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Genotype considerations for virus-like particle based bivalent norovirus vaccine composition.
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) genogroups (G) I and II are responsible for most of the human infections with NoV. Due to the high genetic variability of NoV natural infection does not induce sufficient protective immunity between genotypes or between variants within the same genotype, and there is little or no cross-protection between the genogroups. NoV derived virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine candidates inducing high levels of NoV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. It is believed that a bivalent NoV vaccine consisting of a representative VLP from GI and GII is a minimum requirement for an ...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - April 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Malm M, Tamminen K, Lappalainen S, Uusi-Kerttula H, Vesikari T, Blazevic V Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Norovirus in patients with gastroenteritis
In a comprehensive and updated systematic review and meta-analysis, Sharia Ahmed and colleagues1 assessed the role of norovirus as a cause of endemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In their pooled analysis of 175 studies, noroviruses were detected in 18% of patients with acute gastroenteritis: 24% in the community, 20% in outpatients, and 17% in inpatients.1 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - April 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khitam Muhsen, Lester Shulman, Dani Cohen Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Four‐year study of viruses that cause diarrhea in Japanese pediatric outpatients
This study investigated the epidemiological situation of viruses that cause diarrhea in Japanese pediatric patients. This study enrolled a total of 2,381 fecal specimens collected between 2009 and 2013 from Japanese children with acute gastroenteritis. There is currently a 70.4% prevalence of viruses causing diarrhea among these Japanese pediatric outpatients. Norovirus was detected in 39.3% of the patients, whereas the prevalence of rotavirus, human parechovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, and Aichi virus was 20.1, 6.6, 6.1, 5.6, 4.8, 2.3, and 0.1%, respectively. Co‐infections were observed at the p...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - April 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Aksara Thongprachum, Sayaka Takanashi, Angela F. C. Kalesaran, Shoko Okitsu, Masashi Mizuguchi, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Production of Norovirus VLPs to size homogeneity.
Abstract Expression of full-length major capsid protein of Noroviruses (NoVs) in sf9 cells using recombinant baculovirus expression system leads to the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) with two sizes. In our pursuit of VLPs with uniform sizes, we find that N terminal truncated capsid protein formed primary VLPs with an average size of 21nm. This kind of VLPs showed similar binding patterns to those produced with full-length major capsid protein. HBGA-VLPs binding assay and saliva-VLPs blocking analysis, as well as stability test demonstrate that the smaller 21nm VLPs might be an excellent candidate for NoVs...
Source: Virus Research - April 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Huo Y, Wan X, Wang Z, Meng S, Shen S Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Epidemiology of norovirus infections among diarrhea outpatients in a diarrhea surveillance system in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study
This study aimed to determine the contribution of norovirus to gastroenteritis, characterize the features of norovirus infections, compare them with other pathogens, and test the effectiveness of the surveillance system. Methods: A citywide surveillance network on diarrhea patients was established. Samples were collected with intervals from both children and adults among diarrhea outpatients in hospitals and tested for viruses using rRT-PCR and for bacteria in CDCs. Patient information was acquired through interviews and recorded into a dedicated online system. The Pearsonχ2 test, multivariate logistic regression models a...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - April 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ying XueHao PanJiayu HuHuanyu WuJian LiWenjia XiaoXi ZhangZheng¿an YuanFan Wu Source Type: research

Over 100 Sickened With Norovirus Aboard Cruise Ship
SAN DIEGO (AP) — Federal health officials say 106 passengers and six crewmembers aboard the Celebrity Infinity cruise ship were sickened by the gastrointestinal illness norovirus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says an environmental health officer and an epidemiologist boarded the ship Monday after it arrived in San Diego. A call from The Associated Press seeking comment from a Celebrity Cruises representative wasn't immediately returned. The CDC says the highly contagious virus can be acquired from an infected person, contaminated food or water, or by touching contaminated surfaces. The CDC says staf...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - April 13, 2015 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants
Conclusions Washing hands with soap and water is better than using alcohol-based hand disinfectants in removing noroviruses from hands. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - April 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay.
Authors: Varela G, Batthyány L, Bianco MN, Pérez W, Pardo L, Algorta G, Robino L, Suárez R, Navarro A, Pírez MC, Schelotto F Abstract Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and nor...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 11, 2015 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Fucosyltransferase 2: A Genetic Risk Factor for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Crohn's Disease—A Comprehensive Review
Abstract Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) mediates the inclusion of fucose in sugar moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids. ABO blood group antigens and host-microbe interactions are influenced by FUT2 activity. About 20 % of the population has a “non-secretor” status caused by inactivating variants of FUT2 on both alleles. The non-sense mutation G428A and the missense mutation A385T are responsible for the vast majority of the non-secretor status in Caucasians, Africans, and Asians, respectively. Non-secretor individuals do not secrete fucose-positive antigens and lack fucosylation in epithelia. They also app...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Can humans get norovirus from their dogs?
Human norovirus may infect our canine companions, according to research. That raises the possibility of dog-to-human transmission, says a veterinarian and first author of a new report. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - April 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Cruise Ship Danger?
Friends are planning a Caribbean cruise and are urging my husband and me to join them. He's game, but I'm worried about the norovirus - there have been so many outbreaks on cruises. Any advice? (Source: Dr. Weil Q and A)
Source: Dr. Weil Q and A - April 10, 2015 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Can humans get norovirus from their dogs?
(American Society for Microbiology) Human norovirus may infect our canine companions, according to research published online April 1 in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, a publication of the American Society for Microbiology. That raises the possibility of dog-to-human transmission, said first author Sarah Caddy, VetMB, Ph.D., MRCVS, a veterinarian and Ph.D. student at the University of Cambridge, and Imperial College, London, UK. Norovirus is the leading cause of food-borne illness in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - April 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Attack Rate in Food Poisoning: Order in Chaos.
Abstract The frequency distribution of number of patients and number of eaters was near lognormal for almost all the food poisonings. The median and range remained almost unchanged over time though number of incidents per year varied. The number of patients and number of eaters were mutually uncorrelated for many of the food poisonings, however.A regular pattern relating number of patients and eaters emerged for food poisonings occurring seasonally at a high incidence, such as, those caused by norovirus or Campylobacter; comb teeth-like pattern in the plot that relates ranking number of patients and ranking number ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Mathematical model for viral depuration kinetics in shellfish: An useful tool to estimate the risk for the consumers.
Abstract Enteric virus depuration from shellfish is a complex biological process that may be influenced by biological properties of the mollusc and/or virus species. On the basis of previous experimental data, a mathematical model was developed to characterize the kinetics of viral elimination during the depuration process. The experimental data consisted on twenty depuration trials, each with 60 kg of Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum ) and mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) previously subjected to bioaccumulation with HAV or MNV-1 (as a surrogate for human norovirus), that were performed in an...
Source: Food Microbiology - April 8, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Polo D, Feal X, Romalde JL Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Laboratory Diagnosis of Noroviruses
Norovirus is an important cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks globally and the most prevalent cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in many regions. Rapid and accurate identification of causative viral agents is critical for outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, and management. Because norovirus is not cultivable and has a highly diversified and variable genome, it is difficult to develop diagnostic assays. Detection methods have evolved from electron microscopy to conventional end-point reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoassay, real-time RT-PCR, other molecular technologies, and nanotechnol...
Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine - April 4, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Xiaoli Pang, Bonita E. Lee Source Type: research

Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus GII.17, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015
J. Lu et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - April 2, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and human norovirus surrogate on artificially contaminated strawberries and raspberries by water-assisted pulsed light treatment
This study investigated the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and murine norovirus (MNV-1), a human norovirus surrogate, on strawberries and raspberries using a water-assisted pulsed light (WPL) treatment. The effects of combinations of WPL treatment with 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or 100ppm sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were also evaluated. Strawberries and raspberries were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and treated by WPL for 5–60s. E. coli O157:H7 on both strawberries and raspberries was significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner with 60-s WPL treatments reducing E. coli O157:H7 by 2.4 and 4....
Source: Food Research International - April 1, 2015 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Microbial Indicators in the Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Harvest Waters along Louisiana Gulf Coast
This study showed norovirus can be detected in oysters even when microbial indicators are low, and in compliance with the U.S. federal standards. As such, there could be a potential health risk to oyster consumers. Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring of norovirus in commercial oyster harvesting areas to reduce the risk of outbreaks. (Source: Journal of Food Science)
Source: Journal of Food Science - April 1, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Naim Montazeri, Morgan Maite, Da Liu, Jiemin Cormier, Matthew Landry, John Shackleford, Lucina E. Lampila, Eric C. Achberger, Marlene E. Janes Tags: M: Food Microbiology & Safety Source Type: research

A PCR-based Rapid Neutralization Assay for GII.4 Norovirus Infection in HIEC6 Cell Culture
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 3 Author(s): Yi Sun FAN , Cheng LIU , Hui Juan ZHU , Yi DING , Wan Jie ZENG , Xu Fang YIN , Shuang Shuang DING , Jun ZHANG (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences)
Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences - March 31, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Norovirus GII.21 in Children with Diarrhea, Bhutan.
PMID: 25811105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yahiro T, Wangchuk S, Wada T, Dorji C, Matsumoto T, Mynak ML, Tshering KP, Nishizono A, Ahmed K Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999-2012.
Abstract Worldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis. They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments. To estimate the proportion of foodborne infections caused by noroviruses on a global scale, we used norovirus transmission and genotyping information from multiple international outbreak surveillance systems (Noronet, CaliciNet, EpiSurv) and from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. The proportion of outbreaks caused by food was determined by genotype and/or genogroup. Analysis resulted in the following final globa...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Verhoef L, Hewitt J, Barclay L, Ahmed SM, Lake R, Hall AJ, Lopman B, Kroneman A, Vennema H, Vinjé J, Koopmans M Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Norovirus candidate vaccine induces broad antibody responses in trial participants
A multivalent candidate vaccine elicits broad antibody responses to a range of norovirus strains, including strains not included in the vaccine or previously encountered by participants, according to a new study. The results of the study indicate that a vaccine to norovirus may be available in the future. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 24, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Norovirus candidate vaccine induces broad antibody responses in trial participants
(PLOS) A multivalent candidate vaccine elicits broad antibody responses to a range of norovirus strains, including strains not included in the vaccine or previously encountered by participants, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine. The results of the study, led by Lisa Lindesmith and Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, indicate that a vaccine to norovirus may be available in the future. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - March 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Broad Blockade Antibody Responses in Human Volunteers after Immunization with a Multivalent Norovirus VLP Candidate Vaccine: Immunological Analyses from a Phase I Clinical Trial
Conclusions Vaccination with a multivalent NoV VLP vaccine induces a broadly blocking Ab response to multiple epitopes within vaccine and non-vaccine NoV strains and to novel antigenic variants not yet circulating at the time of vaccination. These data reveal new information about complex NoV immune responses to both natural exposure and to vaccination, and support the potential feasibility of an efficacious multivalent NoV VLP vaccine for future use in human populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01168401 (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 24, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lisa C. Lindesmith et al. Source Type: research

A Prospective Multi-Center Observational Study of Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
V, Thwaites G, Baker S Abstract We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3%) children without diarrhea. Rotavirus predominated in the symptomatic children (664/1,41...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 23, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Thompson CN, Phan MV, Hoang NV, Minh PV, Vinh NT, Thuy CT, Nga TT, Rabaa MA, Duy PT, Dung TT, Phat VV, Nga TV, Tu LT, Tuyen HT, Yoshihara K, Jenkins C, Duong VT, Phuc HL, Tuyet PT, Ngoc NM, Vinh H, Chinh NT, Thuong TC, Tuan HM, Hien TT, Campbell JI, Chau Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Alternative methods to determine infectivity of Tulane virus: A surrogate for human nororvirus.
In this study, we evaluated different assays for determination of infectivity of Tulane virus (TV), a surrogate for HuNoV. The infectivity of TV was measured by RNase exposure assay, RT-PCR assays, cellular-receptor-mediated capture qRT-PCR assay, receptor-mediated in situ capture qRT-PCR assay, cell-culture-mediated amplification qRT-PCR, and confirmed by TCID50 assay. RNase exposure assay was only useful for measuring TV inactivation caused by heat. Short template RT-PCR assay did not reflect inactivation status of TV. Partial reduction in viral RNA signal could be measured by long-template RT-PCR only when TV was inacti...
Source: Food Microbiology - March 22, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Xu S, Wang D, Yang D, Liu H, Tian P Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Development of a Practical Method to Detect Noroviruses Contamination in Composite Meals
In this study, we developed a new extraction and concentration method for detecting NoVs in contaminated composite meals. We spiked NoV-GI.4 or -GII.4 stool suspension into potato salad and stir-fried noodles. The food samples were suspended in homogenizing buffer and centrifuged to obtain a food emulsion. Then, anti-NoV-GI.4 or anti-NoV-GII.4 rabbit serum raised against recombinant virus-like particles or commercially available human gamma globulin and Staphylococcus aureus fixed with formalin as a source of protein A were added to the food emulsion. NoV-IgG-protein A-containing bacterial complexes were collected by centr...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 22, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Production, characterization and immunogenicity of P particles derived from norovirus GII.4 genotype 2004 variant.
In this study, the P domain of the capsid protein of GII.4 genotype 2004 variant was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and auto-assembled into P particles of 14-25 nm. Immunization with P particles induced specific serum antibodies with titers of 245,600 and 145,700 in mice and rabbits, respectively. The GII.4 NoV 2004 variant bound to type A, B and O secretor-positive saliva and immune sera blocked this binding, suggesting induction of neutralizing activity in such sera. Thus, this study demonstrated the immunogenicity of NoV P particles generated from E. coli and provided evidence supporting the development o...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Su W, Gao J, Zang Y, Wu H, Wang L, Hu H, Yu X, Kong W, Jiang C Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Structure-Guided Design and Optimization of Dipeptidyl Inhibitors of Norovirus 3CL Protease. Structure–Activity Relationships and Biochemical, X-ray Crystallographic, Cell-Based, and In Vivo Studies
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/jm5019934 (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - March 19, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Anushka C. Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Pathum M. Weerawarna, Roxanne Adeline Z. Uy, Vishnu C. Damalanka, Sivakoteswara Rao Mandadapu, Kevin R. Alliston, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P. Battaile, Scott Lovell, Kyeong-Ok Chang and William C. Groutas Source Type: research

Removal of Surrogate Bacteriophages and Enteric Viruses from Seeded Environmental Waters Using a Semi-technical Ultrafiltration Unit
Abstract Experiments to determine the removal of viruses in different types of water (surface water from two reservoirs for drinking water treatment, treated groundwater and groundwater contaminated with either 5 or 30 % of wastewater) by ultrafiltration were performed with a semi-technical ultrafiltration unit. Concentrations of human adenoviruses (HAdVs), murine norovirus (MNV), and the bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PRD1 were measured in the feed water and the filtrate, and log removal values were calculated. Bacteria added to the feed water were not detected in the filtrates. In contrast, in most cases virus...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 19, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy and obstructive renal stones in an infant with norovirus gastroenteritis
Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy (TC) is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in adult patients with chest pain, cardiac enzyme elevations, and electrocardiographic changes. This condition mimicking an acute coronary syndrome usually occurs in elder women after a physical or emotional stress. It is extremely rare in children as well as after infective stress [1,2]. Norovirus is a common pathogen of gastroenteritis in childhood. There is an occasional association between renal stones and gastroenteritis [3]. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - March 19, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Seigo Okada, Yoshihiro Azuma, Hidenobu Kaneyasu, Makoto Mizutani, Yuno Korenaga, Setsuaki Kittaka, Yasuo Suzuki, Yuji Ohnishi, Takashi Furuta, Shouichi Ohga Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Noroviruses as a Cause of Diarrhea in Immunocompromised Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
Case reports describe significant norovirus gastroenteritis morbidity in immunocompromised patients. We evaluated norovirus pathogenesis in prospectively enrolled solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients with diarrhea who presented to Texas Children's Hospital and submitted stool for enteric testing. Noroviruses were detected by real‐time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical outcomes of norovirus diarrhea and non‐norovirus diarrhea patients, matched by transplanted organ type, were compared. Norovirus infection was identified in 25 (22%) of 116 patients, more frequen...
Source: American Journal of Transplantation - March 18, 2015 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: X. Ye, J. N. Van, F. M. Munoz, P. A. Revell, C. A. Kozinetz, R. A. Krance, R. L. Atmar, M. K. Estes, H. L. Koo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Propidium Monoazide Reverse Transcriptase PCR and RT-qPCR for Detecting Infectious Enterovirus and Norovirus.
In this study, PMA RT-PCR and RT-qPCR assays were evaluated for selective detection of infectious poliovirus, murine norovirus (MNV-1), and Norwalk virus. Viruses were inactivated using heat, chlorine, and ultraviolet light (UV). Infectious and non-infectious viruses were treated with PMA before RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and heat and chlorine inactivated poliovirus. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and noninfectious murine norovirus only when inactivated by chlorine. However, PMA RT-PCR could not differentiate infectious Norwal...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - March 18, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Karim MR, Fout GS, Johnson CH, White KM, Parshionikar S Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Norovirus genotype diversity in community‐based sporadic gastroenteritis incidents: A five‐year study
Although norovirus is a known cause of sporadic gastroenteritis, the incidence and genotypes of norovirus associated with sporadic community‐based gastroenteritis are poorly understood. The current study examined this issue by using material from alleged food poisoning incidents in the state of Victoria, Australia, for the period 2008–2012. Norovirus was identified, by either ORF (open reading frame) 1 or ORF 2 RT‐PCR methodology, in 159 of 379 (42.0%) sporadic gastroenteritis incidents, thereby showing that norovirus was an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis. The number of sporadic norovirus incidents did n...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - March 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Leesa D. Bruggink, Natalie L. Dunbar, John A. Marshall Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Large scale survey of enteric viruses in river and waste water underlines the health status of the local population.
In this study, enteric viruses (i.e., adenovirus, aichivirus, astrovirus, cosavirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A and E viruses, norovirus of genogroups I and II, rotavirus A and salivirus) were monitored in the Seine River and the origin of contamination was untangled. A total of 275 water samples were collected, twice a month for one year, from the river Seine, its tributaries and the major WWTP effluents in the Paris agglomeration. All water samples were negative for hepatitis A and E viruses. AdV, NVGI, NVGII and RV-A were the most prevalent and abundant populations in all water samples. The viral load and the detection fr...
Source: Environment International - March 17, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Prevost B, Lucas FS, Goncalves A, Richard F, Moulin L, Wurtzer S Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Viral gastroenteritis in children in Colorado 2006–2009
Acute gastroenteritis accounts for a significant burden of medically attended illness in children under the age of five. For this study, four multiplex reverse transcription PCR assays were used to determine the incidence of adenovirus, astrovirus, coronavirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and sapovirus in stool samples submitted for viral electron microscopy (EM) to the Children's Hospital Colorado. Of 1105 stool samples available, viral RNA/DNA was detected in 247 (26.2%) of 941 pediatric samples (median age = 2.97 years, 54% male) with 28 (3.0%) positive for more than one virus. Adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - March 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Christina M. Osborne, Aaron C. Montano, Christine C. Robinson, Stacey Schultz‐Cherry, Samuel R. Dominguez Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and multiple infections of rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus in outpatients with sporadic gastroenteritis in Shanghai, China, 2010–2011
This study clearly shows the diversity of the viral causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in outpatient children in Shanghai, which will provide baseline information for future vaccination strategies and development in this area. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - March 14, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999–2012
L. Verhoef et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - March 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergence in Taiwan of Novel Norovirus GII.4 Variants Causing Acute Gastroenteritis and Intestinal Hemorrhage in Children.
The objective of the study was to delineate the clinical manifestations and complications associated with these new norovirus GII.4 variants in children. We investigated norovirus infections from the community outbreak in October 2011-September 2012 and an earlier outbreak in 2006-2007 in northern Taiwan. Norovirus genotypes and their variants were validated using molecular methods. A norovirus outbreak started in mid-2011 and continued through 2012 in northern Taiwan. Hospitalized children infected by norovirus in 2012 showed a significantly higher incidence of intestinal hemorrhage, as indicated by grossly bloody feces (...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 9, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen SY, Feng Y, Chao HC, Lai MW, Huang WL, Lin CY, Tsai CN, Chen CL, Chiu CH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Waterborne norovirus outbreak during a summer excursion in Northern Italy.
Authors: Di Bartolo I, Pavoni E, Tofani S, Consoli M, Galuppini E, Losio MN, Ruggeri FM, Varisco G Abstract In September 2011, an acute gastroenteritis outbreak affected 33 children in Northern Italy. Patients had drunk river water during an excursion. Identical GI.4 norovirus genomes were detected from one patient's stools and from the river water. Improper discharge of human sewage into the river may have caused this waterborne outbreak. PMID: 25742154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - March 7, 2015 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

New tool for detecting, destroying norovirus
Norovirus infection is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis, or 'stomach flu.' A research team recently produced 'nanobodies' that could be used to better characterize the structural makeup of the virus. They discovered that these nanobodies could detect the virus in clinical stool samples and disassemble intact norovirus particles. Such nanobodies may potentially be used to not only better detect but also treat symptoms of norovirus infection in the clinic. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 6, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

A new tool for detecting and destroying norovirus
(German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ)) Norovirus infection is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis, or 'stomach flu.' A research team at the German Cancer Research Center recently produced 'nanobodies' that could be used to better characterize the structural makeup of the virus. They discovered that these nanobodies could detect the virus in clinical stool samples and disassemble intact norovirus particles. Such nanobodies may potentially be used to not only better detect but also treat symptoms of norovirus infection in the clinic. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 6, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news

The prevalence of norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus infections among hospitalised children with acute gastroenteritis in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon.
Abstract Although viruses are well-established causes of acute gastroenteritis, few data on the circulation of these pathogens in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil, are available. Thus, faecal samples from hospitalised diarrhoeic children, under six years of age, were collected and tested for the presence of norovirus (NoV), adenovirus (AdV) and astrovirus (AstV) from February 2010-February 2012. Specimens were screened by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and viruses were found in 10.7% (63/591) of the cases. NoV, AdV and AstV were detected in 7.8%, 2% and 0.8% of the samples, respectively. NoV...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 6, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amaral MS, Estevam GK, Penatti M, Lafontaine R, Lima IC, Spada PK, Gabbay YB, Matos NB Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrheal Disease in Ghanaian Infants and Children: An Outpatient Case-Control Study
Conclusions Diarrheal diseases in children from a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa are mainly due to infections with rotavirus, Shigella spp./EIEC, and norovirus. These associations are strongly age-dependent, which should be considered when diagnosing causes of diarrhea. The presented results are informative for both clinicians treating gastrointestinal infections as well as public health experts designing control programs against diarrheal diseases. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ralf Krumkamp et al. Source Type: research

Norovirus GII.21 in Children with Diarrhea, Bhutan
T. Yahiro et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - March 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Spectrum of Outpatient Illness in a School-Based Cohort in Haiti, with a Focus on Diarrheal Pathogens.
Abstract Currently, there are only limited data available on rates of major diagnostic categories of illnesses among Haitian children. We have established a cohort of 1,245 students attending schools run by the Christianville Foundation in the Gressier/Leogane region of Haiti, for whom our group provides primary medical care. Among 1,357 clinic visits during the 2012-2013 academic year, the main disease categories (with rates per 1,000 child years of observation) included acute respiratory infection (ARI) (385.6 cases/1,000 child years of observation), gastrointestinal complaints (277.8 cases/1,000 child years), fe...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 2, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Beau De Rochars VE, Alam MT, Telisma T, Masse R, Chavannes S, Anilis MG, Guillaume HJ, Gelin G, Kirkpatrick EL, Okech BA, Weppelmann TA, Rashid M, Karst S, Johnson JA, Ali A, Morris JG Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A PCR-based Rapid Neutralization Assay for GII.4 Norovirus Infection in HIEC6 Cell Culture.
According to this study, neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of convalescent-phase sera, and in 2.5% of healthy controls sera. However, all of the acute-phase serum samples could not neutralize virus efficiently. Compared to the results from ELISA (96.2% at sensitivity and 80% at specificity), the present in vitro neutralization assay is more specific and more sensitive. PMID: 25800447 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)
Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES - March 1, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fan YS, Liu C, Zhu HJ, Ding Y, Zeng WJ, Yin XF, Ding SS, Zhang J Tags: Biomed Environ Sci Source Type: research

Determination of which virus to use as a process control when testing for the presence of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in food and water.
Abstract Noroviruses (genogroup I (NoV GI) and genogroup II (NoV GII)) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) are frequently involved in foodborne infections worldwide. They are mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, direct person-to-person contact or consumption of contaminated water and foods. In food virology, detection methods are currently based on identifying viral genomes using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). One of the general requirements for detecting these viruses in food involves the use of a process control virus to monitor the quality of the entire viral extraction procedure as described...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - February 28, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Hennechart-Collette C, Martin-Latil S, Guillier L, Perelle S Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Epidemiological Investigation of a Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Outbreak in a China Elder Care Facility.
Abstract An outbreak of norovirus GII.4/Sydney_2012 affected a China elder care facility in December 2012. A total of 39 elderly people and staff met the outbreak case definition. The attack rates in the elderly and the staff were 15.9% (31/195) and 23.2% (19/82), respectively, including 13 asymptomatic cases in the staff. The result of gene sequencing revealed that the outbreak was caused by norovirus GII.4 Sydney. The mode of transmission of this outbreak was proven to be person-to-person. The first case (a self-cared elder) was affected outside the elder care facility and was not isolated after returning. Norovi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zheng QM, Zeng HT, Dai CW, Zhang SX, Zhang Z, Mei SJ, He YQ, Ma HW Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Research cracks code governing infections single-stranded RNA viruses
Researchers have cracked a code that governs infections caused by simple, single-stranded RNA viruses similar in many respects to viruses that cause the common cold, polio and the winter vomiting norovirus infections. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - February 26, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news