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Structure of a backtracked state reveals conformational changes similar to the state following nucleotide incorporation in human norovirus polymerase
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) from norovirus (NV) genogroup II has previously been crystallized as an apoenzyme (APO1) in multiple crystal forms, as well as as a pre-incorporation ternary complex (PRE1) bound to Mn2+, various nucleoside triphosphates and an RNA primer-template duplex in an orthorhombic crystal form. When crystallized under near-identical conditions with a slightly different RNA primer/template duplex, however, the enzyme–RNA complex forms tetragonal crystals (anisotropic data, dmin ≃ 1.9 Å) containing a complex with the primer/template bound in a backtracked state (BACK1) similar to a post...
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section D - November 22, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zamyatkin, D.Rao, C.Hoffarth, E.Jurca, G.Rho, H.Parra, F.Grochulski, P.Ng, K.K.-S. Tags: human norovirus polymerase research papers Source Type: research

Study of the Virucidal Potential of Organic Peroxyacids Against Norovirus on Food-Contact Surfaces
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of four different peroxyacids, namely peracetic (PAA), perpropionic (PPA), perlactic (PLA), and percitric (PCA) for inactivating viruses in suspension or attached to stainless steel or polyvinyl chloride surfaces. The test virus was a proxy for human norovirus, namely murine norovirus 1. Plaque-forming units in suspension (107 per mL) were treated with 50–1,000 mg L−1 peroxyacid (equilibrium mixture of organic acid, hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacid, and water) for 1–10 min. Inactivation was measured by plaque assay. PAA and PPA were the most effective, with a 5 min t...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 21, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A One Year Study on the Concentrations of Norovirus and Enteric Adenoviruses in Wastewater and A Surface Drinking Water Source in Norway
This study is the first in Norway to monitor both sewage and a drinking water source in parallel, and confirms the year-round presence of norovirus and adenovirus in a Norwegian drinking water source. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus GII.17 Predominates in Selected Surface Water Sources in Kenya
In this study, the prevalence and genotypes of noroviruses (NoVs) in selected water sources from rural, urban and refugee settings in Kenya were investigated. Ten litres each of river, household and borehole water was collected in rural (Mboone River), urban (Nairobi and Mutoine River) and refugee (Dadaab refugee camp) settings. NoVs were recovered from the water samples by a glass wool adsorption–elution technique and/or PEG/NaCl precipitation. Nucleic acid was extracted using the automated MagNA Pure platform. NoVs were detected with singleplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays and charac...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Antiviral Effects of Lactococcus lactis on Feline Calicivirus, A Human Norovirus Surrogate
This study aimed to determine the antiviral activity of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of human NV. Bacterial growth medium filtrate (BGMF) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 and its bacterial cell suspension (BCS) were evaluated separately for their antiviral activity against FCV grown in Crandell–Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. No significant antiviral effect was seen when CRFK cells were pre-treated with either BGMF (raw or pH 7-adjusted BGMF) or BCS. However, pre-treatment of FCV with BGMF and BCS resulted in a reduction in virus titers of 1.3 log10 tis...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Lessons from Norovirus Outbreak in Warsaw, Poland, December 2012
This article reports on an investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak linked to catering food following a Christmas reception at the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene (NIPH-NIH) in Warsaw in December 2012. Of 192 employees eating food at the catering event, 97 (50.5 %) developed symptoms. Persons eating dishes with recipes containing frozen carrots were five times more likely to develop gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those who did not eat carrots. Laboratory analysis identified norovirus in stool samples taken from symptomatic persons. Leftover food was not available for testing. Th...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation Method for the Recovery of Hepatitis A Virus and GI.1 and GII.4 Norovirus Strains Seeded on Oyster and Mussel
In conclusion, the IMS/RT-PCR method can be used to efficiently and rapidly detect viruses such as HAV and NoV in shellfish such as oyster and mussel. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 20, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria
Nature advance online publication 19 November 2014. doi:10.1038/nature13960 Authors: Elisabeth Kernbauer, Yi Ding & Ken Cadwell Intestinal microbial communities have profound effects on host physiology. Whereas the symbiotic contribution of commensal bacteria is well established, the role of eukaryotic viruses that are present in the gastrointestinal tract under homeostatic conditions is undefined. Here we demonstrate that a common enteric RNA virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria in the intestine. Murine norovirus (MNV) infection of germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice restored intestinal mo...
Source: Nature AOP - November 19, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Elisabeth KernbauerYi DingKen Cadwell Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Norovirus and Rotavirus Survival in Urine Collected from a Public Ecological Sanitation System in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Abstract Urine from urine-diversion toilets (UDTs) is routinely used as fertilizer for urban agriculture in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Because urine from UDTs can be accidentally spoiled by feces, we determined whether virulent enteric viruses could persist in urine that is used for agricultural purposes and pose a threat to human health. Urine samples (N = 60) were first collected from 42 UDTs during the months of January and February 2012 in Ouagadougou and screened negative for the presence of norovirus (NoV) and group A rotavirus (RV). Composite urine from five collection sites was used to determine whether ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 19, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Vomiting Larry helping beat norovirus winter vomiting bug
To investigate the spread of the bug, which strikes up to a million people each year, the scientists developed a type of robot, called Vomiting Larry, that simulates human projectile vomiting. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - November 18, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Norovirus sickens more than 170 on cruise
The latest norovirus outbreak aboard the Princess Cruises' Crown Princess has infected 172 people, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)
Source: WDSU.com - Health - November 17, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Norovirus strikes 172 on cruise ship
Kate StantonSAN PEDRO, Calif., Nov. 17 (UPI) -- Princess Cruises' Crown Princess cruise ship docked in San Pedro, California after more than 170 people aboard had contracted norovirus. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Source: Health News - UPI.com - November 17, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Norovirus sickens cruise ship passengers
The latest norovirus outbreak aboard the Princess Cruises' Crown Princess has infected 172 people, according to the CDC. (Source: CNN.com - Health)
Source: CNN.com - Health - November 17, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Application of quantitative microbial risk assessment for selection of microbial reduction targets for hard surface disinfectants
Conclusion This QMRA analysis suggests that a reduction in bacterial numbers on a fomite by 99% (2 logs) most often will reduce the risk of infection from a single contact to less than 1 in 1 million. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - November 17, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Routine monitoring of adenovirus and norovirus within the health care environment
This study investigated the presence of adenovirus and norovirus on ward surfaces using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assist in the development of evidence-based infection control policy. Screening was carried out weekly for 6 months in the common areas of 2 pediatric wards. Additionally, a one-off screening was undertaken for adenovirus and norovirus on a day unit and for adenovirus only in patient cubicles while occupied. Over the 6-month screening of common areas, 2.4% of samples were positive for adenovirus or norovirus. In rooms occupied with adenovirus-infected children, all cubicle screening sites and...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - November 17, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

172 fall ill on Carnival's Crown Princess cruise from California
(Reuters) - A cruise ship with 172 passengers and crew members suffering from a gastrointestinal ailment caused by norovirus was met by public health officials when it docked in California on Sunday, authorities and Carnival Corp said. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - November 16, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

172 Fall Ill on Carnival's Crown Princess Cruise
Passengers and crew members suffering from a gastrointestinal ailment caused by norovirus were met by public health officials when the ship docked in California Sunday -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - November 16, 2014 Category: Science Tags: Health Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Nitazoxanide: A first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Antiviral Research, Volume 110 Author(s): Jean-François Rossignol Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral drug and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. A Phase 2b/3 clinical trial recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases found that oral administration of nitazoxanide 600mg twice daily for five days reduced the duration of clinical symptoms and reduced viral shedding compared to placebo in persons with laboratory-confirmed influenza. The same study also...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - November 16, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Acute gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with ground-waterborne norovirus in South Korea during 2008–2012
Brief Report H. G. CHO, S. G. LEE, W. H. KIM, J. S. LEE, P. H. PARK, D. S. CHEON, W. H. JHEONG, E. H. JHO, J. B. LEE, S. Y. PAIK, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 142 Issue 12, pp 2604-2609Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - November 15, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pattern of Circulation of Norovirus GII Strains during Natural Infection [Virology]
In this study, the pattern of circulation of NoVs was studied among 146 children and 137 adults in a small community in southwestern Cameroon. The participants provided monthly fecal samples during a year. NoV RNA was detected in at least one sample from 82 (29%) of the participants. The partial VP1 region could be sequenced in 36 NoV GII-positive samples. Three different genotypes were identified (GII.1, GII.4, and GII.17), with each genotype circulating within 2 to 3 months and reappearing after a relapse period of 2 to 3 months. Most infections occurred once, and 2 episodes at most within a year were detected. No differ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - November 14, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ayukekbong, J. A., Fobisong, C., Tah, F., Lindh, M., Nkuo-Akenji, T., Bergstrom, T. Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal pathogens detected by multiplex nucleic acid amplification testing in stools of pediatric patients and patients returning from the tropics
Conclusion Our study demonstrates broad detection of relevant gastroenteritis pathogens by multiplexNAT with a short turnaround time. This is important for diagnosis, infection control and empiric management of gastroenteritis patients, but may be selectively complemented by bacterial culture and resistance testing. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - November 11, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Norovirus blamed for illness outbreak at upscale California hotel
(Reuters) - California health authorities have determined that the highly contagious norovirus was responsible for sickening 60 people at an upscale Bay Area hotel, sending about a dozen to the hospital, officials said on Monday.  (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - November 11, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

Noroviren – ein Impfstoff muss erst entwickelt werden
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Public Health Forum, Volume 22, Issue 3 Author(s): Friedrich Hofmann Seit der ersten wissenschaftlich genauen Dokumentation der ‘winter vomiting disease’ mit den typischen Merkmalen einer Gastroenteritis im Jahre 1968 und der wenig später erfolgten Entdeckung des verantwortlichen Pathogens (heute als Norovirus bezeichnet) hat man in zahlreichen Studien versucht, Präventionsmaßnahmen zu erforschen. 2010 wurden erste Ergebnisse einer Studie zur Produktion eines Impfstoffs mit Hilfe virusartiger Partikel präsentiert, denen 2012 eine weitere, ähnliche Untersuchung folgte. In d...
Source: Public Health Forum - November 11, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Norovirus returns: advice is to stay away from GP
After Halloween and Bonfire Night, we have the return of another, much less welcome, winter tradition: the norovirus. Or, as The Times reports, “Tis the season for winter vomiting bug”. The body responsible for public health in this country, Public Health England, has issued a bulletin reminding everyone experiencing symptoms of norovirus to stay at home and to telephone 111 for advice, if necessary. Symptoms of norovirus typically include forceful vomiting and watery diarrhoea.   It's vital that people don’t visit GP surgeries, hospitals, schools and care homes if they think they may be infected. For the vast ma...
Source: NHS News Feed - November 7, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: QA articles Medical practice Source Type: news

UF researchers discover how to cultivate norovirus in human cells
(University of Florida) Noroviruses are pernicious intestinal viruses. They cause violent vomiting and diarrhea, and people ill with the virus remain contagious up to three days after they seem to recover. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - November 7, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Norovirus outbreak sickens 150 at Boston school
Hand sanitizer and Clorox flow freely after scores of students and teachers fall ill with a virulent stomach bug (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - November 7, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

[Perspective] Leaping the norovirus hurdle
Bacteria and B cells solve the problem of culturing human norovirus in the laboratory [Also see Report by Jones et al.] Authors: Christopher M. Robinson, Julie K. Pfeiffer (Source: Science: Current Issue)
Source: Science: Current Issue - November 7, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Christopher M. Robinson Tags: Virology Source Type: research

[Report] Enteric bacteria promote human and mouse norovirus infection of B cells
Gut bacteria that express histo-blood group antigens help human norovirus to infect B cells. [Also see Perspective by Robinson and Pfeiffer] Authors: Melissa K. Jones, Makiko Watanabe, Shu Zhu, Christina L. Graves, Lisa R. Keyes, Katrina R. Grau, Mariam B. Gonzalez-Hernandez, Nicole M. Iovine, Christiane E. Wobus, Jan Vinjé, Scott A. Tibbetts, Shannon M. Wallet, Stephanie M. Karst (Source: Science: Current Issue)
Source: Science: Current Issue - November 7, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Melissa K. Jones Source Type: research

[Norovirus] Bacteria help norovius infect B cells
Stomach ache, nausea, diarrhea—many people know the sort of gastrointestinal havoc norovirus can wreak. Despite this, norovirus biology remains unclear, because human norovirus cannot b – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)
Source: This Week in Science - November 7, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Kristen L. Mueller Tags: Norovirus Source Type: research

One More Step Toward Understanding the Immune Response to Norovirus
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee, B. E., Pang, X.-L. Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

High Serum Levels of Norovirus Genotype-Specific Blocking Antibodies Correlate With Protection From Infection in Children
Conclusions. High preexisting norovirus genotype–specific serum IgG titers and blocking activity in children indicate protection from norovirus infection in a strain-specific manner. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Malm, M., Uusi-Kerttula, H., Vesikari, T., Blazevic, V. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

A Novel Intramuscular Bivalent Norovirus Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Candidate--Reactogenicity, Safety, and Immunogenicity in a Phase 1 Trial in Healthy Adults
Conclusions. The vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic. Rapid immune response to a single dose may be particularly useful in military personnel and travelers and in the control of outbreaks. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01168401. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Treanor, J. J., Atmar, R. L., Frey, S. E., Gormley, R., Chen, W. H., Ferreira, J., Goodwin, R., Borkowski, A., Clemens, R., Mendelman, P. M. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

A new way to study norovirus and a news roundup (7 November 2014)
Culturing the cruise-ship disease and a daily news roundup. (Source: Science Magazine Podcast)
Source: Science Magazine Podcast - November 6, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Science Source Type: research

If you've got winter vomiting bug, stay at home, health officials warn
Public Health England has urged patients to call the NHS 111 non-urgent phone line instead. Norovirus can be serious for the elderly already ill in hospital, it said. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - November 6, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Norovirus: What parents need to know
Norovirus—a highly contagious virus that causes diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pain—has made an earlier than usual appearance in Boston, sickening more than 100 students and staff members at Condon Elementary School. Norovirus infects 19-21 million people in the United States every year. Infections usually peak between November and April. There is no vaccine to prevent infection or drug to treat it. The infection typically doesn’t last long, says Gail Potter-Bynoe, manager, infection control at Boston Children’s Hospital. What should I do if my child has norovirus? Children infected with norovirus are typically pre...
Source: Thrive, Children's Hospital Boston - November 6, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lisa Fratt Tags: All posts Source Type: news

Boston Elementary School Reports 150 Norovirus Cases
BOSTON (CBS) — Health officials say 140 students and 10 staff members at a South Boston elementary school have come down with norovirus. Condon Elementary School Principal Robby Chisholm sent a message to parents on Tuesday, notifying them that the highly contagious stomach virus had spread. There are about 800 students and 65 teachers at the school. Symptoms of the virus include diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pain that typically last one or two days. “Teams were onsite today cleaning the school so we can stop any further illness spread,” Chisholm said. “For those of you who have children who are ill, we will m...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - November 6, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: nealjriley Tags: Health Local News Syndicated Local CBS Boston Condon Elementary School Karen Twomey Norovirus WBZ Source Type: news

Clinical characteristics of seizures associated with viral gastroenteritis in children
We analyzed the clinical features of seizures during gastroenteritis in children by comparing the norovirus and rotavirus pathogen, and the impact of fever, if present, during the seizure episodes. (Source: Epilepsy Research)
Source: Epilepsy Research - November 6, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Hitoshi Ueda, Hitoshi Tajiri, Sadami Kimura, Yuri Etani, Gaku Hosoi, Tomoko Maruyama, Haruyoshi Noma, Yoshio Kusumoto, Tomoko Takano, Yoshiko Baba, Toshizaburo Nagai Source Type: research

Applications of omics approaches to the development of microbiological risk assessment using RNA virus dose–response models as a case study
Summary T e in the amount of ‘omics’ data available and in our ability to interpret those data. The aim of this paper was to consider how omics techniques can be used to improve and refine microbiological risk assessment, using dose–response models for RNA viruses, with particular reference to norovirus through the oral route as the case study. The dose–response model for initial infection in the gastrointestinal tract is broken down into the component steps at the molecular level and the feasibility of assigning probabilities to each step assessed. The molecular mechanisms are not sufficiently well understood at p...
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - November 4, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: P. Gale, A. Hill, L. Kelly, J. Bassett, P. McClure, Y. Le Marc, I. Soumpasis Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Comparison of Pressure Inactivation of Caliciviruses and Picornaviruses in a Model Food System
The objective of this study was to determine the high pressure processing parameters necessary to inactivate hepatitis A virus (HAV), Aichi virus (AiV), and the human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) in fresh salsa. Samples were treated at 250, 400 and 500MPa for 1, 5, and 10min at 9°C. AiV was additionally HPP-treated at temperatures of 50, 60, 70, and 80°C. In salsa, HAV and FCV were inactivated beyond the limit of detection after 1min at 400 and 250MPa, respectively. MNV was more pressure resistant than FCV, whereby 400MPa for 1min was needed to achieve the same degree of inact...
Source: Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies - November 4, 2014 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Inactivation of norovirus and surrogates by natural phytochemicals and bioactive substances
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research)
Source: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research - November 1, 2014 Category: Food Science Authors: Seungbo Ryu, Hyun Ju You, Ye Won Kim, Ariel Lee, GwangPyo Ko, Sung‐Joon Lee, Moon Jung Song Tags: Review Source Type: research

Acute diarrhea in adults consulting a general practitioner in France during winter: incidence, clinical characteristics, management and risk factors
Conclusions: During the winter, AD of viral origin is a frequent disease in adults, and noroviruses are most often the cause. No preventable risk factor was identified other than contact with a person with AD. Thus, at the present time, reinforcement of education related to hand hygiene remains the only way to reduce the burden of disease. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - October 30, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Christophe ArenaJean AmorosVéronique VaillantKatia Ambert-BalayRoxane Chikhi-BrachetNathalie Jourdan-Da SilvaLaurent VaresiJean ArrighiCécile SoutyThierry BlanchonAlessandra FalchiThomas Hanslik Source Type: research

Acute diarrhea in adults consulting a general practitioner in France during winter: incidence, clinical characteristics, management and risk factors
Conclusions: During the winter, AD of viral origin is a frequent disease in adults, and noroviruses are most often the cause. No preventable risk factor was identified other than contact with a person with AD. Thus, at the present time, reinforcement of education related to hand hygiene remains the only way to reduce the burden of disease. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - October 30, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Christophe ArenaJean AmorosVéronique VaillantKatia Ambert-BalayRoxane Chikhi-BrachetNathalie Jourdan-Da SilvaLaurent VaresiJean ArrighiCécile SoutyThierry BlanchonAlessandra FalchiThomas Hanslik Source Type: research

Isothermal Cross‐priming Amplification Implementation Study
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology)
Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology - October 27, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhijun Bai, Huaping Xie, Qimin You, Pickerill Sam, Ying Zhang, Tiegang Li, Jinmei Geng, Lin Hu, Hongbo Shan, Biao Di Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Systematic review: post‐infectious functional dyspepsia
ConclusionsInfectious gastroenteritis is associated with an increased risk for subsequent dyspepsia as well as for irritable bowel syndrome. Post‐infectious FD and post‐infectious irritable bowel syndrome may represent different aspects of the same pathophysiology. Further studies will be needed to determine this. (Source: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 27, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: S. Futagami, T. Itoh, C. Sakamoto Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Microbiological analysis of environmental samples collected from child care facilities in North and South Carolina
Conclusion The relative absence of pathogens and biotype I E coli in environmental samples suggests the child care facilities sampled in this study managed fecal contamination well. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - October 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Persistence of Human Norovirus RT-qPCR Signals in Simulated Gastric Fluid
This study suggests that HuNoV suspended in vomitus-like material can persist for long periods, a likely contributor to foodborne transmission. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 26, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic Susceptibility to Norovirus GII.3 and GII.4 Infections in Chinese Pediatric Diarrheal Disease
Conclusions:These findings indicate that secretor positivity is significantly associated with GII.3 and GII.4 infections in Chinese pediatric diarrheal disease and the weak secretor phenotype does not completely protect children from GII.3 and GII.4 infections. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Pathogenesis and Host Response Source Type: research

An outbreak of acute norovirus gastroenteritis in a boarding school in Shanghai: a retrospective cohort study
Conclusion: The study detected that the outbreak was caused by Norovirus and should be controlled by thorough disinfection and excluding asymptomatic food handlers from food preparation. Early identification of the predominant mode of transmission in this outbreak was necessary to prevent new cases. Furthermore, good hygiene practices such as regular hand washing and efficient daily disinfection should be promoted to prevent such infection and outbreaks. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - October 22, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Caoyi XueYifei FuWeiping ZhuYi FeiLinying ZhuHong ZhangLifeng PanHongmei XuYong WangWenqin WangQiao Sun Source Type: research

Flu Drug Aimed at Ebola May Also Fight Norovirus, Study FindsFlu Drug Aimed at Ebola May Also Fight Norovirus, Study Finds
An experimental Japanese flu drug that has hit the headlines because of its potential to fight Ebola may also work against norovirus, the winter vomiting bug, British researchers said. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - October 21, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news