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Toby Carvery sickness horror: How to avoid vomiting bug norovirus
OVER 200 people were affected by a sickness and diarrhoea bug picked up in their local Toby Carvery recently - but there's an easy way to avoid the nasty infection. (Source: Daily Express - Health)
Source: Daily Express - Health - May 26, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Detection of enteropathogens associated with travelers’ diarrhea using a multiplex Luminex-based assay performed on stool samples smeared on Whatman FTA Elute cards
We evaluated the limits of detection (LoD) for an 11-plex PCR-Luminex assay performed on Whatman ™ FTA Elute cards smeared with stool containing pathogens associated with travelers’ diarrhea. LoDs ranged between 102-105 CFU, PFU or cysts/g for most pathogens except Cryptosporidium. Campylobacter and norovirus LoD increased with prolonged storage of cards. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - May 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tahaniyat Lalani, Michele D. Tisdale, Jason D. Maguire, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai, Mark S. Riddle, David R. Tribble Source Type: research

Control of human norovirus surrogates in fresh foods by gaseous ozone and a proposed mechanism of inactivation.
This study determined the effectiveness of gaseous ozone for the sanitization of two norovirus surrogates (MNV-1 and TV) from both liquid media and popular fresh foods where viral contamination is common-lettuce and strawberries. Foods were treated with gaseous ozone at 6% wt/wt ozone in oxygen for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min, and surviving viruses were quantified by viral plaque assay. Our results showed that gaseous ozone inactivated norovirus in both liquid media and fresh produce in a dose-dependent manner. These results are promising because ozone treatment significantly reduced two important norovirus surrogates in bo...
Source: Food Microbiology - May 25, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Predmore A, Sanglay G, Li J, Lee K Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

A 1-Year Quantitative Survey of Noro-, Adeno-, Human Boca-, and Hepatitis E Viruses in Raw and Secondarily Treated Sewage from Two Plants in Norway
Abstract A study of enteric viruses in raw and treated sewage from two secondary treatment plants, which received sewage from Oslo city (plant A) and small municipalities in Hedmark county in Norway (plant B), showed high levels of noro-, adeno-, and bocavirus throughout the year. A seasonal variation was observed for adeno- and GII norovirus with higher levels during winter and bocavirus that had more positive samples during winter. The virus concentrations in raw sewage were comparable in the two plants, with medians (log10 genome copies per liter) of 6.1, 6.3, 6.0, and 4.5 for noro GI, noro GII, adeno-, and boc...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 24, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Zeta Potential and Aggregation of Virus-Like Particle of Human Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus Under Different Physicochemical Conditions
Abstract Although the spread of human norovirus reportedly depends on its ability to bind to food materials, the mechanism of the phenomenon remains unknown. Since protein size and electrical charge are reportedly important parameters in their adsorption, the current work is focused on determining human noroviruses isoelectric point (IEP), electrical charge and aggregate size at different pH, ionic strength (IS), and temperature. Using the baculovirus expression vector system, we produced and purified virus-like particles (VLPs) of GI.1 and GII.4 noroviruses and feline calicivirus, determined their IEP, and exami...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 23, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Transfer of Acanthamoeba spp. to Fresh Produce from Water and Environmental Surfaces
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology)
Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology - May 20, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tun‐Yun Hsueh, Kristen E. Gibson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Long‐term viral shedding and viral genome mutation in norovirus infection
The duration of viral shedding in the patients from two outbreaks and four sporadic cases of norovirus (NoV) infections was investigated. The longest period of viral shedding into feces was for 173 days in an inpatient from one case of outbreak. The VP1 sequence from two long‐term viral shedding cases in the outbreak revealed four synonymous and one non‐synonymous mutations in one inpatient at 26 days from the onset of illness, and nine synonymous and two non‐synonymous mutations and a deletion, 10 synonymous mutations and a deletion in other inpatient at 29 days and 54 days from the onset of illness, respectively. T...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - May 19, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Tatsuya Miyoshi, Kiyoko Uchino, Hisayoshi Yoshida, Kazushi Motomura, Naokazu Takeda, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Tomoyuki Tanaka Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Impact of Adenoviral Stool Load on Adenoviremia in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients
Conclusions: Quantitative detection of adenovirus in stool may have implications for preemptive therapy. Testing for other enteric viruses may have implications for infection control. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 16, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Summer swimming hazard: Norovirus lurked in lake
Health officials traced outbreak to a popular summer destination, and offer some tips to stay safe in the water (Source: Health News:
Source: Health News: - May 15, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Norovirus Outbreak Associated with a Natural Lake Used for Recreation — Oregon, 2014
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - May 15, 2015 Category: American Health Source Type: news

Norovirus Outbreak Associated with a Natural Lake Used for Recreation - Oregon, 2014.
Abstract In July 2014, Multnomah County public health officials investigated a norovirus outbreak among persons visiting Blue Lake Regional Park in Oregon. During the weekend of the reported illnesses (Friday, July 11-Sunday, July 13) approximately 15,400 persons visited the park. The investigation identified 65 probable and five laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus infection (70 total cases). No hospitalizations or deaths were reported. Analyses from a retrospective cohort study revealed that swimming at Blue Lake during July 12-13 was significantly associated with illness during July 13-14 (adjusted relative r...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 15, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zlot A, Simckes M, Vines J, Reynolds L, Sullivan A, Scott AK, McLuckie JM, Kromer D, Hill VR, Yoder JS, Hlavsa MC Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Group a rotavirus and norovirus genotypes circulating in the northeastern Brazil in the post‐monovalent vaccination era
This study aims to investigate the epidemiological profile of NoV and RVA infections from children with AGE in the Northeastern region of Brazil in the post vaccine season. Two‐hundred fecal samples collected from children up to 10 years old in Fortaleza, Ceará between 2008–2009 were screened for the presence of RVA and NoV. Positive samples were genotyped and sequenced. The RVA screening revealed 12% prevalence and all RVA strains belonged to G2P[4] genotype. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 11 RVA genome segments sequenced from eight samples revealed a DS‐1‐like genotype constellation: I2‐R2‐C2‐M2‐A2...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - May 15, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Ana Caroline C. Sá, Mariela M. Gómez, Ila Fernanda N. Lima, Josiane S. Quetz, Alexandre Havt, Reinaldo B. Oriá, Aldo A. Lima, José Paulo G. Leite Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Application of salivary antibody immunoassays for the detection of incident infections with Norwalk virus in a group of volunteers.
Abstract Norovirus infection is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in developed countries. Developing an assay based on a non-invasive biomarker for detecting incident norovirus infections could improve disease surveillance and epidemiological investigations. This project involved analysis of IgA and IgG norovirus-specific antibody responses in saliva samples from a Norwalk virus (Genogroup I, genotype 1 norovirus) challenge study involving infected and symptomatic, and non-infected asymptomatic individuals. Saliva was collected at the challenge, and two weeks and 40days post-challenge. Samples were ana...
Source: Journal of Immunological Methods - May 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Griffin SM, Converse RR, Leon JS, Wade TJ, Jiang X, Moe CL, Egorov AI Tags: J Immunol Methods Source Type: research

Stomach Bug Traced to Swimming in Contaminated Lake Water
Safe hygiene practices can prevent norovirus outbreaks, CDC says (Source: WebMD Health)
Source: WebMD Health - May 14, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Stomach Bug Traced to Swimming in Contaminated Lake Water
Safe hygiene practices can prevent norovirus outbreaks, CDC says Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Gastroenteritis, Norovirus Infections, Water Safety (Recreational) (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - May 14, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Comparison of Process Control Viruses for use in Extraction and Detection of Human Norovirus from Food Matrices
This study compared five PCVs [Mengovirus (Mengo), murine norovirus (MNV-1), MS2 coliphage, Tulane virus, and turnip crinkle virus (TCV)] to two HuNoV strains for recovery during the steps of elution, polyethylene glycol precipitation (PEG), and RNA extraction from select foods (lettuce and sliced deli ham). Results demonstrate high recovery efficiencies of HuNoV GI.6 and GII.4 using the methods described in this study: combined (sequential) losses during processing from sliced deli ham and lettuce were <1 log10 genome equivalent copies (GEC). When considering the processing steps separately, HuNoV loss was negligib...
Source: Food Research International - May 14, 2015 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Evidence for Human Norovirus Infection of Dogs in the United Kingdom [Virology]
In conclusion, this study reveals zoonotic implications for HuNoV, and to elucidate the significance of this finding, further epidemiological and molecular investigations will be essential. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - May 14, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Caddy, S. L., de Rougemont, A., Emmott, E., El-Attar, L., Mitchell, J. A., Hollinshead, M., Belliot, G., Brownlie, J., Le Pendu, J., Goodfellow, I. Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Ceramide formation mediated by acid sphingomyelinase facilitates endosomal escape of caliciviruses.
We report a novel finding that bile acids can be substituted by cold treatment for endosomal escape and virus replication. This endosomal escape by cold treatment or bile acids is associated with ceramide formation by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). ASM catalyzes hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide, which is known to destabilize lipid bilayer. Treatment of LLC-PK cells with bile acids or cold led to ceramide formation, and small molecule antagonists or siRNA of ASM blocked ceramide formation in the endosomes and significantly reduced PEC replication. Inhibition of ASM resulted in the retention of PEC, feline calicivirus...
Source: Virology - May 14, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Shivanna V, Kim Y, Chang KO Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of norovirus vaccination in children in Peru.
CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a NV vaccine would prevent many healthcare outcomes in the Peru and potentially be cost-effective in scenarios with high NV incidence. The vaccine cost-effectiveness model could also be applied to the evaluation of NV vaccine cost-effectiveness in other countries. In resource-poor settings, where NV incidence rates are expected to be higher. PMID: 25980428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - May 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mirelman A, Ballard SB, Saito M, Kosek M, Gilman RH Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Innate Susceptibility to Norovirus Infections Influenced by FUT2 Genotype in a United States Pediatric Population
Conclusions. FUT2 status is associated with norovirus infection and varies by ancestry. GII.4 norovirus exclusively infected secretors. These findings are important to norovirus vaccine trials and design of agents that may block norovirus-HBGA binding. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - May 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Currier, R. L., Payne, D. C., Staat, M. A., Selvarangan, R., Shirley, S. H., Halasa, N., Boom, J. A., Englund, J. A., Szilagyi, P. G., Harrison, C. J., Klein, E. J., Weinberg, G. A., Wikswo, M. E., Parashar, U., Vinje, J., Morrow, A. L. Tags: ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Editorial Commentary: Ancestry-Based Differences in Norovirus Susceptibility: Implications for Understanding Global Infection Patterns
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - May 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Debbink, K. Tags: ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

The sweet quartet: Binding of fucose to the norovirus capsid.
Abstract Human noroviruses bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and this interaction is thought to be important for an infection. We identified two additional fucose-binding pockets (termed fucose-3/4 sites) on a genogroup II human (GII.10) norovirus-protruding (P) dimer using X-ray crystallography. Fucose-3/4 sites were located between two previously determined HBGA binding pockets (termed fucose-1/2 sites). We found that four fucose molecules were capable of binding altogether at fucose-1/2/3/4 sites on the P dimer, though the fucose molecules bound in a dose-dependent and step-wise manner. We also showed that...
Source: Virology - May 13, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Koromyslova AD, Leuthold MM, Bowler MW, Hansman GS Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Genome of Emerging Norovirus GII.17, United States, 2014
G. I. Parra and K. Y. Green (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Healthcare workers’ decision-making about transmission-based infection control precautions is improved by a guidance summary card
Conclusion There is a lack of knowledge about TBP among HCWs. This study demonstrates how an inexpensive TBP summary card is an effective mechanism for improving (i) point-of-care access to TBP guidance and (ii) decision-making about appropriate implementation of TBP. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - May 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Norovirus Infection and Disease in an Ecuadorian Birth Cohort: Association of Certain Norovirus Genotypes With Host FUT2 Secretor Status
Conclusions. GII.4 infections were uniquely detected in secretor-positive children, while non-GII.4 infections were more often found in secretor-negative children. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 9, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lopman, B. A., Trivedi, T., Vicuna, Y., Costantini, V., Collins, N., Gregoricus, N., Parashar, U., Sandoval, C., Broncano, N., Vaca, M., Chico, M. E., Vinje, J., Cooper, P. J. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in adults with acute gastroenteritis in Huzhou, China, 2013–2014
In this study, we investigated the occurrence of NoV infections and analyzed the genetic diversity of NoV in adults with acute gastroenteritis in Huzhou, China. A total of 796 fecal samples were collected from outpatients (≥16 years of age) between March 2013 and February 2014. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect NoV genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). For genotyping, the capsid and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes were partially amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were detected in 26.51 % (211/796) of the specimens, with GII being predominant, representing 96.20 % of the NoV infections. ...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 8, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by a GII.6 norovirus.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report to show that norovirus strain GII.6 can cause a gastroenteritis outbreak. Thus, the prevalence of GII.6 noroviruses requires attention. PMID: 25954103 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - May 7, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Luo LF, Qiao K, Wang XG, Ding KY, Su HL, Li CZ, Yan HJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

'Cruise Ship' Norovirus Bug Can Spread by Air, Study Finds
Current containment strategies may need adjusting, research suggests (Source: WebMD Health)
Source: WebMD Health - May 6, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Molecular characterisation of noroviruses detected in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from harvesting areas in Slovenia.
This study confirmed that mussels are a potential source of the NoV infection. The detected NoVs share the same topology on the phylogenetic tree within the NoV strains detected in water samples and human patients, not only from Slovenia but also from many different countries worldwide. We can assume that mussels in harvesting areas are not only contaminated from the surrounding area but also by contaminated water and sewage from large transport ships, which are regularly present in the area. PMID: 25938747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - May 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

'Cruise Ship' Norovirus Bug Can Spread by Air
Current containment strategies may need adjusting, research suggests Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: Norovirus Infections (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - May 6, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Epidemiology and molecular characteristics of norovirus GII.4 Sydney outbreaks in Taiwan, January 2012–December 2013
We examined the epidemiologic and molecular virologic characteristics of reported acute gastroenteritis outbreaks determined to be caused by norovirus in Taiwan from January 2012 to December 2013. A total of 253 (45.7%) of 552 reported acute gastroenteritis outbreaks tested positive for norovirus, of which 165 (65.5%) were typed as GII.4 Sydney. GII.4 Sydney outbreaks were reported from all geographic areas of Taiwan and occurred most frequently in schools (35.8%) and long‐term care facilities (24.2%). Person‐to‐person transmission was identified in 116 (70.3%) of the outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of full‐length...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - May 6, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Fang‐Tzy Wu, Hsieh‐Cheng Chen, Catherine Yen, Ching‐Yi Wu, Kazuhiko Katayama, YoungBin Park, Aron J. Hall, Jan Vinjé, Jason C. Huang, Ho‐Sheng Wu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Induction of homologous and cross‐reactive GII.4‐specific blocking antibodies in children after GII.4 New Orleans norovirus infection
In conclusion, antibodies induced in young children after norovirus GII.4 infection are targeted against the causative variant and may cross‐protect against strains that are closely related, but not with more distinct and earlier GII.4 genotypes. J. Med. Virol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - May 6, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Vesna Blazevic, Maria Malm, Timo Vesikari Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Control of the spread of viruses in a long-term care facility using hygiene protocols
Conclusion Although MS-2 spread readily from hands to fomites and vice versa, the intervention reduced average MS-2 concentrations recovered from hands and fomites by up to 4 logs and also reduced the incidence of MS-2 recovery. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - May 6, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Molecular detection and characterization of sapovirus in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in the Philippines
Acute gastroenteritis remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Sapovirus (SaV), first reported in the late 1970s, is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis [1]. Although SaV has been reported to cause milder illness than rotavirus and norovirus [2], severe SaV cases and SaV-associated outbreaks in different age groups have been reported, which suggests its importance [3,4], However, the epidemiology of SaV remains poorly understood, particularly in developing countries due to the need for expensive molecular methods for diagnosis. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - May 6, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Xiaofang Liu, Dai Yamamoto, Mariko Saito, Toshifumi Imagawa, Adrianne Ablola, Amado Tandoc III, Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado, Socorro P. Lupisan, Michiko Okamoto, Yuki Furuse, Mayuko Saito, Hitoshi Oshitani Source Type: research

Effects of High‐Hydrostatic Pressure on Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Oysters
This study demonstrates that high‐pressure processing can be used to inactivate human norovirus in oysters without compromising their sensory quality. (Source: Journal of Food Science)
Source: Journal of Food Science - May 5, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Mu Ye, Talaysha Lingham, Yaoxin Huang, Gulnihal Ozbay, Lin Ji, Mukund Karwe, Haiqiang Chen Tags: M: Food Microbiology & Safety Source Type: research

Norovirus Outbreaks Among Colorado River Rafters in the Grand Canyon, Summer 2012
Conclusions The results suggest that norovirus may have been introduced by ill or asymptomatic individuals actively shedding the virus in their vomitus or feces, and spread within, or between, river trips by different modes of transmission. This study reinforces the importance of appropriate guidance and practice regarding norovirus prevention and the necessity of postoutbreak containment in relatively isolated groups of individuals. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - May 4, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Norovirus can spread through the AIR making hospital infection measures useless
Hospitals should consider using air filtration machines and providing protection for people around patients with norovirus, said scientists from Laval University. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - May 1, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Effects of murine norovirus on atherosclerosis in ldlr(-/-) mice depends on the timing of infection.
Abstract We previously reported that murine norovirus (MNV), a virus prevalent in United States research institutions, increased atherosclerotic lesion size in Ldlr(-/-) mice when the mice were infected 8 wk after feeding an atherogenic diet. To determine whether the timing of MNV infection relative to atherosclerosis development altered the disease phenotype and to examine potential mechanisms by which MNV influences the disease process, we fed Ldlr(-/-) mice an atherogenic diet for 16 wk. Three days after initiating the atherogenic diet, half of the mice received MNV4 and the other half vehicle only (clarified ce...
Source: Comparative Medicine - May 1, 2015 Category: Zoology Authors: Paik J, Kwok F, Seamons A, Brabb T, Kim J, Sullivan B, Hsu C, O'Brien KD, Maggio-Price L Tags: Comp Med Source Type: research

Aerosol Transmission of Infectious Disease
Conclusions: Aerosol transmission reflects a modern understanding of aerosol science and allows physically appropriate explanation and intervention selection for infectious diseases. (Source: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine - May 1, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Fast Track Articles Source Type: research

Characteristics and outcomes of patients diagnosed with norovirus gastroenteritis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation based on immunochromatography.
In conclusion, IC may be useful in the differential diagnosis of diarrhea after allogeneic HSCT, and could enable the appropriate adjustment of immunosuppressive drugs and prompt preventive measures. PMID: 25930664 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Hematology)
Source: International Journal of Hematology - May 1, 2015 Category: Hematology Authors: Ueda R, Fuji S, Mori SI, Hiramoto N, Hashimoto H, Tanaka T, Tada K, Kobayashi Y, Morikawa N, Shinohara A, Okinaka K, Maeshima AM, Kurosawa S, Kim SW, Yamashita T, Fukuda T Tags: Int J Hematol Source Type: research

Shedding of norovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections
Research Articles P. F. M. TEUNIS, F. H. A. SUKHRIE, H. VENNEMA, J. BOGERMAN, M. F. C. BEERSMA, M. P. G. KOOPMANS, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 08, pp 1710-1717Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)
Source: Epidemiology and Infection - April 29, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Presence of pathogenic enteric viruses in illegally imported meat and meat products to EU by international air travelers.
Abstract One hundred twenty two meat samples confiscated from passengers on flights from non-European countries at the International Airport of Bilbao (Spain) were tested for the presence of the main foodborne viral pathogens (human noroviruses genogroups I and II, hepatitis A and E viruses) during 2012 and 2013. A sample process control virus, murine norovirus, was used to evaluate the correct performance of the method. Overall, 67 samples were positive for at least one enteric viruses, 65 being positive for hepatitis E virus (53.3%), 3 for human norovirus genogroup I (2.5%) and 1 for human norovirus genogroup II ...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - April 29, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Rodríguez-Lázaro D, Diez-Valcarce M, Montes-Briones R, Gallego D, Hernández M, Rovira J Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of Viable Murine Norovirus Using the Plaque Assay and Propidium-Monoazide-combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Abstract Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the most common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a virus culture system makes it difficult to determine the viability of norovirus by only reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The aim of this study was to investigate the detection of viable murine norovirus (MNV) by combining propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) with qRT-PCR. MNV (5.21 log10 PFU/mL) was subjected to heat treatment at room temperature, 65°C, 70°C, 75°C, 80°C, 85°C, or 90°C in a water bath for 1min. The plaque assa...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - April 25, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Lee M, Seo DJ, Seo J, Oh H, Jeon SB, Ha SD, Myoung J, Choi IS, Choi C Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Genotype considerations for virus-like particle based bivalent norovirus vaccine composition.
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) genogroups (G) I and II are responsible for most of the human infections with NoV. Due to the high genetic variability of NoV natural infection does not induce sufficient protective immunity between genotypes or between variants within the same genotype, and there is little or no cross-protection between the genogroups. NoV derived virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine candidates inducing high levels of NoV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. It is believed that a bivalent NoV vaccine consisting of a representative VLP from GI and GII is a minimum requirement for an ...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - April 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Malm M, Tamminen K, Lappalainen S, Uusi-Kerttula H, Vesikari T, Blazevic V Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Norovirus in patients with gastroenteritis
In a comprehensive and updated systematic review and meta-analysis, Sharia Ahmed and colleagues1 assessed the role of norovirus as a cause of endemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In their pooled analysis of 175 studies, noroviruses were detected in 18% of patients with acute gastroenteritis: 24% in the community, 20% in outpatients, and 17% in inpatients.1 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - April 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khitam Muhsen, Lester Shulman, Dani Cohen Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Four‐year study of viruses that cause diarrhea in Japanese pediatric outpatients
This study investigated the epidemiological situation of viruses that cause diarrhea in Japanese pediatric patients. This study enrolled a total of 2,381 fecal specimens collected between 2009 and 2013 from Japanese children with acute gastroenteritis. There is currently a 70.4% prevalence of viruses causing diarrhea among these Japanese pediatric outpatients. Norovirus was detected in 39.3% of the patients, whereas the prevalence of rotavirus, human parechovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, and Aichi virus was 20.1, 6.6, 6.1, 5.6, 4.8, 2.3, and 0.1%, respectively. Co‐infections were observed at the p...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - April 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Aksara Thongprachum, Sayaka Takanashi, Angela F. C. Kalesaran, Shoko Okitsu, Masashi Mizuguchi, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Production of Norovirus VLPs to size homogeneity.
Abstract Expression of full-length major capsid protein of Noroviruses (NoVs) in sf9 cells using recombinant baculovirus expression system leads to the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) with two sizes. In our pursuit of VLPs with uniform sizes, we find that N terminal truncated capsid protein formed primary VLPs with an average size of 21nm. This kind of VLPs showed similar binding patterns to those produced with full-length major capsid protein. HBGA-VLPs binding assay and saliva-VLPs blocking analysis, as well as stability test demonstrate that the smaller 21nm VLPs might be an excellent candidate for NoVs...
Source: Virus Research - April 16, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Huo Y, Wan X, Wang Z, Meng S, Shen S Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Epidemiology of norovirus infections among diarrhea outpatients in a diarrhea surveillance system in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study
This study aimed to determine the contribution of norovirus to gastroenteritis, characterize the features of norovirus infections, compare them with other pathogens, and test the effectiveness of the surveillance system. Methods: A citywide surveillance network on diarrhea patients was established. Samples were collected with intervals from both children and adults among diarrhea outpatients in hospitals and tested for viruses using rRT-PCR and for bacteria in CDCs. Patient information was acquired through interviews and recorded into a dedicated online system. The Pearsonχ2 test, multivariate logistic regression models a...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - April 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ying XueHao PanJiayu HuHuanyu WuJian LiWenjia XiaoXi ZhangZheng¿an YuanFan Wu Source Type: research

Over 100 Sickened With Norovirus Aboard Cruise Ship
SAN DIEGO (AP) — Federal health officials say 106 passengers and six crewmembers aboard the Celebrity Infinity cruise ship were sickened by the gastrointestinal illness norovirus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says an environmental health officer and an epidemiologist boarded the ship Monday after it arrived in San Diego. A call from The Associated Press seeking comment from a Celebrity Cruises representative wasn't immediately returned. The CDC says the highly contagious virus can be acquired from an infected person, contaminated food or water, or by touching contaminated surfaces. The CDC says staf...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - April 13, 2015 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants
Conclusions Washing hands with soap and water is better than using alcohol-based hand disinfectants in removing noroviruses from hands. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - April 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research