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Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrheal Disease in Ghanaian Infants and Children: An Outpatient Case-Control Study
Conclusions Diarrheal diseases in children from a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa are mainly due to infections with rotavirus, Shigella spp./EIEC, and norovirus. These associations are strongly age-dependent, which should be considered when diagnosing causes of diarrhea. The presented results are informative for both clinicians treating gastrointestinal infections as well as public health experts designing control programs against diarrheal diseases. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ralf Krumkamp et al. Source Type: research

Norovirus GII.21 in Children with Diarrhea, Bhutan
T. Yahiro et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - March 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Spectrum of Outpatient Illness in a School-Based Cohort in Haiti, with a Focus on Diarrheal Pathogens.
Abstract Currently, there are only limited data available on rates of major diagnostic categories of illnesses among Haitian children. We have established a cohort of 1,245 students attending schools run by the Christianville Foundation in the Gressier/Leogane region of Haiti, for whom our group provides primary medical care. Among 1,357 clinic visits during the 2012-2013 academic year, the main disease categories (with rates per 1,000 child years of observation) included acute respiratory infection (ARI) (385.6 cases/1,000 child years of observation), gastrointestinal complaints (277.8 cases/1,000 child years), fe...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 2, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Beau De Rochars VE, Alam MT, Telisma T, Masse R, Chavannes S, Anilis MG, Guillaume HJ, Gelin G, Kirkpatrick EL, Okech BA, Weppelmann TA, Rashid M, Karst S, Johnson JA, Ali A, Morris JG Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Epidemiological Investigation of a Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Outbreak in a China Elder Care Facility.
Abstract An outbreak of norovirus GII.4/Sydney_2012 affected a China elder care facility in December 2012. A total of 39 elderly people and staff met the outbreak case definition. The attack rates in the elderly and the staff were 15.9% (31/195) and 23.2% (19/82), respectively, including 13 asymptomatic cases in the staff. The result of gene sequencing revealed that the outbreak was caused by norovirus GII.4 Sydney. The mode of transmission of this outbreak was proven to be person-to-person. The first case (a self-cared elder) was affected outside the elder care facility and was not isolated after returning. Norovi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zheng QM, Zeng HT, Dai CW, Zhang SX, Zhang Z, Mei SJ, He YQ, Ma HW Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Research cracks code governing infections single-stranded RNA viruses
Researchers have cracked a code that governs infections caused by simple, single-stranded RNA viruses similar in many respects to viruses that cause the common cold, polio and the winter vomiting norovirus infections. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - February 26, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

High incidence of norovirus GII.4 outbreaks in hospitals and nursing homes in Catalonia (Spain), 2010–2011
Research Articles P. GODOY, G. FERRRUS, N. TORNER, N. CAMPS, M.R. SALA, S. GUIX, R. BARTOLOMÉ, A. MARTÍNEZ, M. DE SIMÓN, A. DOMÍNGUEZ, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 04, pp 725-733Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - February 23, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Norovirus Vaccine: One Step Closer
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vesikari, T., Blazevic, V. Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Norovirus Vaccine Against Experimental Human GII.4 Virus Illness: A Challenge Study in Healthy Adults
Conclusions. Bivalent norovirus VLP vaccine reduced norovirus-related vomiting and/or diarrhea; field efficacy studies are planned. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01609257. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bernstein, D. I., Atmar, R. L., Lyon, G. M., Treanor, J. J., Chen, W. H., Jiang, X., Vinje, J., Gregoricus, N., Frenck, R. W., Moe, C. L., Al-Ibrahim, M. S., Barrett, J., Ferreira, J., Estes, M. K., Graham, D. Y., Goodwin, R., Borkowski, A., Clemens, R., Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Impact of Genotype-Specific Herd Immunity on the Circulatory Dynamism of Norovirus: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Viral Acute Gastroenteritis
Human norovirus is a major cause of viral acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, the transition of endemic norovirus genotypes remains poorly understood. The characteristics of natural immunity against norovirus are unclear because few studies have been performed in the natural infection setting. This prospective 10-year surveillance study of acute gastroenteritis in the province of Osaka, Japan, revealed that norovirus spread shows temporal, geographic, and age group–specific features in the humans. Genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) was detected in most sporadic pediatric cases, as well as in foodborne and nursing ...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sakon, N., Yamazaki, K., Nakata, K., Kanbayashi, D., Yoda, T., Mantani, M., Kase, T., Takahashi, K., Komano, J. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Development of enhanced primer sets for detection of norovirus.
In this study, we developed advanced primer sets (NKI-F/R/F2, NKII-F/R/R2) for the detection of NV, including the variant types. The new primer sets were compared with conventional primer sets (GI-F1/R1/F2, SRI-1/2/3, GII-F1/R1/F2, and SRII-1/2/3) to evaluate their efficiency when using clinical and environmental samples. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and seminested PCR, NV GI and GII were detected in 91.7% (NKI-F/R/F2), 89.3% (NKII-F/R/R2), 54.2% (GI-F1/R1/F2), 52.5% (GII-F1/R1/F2), 25.0% (SRI-1/2/3), and 32.2% (SRII-1/2/3) of clinical and environmental specimens. Therefore, our primer set...
Source: Biomed Res - February 22, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Kong BH, Lee SG, Han SH, Jin JY, Jheong WH, Paik SY Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Control of eIF4E Activity during MNV1 Infection [Gene Regulation]
Protein synthesis is a tightly controlled process responding to several stimuli, including viral infection. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses depend on the translation machinery of the host and can manipulate it by affecting the availability and function of specific eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Human norovirus is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks. Previous studies on feline calicivirus and murine norovirus 1 (MNV1) demonstrated that the viral protein, genome-linked (VPg), acts to direct translation by hijacking the host protein synthesis machinery. Her...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - February 20, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Royall, E., Doyle, N., Abdul-Wahab, A., Emmott, E., Morley, S. J., Goodfellow, I., Roberts, L. O., Locker, N. Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the swab sampling method to recover viruses from fomites.
Abstract The monitoring of virus contamination on fomites, especially at hospitals has been used for a more effective evaluation of the microbiological quality of surfaces. Swab sampling is the method used currently, although the use of an internal control process (ICP) has not yet been assessed. The aim of this study is to determine the recovery rate of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) and bacteriophage PP7 on different surfaces in order to assess their potential use as an ICP. For this purpose both viruses were spiked experimentally both on porous and non-porous formic as well as on rubberized surfaces. Quantitative PC...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - February 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ganime AC, Leite J, Corrêa AA, Melgaço FG, Carvalho-Costa FA, Miagostovich MP Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Multicenter Evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray Gastrointestinal Panel for Etiologic Diagnosis of Infectious Gastroenteritis [Bacteriology]
This study assessed the performance of the FilmArray Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel for the simultaneous detection of 22 different enteric pathogens directly from stool specimens: Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile (toxin A/B), Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteroaggregative E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - February 19, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Buss, S. N., Leber, A., Chapin, K., Fey, P. D., Bankowski, M. J., Jones, M. K., Rogatcheva, M., Kanack, K. J., Bourzac, K. M. Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

The Burden of Norovirus Disease in Children in the European Union
Conclusion: The burden of NoV disease in children in the EU is substantial, and will grow in relative importance as rotavirus (RV) vaccines are rolled out in the EU. This burden of disease is comparable with the burden of RV disease in the EU before RV vaccine introduction. More country-specific studies are needed to better assess this burden and guide the potential introduction of a vaccine against NoV at the national level. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 18, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Diagnostic Yields in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Admitted With Diarrhea
Conclusions. In solid organ transplant recipients who presented at our institution with diarrhea, approximately one-third had infectious etiologies identified, consisting predominantly of C. difficile, norovirus, cytomegalovirus, and bacterial enterocolitis. Other infectious etiologies were rare. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - February 16, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Echenique, I. A., Penugonda, S., Stosor, V., Ison, M. G., Angarone, M. P. Tags: ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Recovery of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus from plasmids encoding EMCV IRES in stable cell lines expressing T7 polymerase.
Abstract Reverse genetics systems constitute one of the most important and powerful tools to study the molecular biology of viruses. We developed a new strategy for the recovery of murine norovirus from a single plasmid in which a bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7pol) promoter for transcription and an EMCV IRES for efficient translation were engineered immediately upstream of the viral genome. Infectious noroviruses were recovered following transfection of the newly designed plasmid into nonpermissive BHK-21 and HEK293T cell lines that were engineered to express T7pol constitutively. Recovery of the virus did not...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - February 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Sandoval-Jaime C, Green KY, Sosnovtsev SV Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Occurrence of Noroviruses and Their Correlation with Microbial Indicators in Raw Milk
This study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality of raw cow’s milk in a collection center in the city of Mashhad, Iran. A total of 19 raw cow’s milk samples were collected and simultaneously analyzed for male-specific (F+) coliphage and Escherichia coli using culture-based methods and for enteric viruses by reverse transcriptase semi-nested PCR using primer sets specific for human norovirus Group I (HNV-GI), human norovirus Group II (HNV-GII), and enteroviruses (EV). Seven out of 19 (36.8 %) raw milk samples tested positive for human noroviruses (HNV). The genotypes detected were HNV-GI and HNV-GII....
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 13, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 666-679: Evaluation of Virus Inactivation by Formaldehyde to Enhance Biosafety of Diagnostic Electron Microscopy
Formaldehyde (FA) fixation of infectious samples is a well-established protocol in diagnostic electron microscopy of viruses. However, published experimental data that demonstrate virus inactivation by these fixation procedures are lacking. Usually, fixation is performed immediately before the sample preparation for microscopy. The fixation procedure should transform viruses in a non–infectious but nonetheless structurally intact form in order to allow a proper diagnosis based on morphology. FA provides an essential advantage in comparison to other disinfectants, because it preserves the ultrastructure of biological mate...
Source: Viruses - February 10, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Lars MöllerLivia SchünadelAndreas NitscheIngeborg SchwebkeManuela HanischMichael Laue Tags: Article Source Type: research

Immune deficiency - changing spectrum of pathogens.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25677249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Duraisingham SS, Manson A, Grigoriadou S, Buckland M, Tong CY, Longhurst HJ Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Burden of norovirus in healthcare facilities and strategies for outbreak control
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015 Source:Journal of Hospital Infection Author(s): A. Kambhampati , M. Koopmans , B.A. Lopman Norovirus is the most frequently occurring cause of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages. It is also one of the most frequent causes of outbreaks in healthcare settings, affecting both long-term care facilities and acute care hospitals. Whereas norovirus gastroenteritis is typically mild and resolves without medical attention, healthcare-associated infections often affect vulnerable populations, resulting in severe infections and disruption of healthcare s...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - February 8, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evidence of the internalization of animal caliciviruses via the root of growing strawberry plants and dissemination to the fruit.
The objective of this study is to determine whether human NoV surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1) and Tulane virus (TV), can attach and become internalized and disseminated in strawberries grown in soil. MNV-1 and TV were inoculated to the soil of growing strawberry plants at a level of 10(8) PFU/plant. Leaves and berries were harvested over a 14 day period and the viral titer was determined by plaque assay. Over the course of the study, 31.6% of the strawberries contained internalized MNV-1 with an average titer of 0.81 ± 0.33 log10 PFU/g. In comparison, 37.5% of strawberries were positive for infectious TV with an aver...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - February 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: DiCaprio E, Culbertson D, Li J Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research

Norovirus infections and seroprevalence of genotype gii.4‐specific antibodies in a spanish population
Genotype II.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis in children and adults worldwide. The prevalence of different NoV genotypes causing outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in the region of Valencia, Spain, during a 4‐year period (2008–11) was investigated. NoVs were detected in 42 out of 55 (76.3%) outbreaks and in 26 out of 332 (7.8%) sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis. Genogroup GII strains were predominant in outbreaks and sporadic cases. Different genotype GII.4 variants were found (Yerseke_2006a, Den Haag_2006b, Apeldoorn_2007, and New Orleans_2009), with t...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - February 5, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Noelia Carmona‐Vicente, Manuel Fernández‐Jiménez, Juan M. Ribes, Carlos J. Téllez‐Castillo, Parisá Khodayar‐Pardo, Jesús Rodríguez‐Diaz, Javier Buesa Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Genome characterization of a GII.6 norovirus strain identified in China.
In this study, the complete genome sequence of a NoV strain GZ2010-L96 isolated in China was identified and analyzed phylogenetically. The viral genome comprised 7550 nucleotides, and its phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain belonged to GII.6 genotype. All reported GII.6 NoV capsid protein sequences were also collected for comparative analysis, and GZ2010-L96 was clustered into GII.6-b with other 8 strains. Meanwhile, it was found that 53 spots on viral capsid showed subcluster specificity according to multiple alignments. Moreover, homologous modeling of GZ2010-L96 based on comparison with GII.4 VA387 strain sho...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - February 4, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xue L, Wu Q, Kou X, Cai W, Zhang J, Guo W Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology and genotype distribution of noroviruses in children in Thailand from 2004 to 2010: A multi‐site study
This study identified norovirus in children presenting with acute gastroenteritis and determined the capsid genotypes of the circulating norovirus strains in multiple regions in Thailand during October 2004 to December 2006 and March 2008 to August 2010. A total of 7,420 stool samples were collected from both cases (3621) and controls (3799). The stool samples were screened by two real‐time RT‐PCR assays to detect genogroup I and genogroup II noroviruses. Norovirus‐positive samples were identified in 516 cases (14.3%) and 181 controls (4.8%) with more than half of norovirus positive samples from 7–24 months old chi...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - February 3, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Eugenio Abente, Pimmnapar Neesanant, Kaewkanya Nakjarung, Pantip Sirichote, Gaysorn Bunyarakyothin, Niyada Vithayasai, Carl J. Mason Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

The Role Of Chronic Norovirus Infection In The Enteropathy Associated With Common Variable Immunodeficiency
; Dinakantha Kumararatne (Source: The American Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: The American Journal of Gastroenterology - February 3, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jeremy M WoodwardEffrossyni Gkrania-KlotsasAnthony YK Cordero-NgAloysious AravinthanBetty N BandohHongxiang LiuSusan DaviesHongyi ZhangPhilip StevensonMartin D CurranDinakantha Kumararatne Source Type: research

A scoping review of the evidence for public health risks of three emerging potentially zoonotic viruses: hepatitis E virus, norovirus, and rotavirus
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2015 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine Author(s): Barbara Wilhelm , Lisa Waddell , Judy Greig , Andrijana Rajić , Alain Houde , Scott A. McEwen Emerging zoonoses are defined as those newly recognized, or increasing in incidence or geographic range. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV), while well-known to be transmitted person-person, have also been hypothesized to be emerging zoonoses. Our objective was to investigate their potential public health risks from animal reservoirs. Given the diversity of evidence sources, a scoping review incorporatin...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - February 2, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Enteropathogens detected in a daycare center, southeastern Brazil: bacteria, virus, and parasite research.
CONCLUSIONS: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens. PMID: 25651323 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 1, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Castro ED, Germini MC, Mascarenhas JD, Gabbay YB, Lima IC, Lobo Pdos S, Fraga VD, Conceição LM, Machado RL, Rossit AR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Immune deficiency – changing spectrum of pathogens
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - February 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sai S. Duraisingham, Ania Manson, Sofia Grigoriadou, Matthew Buckland, C.Y. William Tong, Hilary J. Longhurst Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of Natural Compounds of Plant Origin for Inactivation of Enteric Viruses
Abstract Essential oils (EOs) and some of their main compounds have demonstrated extensive antimicrobial activity in a wide range of food spoilage or pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the antiviral activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (zataria) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) EOs on hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the effect of thymol, an active compound of Thymus vulgaris and oregano, on norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), and HAV. Initially, each virus at titers of ca. 6 log TCID50/ml was exposed to different concentrations of natural com...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 31, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

'Cold plasma' kills off norovirus
Norovirus, the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the world, can be killed with "cold plasma", scientists report. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)
Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition - January 30, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Binding-Based RT-qPCR Assay to Assess Binding Patterns of Noroviruses to Shellfish
Abstract Outbreaks of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis are often associated with consumption of shellfish contaminated with human NoVs. Strong non-specific binding and specific binding between NoVs and histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) present in shellfish tissues may explain why depuration is ineffective. Recent studies on NoV-binding patterns in shellfish have examined the attachment of NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) to HBGAs present in shellfish using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). As NoVs are genetically diverse, it is not practical to produce a range of VLPs and specific antibodies for bind...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 29, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Nitazoxanide Is Effective Therapy for Norovirus Gastroenteritis after Chemotherapy and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)
We report our experience treating norovirus gastroenteritis occurring in 14 patients (pts) after (11) and prior (3) to HSCT with Nitazoxanide. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - January 24, 2015 Category: Hematology Authors: Joan Morris, Christopher Morris Tags: Supportive Care Source Type: research

Sources of Calicivirus Contamination in Foodborne Outbreaks in Denmark, 2005-2011--The Role of the Asymptomatic Food Handler
Conclusions Guidelines regarding exclusion of FHs where household members suffer from gastroenteritis could limit the number of outbreaks. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Franck, K. T., Lisby, M., Fonager, J., Schultz, A. C., Bottiger, B., Villif, A., Absalonsen, H., Ethelberg, S. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Advances in Laboratory Methods for Detection and Typing of Norovirus [Minireviews]
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis across all age groups. Although the disease is usually self-limiting, in the United States norovirus gastroenteritis causes an estimated 56,000 to 71,000 hospitalizations and 570 to 800 deaths each year. This minireview describes the latest data on laboratory methods (molecular, immunological) for norovirus detection, including real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and commercially available immunological assays as well as the latest FDA-cleared multi-gastrointestinal-pathogen platforms. In addition, an overview is provide...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - January 23, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vinje, J. Tags: Minireviews Source Type: research

First norovirus outbreaks associated with consumption of green seaweed ( Enteromorpha spp.) in South Korea
Research Articles J. H. PARK, H. S. JEONG, J. S. LEE, S. W. LEE, Y. H. CHOI, S. J. CHOI, I. S. JOO, Y. R. KIM, Y. K. PARK, S. K. YOUN, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 03, pp 515-521Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - January 20, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The spatial diffusion of norovirus epidemics over three seasons in Tokyo
Research Articles S. INAIDA, Y. SHOBUGAWA, S. MATSUNO, R. SAITO, H. SUZUKI, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 03, pp 522-528Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - January 20, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 378-393: Viral Etiologies of Acute Dehydrating Gastroenteritis in Pakistani Children: Confounding Role of Parechoviruses
This study was based on tertiary care hospital surveillance, from January 2009 to December 2010, including the detection of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and human parechovirus in children under the age of five using serological or molecular assays. Rotavirus, human parechovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus were detected in 66%, 21%, 19.5%, and 8.5% subjects, respectively. Human parechovirus genotypes, determined through analysis of VP1 gene sequences, showed a great diversity among co-circulating strains. Eighty percent of hospitalized children had dual or multiple viral infections, while 98% parechovirus positive cases...
Source: Viruses - January 20, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Muhammad AlamAdnan KhurshidShahzad ShaukatMuhammad RanaSalmaan SharifMehar AngezNadia NisarUzma AamirMuhammad NaeemSyed Zaidi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Norovirus-Associated Encephalitis in a Previously Healthy 2-Year-Old Girl
We describe the case of 2-year-old girl with encephalitis associated with norovirus infection. The viral genome was detected in cerebrospinal fluid and stool by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This is the first time in Spain and the second worldwide that the genome of norovirus from the stool sample and 2 cerebrospinal fluid samples were genetically characterized and matched. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - January 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Visitor restrictions at Midland Regional hospital over vomiting bug suspicions
Highly contagious: Norovirus symptoms include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea (Source: The Irish Times - Health)
Source: The Irish Times - Health - January 16, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Viral PCR positivity in stool prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is strongly associated with acute intestinal-GvHD
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) can be triggered by inflammatory conditions including infections and mucositis. We investigated the association between PCR-positivity for gastro intestinal (GI)-viruses in stool prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and intestinal aGvHD using Cox proportional hazard models.We included 48 consecutive HCT patients (28 malignancies, 20 non-malignancies) without GI-symptoms prior to HCT. 15 patients were GI-virus positive: 9 adenovirus, 3 norovirus, 2 parechovirus and 1 astrovirus. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - January 16, 2015 Category: Hematology Authors: Joris van Montfrans, Laura Schulz, Birgitta Versluys, Arianne de Wildt, Tom Wolfs, Marc Bierings, Corinne Gerhardt, Caroline Lindemans, Anne Wensing, Jaap Jan Boelens Source Type: research

Aetiology of acute paediatric gastroenteritis in Bulgaria during summer months: prevalence of the viral infections.
Abstract Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem.Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections.Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus.Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A ro...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mladenova Z, Steyer A, Steyer AF, Ganesh B, Petrov P, Tchervenjakova T, Iturriza-Gomara M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

An increasing prevalence of recombinant GII norovirus in pediatric patients with diarrhea during 2010-2013 in China.
Abstract Noroviruses are the primary cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans and are responsible for nearly half of gastroenteritis cases globally. The norovirus strain variants have been circulating in underdeveloped regions in western China, where pediatric diarrhea acts as the major public health concern. The study aims to identify the epidemic genotypes of norovirus and explore their genetic characteristics in Chongqing, China. By performing a hospital-based surveillance from 2010 to 2013, we identified a significant shift of the predominant Norovirus strains in recent 4years in the studied area. ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 16, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lu QB, Huang DD, Zhao J, Wang HY, Zhang XA, Xu HM, Qu F, Liu W, Cao WC Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Viral PCR Positivity in Stool before Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation is Strongly Associated with Acute Intestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) can be triggered by inflammatory conditions, including infections and mucositis. We investigated the association between PCR positivity for gastrointestinal (GI) viruses in stool before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and intestinal aGVHD using Cox proportional hazard models. We included 48 consecutive HCT patients (28 with malignancies and 20 with nonmalignancies) without GI symptoms before HCT. Fifteen patients were GI virus positive: 9 adenovirus, 3 norovirus, 2 parechovirus, and 1 astrovirus. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - January 16, 2015 Category: Hematology Authors: Joris van Montfrans, Laura Schulz, Birgitta Versluys, Arianne de Wildt, Tom Wolfs, Marc Bierings, Corinne Gerhardt, Caroline Lindemans, Anne Wensing, Jaap Jan Boelens Source Type: research

[Norovirus] Turning viral persistence on and off
Norovirus causes >90% of the world's gastroenteritis. Norovirus can establish persistent infections, which may contribute to its spread. How does norovirus establish itself as a – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)
Source: This Week in Science - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Kristen L. Mueller Tags: Norovirus Source Type: research

[Report] Commensal microbes and interferon-λ determine persistence of enteric murine norovirus infection
The capacity of human norovirus (NoV), which causes >90% of global epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis, to infect a subset of people persistently may contribute to its spread. How such enteric viruses establish persistent infections is not well understood. We found that antibiotics prevented persistent murine norovirus (MNoV) infection, an effect that was reversed by replenishment of the bacterial microbiota. Antibiotics did not prevent tissue infection or affect systemic viral replication but acted specifically in the intestine. The receptor for the antiviral cytokine interferon-λ, Ifnlr1, as well as the transcripti...
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Megan T. Baldridge Source Type: research

[Report] Interferon-λ cures persistent murine norovirus infection in the absence of adaptive immunity
We report here that although the cytokines interferon-α (IFN-α) and IFN-β prevented the systemic spread of murine norovirus (MNoV), only IFN-λ controlled persistent enteric infection. Infection-dependent induction of IFN-λ was governed by the MNoV capsid protein and correlated with diminished enteric persistence. Treatment of established infection with IFN-λ cured mice in a manner requiring nonhematopoietic cell expression of the IFN-λ receptor, Ifnlr1, and independent of adaptive immunity. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of IFN-λ for curing virus infections in the gastrointestinal tract. Authors: T...
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Timothy J. Nice Source Type: research

[This Week in Science] Turning viral persistence on and off
Author: Kristen L. Mueller (Source: Science: Current Issue)
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Kristen L. Mueller Tags: Norovirus Source Type: research

[Perspective] Interfering with interferons
Living organisms must resist viral infection. In mammals, both infected cells and innate immune cells release signals (cytokines) that program the infected cells for antiviral defense, as well as alert neighboring cells that trouble is afoot. These signals—exemplified by the type I (α and β), type II (γ), and type III (λ) interferons (IFNs)—control the mammalian response against the vast majority of viruses. The host's control of an enteric pathogen, rotavirus, requires type III IFNs (1, 2). On page 269 and 266 of this issue, Nice (3) and Baldridge (4), respectively, show that protection provided by λ IFNs is gene...
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 15, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Jessica Wilks Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Sequence Analysis of the Capsid Gene during a Genotype II.4 Dominated Norovirus Season in One University Hospital: Identification of Possible Transmission Routes
by Barbara Juliane Holzknecht, Kristina Træholt Franck, Rikke Thoft Nielsen, Blenda Böttiger, Thea Kølsen Fischer, Jannik Fonager Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and genotype II.4 (GII.4) is responsible for the majority of nosocomial NoV infections. Our objective was to examine whether sequencing of the capsid gene might be a useful tool for the hospital outbreak investigation to define possible transmission routes. All NoV positive samples submitted from one university hospital during the 2007/8 season were selected. Genotyping of selected samples by partial polymerase gene sequencing had shown t...
Source: PLoS One - January 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Barbara Juliane Holzknecht et al. Source Type: research

2014: The Year of the Virus
Ebola is now a dreaded household name. Everyone has heard of this virus, causing thousands of deaths in countries in Africa particularly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. We followed the plight of health care workers who put their lives on the line to battle the viral disease, trying to prevent the virus from spreading to the next host. But what about the Enterovirus D68? And what about Chlorovirus, Densovirus, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Ranavirus? (See Bullets below). Our understanding of the viral world is severely limited. Viruses are the most numerous and diverse entities on earth with estimates of 1.7 bi...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - January 13, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news