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Gastroenteritis Attributable to 16 Enteropathogens in Children Attending Day Care: Significant Effects of Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia
Conclusions:We demonstrate that circulating viruses and parasites, rather than bacteria, contribute to seasonal GE experienced by children in day care. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - December 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Microbiological survey of mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan.
Authors: Hayashimoto N, Morita H, Ishida T, Uchida R, Tanaka M, Ozawa M, Yasuda M, Itoh T Abstract Information regarding the prevalence of infectious agents in mice in pet shops in Japan is scarce. This information is particularly useful for minimizing the risk of potential transmission of infections to laboratory mice. Therefore, we surveyed infectious agents in mice from pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan. The survey was conducted in 28 mice from 5 pet shops to screen for 47 items (17 viruses, 22 bacteria and fungi, 10 parasites) using culture tests, serology, PCR, and microscopy. The most common viral agent ...
Source: Experimental Animals - December 18, 2014 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Emergence of Norovirus GI.2 Outbreaks in Military Camps in Singapore
Highlights (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ho Zheng Jie Marc, Vithia Gunalan, Ng Ching Ging, Maurer-Stroh Sebastian, Clive M Tan, Jimmy Loh, Lin Tzer Pin Raymond, Lee Jian Ming Vernon Source Type: research

Norovirus in Healthcare SettingsNorovirus in Healthcare Settings
Norovirus outbreaks are common in many health care settings and may lead to long-term sequelae. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - December 17, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases Journal Article Source Type: news

Prophylactic treatment with the nucleoside analogue 2'-C-methylcytidine completely prevents transmission of norovirus
Conclusions These findings constitute an important first step towards developing an efficient prophylaxis for the control of norovirus outbreaks. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - December 16, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rocha-Pereira, J., Jochmans, D., Neyts, J. Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Norovirus and Rotavirus infection in children aged less than five years in a paediatric hospital, Havana, Cuba
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2014 Source:The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases Author(s): María de los Angeles Ribas , Yuselis Castaño , Marlon Daniel Martínez , Yahisel Tejero , Yanislet Cordero (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 15, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development of Lactobacillus paracasei harboring nucleic acid-hydrolyzing 3D8 scFv as a preventive probiotic against murine norovirus infection.
Abstract The protein 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (3D8 scFv) has potential anti-viral activity due to its ability to penetrate into cells and hydrolyze nucleic acids. Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei engineered to secrete 3D8 scFv for oral administration was used to test the anti-viral effects of 3D8 scFv against gastrointestinal virus infections. We found that injection of 3D8 scFv into the intestinal lumen resulted in the penetration of 3D8 scFv into the intestinal villi and lamina propria. 3D8 scFv secreted from engineered L. paracasei retained its cell-penetrating and nucleic acid-hydrolyzing activities,...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - December 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hoang PM, Cho S, Kim KE, Byun SJ, Lee TK, Lee S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Norovirus outbreak sickens cruise ship passengers
About 200 passengers leaving from Australia came down with the gastrointestinal illness and were isolated once diagnosed (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - December 8, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

High prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses among children with sporadic acute gastroenteritis in Nanning City, China, 2010–2011
A molecular epidemiological study of Norovirus (NoV) infections in children aged <5 years was conducted in the outpatient department of a hospital between January 2010 and December 2011 in Nanning City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. Fecal samples were collected from 354 pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis, and were screened for the presence of NoV with one‐step real‐time reverse‐transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR). NoV genogroup II (GII) was detected in 28.5% (101/342) of samples, but no NoV GI was found. Eighty‐four of the NoV GII strains were successfully sequenced, and th...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - December 8, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Tan Dongmei, Deng Lili, Wang Mingliu, Li Xiugui, Ma Yuyan, Liu Wei Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Autophagy and checkpoints for intracellular pathogen defense
Purpose of review: Autophagy plays a crucial role in intracellular defense against various pathogens. Xenophagy is a form of selective autophagy that targets intracellular pathogens for degradation. In addition, several related, yet distinct, intracellular defense responses depend on autophagy-related genes. This review gives an overview of these processes, pathogen strategies to subvert them, and their crosstalk with various cell death programs. Recent findings: The recruitment of autophagy-related proteins plays a key role in multiple intracellular defense programs, specifically xenophagy, microtubule-associated protein ...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Mitchell B. Cohen Source Type: research

Primary school closes after 150 pupils get norovirus
150 pupils and 14 teachers catch winter vomiting bug, leading the school to close its doors for a week (Source: Telegraph Health)
Source: Telegraph Health - December 3, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Effect of hypochlorite-based disinfectants on inactivation of murine norovirus and attempt to eliminate or prevent infection in mice by addition to drinking water.
In this study, we tried to eliminate and prevent MNV infection from mice by supplying hypochlorite-based disinfectants as an easy and low-cost method. Unfortunately, drinking disinfectants was ineffective, so it is important to keep the facility environment clean by use of effective disinfectants. Also, animals introduced into facilities should be tested as MNV free by quarantine and periodically confirmed as MNV free by microbiological monitoring. PMID: 23903059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - December 2, 2014 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Pitfalls in mouse norovirus (MNV) detection in fecal samples using RT-PCR, and construction of new MNV-specific primers.
Authors: Tajima M, Kotani Y, Kurosawa T, Miyasaka M Abstract The murine norovirus (MNV), which belongs to the Caliciviridae family, is prevalent in laboratory mice. Since this virus affects macrophages and dendritic cells, infected mice are not suitable for immunological investigations, making it important to detect MNV infections accurately. When we tested RNA extracts derived from mouse feces for MNV detection using nested RT-PCR with a set of MNV-specific primers reported by Goto et al. (Exp. Anim. 58: 135-140, 2009), we found that these primers amplified not only an MNV-specific signal but also amplified a rela...
Source: Experimental Animals - December 2, 2014 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Current microbiological status of laboratory mice and rats in experimental facilities in Japan.
Authors: Hayashimoto N, Morita H, Ishida T, Yasuda M, Kameda S, Uchida R, Tanaka M, Ozawa M, Sato A, Takakura A, Itoh T, Kagiyama N Abstract On the basis of our 2011 microbiological monitoring tests, we report here the current microbiological status of mice and rats housed in experimental facilities in Japan. We tested more than 14,000 mice, 6,000 serum samples, 500 fecal or cecal samples, and 200 lung samples from 3,549 mouse facilities within Japanese universities and institutes (U/I), pharmaceutical companies and contract research organizations (P/C). We also tested more than 1,500 rats, 1,600 serum samples, and...
Source: Experimental Animals - December 2, 2014 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

An outbreak of norovirus genogroup II associated with New South Wales oysters.
Conclusion: This investigation confirmed the value of real-time RT-PCR testing of human specimens where ICT tests are negative and clinical illness is suggestive of NoV infection. NoV real-time RT-PCR and epidemiological evidence effectively linked human infection with oyster contamination to motivate a thorough environmental investigation and appropriate action to mitigate further public health risk. Commun Dis Intell 2014;38(1):E9-E15. PMID: 25409363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report)
Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report - December 2, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commun Dis Intell Q Rep Source Type: research

An outbreak of norovirus linked to oysters in Tasmania.
This report highlights the consequences of norovirus outbreaks in shellfish, even with rapid identification, trace back and removal of the implicated product from the market. Commun Dis Intell 2014;38(1)E16-E19. PMID: 25409349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report)
Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report - December 2, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commun Dis Intell Q Rep Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.
Abstract Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has the characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides, they have the characteristics rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these rea...
Source: BMB Reports - December 2, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lee SG, Cho HG, Paik SY Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research

Cepheid Receives FDA Clearance for Xpert Norovirus, the First On-Demand Molecular Test for Detection of Norovirus
Accurate Norovirus Detection in as Little as One Hour SUNNYVALE, Calif., Dec. 1, 2014 -- (Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network) -- Cepheid (NASDAQ: CPHD) today announced it has received clearance from the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) to market... Diagnostics, FDACepheid, Xpert Norovirus, norovirus (Source: HSMN NewsFeed)
Source: HSMN NewsFeed - December 1, 2014 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Clinical Usefulness of Oral Immunoglobulins in Lung Transplant Recipients With Norovirus Gastroenteritis: A Case Series
Viral gastroenteritis causing diarrhea is a common complication observed in lung transplant recipients. Differently from the mild and typically self-limited disease seen in immunocompetent subjects, immunocompromised patients frequently have a more severe course. Norovirus and rotavirus are among the leading causes of severe gastroenteritis in transplant recipients. Specific treatment is unavailable, although good supportive treatment can significantly reduce morbidity. Previous studies have suggested that oral immunoglobulins may be used for the treatment of acute viral gastroenteritis after solid-organ transplantation. (...
Source: Transplantation Proceedings - December 1, 2014 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: A.-C. Gairard-Dory, T. Dégot, S. Hirschi, A. Schuller, A. Leclercq, B. Renaud-Picard, B. Gourieux, R. Kessler Tags: Frontiers in Transplantation Source Type: research

Comparison of Three Rapid Tests for Detection of Norovirus in Stool Samples of Acute Gastroenteritis Pediatric Patients
(Source: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics)
Source: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics - November 28, 2014 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Khamrin, P., Thongprachum, A., Okitsu, S., Maneekarn, N., Hayakawa, S., Ushijima, H. Tags: Research Letters Source Type: research

Etiology, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of acute moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age hospitalized in a referral pediatric hospital in Rabat, Morocco.
The objective of the study was to describe the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of the principal causes of acute infectious diarrhea requiring hospitalization among children under 5 years of age in Rabat, Morocco. A prospective study was conducted from March 2011 to March 2012, designed to describe the main pathogens causing diarrhea in hospitalized children >2 months and less than 5 years of age. Among the 122 children included in the study, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and rotavirus were the main etiologic causes of diarrhea detected. Twelve (9.8%) children were referred to the intensive care u...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 28, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ben Messaoud R, Jroundi I, Nezha M, Moraleda C, Tligui H, Seffar M, Alvarez-Martinez MJ, Pons MJ, Chaacho S, Hayes EB, Vila J, Alonso PL, Bassat Q, Ruiz J Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of cross-reactive norovirus-specific monoclonal antibodies.
Abstract Noroviruses (NoVs) commonly cause acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. Broadly reactive diagnostic assays are essential for rapid detection of NoV infections. We previously generated a panel of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We characterized MAb reactivity with NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) from 13 different genotypes (GI=5, GII=8) coated on a microtiter plate (direct ELISA) and by western blot. MAbs were genotype-specific or recognized multiple genotypes within a genogroup and between genogroups. We next applied surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to measure MAb dissociation constants (Kd) as a ...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - November 26, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kou B, Crawford SE, Ajami NJ, Czakó R, Neill FH, Tanaka TN, Kitamoto N, Palzkill TG, Estes MK, Atmar RL Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research

Mapping Broadly Reactive Norovirus Genogroup I and II Monoclonal Antibodies.
Abstract Noroviruses are responsible for most acute nonbacterial epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. To develop cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for rapid identification of genogroup I (GI) and genogroup II (GII) noroviruses (NoVs) in field specimens, mice were immunized with baculovirus-expressed recombinant NoV virus-like particles (VLPs). Nine MAbs to the capsid protein were identified that detected both GI and GII NoV VLPs. These MAbs were tested in competition enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) to identify common epitope reactivities to GI and GII VLPs. Patterns of competitive r...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - November 26, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Crawford SE, Ajami N, Parker TD, Kitamoto N, Natori K, Takeda N, Tanaka T, Kou B, Atmar RL, Estes MK Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research

Structure of a backtracked state reveals conformational changes similar to the state following nucleotide incorporation in human norovirus polymerase
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) from norovirus (NV) genogroup II has previously been crystallized as an apoenzyme (APO1) in multiple crystal forms, as well as as a pre-incorporation ternary complex (PRE1) bound to Mn2+, various nucleoside triphosphates and an RNA primer-template duplex in an orthorhombic crystal form. When crystallized under near-identical conditions with a slightly different RNA primer/template duplex, however, the enzyme–RNA complex forms tetragonal crystals (anisotropic data, dmin ≃ 1.9 Å) containing a complex with the primer/template bound in a backtracked state (BACK1) similar to a post...
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section D - November 22, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zamyatkin, D.Rao, C.Hoffarth, E.Jurca, G.Rho, H.Parra, F.Grochulski, P.Ng, K.K.-S. Tags: human norovirus polymerase research papers Source Type: research

Study of the Virucidal Potential of Organic Peroxyacids Against Norovirus on Food-Contact Surfaces
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of four different peroxyacids, namely peracetic (PAA), perpropionic (PPA), perlactic (PLA), and percitric (PCA) for inactivating viruses in suspension or attached to stainless steel or polyvinyl chloride surfaces. The test virus was a proxy for human norovirus, namely murine norovirus 1. Plaque-forming units in suspension (107 per mL) were treated with 50–1,000 mg L−1 peroxyacid (equilibrium mixture of organic acid, hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacid, and water) for 1–10 min. Inactivation was measured by plaque assay. PAA and PPA were the most effective, with a 5 min t...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 21, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A One Year Study on the Concentrations of Norovirus and Enteric Adenoviruses in Wastewater and A Surface Drinking Water Source in Norway
This study is the first in Norway to monitor both sewage and a drinking water source in parallel, and confirms the year-round presence of norovirus and adenovirus in a Norwegian drinking water source. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus GII.17 Predominates in Selected Surface Water Sources in Kenya
In this study, the prevalence and genotypes of noroviruses (NoVs) in selected water sources from rural, urban and refugee settings in Kenya were investigated. Ten litres each of river, household and borehole water was collected in rural (Mboone River), urban (Nairobi and Mutoine River) and refugee (Dadaab refugee camp) settings. NoVs were recovered from the water samples by a glass wool adsorption–elution technique and/or PEG/NaCl precipitation. Nucleic acid was extracted using the automated MagNA Pure platform. NoVs were detected with singleplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays and charac...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Antiviral Effects of Lactococcus lactis on Feline Calicivirus, A Human Norovirus Surrogate
This study aimed to determine the antiviral activity of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of human NV. Bacterial growth medium filtrate (BGMF) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 and its bacterial cell suspension (BCS) were evaluated separately for their antiviral activity against FCV grown in Crandell–Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. No significant antiviral effect was seen when CRFK cells were pre-treated with either BGMF (raw or pH 7-adjusted BGMF) or BCS. However, pre-treatment of FCV with BGMF and BCS resulted in a reduction in virus titers of 1.3 log10 tis...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Lessons from Norovirus Outbreak in Warsaw, Poland, December 2012
This article reports on an investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak linked to catering food following a Christmas reception at the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene (NIPH-NIH) in Warsaw in December 2012. Of 192 employees eating food at the catering event, 97 (50.5 %) developed symptoms. Persons eating dishes with recipes containing frozen carrots were five times more likely to develop gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those who did not eat carrots. Laboratory analysis identified norovirus in stool samples taken from symptomatic persons. Leftover food was not available for testing. Th...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation Method for the Recovery of Hepatitis A Virus and GI.1 and GII.4 Norovirus Strains Seeded on Oyster and Mussel
In conclusion, the IMS/RT-PCR method can be used to efficiently and rapidly detect viruses such as HAV and NoV in shellfish such as oyster and mussel. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria
Nature advance online publication 19 November 2014. doi:10.1038/nature13960 Authors: Elisabeth Kernbauer, Yi Ding & Ken Cadwell Intestinal microbial communities have profound effects on host physiology. Whereas the symbiotic contribution of commensal bacteria is well established, the role of eukaryotic viruses that are present in the gastrointestinal tract under homeostatic conditions is undefined. Here we demonstrate that a common enteric RNA virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria in the intestine. Murine norovirus (MNV) infection of germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice restored intestinal mo...
Source: Nature AOP - November 19, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Elisabeth KernbauerYi DingKen Cadwell Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Norovirus and Rotavirus Survival in Urine Collected from a Public Ecological Sanitation System in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Abstract Urine from urine-diversion toilets (UDTs) is routinely used as fertilizer for urban agriculture in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Because urine from UDTs can be accidentally spoiled by feces, we determined whether virulent enteric viruses could persist in urine that is used for agricultural purposes and pose a threat to human health. Urine samples (N = 60) were first collected from 42 UDTs during the months of January and February 2012 in Ouagadougou and screened negative for the presence of norovirus (NoV) and group A rotavirus (RV). Composite urine from five collection sites was used to determine whether ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 19, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria
Cadwell Intestinal microbial communities have profound effects on host physiology. Whereas the symbiotic contribution of commensal bacteria is well established, the role of eukaryotic viruses that are present in the gastrointestinal tract under homeostatic conditions is undefined. Here we demonstrate that a common enteric RNA virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria in the intestine. Murine norovirus (MNV) infection of germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice restored intestinal morphology and lymphocyte function without inducing overt inflammation and disease. The presence of MNV also suppressed a...
Source: Nature - November 19, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Elisabeth KernbauerYi DingKen Cadwell Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Structural analysis of a feline norovirus protruding domain.
Abstract Norovirus infects different animals, including humans, mice, dogs, and cats. Here, we show an X-ray crystal structure of a feline GIV.2 norovirus capsid-protruding (P) domain to 2.35Å resolution. The feline GIV.2 P domain was reminiscent of human norovirus P domains, except for a novel P2 subdomain α-helix and an extended P1 subdomain interface loop. These new structural features likely obstructed histo-blood group antigens, which are attachment factors for human norovirus, from binding at the equivalent sites on the feline GIV.2 P domain. Additionally, an ELISA showed that the feline GIV.2 was antigenic...
Source: Virology - November 19, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Singh BK, Glatt S, Ferrer JL, D Koromyslova A, Leuthold MM, Dunder J, Hansman GS Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Vomiting Larry helping beat norovirus winter vomiting bug
To investigate the spread of the bug, which strikes up to a million people each year, the scientists developed a type of robot, called Vomiting Larry, that simulates human projectile vomiting. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - November 18, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Norovirus sickens more than 170 on cruise
The latest norovirus outbreak aboard the Princess Cruises' Crown Princess has infected 172 people, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)
Source: WDSU.com - Health - November 17, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Norovirus strikes 172 on cruise ship
Kate StantonSAN PEDRO, Calif., Nov. 17 (UPI) -- Princess Cruises' Crown Princess cruise ship docked in San Pedro, California after more than 170 people aboard had contracted norovirus. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Source: Health News - UPI.com - November 17, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Norovirus sickens cruise ship passengers
The latest norovirus outbreak aboard the Princess Cruises' Crown Princess has infected 172 people, according to the CDC. (Source: CNN.com - Health)
Source: CNN.com - Health - November 17, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Application of quantitative microbial risk assessment for selection of microbial reduction targets for hard surface disinfectants
Conclusion This QMRA analysis suggests that a reduction in bacterial numbers on a fomite by 99% (2 logs) most often will reduce the risk of infection from a single contact to less than 1 in 1 million. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - November 17, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Routine monitoring of adenovirus and norovirus within the health care environment
This study investigated the presence of adenovirus and norovirus on ward surfaces using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assist in the development of evidence-based infection control policy. Screening was carried out weekly for 6 months in the common areas of 2 pediatric wards. Additionally, a one-off screening was undertaken for adenovirus and norovirus on a day unit and for adenovirus only in patient cubicles while occupied. Over the 6-month screening of common areas, 2.4% of samples were positive for adenovirus or norovirus. In rooms occupied with adenovirus-infected children, all cubicle screening sites and...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - November 17, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

172 fall ill on Carnival's Crown Princess cruise from California
(Reuters) - A cruise ship with 172 passengers and crew members suffering from a gastrointestinal ailment caused by norovirus was met by public health officials when it docked in California on Sunday, authorities and Carnival Corp said. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - November 16, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

172 Fall Ill on Carnival's Crown Princess Cruise
Passengers and crew members suffering from a gastrointestinal ailment caused by norovirus were met by public health officials when the ship docked in California Sunday -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - November 16, 2014 Category: Science Tags: Health Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Nitazoxanide: A first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Antiviral Research, Volume 110 Author(s): Jean-François Rossignol Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral drug and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. A Phase 2b/3 clinical trial recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases found that oral administration of nitazoxanide 600mg twice daily for five days reduced the duration of clinical symptoms and reduced viral shedding compared to placebo in persons with laboratory-confirmed influenza. The same study also...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - November 16, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Acute gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with ground-waterborne norovirus in South Korea during 2008–2012
Brief Report H. G. CHO, S. G. LEE, W. H. KIM, J. S. LEE, P. H. PARK, D. S. CHEON, W. H. JHEONG, E. H. JHO, J. B. LEE, S. Y. PAIK, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 142 Issue 12, pp 2604-2609Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - November 15, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pattern of Circulation of Norovirus GII Strains during Natural Infection [Virology]
In this study, the pattern of circulation of NoVs was studied among 146 children and 137 adults in a small community in southwestern Cameroon. The participants provided monthly fecal samples during a year. NoV RNA was detected in at least one sample from 82 (29%) of the participants. The partial VP1 region could be sequenced in 36 NoV GII-positive samples. Three different genotypes were identified (GII.1, GII.4, and GII.17), with each genotype circulating within 2 to 3 months and reappearing after a relapse period of 2 to 3 months. Most infections occurred once, and 2 episodes at most within a year were detected. No differ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - November 14, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ayukekbong, J. A., Fobisong, C., Tah, F., Lindh, M., Nkuo-Akenji, T., Bergstrom, T. Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal pathogens detected by multiplex nucleic acid amplification testing in stools of pediatric patients and patients returning from the tropics
Conclusion Our study demonstrates broad detection of relevant gastroenteritis pathogens by multiplexNAT with a short turnaround time. This is important for diagnosis, infection control and empiric management of gastroenteritis patients, but may be selectively complemented by bacterial culture and resistance testing. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - November 11, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Norovirus blamed for illness outbreak at upscale California hotel
(Reuters) - California health authorities have determined that the highly contagious norovirus was responsible for sickening 60 people at an upscale Bay Area hotel, sending about a dozen to the hospital, officials said on Monday.  (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - November 11, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

Noroviren – ein Impfstoff muss erst entwickelt werden
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Public Health Forum, Volume 22, Issue 3 Author(s): Friedrich Hofmann Seit der ersten wissenschaftlich genauen Dokumentation der ‘winter vomiting disease’ mit den typischen Merkmalen einer Gastroenteritis im Jahre 1968 und der wenig später erfolgten Entdeckung des verantwortlichen Pathogens (heute als Norovirus bezeichnet) hat man in zahlreichen Studien versucht, Präventionsmaßnahmen zu erforschen. 2010 wurden erste Ergebnisse einer Studie zur Produktion eines Impfstoffs mit Hilfe virusartiger Partikel präsentiert, denen 2012 eine weitere, ähnliche Untersuchung folgte. In d...
Source: Public Health Forum - November 11, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Survival of Porcine teschovirus as a surrogate virus on pork chops during storage at 2°C.
This study provides data on the survival of PTV on pork and insight on the potential of PTV as a surrogate for HEV in the pork processing chain. PMID: 25461604 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - November 8, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Jones TH, Muehlhauser V Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research