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Analysis of norovirus outbreaks reveals the need for timely and extended microbiological testing
Conclusion Future prevention strategies should focus not only on patients but also on staff. Constant surveillance for new cases of diarrhoea and vomiting and timely adherence to contact precautions for all exposed persons is crucial in outbreak control, as is the need for extended microbiological testing. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - November 29, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Human bocavirus in stool: a true pathogen or an innocent bystander?
Acute gastroenteritis is a prevailing disease with a higher rate and an increased severity of illness found in young children [1,2]. Viral pathogens are important contributors to the burden of this disease, of which norovirus and rotavirus are most common [3,4]. Despite increasing and better detection methods for bacteria, parasites, and viruses, up to 40% of gastroenteritis cases remain of unknown etiology . This has led to the continuous search for an association with other pathogens in the past decade. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - November 26, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: David S.Y. Ong, Rob Schuurman, Esther Heikens Tags: Review Source Type: research
Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in children and the elderly in Atlanta, Georgia, United States
ConclusionNorovirus in the elderly can be associated with severe illness requiring ICU admissions. The pediatric group demonstrated greater variability in genotype distribution. Ongoing surveillance of norovirus genotypes is crucial for norovirus vaccine development in understanding circulating and emerging genotypes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - November 25, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Jumi Yi, Kelly Wahl, Bethany K. Sederdahl, Robert R. Jerris, Colleen S. Kraft, Courtney McCracken, Scott Gillespie, Evan J. Anderson, Amy E. Kirby, Andi L. Shane, Christine L. Moe Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Biological and immunological characterization of norovirus major capsid proteins from three different genotypes
In this study, NoV major capsid proteins (VP1) from three different genotypes (GI.2, GII.3 and GII.4) were expressed by using recombinant baculovirus expression system and which led to successful assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs). The receptor binding patterns of three kinds of VLPs were characterized by using synthetic and salivary HBGA-VLP binding assay. Cross-reactivity and cross-blocking activity of rabbit hyperimmune sera against these VLPs were determined by ELISA/Western blot analysis and saliva-VLP binding blockade assay, respectively. Expression of the major capsid proteins from three genotypes all led to sm...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrh...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - November 23, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: McAtee CL, Webman R, Gilman RH, Mejia C, Bern C, Sonia A, Susan E, Mónica P, Mayuko S, Challappa R, Soria R, Ribera JP, Lozano D, Torrico F Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Norovirus Antigen Detection with a Combination of Monoclonal and Single-Chain Antibodies [Virology]
The performance of a norovirus antigen detection assay was assessed using monoclonal antibody NV23 and single-chain antibody HJT-R3-A9 to identify both virus-like particles and virus-containing fecal samples. The detection of 25 different norovirus genotypes as recombinant virus-like particles or in clinical samples was dependent on virus or antigen concentration. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - November 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kou, B., Huang, W., Neill, F. H., Palzkill, T., Estes, M. K., Atmar, R. L. Tags: Virology Source Type: research
Human bocavirus in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Russia from 2010 to 2012.
This study demonstrated that the detection rate of HBoV in stool samples from children with gastroenteritis was low, although both HBoV1 and HBoV2 could be found as the sole agents in children with gastroenteritis in Novosibirsk. PMID: 26602159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - November 18, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tymentsev A, Tikunov A, Zhirakovskaia E, Kurilschikov A, Babkin I, Klemesheva V, Netesov S, Tikunova N Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Structural analysis of bovine norovirus protruding domain.
Abstract We determined a structure of a bovine (genogroup III, GIII) norovirus capsid protruding (P) domain using X-ray crystallography. The bovine P domain was reminiscent of other norovirus genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV), but closely matched the human GI P domain. We also identified a monoclonal antibody that was capable of binding the five different (GI-GV) P domains. Our data suggests that genetically diverse noroviruses still contain common epitopes. PMID: 26599362 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - November 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Singh BK, Koromyslova A, Hansman GS Tags: Virology Source Type: research
Emerging Norovirus GII.17 in Taiwan
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - November 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee, C.-C., Feng, Y., Chen, S.-Y., Tsai, C.-N., Lai, M.-W., Chiu, C.-H. Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research
[Report] Nlrp6 regulates intestinal antiviral innate immunity
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptor (Nlrp) 6 maintains gut microbiota homeostasis and regulates antibacterial immunity. We now report a role for Nlrp6 in the control of enteric virus infection. Nlrp6−/− and control mice systemically challenged with encephalomyocarditis virus had similar mortality; however, the gastrointestinal tract of Nlrp6−/− mice exhibited increased viral loads. Nlrp6−/− mice orally infected with encephalomyocarditis virus had increased mortality and viremia compared with controls. Similar results were observed with murine norovirus 1. Nlrp6 bound viral RNA via the ...
Source: Science: Current Issue - November 13, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Penghua Wang Source Type: research
[Antiviral Immunity] Nlrp6 keeps gut infections in check
Most viruses infect only certain cells of the body. Enteric viruses, such as norovirus and rotavirus, specifically infect the gut. Wang et al. now show that the response to – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)
Source: This Week in Science - November 13, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Kristen L. Mueller Tags: Antiviral Immunity Source Type: research
Understanding Variations in Norovirus Protease Activity [Microbiology]
The viral protease represents a key drug target for the development of antiviral therapeutics. Because many protease inhibitors mimic protease substrates, differences in substrate recognition between proteases may affect their sensitivity to a given inhibitor. Here we use a cell-based FRET sensor to investigate the activity of different norovirus proteases upon cleavage of various norovirus cleavage sites inserted into a linker region separating cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein. Using this system, we demonstrate that differences in substrate processing exist between proteases from human noroviruses (...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - November 13, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Emmott, E., Sweeney, T. R., Goodfellow, I. Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
Twitter hashtags can identify outbreaks of norovirus and food poisoning
Experts at the Food Standards Agency (FSA) said a trial found they were able to identify outbreaks two weeks earlier than the normal reporting process through GPs. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - November 12, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
A novel norovirus GII.17 lineage contributed to adult gastroenteritis in Shanghai, China, during the winter of 2014–2015
A novel norovirus GII.17 lineage contributed to adult gastroenteritis in Shanghai, China, during the winter of 2014–2015 Emerging Microbes & Infections 4, e67 (November 2015). doi:10.1038/emi.2015.67 Authors: Haili Chen, Fangxing Qian, Jin Xu, Martin Chan, Zhen Shen, Shubei Zai, Menglin Shan, Jinfeng Cai, Wanju Zhang, Jing He, Yi Liu, Jun Zhang, Zhenghong Yuan, Zhaoqin Zhu & Yunwen Hu (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)
Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections - November 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haili ChenFangxing QianJin XuMartin ChanZhen ShenShubei ZaiMenglin ShanJinfeng CaiWanju ZhangJing HeYi LiuJun ZhangZhenghong YuanZhaoqin ZhuYunwen Hu Tags: gastroenteritis genotypes norovirus Source Type: research
A rigid lanthanide binding tag to aid NMR studies of a 70 kDa homodimeric coat protein of human norovirus.
Abstract Attachment of human noroviruses to histo blood group antigens is thought to be essential for infection of host cells. Molecular details of the attachment process can be studied in vitro using a variety of NMR experiments. The use of protein NMR based experiments requires assignments of backbone NMR signals. Using uniformly (2)H,(15)N-labeled protruding domains (P-dimers) of a prevalent epidemic human norovirus strain (GII.4 Saga) we have studied the potential of α-l-fucose covalently linked to a rigid lanthanide binding tag to aid backbone assignments using the paramagnetic properties of lanthanide ions. ...
Source: Chemical Communications - November 10, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mallagaray A, Domínguez G, Peters T, Pérez-Castells J Tags: Chem Commun (Camb) Source Type: research
Human Norovirus prevalence in Africa: a review of studies from 1990 to 2013
ConclusionUnreported sporadic gastroenteritis cases of Human Norovirus are common in Africa. Most are community‐associated infections. Possible environmental transmission routes have been documented. Combined environmental and clinical studies are required for targeted actions to control transmission of Human Norovirus in Africa. Systematic surveillance of Human Norovirus is needed to measure the burden of Norovirus‐induced gastroenteritis in Africa and support any requirements for vaccine development. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health - November 9, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Paul R. Hunter, Natasha Potgieter Tags: Review Source Type: research
Molecular epidemiology of genogroup II norovirus infection among hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Suzhou (Jiangsu, China) from 2010 to 2013
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - November 8, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Jian‐guang Fu, Jing Ai, Jun Zhang, Qing‐bin Wu, Xian Qi, Hong Ji, Miao Jin, Cheng Liu, Shen‐jiao Wang, Jun Shan, Chang‐jun Bao, Fen‐yang Tang, Ye‐fei Zhu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Temporary suspension of visiting during norovirus outbreaks in NHS Boards and the independent care home sector in Scotland: a cross-sectional survey of practice
Conclusion Implementation of TSV in Scotland is inconsistent, with variation in the use of criteria, personal beliefs, and professional judgements. Further research on the role of visitors in transmission and service-user acceptability of TSV is required for policy development. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - November 7, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Genetic Analysis of Norovirus GII.4 Variant Strains Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis in Yokohama, Japan, from the 2006-2007 to the 2013-2014 Seasons
by Makoto Kumazaki, Shuzo Usuku Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, both in sporadic cases and outbreaks. Since the 1990s, the emergence of several GII.4 variants has been reported worldwide. To investigate the epidemic status of NoV, 6,724 stool samples collected from outbreaks in Yokohama, Japan, from the 2006–2007 to 2013–2014 seasons were assessed for NoVs. We genotyped one specimen from each GII outbreak and conducted a sequence analysis of the VP1 gene for several GII.4 strains. Of the 947 NoV outbreaks during our study, GII was detected in 835, and GII.4 was the predominant genoty...
Source: PLoS One - November 6, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Makoto Kumazaki et al. Source Type: research
Norovirus outbreak management: how much cohorting is necessary?
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2015 Source:Journal of Hospital Infection Author(s): S. Korte, A. Pettke, A. Kossow, A. Mellmann, S. Willems, F. Kipp For the control of norovirus outbreaks, it is widely recommended that exposed but asymptomatic patients should be cohorted separately from unexposed patients and from symptomatic patients. The frequency of subsequent symptomatic norovirus infection in contact patients has not been investigated systematically. We retrospectively investigated the development of typical norovirus symptoms in contact patients during seven norovirus outbreaks affecting 57 pat...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - November 5, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Occurrence of Norovirus GIV in Environmental Water Samples from Belém City, Amazon Region, Brazil
Abstract Noroviruses are the major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans, with few reports about the occurrence of the norovirus GIV strain. We investigated the presence of norovirus GIV in surface water (river, bay, and stream) and untreated sewage, and we determined a positivity rate of 9.4 % (9/96). The strains genotyped were GIV.1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of GIV in Brazil. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 4, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research
A new EV71 VP3 epitope in norovirus P particle vector displays neutralizing activity and protection in vivo in mice.
In this study, we selected 10 divergent epitope candidates based on alignment of the EV71 and CVA16 P1 amino acid sequences using the Multalin interface page, and these epitopes are conserved among all subgenotypes of EV71. Simultaneously, by utilizing the norovirus P particle as a novel vaccine delivery carrier, we identified the 71-6 epitope (amino acid 176-190 of VP3) as a conformational neutralizing epitope against EV71 in an in vitro micro-neutralization assay as well as an in vivo protection assay in mice. Altogether, these results indicated that the incorporation of the 71-6 epitope into the norovirus P domain can p...
Source: Vaccine - October 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jiang L, Fan R, Sun S, Fan P, Su W, Zhou Y, Gao F, Xu F, Kong W, Jiang C Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
A rigid lanthanide binding tag to aid NMR studies of a 70 kDa homodimeric coat protein of human norovirus
Chem. Commun., 2015, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C5CC05827A, CommunicationAlvaro Mallagaray, Gema Dominguez, Thomas Peters, Javier Perez-CastellsAttachment of human noroviruses to histo blood group antigens is thought to be essential for infection of host cells. Molecular details of the attachment process can be studied in vitro...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles)
Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles - October 30, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alvaro Mallagaray Source Type: research
Inactivation of bacteria and murine norovirus in untreated groundwater using a pilot-scale continuous-flow intense pulsed light (IPL) system
The objective of this study was to characterize the inactivation effects of a pilot-scale continuous-flow intense pulsed light (IPL) system on microorganisms in untreated groundwater used in the food industry. The inactivation effects of laboratory- and pilot-scale IPL systems on murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate, were also investigated. Flow rates of 40, 32, 20 and 12 l/min were tested (corresponding to 89, 113, 179, and 290 s of treatment time in a chamber, respectively). A 290-s pilot-scale IPL treatment at an energy dose of 14.02 J/cm2 resulted in a 4.79-log reduction of Escherichia coli C600 in wa...
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - October 29, 2015 Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Human norovirus culture in B cells
Nature Protocols 10, 1939 (2015). doi:10.1038/nprot.2015.121 Authors: Melissa K Jones, Katrina R Grau, Veronica Costantini, Abimbola O Kolawole, Miranda de Graaf, Pamela Freiden, Christina L Graves, Marion Koopmans, Shannon M Wallet, Scott A Tibbetts, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Christiane E Wobus, Jan Vinjé & Stephanie M Karst Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of foodborne disease and severe childhood diarrhea, and they cause a majority of the gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. However, the development of effective and long-lasting HuNoV vaccines and therapeutics has been greatly hindered by the...
Source: Nature Protocols - October 29, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Melissa K JonesKatrina R GrauVeronica CostantiniAbimbola O KolawoleMiranda de GraafPamela FreidenChristina L GravesMarion KoopmansShannon M WalletScott A TibbettsStacey Schultz-CherryChristiane E WobusJan VinjéStephanie M Karst Tags: Protocol Source Type: research
Evaluation of a Porcine Gastric Mucin and RNase A Assay for the Discrimination of Infectious and Non-infectious GI.1 and GII.4 Norovirus Following Thermal, Ethanol, or Levulinic Acid Plus Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Treatments
Abstract Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a major source of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Since human NoVs cannot be cultured in vitro, methods that discriminate infectious from non-infectious NoVs are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate binding of NoV genotypes GI.1 and GII.4 to histo-blood group antigens expressed in porcine gastric mucin (PGM) as a surrogate for detecting infectious virus following thermal (99 °C/5 min), 70 % ethanol or 0.5 % levulinic acid (LV) plus 0.01 or 0.1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sanitizer treatments and to determine the limit of detection of GI.1 and GII.4 binding...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 29, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research
Emergence of a novel GII.17 norovirus – End of the GII.4 era?
Abstract In the winter of 2014/15 a novel GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus strain (GII.17 Kawasaki 2014) emerged, as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China and Japan. Since their emergence these novel GII.P17-GII.17 viruses have replaced the previously dominant GII.4 genotype Sydney 2012 variant in some areas in Asia but were only detected in a limited number of cases on other continents. This perspective provides an overview of the available information on GII.17 viruses in order to gain insight in the viral and host characteristics of this norovirus genotype. We further discuss the emergence of this novel GI...
Source: Euro Surveill - October 28, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Graaf M, van Beek J, Vennema H, Podkolzin AT, Hewitt J, Bucardo F, Templeton K, Mans J, Nordgren J, Reuter G, Lynch M, Rasmussen LD, Iritani N, Chan MC, Martella V, Ambert-Balay K, Vinjé J, White PA, Koopmans MP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
Development of a sensitive method for directly sequencing GII.4 norovirus genome
A new strategy was proposed for amplifying and sequencing GII.4 norovirus genomes directly. A set of primer pairs were rationally designed, which amplified six overlapping fragments encompassing the whole genome. The sensitivity of new primers was comparable to that of detection primers, and ten viral genome sequences were successfully obtained. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - October 28, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liang Xue, Weicheng Cai, Qingping Wu, Xiaoxia Kou, Jumei Zhang, Weipeng Guo Source Type: research
Prevailing Sydney like Norovirus GII.4 VLPs induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice
In this study, VLPs were successfully produced using the VP1 of Sydney-2012-like strain and its immunogenicity was evaluated by different routes and its capability in inducing mucosal immune responses in the presence and absence of adjuvants in BALB/c mice. Administration of NoV VLPs in the presence of Al(OH)3 or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL-A) led to high titers of VLP-specific IgG antibodies. Administration of VLPs orally in the presence of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) didn't enhance mucosal immune response as less fecal IgA positive mice were observed when compared with those given VLPs only. Our study represents the fi...
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Meeting report: 28th International Conference on Antiviral Research in Rome, Italy
This article summarizes the principal invited lectures. Phillip Furman, the Elion award recipient, described the research leading to sofosbuvir. Dennis Liotta, who received the Holý award, described how an investigation into HIV entry inhibitors led to a new therapy for cancer patients. Erica Ollmann Saphire, winner of the Prusoff Young Investigator award, explored the world of viral proteins and how they remodel to perform different essential roles in viral replication. The keynote addresses, by Raffaele De Francesco and Michael Manns, reported on the remarkable progress made in the therapy of chronic HCV infections. A t...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - October 25, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research
Changes in Microbial Composition of Wastewater During Treatment in a Full-Scale Plant.
Abstract The monitoring of wastewater treatment plants is important for their proper functioning as well as for re-use of water and also to avoid possible circulation of human or animal pathogens in our environment. The samples in this study originated from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant where the structure of the bacterial community was monitored using 454-pyrosequencing. The composition differed in different parts of the plant. In the effluent, bacteria belonging to phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, TM7 and Bacteroidetes were most frequently detected. The presence of Mycobacterium sp., Mycobacterium ...
Source: Current Microbiology - October 24, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kaevska M, Videnska P, Vasickova P Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research
Estimated hospitalizations attributed to norovirus and rotavirus infection in Canada, 2006–2010
Research Articles V. K. MORTON, M. K. THOMAS, S. A. McEWEN, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 16, pp 3528-3537Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - October 23, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Bovine noroviruses: a missing component of calf diarrhoea diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2015 Source:The Veterinary Journal Author(s): Elisabetta Di Felice, Axel Mauroy, Fabiana Dal Pozzo, Damien Thiry, Chiara Ceci, Barbara Di Martino, Fulvio Marsilio, Etienne Thiry Noroviruses are RNA viruses that belong to the Genus Norovirus, Family Caliciviridae, and infect human beings and several animal species, including cattle. Bovine norovirus infections have been detected in cattle of a range of different ages throughout the world. Currently there is no suitable cell culture system for these viruses and information on their pathogenesis is limited. Molecular and...
Source: The Veterinary Journal - October 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Compounds derived from epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as a novel approach to the prevention of viral infections.
Abstract Pathogenic viral infections pose major health risks to humans and livestock due to viral infection-associated illnesses such as chronic or acute inflammation in crucial organs and systems, malignant and benign lesions. These lead to large number of illnesses and deaths worldwide each year. Outbreaks of emerging lethal viruses, such as Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) virus, could lead to epidemics or even pandemics if they are not effectively controlled. Current strategies to prevent viral entry into the human body are focused on cleans...
Source: Inflammation and Allergy Drug Targets - October 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hsu S Tags: Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets Source Type: research
Validating the Use of Google Trends to Enhance Pertussis Surveillance in California
We examined the possible role of a delay to pertussis diagnosis (from symptom onset) limiting the model performance, but an extended models using lagged observed pertussis time series did not show improvement of model fit. This may indicate that the model is detecting real-time Google activity performed around the time patients receive a pertussis diagnosis (rather than detecting Google activity about pertussis symptoms before seeking healthcare). Since the launch of Google Flu Trends in 2009, there have been numerous other applications of Google Trends to a broad number of communicable diseases as diverse as Ebola and m...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - October 19, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: spollett Source Type: research
Murine norovirus (MNV-1) exposure in vitro to the purine nucleoside analog Ribavirin increases quasispecies diversity.
Abstract Ribavirin is a pharmaceutical antiviral used for the treatment of RNA virus infections including norovirus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, Lassa virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinovirus Despite the drug's history and documented efficacy, the antiviral mechanism of Ribavirin remains unclear. Mechanisms proposed include depletion of the intracellular GTP pool, immunomodulatory effects, induction of error catastrophe, inhibition of viral polymerase activity, and/or inhibition of viral capping. In the present study, we leveraged deep sequencing data to demonstrate that Ribavirin increases muri...
Source: Virus Research - October 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Julian TR, Baugher JD, Rippinger C, Pinekenstein R, Kolawole AO, Mehoke T, Wobus CE, Feldman A, Pineda FJ, Schwab KJ Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Murine Norovirus Infection Variably Alters Atherosclerosis in Mice Lacking Apolipoprotein E.
Abstract Macrophages play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Murine noroviruses (MNV) are highly prevalent in research mouse colonies and infect macrophages and dendritic cells. Our laboratory found that MNV4 infection in mice lacking the LDL receptor alters the development of atherosclerosis, potentially confounding research outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether MNV4 likewise altered atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. In the presence of oxidized LDL, MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages increased the gene expression of the inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide syn...
Source: Comparative Medicine - October 17, 2015 Category: Zoology Authors: Hsu CC, Paik J, Brabb TL, O'Brien KD, Kim J, Sullivan BG, Hudkins KL, Seamons A, Finley JC, Meeker SM, Maggio-Price L Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research
Antiviral Activity of Gold/Copper Sulfide Core/Shell Nanoparticles against Human Norovirus Virus-Like Particles
by Jessica Jenkins Broglie, Brittny Alston, Chang Yang, Lun Ma, Audrey F. Adcock, Wei Chen, Liju Yang Human norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in a plethora of residential and commercial settings, including restaurants, schools, and hospitals. Methods for easily detecting the virus and for treating and preventing infection are critical to stopping norovirus outbreaks, and inactivation via nanoparticles (NPs) is a more universal and attractive alternative to other physical and chemical approaches. Using norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk) virus-like particles (VLPs) as a model viral system, this study cha...
Source: PLoS One - October 16, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jessica Jenkins Broglie et al. Source Type: research
A decade of norovirus disease risk among older adults in upper-middle and high income countries: a systematic review
Conclusions: Older adults are at increased risk of severe NoV-associated health outcomes. NoV-associated hospitalization rates were higher, more severe, resulted in longer stays and incurred greater costs than for younger patients. NoV-associated mortality rates were approximately 200 % higher among individuals 65 years and older compared to (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - October 14, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lisa LindsayJoanne WolterIlse De CosterPierre Van DammeThomas Verstraeten Source Type: research
Epidemics of norovirus GII.4 variants in outbreak cases in Korea, 2004-2012
Norovirus (NoV) GII.4 are recognized as a worldwide cause nonbacterial outbreaks. In particular, GII.4 occur variant every two to three years according to antigenic variation. The aim of our study was identified to GII.4 variants in outbreaks in Korea, 2004-12. Partial VP1 sequence of NoV GII.4-related outbreaks was analyzed 2004 to 2012. Partial VP1 were detected with RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR, and nucleotide of 312-314 base pairs sequenced for phylogenetic comparison. Nine variants were emerged in outbreaks, with the Sydney variant showing predominance recently. (Source: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives)
Source: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives - October 14, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Sunyoung Jung, Hyun Ju Jeong, Bo-Mi Hwang, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Gyung Tae Chung, Hyesook Jeong, Yeon-Ho Kang, Deog-Yong Lee Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
Epidemics of Norovirus GII.4 Variant in Outbreak Cases in Korea, 2004–2012
Norovirus GII.4 is recognized as a worldwide cause of nonbacterial outbreaks. In particular, the GII.4 variant occurs every 2–3 years according to antigenic variation. The aim of our study was to identify GII.4 variants in outbreaks in Korea during 2004–2012. Partial VP1 sequence of norovirus GII.4-related outbreaks during 2004–2012 was analyzed. The partial VP1 sequence was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, seminested polymerase chain reaction, and nucleotide sequence of 312-314 base pairs for phylogenetic comparison. (Source: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives)
Source: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives - October 14, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Sunyoung Jung, Hyun Ju Jeong, Bo-Mi Hwang, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Gyung Tae Chung, Hyesook Jeong, Yeon-Ho Kang, Deog-Yong Lee Tags: Brief report Source Type: research
Prolonged norovirus infection after pancreas transplantation: a case report and review of chronic norovirus
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Transplant Infectious Disease)
Source: Transplant Infectious Disease - October 13, 2015 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: I.A. Echenique, V. Stosor, L. Gallon, D. Kaufman, C. Qi, T.R. Zembower Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Occurrence of norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant related three outbreaks in Korea
In this study, we reported epidemiological feature of 3 outbreak cases of norovirus in Korea, and describe the clinical symptom and distribution of causative genotypes.The incidence rates of A, B, C outbreaks were 16.24% (326/2,007), 4.1% (27/656) and 16.8% (36/214), respectively. The patients in these three outbreaks were affected by acute gastroenteritis. These schools were provided from same manufacturing company to unheated-food. (Source: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives)
Source: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives - October 13, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Sunyoung Jung, Bo-Mi Hwang, Hyun Ju Jeong, Gyung Tae Chung, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Yeon-Ho Kang, Deog-Yong Lee Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
Occurrence of Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant-related Outbreaks in Korea
In this study, we report the epidemiological features of three outbreak cases of norovirus in Korea, and we describe the clinical symptoms and distribution of the causative genotypes. The incidence rates of the three outbreaks were 16.24% (326/2,007), 4.1% (27/656), and 16.8% (36/214), respectively. The patients in these three outbreaks were affected by acute gastroenteritis. These schools were provided unheated food from the same manufacturing company. (Source: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives)
Source: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives - October 13, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Sunyoung Jung, Bo-Mi Hwang, Hyun Ju Jeong, Gyung Tae Chung, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Yeon-Ho Kang, Deog-Yong Lee Tags: Brief report Source Type: research
How to treat a Norovirus infection: Dr Roger explains all about the winter vomiting bug
IT'S known by it's less-attractive name 'the winter vomiting bug' but what do we really know about Norovirus? (Source: Daily Express - Health)
Source: Daily Express - Health - October 9, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Elicitation of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies by presentation of 4E10 and 10E8 epitopes on Norovirus P particles.
In this study, Norovirus P particles (NoV PPs) were used as carriers to display conformational 4E10 and 10E8 epitopes in different patterns with an appropriate linker. Immune responses to the recombinant NoV PPs were characterized in guinea pigs and Balb/c mice and could induce high levels of MPER-binding antibodies. Modest neutralizing activities could be detected in sera of guinea pigs but not of Balb/c mice. The 4E10 or 10E8 epitopes dispersed on three loops on the outermost surface of NoV PPs (4E10-loop123 PP or 10E8-loop123 PP) elicited higher neutralizing activities than the equivalent number of epitopes presented on...
Source: Immunology Letters - October 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yu Y, Fu L, Shi Y, Guan S, Yang L, Gong X, Yin H, He X, Liu D, Kuai Z, Shan Y, Wang S, Kong W Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
The impact of calicivirus mixed infection in an oyster-associated outbreak during a food festival
Norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) are important viral pathogens of human gastroenteritis in the Caliciviridae family. The low infectious doses  and high environmental persistence  of NoVs lead to efficient multiple-route transmission [3,4] within an outbreak in various epidemiological settings worldwide. The reported calicivirus food-borne outbreaks [5,6,7] indicated that food-borne transmission might occur by contamination from infected food-handlers during processing or during pre-harvesting through contamination with human waste, e.g. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - October 7, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Yan Wang, Jinan Zhanga, Zhen. Shen Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Whole genome sequencing of fecal samples as a tool for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of norovirus
Norovirus is a highly infectious virus with the potential of causing severe gastroenteritis in adults and children. With its unusually low infective dose , norovirus is particularly known for causing hospital outbreaks, necessitating elaborate infection control measures or even ward closure . (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - October 7, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Herjan H.J. Bavelaar, Janette Rahamat-Langendoen, Hubert G.M. Niesters, Jan Zoll, Willem J.G. Melchers Source Type: research
Comparative Virucidal Efficacy of Seven Disinfectants Against Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus, Surrogates of Human Norovirus
Abstract Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. A knowledge of an efficient disinfection for both hands and food-contact surfaces is helpful for the food sector and provides precious information for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven disinfectants belonging to different groups of biocides (alcohol, halogen, oxidizing agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehyde and biguanide) on infectious viral titre and on genomic ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 7, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research
Human Norovirus prevalence in Africa 1990 to 2013
ConclusionUnreported sporadic gastroenteritis cases of Human Norovirus are common in Africa. Most are community‐associated infections. Possible environmental transmission routes have been documented. Combined environmental and clinical studies are required for targeted actions to control transmission of Human Norovirus in Africa. Systematic surveillance of Human Norovirus is needed to measure the burden of Norovirus‐induced gastroenteritis in Africa and support any requirements for vaccine development.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health - October 6, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Paul Hunter, Natasha Potgieter Tags: Reivew Article Source Type: research