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This page shows you the latest news and research items in this category.
Relationship between Virus-Neutralizing Antibody Levels and the Number of Rabies Vaccinations: a Prospective Study of Dogs in Japan.
Abstract A mass rabies vaccination of dogs has been conducted annually in Japan over the last 60 years. To assess both current levels of rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) in dogs and the rationale for current vaccination procedures, we used a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to determine VNA levels in 756 dogs that had visited animal hospitals in Japan. We found that 51.1% of the dogs that had received 1 rabies vaccination had protective VNA levels (≥0.5 IU/ml) with a geometric mean of 0.61 IU/ml. In contrast, 97.8% of the dogs that had been vaccinated at least twice had protective VNA levels with a...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Watanabe I, Yamada K, Aso A, Suda O, Matsumoto T, Yahiro T, Ahmed K, Nishizono A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
Rabies vaccine: Inadequate antibody response in an elderly patient: case report
Source: Reactions - February 15, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short communication Source Type: research
Reduced viral burden in paralytic compared to furious canine rabies is associated with prominent inflammation at the brainstem level
Lower rabies virus (RV) antigen is found in paralytic rabies compared to furious in several CNS regions of dogs, but is associated with greater brainstem inflammation in paralytic rabies, which could retard RV propagation towards the cerebral hemispheres. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles - February 14, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Shanop ShuangshotiNischol ThepaPornchai PhukpattaranontAkanitt JittmittraphapNirun IntarutVeera TepsumethanonSupaporn WacharapluesadeePaul ThornerThiravat Hemachudha Source Type: research
The "Vampirome": Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis of the Submaxillary and Accessory Glands of the Vampire Bat Desmodus rotundus, a Vector of Human Rabies.
Abstract Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostagland...
Source: Journal of Proteomics - February 11, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Francischetti IM, Assumpção TC, Ma D, Li Y, Vicente EC, Uieda W, Ribeiro JM Tags: J Proteomics Source Type: research
Modification of the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation test - elimination of the cytotoxic effect for the detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies.
Abstract The virus neutralisation test is used for the quantitation of specific antibodies in serum samples. However, the success of the test depends on the quality of samples. In the case of poor quality samples, a cytotoxic effect can be observed and the results of the test can be compromised. Additionally, the cytotoxic effect limits the use of different substances, such as muscle extract or liquid from thoracic cavity (thoracic liquid), as a sample for the detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies in the follow-up of fox oral vaccination campaigns. To eliminate the cytotoxic effect, a modified fluoresce...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - February 9, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Bedeković T, Lemo N, Lojkić I, Mihaljević Z, Jungić A, Cvetnić Z, Cač Z, Hostnik P Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
Antibodies To Treat Rabies From Genetically Modified Tobacco Plants
Smoking tobacco might be bad for your health, but a genetically altered version of the plant might provide a relatively inexpensive cure for the deadly rabies virus. In a new research report appearing in The FASEB Journal, scientists produced a monoclonal antibody in transgenic tobacco plants that was shown to neutralize the rabies virus. This new antibody works by preventing the virus from attaching to nerve endings around the bite site and keeps the virus from traveling to the brain... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - February 5, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases / Bacteria / Viruses Source Type: news
Bats and Rabies Still a Concern in Winter, Health Officials Warn
It may be midwinter in Wisconsin, but people can still come in contact with bats and be exposed to rabies, according to state health officials. A rabid bat from northwest Wisconsin was diagnosed last week. (Source: Wisconsin DHFS Press Releases)
Source: Wisconsin DHFS Press Releases - February 4, 2013 Category: Hospital Management Source Type: news
Genetically modified tobacco plants produce antibodies to treat rabies
Smoking tobacco is bad for your health, but a genetically altered version of the plant might provide an inexpensive cure for the deadly rabies virus. Scientists have produced a monoclonal antibody in transgenic tobacco plants shown to neutralize the rabies virus. This antibody works by preventing the virus from attaching to nerve endings around the bite site and keeping the virus from traveling to the brain. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - February 1, 2013 Category: Science Source Type: news
Genetically modified tobacco plants produce antibodies to treat rabies
(Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) Smoking tobacco is bad for your health, but a genetically altered version of the plant might provide an inexpensive cure for the deadly rabies virus. In a new report in The FASEB Journal, scientists produced a monoclonal antibody in transgenic tobacco plants shown to neutralize the rabies virus. This antibody works by preventing the virus from attaching to nerve endings around the bite site and keeping the virus from traveling to the brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 1, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
Current and future approaches to the therapy of human rabies.
Abstract Human rabies has traditionally been considered a uniformly fatal disease. However, recent decades have seen several instances in which individuals have developed clinical signs of rabies, but survived, usually with permanent neurologic sequelae. Most of these patients had received prophylactic rabies vaccine before the onset of illness. The best outcomes have been seen in patients infected with bat viruses, which appear to be less virulent for humans than strains associated with other rabies vectors. In 2003, an article by rabies experts suggested that survival might be improved through a combination of va...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 29, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Jackson AC Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract
Conclusions: C. aurea possesses good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity which support the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of diarrhea in Ethiopia. (Source: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
Source: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine - January 28, 2013 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Shemsu UmerAlemu TekeweNigatu Kebede Source Type: research
[Media Watch] Rabies: from Babylon to Bali
Rabies has been a source of terror for thousands of years; tales of animals in the throes of la rage ravaging people and the horrendous after-effects circulated as long ago as Babylonian times. Now, some might think of rabies as little more than a distant threat, but more than 50 000 people a year die from the disease, mostly in Africa and Asia, where prevention and access to treatment are poor. However, the virus still has such a hold on our imaginations that people everywhere are aware of its effects: hallucinations, odd behaviour, and—the strangest of all—hydrophobia. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - January 22, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abi Cantor Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research
[Correspondence] Systems thinking needed for rabies control
Sarita Depani and colleagues (Sept 29, p 1148) admirably highlight the importance of improved rabies control. However, as is the case with most rabies research, they focus on biomedical solutions to complex systemic challenges. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - January 17, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Syed Shahid Abbas, Manish Kakkar Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
[Correspondence] Systems thinking needed for rabies control – Authors' reply
We agree with Syed Abbas and Mannish Kakkar that rabies control is difficult and complex and that biomedical solutions are hard to translate into practice. Implementation of rabies control measures involves financial, strategic, and educational challenges including changing existing practice. Support and research are therefore vital. It is also clear that current policy in many countries is inadequate, ad-hoc, and reliant on outdated practices which should not continue to be promoted. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - January 17, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sarita Depani, Macpherson Mallewa, Neil Kennedy, Elizabeth Molyneux, Mary Warrell Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Aptamers targeting rabies virus-infected cells inhibit viral replication both in vitro and in vivo.
In this study, sixteen high-affinity single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers were generated by cell-SELEX. Viral titer assays revealed aptamers could specifically inhibit the replication of RABV in cells but did not inhibit the replication of canine distemper virus or canine parvovirus. In addition, the FO21 and FO24 aptamers, with and without PEGylation, were found to effectively protect mice against lethal RABV challenge. When mice were inoculated with aptamers for 24h prior to inoculation with CVS-11, approximately 87.5% of the mice survived. Here, we report aptamers that could significantly protect the mice from a lethal ...
Source: Virus Research - January 17, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Liang HR, Liu Q, Zheng XX, Gai WW, Xue XH, Hu GQ, Wu HX, Wang HL, Yang ST, Xia XZ Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
RABAVERT (Rabies Vaccine) Kit [Novartis Vaccines And Diagnostics GmbH]
Updated Date: Jan 15, 2013 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))
Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST) - January 15, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news
Angola: Animal Bites Killed 13 People in Cazenga in 2012
[ANGOP]Cazenga -About 13 people died from rabies in Cazenga, Luanda province, following 1,440 animal bites, recorded from January 1 to December 30, 2012, in that area. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - January 11, 2013 Category: African Health Source Type: news
Antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from Uruguay.
The objective of this study was to compare the antigenic and genetic characteristics of these isolates and three isolates from insectivorous bats from other regions. Antigenic typing using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies identified all 12 viruses as variant 3 (AgV3), a variant associated with D. rotundus. Two isolates from insectivorous bats (Tadarida brasiliensis and Molossus sp.) were characterized as antigenic variant 4 (AgV4) while the third, from Myotis sp., could not be characterized using this panel as its reactivity pattern did not match that of any of the known antigenic variants. Partial N-gene sequences (...
Source: Virus Research - January 11, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Guarino H, Castilho JG, Souto J, Oliveira RD, Carrieri ML, Kotait I Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Genetic and evolutionary characterization of RABVs from China using the phosphoprotein gene
Conclusion: Several substitutions were found in the P gene of Chinese RABVs strains compared to the laboratory adapted and vaccine strains, whether these variations could affect the biological characteristics of Chinese RABVs need to be further investigated. The substitution rate and evolution history of P gene is similar to G and N gene, combine the topology of phylogenetic tree based on the P gene is similar to the G and N gene trees, indicate that the P, G and N genes are equally valid for examining the phylogenetics of RABVs. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - January 7, 2013 Category: Virology Authors: Lihua WangHui WuXiaoyan TaoHao LiSimon RaynerGuodong LiangQing Tang Source Type: research
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies.
Abstract Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum. PMID: 23290471 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - January 2, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wang W, Ni Y, Gao K, Lu Q, Li X Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research
Tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccine as additional alternative neoantigen for the clinical immunologist's toolbox
Diagnostic immunization of potentially immunodeficient patients and response evaluation by means of laboratory results belong to the standard “clinical allergist/immunologist’s toolbox,” as stated by Orange et al recently. However, its management and respective interpretation continue to challenge the physicians’ responsibility, considering ethical regulations and the individual immunologic knowledge and experience. Thus, clinical pediatric and adult immunologists will highly appreciate the recently published working group report on the “Use and interpretation of diagnostic vaccination in primary immunodeficienc...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 2, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Markus G. Seidel, Christina B. Planitzer, Thomas R. Kreil, Elisabeth Förster-Waldl Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Erratum to: Modeling Seasonal Rabies Epidemics in China.
PMID: 23229781 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology)
Source: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology - January 1, 2013 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Zhang J, Jin Z, Sun GQ, Sun XD, Ruan S Tags: Bull Math Biol Source Type: research
Transneuronal tracing with neurotropic viruses reveals network macroarchitecture.
Abstract A major challenge in systems neuroscience is to unravel the complex matrix of connections that characterize functional circuits within the central nervous system. Retrograde transneuronal transport of rabies virus has proven to be especially useful for this purpose. Here we provide specific examples in which transneuronal transport of rabies virus has been used to unravel multi-synaptic pathways within motor, cognitive and autonomic circuits. Tracing with rabies virus defined: first, the closed-loop organization of cerebellar and basal ganglia circuits with the cerebral cortex; second, the presence of bidi...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurobiology - December 31, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Dum RP, Strick PL Tags: Curr Opin Neurobiol Source Type: research
A Survey of Canadian Public Health Personnel Regarding Knowledge, Practice and Education of Zoonotic Diseases
The objective of this study was therefore to assess the knowledge, perceptions and education of Canadian PHIs regarding zoonotic diseases. Data were collected from December 2008–January 2009 using an internet‐based survey distributed to members of the Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors national listserv. Responses were received from 229 PHIs in four provinces, with a response rate of approximately 20%. The majority of respondents reported at least 10 years of experience in the public health sector, 80% (181/225) were in frontline positions, and 62% (137/222) were routinely involved in investigations of inf...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - December 28, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: K. G. Snedeker, M. E. C. Anderson, J. M. Sargeant, J. S. Weese Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Factors Associated with Dog Rabies Vaccination in Bohol, Philippines: Results of a Cross‐Sectional Cluster Survey Conducted Following the Island‐Wide Rabies Elimination Campaign
The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned‐dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination 2 years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross‐sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization’s Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy‐seven per cent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human‐to‐dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of ...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - December 28, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: S. Davlin, S. M. Lapiz, M. E. Miranda, K. Murray Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Design of different strategies of multivalent DNA-based vaccination against rabies and canine distemper in mice and dogs
Conclusions: In a single shot, the design of efficient multivalent plasmids will be very beneficial for DNA-based vaccination against numerous diseases. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - December 27, 2012 Category: Virology Authors: Leila TouihriSami AhmedYacine ChtourouRahma DaoudChokri Bahloul Source Type: research
Pathobiology of Rabies virus and the European Bat Lyssaviruses in experimentally infected mice.
Abstract A comparison of the clinicopathology of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) types-1 and -2 and of rabies virus was undertaken. Following inoculation of mice at a peripheral site with these viruses, clinical signs of rabies and distribution of virus antigen in the mouse brain were examined. The appearance of clinical signs of disease varied both within and across the different virus species, with variation in incubation periods and weight loss throughout disease progression. The distribution of viral antigen throughout the regions of the brain examined was similar for each of the isolates during the different st...
Source: Virus Research - December 27, 2012 Category: Virology Authors: Healy DM, Brookes SM, Banyard AC, Núñez A, Cosby SL, Fooks AR Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
A week's health news in numbers
Conclusion So what have we learned from this fun exercise? The Daily Mail is probably the best source for news on peer-reviewed research (but you may want to check their reporting against the actual study – or at least the abstract) Case reports may help sell newspapers, but they may not contribute much to the public good Left-of-centre newspapers, despite their caring image, might not really care too much about health We're probably busiest in the middle of the week Health journalists probably don't work weekend shifts That we need to subscribe to The Sun on Sunday Edited by NHS Choices. Follow Behind the Headl...
Source: NHS News Feed - December 24, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: QA articles Medical practice Source Type: news
Surveillance guidelines for disease elimination: A case study of canine rabies.
Abstract Surveillance is a critical component of disease control programmes but is often poorly resourced, particularly in developing countries lacking good infrastructure and especially for zoonoses which require combined veterinary and medical capacity and collaboration. Here we examine how successful control, and ultimately disease elimination, depends on effective surveillance. We estimated that detection probabilities of <0.1 are broadly typical of rabies surveillance in endemic countries and areas without a history of rabies. Using outbreak simulation techniques we investigated how the probability of detec...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - December 19, 2012 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Townsend SE, Lembo T, Cleaveland S, Meslin FX, Miranda ME, Putra AA, Haydon DT, Hampson K Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
IMOGAM RABIES-HT (Human Rabies Virus Immune Globulin) Injection, Solution [Sanofi Pasteur Inc.]
Updated Date: Dec 13, 2012 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))
Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST) - December 13, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news
Viral infections of the central nervous system in Spain: A prospective study
Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of viruses causing aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and encephalitis in Spain. This was a prospective study, in collaboration with 17 Spanish hospitals, including 581 cases (CSF from all and sera from 280): meningitis (340), meningoencephalitis (91), encephalitis (76), febrile syndrome (7), other neurological disorders (32), and 35 cases without clinical information. CSF were assayed by PCR for enterovirus (EV), herpesvirus (herpes simplex [HSV], varicella‐zoster [VZV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein–Barr [EBV], and human herpes virus‐6 [HHV‐6]), ...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - December 12, 2012 Category: Virology Authors: F. de Ory, A. Avellón, J.E. Echevarría, M.P. Sánchez‐Seco, G. Trallero, M. Cabrerizo, I. Casas, F. Pozo, G. Fedele, D. Vicente, M.J. Pena, A. Moreno, J. Niubo, N. Rabella, G. Rubio, M. Pérez‐Ruiz, M. Rodríguez‐Iglesias, C. Gimeno, J.M. Eiros, S Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
A Cat in Georgia Exposes People and Pets to Rabies
Parents often worry about rabies if their child is bitten by a dog, but thanks to widespread vaccination of dogs, that isn't a common way to get rabies in the United States any more....Read Full Post (Source: About.com Pediatrics)
Source: About.com Pediatrics - December 8, 2012 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: news
Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania
Conclusions: Such high birth and death rates result in a rapid replacement of anti-rabies immunised individuals with susceptible ones. This loss in herd immunity needs to be taken into account in the design of rabies control programmes. The very small proportion of truly feral dogs in the population implies that vaccination campaigns aimed at the owned dog population are sufficient to control rabies in urban Iringa, and the same may be valid in other, comparable urban settings. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles - December 5, 2012 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alena GsellDarryn KnobelSarah CleavelandRudovick KazwalaPenelope VounatsouJakob Zinsstag Source Type: research
Community perception regarding rabies prevention and stray dog control in urban slums in India
Conclusions: Our study indicates that there are gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in urban slums regarding rabies prevention and control. Efforts to promote awareness should be targeted at men, older people and uneducated individuals. (Source: Journal of Infection and Public Health)
Source: Journal of Infection and Public Health - December 1, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Mrudu Herbert, Riyaz Basha S, Selvi Thangaraj Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Evaluation of an ELISA to detect rabies antibodies in orally vaccinated foxes and raccoon dogs sampled in the field.
Abstract The assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination in wildlife is based on detection in the teeth of a biomarker (tetracycline) which is incorporated in the vaccine bait, and the quantification of rabies antibodies. A blocking ELISA was evaluated and compared with the FAVN test and a validated in-house ELISA, using sera from foxes and raccoon dogs collected following oral vaccination campaigns in France and Estonia. Specificity reached 100% in sera from naïve animals. A high concordance (95%) was observed between the BioPro ELISA and the FAVN test, which was similar in sera from red foxes and raccoon dogs...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - November 29, 2012 Category: Virology Authors: Wasniewski M, Guiot AL, Schereffer JL, Tribout L, Mähar K, Cliquet F Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
Rabies victim turned away from hospital twice
The first woman to die of rabies in England for seven years was turned away from hospital twice before finally being diagnosed, an inquest has heard. (Source: Telegraph Health)
Source: Telegraph Health - November 28, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Arctic-like Rabies Virus, Bangladesh.
Abstract Arctic/Arctic-like rabies virus group 2 spread into Bangladesh ≈32 years ago. Because rabies is endemic to and a major public health problem in this country, we characterized this virus group. Its glycoprotein has 3 potential N-glycosylation sites that affect viral pathogenesis. Diversity of rabies virus might have public health implications in Bangladesh. PMID: 23171512 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - November 28, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jamil KM, Ahmed K, Hossain M, Matsumoto T, Ali MA, Hossain S, Hossain S, Islam A, Nasiruddin M, Nishizono A Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
The ischemic dermatopathies are a group of vasculopathic diseases that share clinical and histologic features but result from variable causes. Generalized ischemic dermatopathies are typically characterized by atrophic lesions with erythema, scale/crust, erosions/ulcerations, and pigmentary changes. Lesions may affect the toes, tail tip, pinnal margins, bony prominences, or any combination of these areas. Familial dermatomyositis (FDM) most commonly occurs in juvenile collies and Shetland sheepdogs. Ischemic reactions to rabies vaccines may mimic FDM and can occur in any breed. The most reliable symptomatic therapy for any...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 27, 2012 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Daniel O. Morris Source Type: research
Epidemiology and evolution of rabies host shifts [Evolution]
Determining the genetic pathways that viruses traverse to establish in new host species is crucial to predict the outcome of cross-species transmission but poorly understood for most host–virus systems. Using sequences encoding 78% of the rabies virus genome, we explored the extent, repeatability and dynamic outcome of evolution associated with... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - November 27, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Streicker, D. G., Altizer, S. M., Velasco-Villa, A., Rupprecht, C. E. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Human rabies in Tianjin, China
Conclusions These findings suggest the need for China's public health authority to improve animal rabies surveillance and control strategies through laboratory case confirmation, more rapid response to potential exposures with provision of appropriate PEP, and education to the public and to health care providers on identifying and reducing rabies risk. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 21, 2012 Category: Health Management Authors: Montgomery, J. P., Zhang, Y., Wells, E. V., Liu, Y., Clayton, J. L., Wang, X., Boulton, M. L. Tags: Health Protection Source Type: research
Evolution and spread of rabies virus
The number of genetic mutations that follow host shifts in rabies virus impacts the speed of disease emergence in new host species, according to research by ecologists at the University of Georgia and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The findings offer the first empirical evidence of the theory that host shifts should happen faster if they involve fewer evolutionary changes. The research could eventually help inform strategies to control novel diseases and understand which viruses… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - November 20, 2012 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Urvaksh Karkaria Source Type: research
Evolution and spread of rabies virus
The number of genetic mutations that follow host shifts in rabies virus impacts the speed of disease emergence in new host species, according to research by ecologists at the University of Georgia and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The findings offer the first empirical evidence of the theory that host shifts should happen faster if they involve fewer evolutionary changes. The research could eventually help inform strategies to control novel diseases and understand which viruses… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - November 20, 2012 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Urvaksh Karkaria Source Type: research
Ribosome regulates viral protein synthesis, revealing potential therapeutic target
Rather than target RNA viruses directly, aiming at the host cells they invade could hold promise, but any such strategy would have to be harmless to the host. Now, a surprising discovery made in ribosomes may point the way to fighting fatal viral infections such as rabies. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - November 20, 2012 Category: Science Source Type: news
More than a machine
(Harvard Medical School) Rather than target RNA viruses directly, aiming at the host cells they invade could hold promise, but any such strategy would have to be harmless to the host. Now, a surprising discovery made in ribosomes may point the way to fighting fatal viral infections such as rabies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2012 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Expression changes of cytoskeletal associated proteins in proteomic profiling of neuroblastoma cells infected with different strains of rabies virus
Abstract Rabies virus invades the nervous system, induces neuronal dysfunction and causes death of the host. The disruption of the cytoskeletal integrity and synaptic structures of the neurons by rabies virus has been postulated as a possible basis for neuronal dysfunction. In the present study, a two‐dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry proteomics analysis of neuroblastoma cells revealed a significant effect of a virulent strain of rabies virus on the host cytoskeleton related proteins which was quite different from that of an attenuated strain. Vimentin, actin cytoplasmic 1 isoform, profilin I, and Rho‐GDP d...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - November 20, 2012 Category: Virology Authors: Fatemeh Zandi, Naser Eslami, Fatemeh Torkashvand, Ahmad Fayaz, Vahid Khalaj, Behrouz Vaziri Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Study on clinical epidemiology of Male HIV/AIDS patients in a tertiary Chinese hospital, Shanghai, China
Currently, it is estimated that 740,000 people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China. In 2011, approximately 28,000 people died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These numbers must be considered in the context of China's extremely large population, which is estimated to be approximately 1.3 billion. Although China's HIV epidemic remains of low prevalence overall (0.1% among adults), there are pockets of high infection among specific subpopulations, and the danger of the epidemic spreading further into the general population persists. This became particularly evident in 2011 when China re...
Source: Public Health - November 19, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Y. Zheng, H. Lu, X. Jiang, M. Pang, C. Farthing Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Medial cerebellar output to prefrontal cortex [Neuroscience]
Although the cerebellar interpositus nuclei are known to be involved in cognitive functions, such as associative motor learning, no anatomical evidence has been available for this issue. Here we used retrograde transneuronal transport of rabies virus to identify neurons in the cerebellar nuclei that project via the thalamus to area... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - November 13, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Lu, X., Miyachi, S., Takada, M. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Vaccine Update for October 2012
Source: Department of Health (DH) Area: News The October 2012 edition of the Vaccine Update bulletin is now available. The current edition highlights the following: - Uptake of flu vaccinations in the under 65s at risk - Whooping cough vaccination and pregnant women - Supply of pre-school boosters (Repevax - dTaP/IPV and Infanrix - DTaP/IPV) for the infant programme - Immunisation news - Green book updates - Updates on the availability of typhoid, hepatitis A and rabies vaccines (Source: NeLM - News)
Source: NeLM - News - November 12, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news
Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages.
Abstract In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV) strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Rega...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - November 9, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fahl WO, Carnieli P, Castilho JG, Carrieri ML, Kotait I, Iamamoto K, Oliveira RN, Brandão PE Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research
Consensus Guidelines on Evaluation and Management of Suspected Acute Viral Encephalitis in Children in India.
Abstract JUSTIFICATION: Viral encephalitis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children. The etiological agents are varied, and physicians treating such children often feel limited by the lack of uniform guidelines on evaluation and management of these critically ill children in resource-constrained settings. PROCESS: An Expert Group Meeting on Viral Encephalitis in Children was held on 19th January, 2012 in Gurgaon, Haryana (under the aegis of PEDICON 2012, the National Conference of Indian Academy of Pediatrics). The invited experts included pediatricians and microbiologists with expertise in the ...
Source: Indian Pediatrics - November 8, 2012 Category: Pediatrics Authors: For the Expert Group on Encephalitis, Indian Academy of Pediatrics, Sharma S, Mishra D, Aneja S, Kumar R, Jain A, Vashishtha VM Tags: Indian Pediatr Source Type: research