to blood group antigens (Source: Chemical and Engineering News)
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - September 5, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Stu Borman Source Type: research

Noroviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2004–2011
Noroviruses (NoVs) (genus Norovirus) belong to the family Caliciviridae and possess a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that encodes three open-reading frames (ORF 1-3) [1]. Genetically diverse, NoVs are divided into five genogroups (GI–GV), of which GI, GII, and GIV have been shown to infect humans [2]. These genogroups are divided into at least 35 genotypes and the genetic classification is based on phylogenetic analysis of the capsid region (ORF-2) [2]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - September 3, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Juliana da Silva Ribeiro Andrade, Monica Simões Rocha, Felipe Aníbal Carvalho-Costa, Julia Monassa Fioretti, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro Xavier, Zenaida Maria Alves Nunes, Jeanice Cardoso, Alexandre Madi Fialho, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Marize Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of norovirus GII.4 variants in children under 5 years with sporadic acute gastroenteritis in South Korea during 2006–2013
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading viral agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and are responsible for 12% of sporadic AGE cases in children across the world [1]. The transmission of NoVs occurs year-round, but epidemic peaks are commonly observed during the cold season worldwide [2]. NoVs can infect persons of all ages, and the highest infection rate is observed in young children [3]. The primary transmission route is known to be fecal-to-oral spread [4]. However, NoVs can be rapidly spread through asymptomatic persons shedding virus, infectious vomit, contacts with contaminated environmental surface and aerosolization alo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - August 30, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Han-Gil Cho, Sung-Geun Lee, Ju-Eun Kim, Kyeong-Sin Yu, Deog-Yong Lee, Po-Hyun Park, Mi-hye Yoon, Eek-Hoon Jho, Jaehong Kim, Soon-Young Paik Source Type: research

Remote health advice bulletin
It monitors patterns in phone calls to the service each day across England, tracking the spread of infectious diseases like flu and norovirus. The data provides early warning of community-based infectious diseases. (Source: NHS Networks)
Source: NHS Networks - August 29, 2014 Category: UK Health Authors: Maria Axford Source Type: news

A helminth-mediated viral awakening.
Abstract Co-infections may have unpredictable consequences for the health of a host beyond the sum of the individual infections. Two recent papers in Science provide mechanistic insights into how acute helminth infections alter the outcome of Herpesvirus and Norovirus infections by triggering changes in the local cytokine environment. PMID: 25174993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Immunology)
Source: Trends in Immunology - August 28, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Veldhoen M, Heeney JL Tags: Trends Immunol Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of a rotavirus G8P[1] detected in a child with diarrhea reveal direct animal-to-human transmission.
Abstract Group A rotavirus is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children and young animals. During a retrospective analysis of samples collected from Paraguayan children under 5 years old with diarrhea, and previously negative for rotavirus and norovirus, we detected the presence of bovine rotavirus sequences by viral metagenomics. Nucleic acid was extracted direct from stool sample and determined to be G8P[1]. The genomic analyzes revealed that the strain presents an Artiodactyl-like genome (G8-P[1]-I2-R2-C2-M1-Ax-N2-T6-E12-H3) suggesting a direct animal-to-human transmission. PMID: 25169054 [PubMed -...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - August 25, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Martinez M, Phan TG, Galeano ME, Russomando G, Parreno V, Delwart E, Parra GI Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Detection of human norovirus GIV.1 in China: A case report
Highlights: Abstract: Noroviruses (NoVs) are a common cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) around the world; however, reports of genogroup IV (GIV) NoVs are rare. Here we report a human GIV genotype 1 (GIV.1) NoV strain (named CHNNGIV2011) identified by 454 high-throughput sequencing from stool samples of children with diarrhea. This is the first documented human GIV.1 NoVs infection in China. The complete genome of the virus is 7525 nucleotides in length. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses showed that CHNNGIV2011 shared high sequence similarity to other GIV.1 NoVs from all over the world, especially to the recently repo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - August 13, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Yuan-yun Ao, Jie-mei Yu, Li-li Li, Miao Jin, Zhao-jun Duan Tags: Case reports Source Type: research

Prospective study on Norovirus infection among allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: Prolonged viral excretion and viral RNA in the blood
The Norovirus (NoV) and Sapovirus (SaV) are the only genera of the Caliciviridae family that have been associated with infection in humans [1,2]. These agents are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, through person-to-person contact, by ingestion of contaminated food or water [3,4], via airborne viral particles from vomit of infected patients, and by fomites [5]. Although some infected individuals may excrete a high number of viral particles in their feces, the infectious dose is low [6]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - August 13, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Lucianna Gonçalves Nepomuceno Lemes, Thais Santos Corrêa, Fabíola Souza Fiaccadori, Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso, Adriano de Moraes Arantes, Keili Maria Cardoso Souza, Menira Souza Source Type: research

Detection of human norovirus GIV.1 in China: A case report
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis globally. The NoV genome is composed of three open reading frames (ORFs): a large non-structural protein, a major capsid protein (VP1), and a small basic structural protein (VP2). Based on VP1, NoVs have been divided into six genogroups (GI–GVI) [1]. GIV NoVs are further classified into genotype 1 and 2 (GIV.1 and GIV.2). Only GI, GII, and GIV.1 NoVs have been identified in humans [2], among which GI and GII cause most human infections [3]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - August 11, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Yuan-yun Ao, Jie-mei Yu, Li-li Li, Miao Jin, Zhao-jun Duan Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Rapid detection and differentiation of human noroviruses using RT-PCR coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Abstract The goal of this study was to develop an assay for the detection and differentiation of noroviruses using RT-PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Detection of hepatitis A virus was also considered. Thirteen primer pairs were designed for use in this assay and a reference database was created using GenBank sequences and reference norovirus samples. The assay was tested for inclusivity and exclusivity using 160 clinical norovirus samples, 3 samples of hepatitis A virus and 3 other closely related viral strains. Results showed that the assay was able to detect norovirus with a s...
Source: Food Microbiology - August 7, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Hellberg RS, Li F, Sampath R, Yasuda IJ, Carolan HE, Wolfe JM, Brown MK, Alexander RC, Williams-Hill DM, Martin WB Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Inactivation of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus during oyster fermentation.
This study examined the survival of feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) during oyster fermentation. Oysters spiked with FCV and MNV were fermented with 5% or 10% salt at 18 °C for 15 days, and MNV and FCV titers, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations, pH, and enzymatic activity were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days post-fermentation (DPF). Reductions in MNV and FCV were greater in 5% NaCl-supplemented oysters than in 10% NaCl-supplemented oysters. In 5% NaCl oysters, MNV and FCV titers significantly decreased by 1.60 log and 3.01 log, respectively, at 15 DPF. Populations of LAB increased from...
Source: Food Microbiology - August 7, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Seo DJ, Lee MH, Seo J, Ha SD, Choi C Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

A survey of Australian oysters for the presence of human noroviruses.
Abstract Impending international policies for norovirus in oysters and the lack of Australian data suggested there was a need to undertake a national survey of norovirus in oysters. Two geographically distinct oyster-growing areas from each of three Australian states were sampled on 4 occasions during 2010 and 2011. The sites selected were considered by state shellfish authorities to be the most compromised with respect to the potential for human faecal contamination as identified by shoreline surveys. The oysters were tested for norovirus GI, GII and Escherichia coli. Norovirus GII was detected in two of 120 (1.7%...
Source: Food Microbiology - August 7, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Brake F, Ross T, Holds G, Kiermeier A, McLeod C Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Endosomal acidification and cathepsin L activity is required for calicivirus replication.
Abstract The role of cellular proteases and endosome maturation in the entry of caliciviruses including porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC), murine norovirus (MNV)-1 and feline calicivirus (FCV) were investigated. Treatment with chloroquine or cathepsin L inhibitors, but not cathepsin B inhibitors, significantly reduced the replication of PEC, MNV and FCV. When concentrated PEC, MNV or FCV were incubated with recombinant cathepsin L, the minor capsid protein VP2 of PEC and the major capsid protein VP1 of MNV and FCV were cleaved by the protease based on the Western blot analysis. Confocal microscopy analysis of PEC a...
Source: Virology - August 7, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Shivanna V, Kim Y, Chang KO Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Nitazoxanide: A first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent.
Abstract Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral drug and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. A Phase 2b/3 clinical trial recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases found that oral administration of nitazoxanide 600mg twice daily for five days reduced the duration of clinical symptoms and reduced viral shedding compared to placebo in persons with laboratory-confirmed influenza. The same study also suggested a potential benefit for subjects with influenza-like illness who did not have i...
Source: Antiviral Research - August 7, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Rossignol JF Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of Viral Inactivation of Pseudorabies Virus, Encephalomyocarditis Virus, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus And Porcine Parvovirus in Pancreatin of Porcine Origin.
Abstract Pancreatin is a substance containing enzymes, principally amylase, lipase, and protease. It is obtained from bovine or porcine pancreas and used in the treatment of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency in humans. Regulations and safety concerns mandate viral clearance (virus removal or inactivation) in biopharmaceuticals such as pancreatin. A virus validation study was performed to evaluate virus clearance achieved in the final step of drying under vacuum by testing a panel of four animal viruses: Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Porcine par...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - August 7, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Caruso C, Gobbi E, Biosa T, Andra M, Cavallazzi U, Masoero L Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

The enantiomers of the 1',6'-isomer of neplanocin A: Synthesis and antiviral properties.
Abstract Both enantiomers of 1',6'-isoneplanocin have been prepared from a common substituted cyclopentane epoxide in 7 steps. Both compounds were subjected to DNA and RNA viral assessments with moderate to high activity found for both towards human cytomegalovirus, measles, Ebola, norovirus, and dengue. The D-like congener also showed vaccinia and HBV effectiveness. In many of the other antiviral assays both compounds showed cytotoxicity making, in some cases, an EC50 determination not possible. The S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitory effects showed the D-like target to be equal that of neplanocin itself a...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry - August 7, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ye W, Schneller SW Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Source Type: research

A VPg-eIF4G Interaction Is Involved in Norovirus Translation [Microbiology]
Viruses have evolved a variety of mechanisms to usurp the host cell translation machinery to enable translation of the viral genome in the presence of high levels of cellular mRNAs. Noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in man, have evolved a mechanism that relies on the interaction of translation initiation factors with the virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5′ end of the viral RNA. To further characterize this novel mechanism of translation initiation, we have used proteomics to identify the components of the norovirus translation initiation factor complex. This approach revealed that VPg binds ...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - July 31, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chung, L., Bailey, D., Leen, E. N., Emmott, E. P., Chaudhry, Y., Roberts, L. O., Curry, S., Locker, N., Goodfellow, I. G. Tags: Protein Synthesis and Degradation Source Type: research

Relative cost-effectiveness of a norovirus vaccine in the deployed military setting compared to a vaccine against Campylobacter sp., ETEC, and Shigella sp.
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) has been identified as a significant cause of acute gastrointestinal illness among deployed military troops. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for the use of a NoV vaccine in the military using a previously developed model that evaluated vaccines for ETEC, Campylobacter, and Shigella for prevention of non-outbreak associated travelers' diarrhea. Under conservative assumptions, acquisition of a NoV vaccine by the Department of Defense is estimated to result in a cost-effectiveness ratio per duty day lost to illness (CERDDL) of $1344 compared to a CERDDL of $776, $800, and $1275 for ...
Source: Vaccine - July 30, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tallant A, Porter CK, Putnam SD, Tribble DR, Hooper TI, Riddle MS Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Detection and analysis of recombination in GII.4 norovirus strains causing gastroenteritis outbreaks in Alberta.
The objective of this study was to determine whether any NoV GII.4 strains causing outbreaks in Alberta are recombinants. Twenty stool samples collected during outbreaks occurring between July 2004 and January 2012 were selected to include the GII.4 variants Farmington Hills 2002, Hunter 2004, Yerseke 2006a, Den Haag 2006b, Apeldoorn 2007, New Orleans 2009, and Sydney 2012 based on previous NoV ORF2-genotyping results. Near full-length NoV genome sequences were obtained, aligned with reference sequences from GenBank and analyzed with RDPv4.13. Two sequences corresponding to Apeldoorn 2007, and Sydney 2012 were identified a...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - July 24, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hasing ME, Hazes B, Lee BE, Preiksaitis JK, Pang XL Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

[Articles] Global prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Norovirus is a key gastroenteritis pathogen associated with almost a fifth of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, and targeted intervention to reduce norovirus burden, such as vaccines, should be considered. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 22, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sharia M Ahmed, Aron J Hall, Anne E Robinson, Linda Verhoef, Prasanna Premkumar, Umesh D Parashar, Marion Koopmans, Benjamin A Lopman Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Comment] Noroviruses: a global cause of acute gastroenteritis
Norwalk virus, the prototype norovirus, was identified in 1972 by the late Albert Kapikian in a fecal sample from an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis at an elementary school in Norwalk, Ohio, USA. During this outbreak, almost 50% of the students and teachers were infected during 2 days, highlighting the rapid spread of norovirus outbreaks. The advent and wide availability of molecular diagnostic techniques has resulted in increased awareness of the importance of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 22, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ulrich Desselberger, Ian Goodfellow Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Detection of circulating norovirus genotypes: hitting a moving target
Conclusions: This study emphasizes the benefits of a real-time method and provides support for routine surveillance to monitor norovirus epidemiology and ongoing proficiency testing to ensure detection of circulating norovirus genotypes. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - July 18, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Brenda-Lee RooneyJanice PettipasElsie GrudeskiOksana MykytczukXiao-Li PangTim BoothTodd HatchetteJason LeBlanc Source Type: research

Oregano oil inhibits cancer growth, breaks down norovirus and removes warts
(NaturalNews) You may already be familiar with oregano. It's a warm and savory herb that adds great flavor to sauces in pasta or pizza. What you may not know is that the active component in this herb has impressive healing properties. The active component in oregano that is responsible... (Source:
Source: - July 14, 2014 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks -- United States, 2009-2012Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks -- United States, 2009-2012
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease in the United States, with 19-21 million cases annually. What actions can be taken to reduce its transmission? Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - July 11, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Public Health & Prevention Journal Article Source Type: news