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Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Diphenhydramine Protection of Diazinon Toxicity in Danio rerio but Not Daphnia magna
Abstract Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern present unique challenges to environmental risk assessment and management. Fortunately, mammalian pharmacology and toxicology safety data are more readily available for pharmaceuticals than other environmental contaminants. Identifying approaches to read-across such pharmaceutical safety information to non-target species represents a major research need to assess environmental hazards. Here, we tested a biological read-across hypothesis from emergency medicine with common aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate models. In mammals, the antihistamine di...
Source: The AAPS Journal - October 18, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Flushing and pruritus secondary to prescription fish oil ingestion in a patient with allergy to fish
Conclusion Due to the patient’s allergic history, timing of onset/offset of the reaction, laboratory evidence, and the use of the Naranjo probability scale, prescription fish oil capsules were deemed the probable cause of this patient’s pruritus and flushing of the face and trunk. Practitioners and patients should always ensure they have an updated list of allergies within the patient’s medical record that includes medications as well as foods and food additives. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy)
Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy - October 16, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Septic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Caused by Sinusitis
By Ichwan, Brian MD; Barrie, Michael MD; Neltner, Kurt MD A 37-year-old man with no significant medical history presented to the emergency department with a headache. He described it as an insidious, constant severe pain that was initially localized occipital but progressed to a bitemporal distribution. His neurologic exam, extraocular movements, and visual acuity were all normal. The patient was given symptomatic treatment with compazine and Benadryl. He was responsive to therapy and discharged home after his headache symptoms resolved.   Seven days later, however, he presented to the emergency department with a worse...
Source: The Case Files - October 14, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research

Common ocular effects reported to a poison control center after systemic absorption of drugs in therapeutic and toxic doses
Purpose of reviewOcular effects resulting from medications assist toxicologists in determining substances involved when treating a poisoned patient. The intention of this review is to discuss the most common ocular effects, the medications that cause them, and the mechanisms by which they occur. Recent findingsAccording to National Poison Data System, the most common reported ocular effects following a drug ingestion/injection/inhalation are mydriasis, miosis, and nystagmus. The most common drug/drug classes reported to a regional poison control center causing these ocular effects include the following: first, mydriasis ...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - October 6, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by Russell W. Read Source Type: research

893p * predictors of hypersensitivity reactions (hsrs) in patients receiving carboplatin-based chemotherapy for ovarian cancer
Conclusions: Ovarian cancer patients receiving 8 to 10 cycles of carboplatin-containing chemotherapy and those with a long interval (>12 months) since last receiving carboplatin are at an increased risk of carboplatin-induced HSRs. These patients may be targeted for future prevention therapies.Disclosure: All authors have declared no conflicts of interest. (Source: Annals of Oncology)
Source: Annals of Oncology - September 24, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jerzak, K. J., Manshadi, S. D., Ng, P., Maganti, M., McCuaig, J. M., Oza, A. M., Mackay, H. Tags: gynaecological cancers Source Type: research

1532p * the evaluation of paclitaxel hypersensitivity reactions (hsrs) following the discontinuation of prophylactic pre-medications
Conclusions: In patients receiving paclitaxel+platinum regimens or paclitaxel +/- trastuzumab, the discontinuation of pre-medications is a safe and feasible option if a patient has not experienced an HSR during the first or second dose of paclitaxel.Disclosure: All authors have declared no conflicts of interest. (Source: Annals of Oncology)
Source: Annals of Oncology - September 24, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Meyer, C., Raymond, C., Lee, R., Amir, E., Mackay, H., Oza, A. M., Warr, D., Ng, P. Tags: supportive care Source Type: research

Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough.
CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of interventions for the cough in whooping cough. More high-quality trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of potential antitussive treatments in patients with whooping cough. PMID: 25243777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - September 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Wang K, Bettiol S, Thompson MJ, Roberts NW, Perera R, Heneghan CJ, Harnden A Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

A viscous lidocaine mouthwash is no better than placebo for improving oral intake in children with painful mouth ulcers
Commentary on: Hopper SM, McCarthy M, Tancharoen C, et al.. Topical lidocaine to improve oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth ulcers: a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med 2014;63:292–9. Context Ulcerative oral conditions, infectious (herpetic gingivostomatitis, herpangina, hand, foot and mouth disease) and non-infectious (pharyngitis, gingivostomatitis and aphthous), are often observed in children.1 While most conditions are benign, they can be highly painful, impair food intake, and, more specifically, result in dehydration in young children. Aetiological therapies of viral...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - September 15, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Descroix, V., Coudert, A. E. Tags: Pain (neurology), Dentistry and oral medicine, Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology Therapeutics Source Type: research

The Case Files: Culling through Diagnoses to Get to Rat Bite Fever
By Dyer, Alexandra; Berg, Kenneth MD; King, Andrew MD Rat bite fever (RBF) is a fairly rare illness caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. It can be a devastating and even fatal illness if left undiagnosed or untreated. Despite its name, RBF is not only transmitted by rat bites but also by contact with rat feces, ingestion of rat-contaminated food and water, or simply through direct contact with rats. (Clin Microbiol Rev 2007;20[1]:13; Vet Microbiol 2009;133[3]:211; BMJ Case Rep 2009; Epub Dec 17.) The first documented outbreak in Haverhill, MA, in 1926 was believed to be caused by a pathogen named Have...
Source: The Case Files - September 2, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research

Diphenhydramine’s Role in Death Investigations: An Examination of Diphenhydramine Prevalence in 2 US Geographical Areas
ConclusionsAs people seek legal alternative drugs to abuse and with the ease of obtaining information via online forums, there is a potential to see an increase in the number of cases involving excessive use of DPH. (Source: The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology)
Source: The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology - September 1, 2014 Category: Forensic Medicine Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Immediate hypersensitivity reaction following liposomal amphotericin-B (AmBisome) infusion.
We report two patients with kala-azar: one developed breathing difficulties and hypotension followed by shock and the other had facial angioedema with chest tightness during treatment. Both patients were managed with immediate action of injection: adrenaline, diphenhydramine and hydrocortisone. In our experience, AmBisome can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions that warrant proper support and close supervision. PMID: 25139411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - August 19, 2014 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nath P, Basher A, Harada M, Sarkar S, Selim S, Maude RJ, Noiri E, Faiz A Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Inadvertent Iatrogenic Misuse of Intravenous Diphenhydramine in an Adolescent: Implications for Routine Medication Administration
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology - July 30, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Tags: article Source Type: research

The Case Files: CrossFit-Induced Carotid Artery Dissection
By Fox, Alex MD; King, Andrew MD   CrossFit has become a workout phenomenon with more than 5,500 gyms and millions of staunch followers. Developed by Greg Glassman, CrossFit defines itself as “that which optimizes fitness, constantly varied functional movements performed at relatively high intensity.” The craze has been embraced by fitness enthusiasts and weekend warriors alike.   These intense workouts can be dangerous for those with less experience who do not have trainers to help ease them into the routine. A 2005 New York Times article, “Getting Fit, Even If It Kills You,” criticized CrossFit for placing emph...
Source: The Case Files - July 8, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research

Scavenger hunt: A creative teaching strategy to introduce pharmacological concepts and ethical concerns
Abstract: The sheer volume and number of errors in medication administration obliges nursing educators to facilitate a higher level of student understanding in foundational pharmacological concepts. The focus of this manuscript was the use of a faculty created teaching strategy to introduce foundational pharmacological concepts and ethical concerns in an undergraduate nursing pharmacology course. The use of the Scavenger Hunt facilitated active learning and student engagement as students were responsible for and active in their own learning.The intent of the Scavenger Hunt was to introduce students to complex pharmacologic...
Source: Teaching and Learning in Nursing - July 1, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Elizabeth A. Tinnon Source Type: research

Olfactory stimulatory with grapefruit and lavender oils change autonomic nerve activity and physiological function.
Abstract This review summarizes the effects of olfactory stimulation with grapefruit and lavender oils on autonomic nerve activity and physiological function. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of grapefruit oil (GFO) increases the activity of sympathetic nerves that innervate white and brown adipose tissues, the adrenal glands, and the kidneys, decreases the activity of the gastric vagal nerve in rats and mice. This results in an increase in lipolysis, thermogenesis, and blood pressure, and a decrease in food intake. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of lavender oil (LVO) elicits the opposite changes in nerve...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 25, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nagai K, Niijima A, Horii Y, Shen J, Tanida M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Novel Use of Dexmedetomidine for the Treatment of Anticholinergic Toxidrome.
We report the case of an adolescent with anticholinergic toxidrome from diphenhydramine overdose, whose symptoms were treated with a novel application of dexmedetomidine. CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old female developed an anticholinergic toxidrome after intentionally ingesting 9.5 mg/kg of diphenhydramine. Despite routine supportive therapies, to include appropriate doses of lorazepam, she continued to have significant agitation, psychosis, and hallucinations. A dexmedetomidine infusion was started to aid in the treatment of her agitation and psychosis with marked improvement of her symptoms. DISCUSSION: Using dexmede...
Source: Journal of Medical Toxicology - June 19, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Walker A, Delle Donne A, Douglas E, Spicer K, Pluim T Tags: J Med Toxicol Source Type: research

Honey for acute cough in children
Abstract BackgroundCough causes concern for parents and is a major cause of outpatient visits. It can impact on quality of life, cause anxiety and affect sleep in parents and children. Several remedies, including honey, have been used to alleviate cough symptoms. ObjectivesTo evaluate the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings. Search methodsWe searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2011) which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (1950 to December week 4, 2011); EMBASE (1990 ...
Source: Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal - June 16, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Olabisi Oduwole, Martin M Meremikwu, Angela Oyo‐Ita, Ekong E Udoh Tags: Intervention Review Source Type: research

Effects of Leukoreduction and Premedication With Acetaminophen and Diphenhydramine in Minimizing Febrile Nonhemolytic Transfusion Reactions and Allergic Transfusion Reactions During and After Blood Product Administration: A Literature Review With Recommendations for Practice
Transfusion-related reactions cause unwanted interruptions in blood-product administration and potential complications for patients. The most common reactions are febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) and allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs). The presence of leukocytes in blood products has been associated with these reactions, and efficacy of leukoreduction in minimizing FNHTRs and ATRs has recently been investigated. In addition, premedication with acetaminophen and diphenhydramine is the most widely used practice in minimizing FNHTRs and ATRs, yet the benefit of this is not supported by research. The aim ...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing - June 13, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Duran, J., Siddique, S., Cleary, M. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

The Case Files: Disease Traveling by Plane
By Hirashima, Eva Tovar MD, MPH; Crucio, Ted MD   A 34-year-old woman presented to the ED complaining of nausea, vomiting, and body tingling. She had just returned from a one-week stay in Haiti. Four days prior to presentation, she had eaten red snapper in a local restaurant. A few hours after the ingestion, she had colicky abdominal pain, watery non-bloody diarrhea, and circumoral tingling, which later progressed to generalized itching, tingling, and intense burning.   The patient reported on arrival at our ED improvement of the diarrhea, but the generalized itching and tingling had worsened, and she complained of fatig...
Source: The Case Files - June 4, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research

Use of a Physostigmine Continuous Infusion for the Treatment of Severe and Recurrent Antimuscarinic Toxicity in a Mixed Drug Overdose.
We present a case of physostigmine continuous infusion for the treatment of antimuscarinic symptoms in a polydrug overdose due to the ingestion of diphenhydramine along with bupropion, citalopram, acetaminophen, and naproxen. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old female presented with hyperthermia, myoclonus and rigidity, hallucinations, severe agitation, and antimuscarinic toxicity including inability to sweat after a polydrug overdose. Several doses of lorazepam were administered followed by physostigmine which produced resolution of hallucinations and attenuation of the antimuscarinic symptoms including perspiration, tem...
Source: Journal of Medical Toxicology - May 6, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Phillips MA, Acquisto NM, Gorodetsky RM, Wiegand TJ Tags: J Med Toxicol Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of the Effectiveness of Topical “ABH Gel” (Ativan, Benadryl, Haldol) vs. Placebo in Cancer Patients With Nausea
(Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management)
Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management - May 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Authors: Devon S. Fletcher, Patrick J. Coyne, Patricia W. Dodson, Gwendolyn G. Parker, Wen Wan, Thomas J. Smith Source Type: research

Neurology, Volume 1, 1951 (P1.293)
CONCLUSIONS: Notable authors of papers in the first issue of Neurology included Drs. Adolph Sahs, Francis Forster, A.B. Baker, Elizabeth Crosby, W.G. Lennox, and Webb Haymaker, author of Bing's Local Diagnosis in Neurological Diseases. Percival Bailey authored a paper on the past, present and future of Neurology in the U.S. Bailey, one of the most prominent neurosurgeons of the era, had trained in neurosurgery with Harvey Cushing. Frederic and Erna Gibbs, authors of the first atlas of EEG wrote a paper on thalamic and hypothalamic epilepsy. There was also a paper on 14 and 6 spikes, which had been described by the Gibbses....
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Campbell, W. Tags: History of Neurology Source Type: research

Age-related pharmacokinetic changes of acetaminophen, antipyrine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and ofloxacin in male cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs.
Abstract Abstract 1.  The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (marker of gastric emptying), antipyrine (marker of hepatic metabolic activity and total body water), diazepam (lipophilic and highly distributed), diphenhydramine (hepatic blood flow-limited and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein bound) and ofloxacin (renally eliminated) were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (3-18 years old) and beagle dogs (2-11 years old) as models in elderly persons. 2.  Gastric pH fluctuated with aging in monkeys and dogs. The concentration of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein appeared to be increased by aging. There were no age-related differences...
Source: Xenobiotica - March 21, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Koyanagi T, Yamaura Y, Yano K, Kim S, Yamazaki H Tags: Xenobiotica Source Type: research

Diphenhydramine dependence through deep intramuscular injection resulting in myonecrosis and prolonged QT interval
We describe a retired nurse with history of depression, who began to develop drug‐seeking behaviour after her first receiving of an intramuscular (IM) DPH injection due to urticaria. Case summaryThe 49‐year‐old patient had developed IM DPH dependence within 4 months. She needed to receive psychiatric inpatient treatment because of depressive mood, serious myonecrosis over injected sites, and prolongation of QT interval. What is new and conclusionThis is the first reported case of DPH dependence through the IM route. Second‐generation antihistamines might be better choices for patients with psychiatric illness by re...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics - March 6, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: T.‐Y. Chen, Y.‐W. Yeh, S.‐C. Kuo, C.‐Y. Chen, T.‐P. Lin, C.‐C. Chang Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Rituximab Use in Pediatric Central Demyelinating Disease
Conclusions: The use of rituximab in our pediatric neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis cohort was overall safe and effective. Larger studies should confirm our observations. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - February 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Shannon J. Beres, Jennifer Graves, Emmanuelle Waubant Tags: Clinical Observations Source Type: research

Mechanism of the Histamine H3 Receptor-mediated Increase in Exploratory Locomotor Activity and Anxiety-like Behaviours in Mice.
This study aimed to determine the mechanism underlying H3R-mediated behavioural changes using a specific H3R antagonist, JNJ-10181457 (JNJ). First, we examined the effect of JNJ injection to mice on the concentrations of brain monoamines and their metabolites. JNJ exclusively increased N(τ)-methylhistamine, the metabolite of brain histamine used as an indicator of histamine release, suggesting that JNJ dominantly stimulates the release of histamine release but not of other monoamines. Next, we examined the mechanism underlying JNJ-induced behavioural changes using open-field tests and elevated zero maze tests. JNJ-induced...
Source: Neuropharmacology - February 13, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mohsen A, Yoshikawa T, Miura Y, Nakamura T, Naganuma F, Shibuya K, Iida T, Harada R, Okamura N, Watanabe T, Yanai K Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of Diphenhydramine on aqueous tear production in dogs
Antihistamines competitively inhibit histamine at H1-receptors and reduce inflammatory reactions that result from allergic reactions. Use of topical antihistamine medications to treat ocular allergy has been seldom reported in veterinary medicine. Breeds commonly diagnosed with or at increased risk for developing atopic dermatitis and/or food allergy include the boxer, West Highland white terrier, English springer spaniel, miniature schnauzer, American cocker spaniel, shih tzu, Labrador retriever, and golden retriever. Antihistamines serve as a viable symptomatic treatment option for dogs unresponsive to therapy directed a...
Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery - February 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Parenteral Treatment of Episodic Tension-Type Headache: A Systematic Review.
CONCLUSIONS: Various parenteral medications other than salicylates or nonsteroidals provide acute relief of tension-type headache. Comparative efficacy studies are needed. PMID: 24433525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Headache)
Source: Headache - January 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Weinman D, Nicastro O, Akala O, Friedman BW Tags: Headache Source Type: research

Parenteral Treatment of Episodic Tension‐Type Headache: A Systematic Review
ConclusionsVarious parenteral medications other than salicylates or nonsteroidals provide acute relief of tension‐type headache. Comparative efficacy studies are needed. (Source: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain)
Source: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain - January 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Danielle Weinman, Olivia Nicastro, Olabiyi Akala, Benjamin W. Friedman Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

An Approach to Heparin and Lidocaine Hypersensitivity for the Interventional Nephrologist.
Abstract The general and interventional nephrologist may occasionally encounter a situation where the patient may state that he/she has an allergy to lidocaine or heparin. Heparin hypersensitivity is usually either a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction or an immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. While a number of alternative drugs are available, many of them are subject to local availability, food and drug administration indications, and the patient's hepatic and renal function. Many of these drugs do not have antidotes in case of bleeding. Lidocaine hypersensitivity is usually a delayed type reaction, although adve...
Source: Seminars in Dialysis - January 8, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sequeira A Tags: Semin Dial Source Type: research

An Approach to Heparin and Lidocaine Hypersensitivity for the Interventional Nephrologist
Abstract The general and interventional nephrologist may occasionally encounter a situation where the patient may state that he/she has an allergy to lidocaine or heparin. Heparin hypersensitivity is usually either a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction or an immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia. While a number of alternative drugs are available, many of them are subject to local availability, food and drug administration indications, and the patient's hepatic and renal function. Many of these drugs do not have antidotes in case of bleeding. Lidocaine hypersensitivity is usually a delayed type reaction, although adverse re...
Source: Seminars In Dialysis - January 8, 2014 Category: Hematology Authors: Adrian Sequeira Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Presumptive immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia secondary to massive Africanized bee envenomation in a dog
Abstract ObjectiveTo describe a case of immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) after massive Africanized bee envenomation in a dog. Case SummaryWhile boarding at a kennel, a dog was stung by approximately 300 Africanized bees. During initial veterinary examination, the dog was deemed to be in shock, characterized by collapse, with hypotension, bradycardia, and hypoglycemia. In addition, severe diffuse erythema and edema were noted over the entire body. Supportive care, including IV crystalloid and colloid fluids, dextrose, fresh frozen plasma, oxygen therapy, broad spectrum antimicrobials, dexamethasone, and diphenhydram...
Source: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care - December 4, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Reid K. Nakamura, Renee K. Fenty, Domenico Bianco Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Rupatadine inhibits inflammatory mediator release from human laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cultured mast cells stimulated by platelet-activating factor.
CONCLUSION: PAF stimulates human mast cell release of proinflammatory mediators that is inhibited by RUP. This action endows RUP with additional properties in treating allergic inflammation. PMID: 24267366 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology)
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - November 29, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Alevizos M, Karagkouni A, Vasiadi M, Sismanopoulos N, Makris M, Kalogeromitros D, Theoharides TC Tags: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol Source Type: research

Proton-coupled organic cation antiporter-mediated uptake of apomorphine enantiomers in human brain capillary endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3.
Abstract R(-)-Apomorphine is a dopamine agonist used for rescue management of motor function impairment associated with levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease patients. The aim of this study was to examine the role of proton-coupled organic cation antiporter in uptake of R(-)-apomorphine and its S-enantiomer in human brain, using human endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 as a model. Uptake of R(-)- or S(+)-apomorphine into hCMEC/D3 cells was measured under various conditions to evaluate its time-, concentration-, energy- and ion-dependency. Inhibition by selected organic cations was also examined. Uptakes of both R(-)-...
Source: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - November 20, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Okura T, Higuchi K, Kitamura A, Deguchi Y Tags: Biol Pharm Bull Source Type: research

Post-mortem evidence of doxylamine in toxicological analyses
Conclusion: Benchmarks published in past literature are meant as orientation during evaluation of post-mortem DA evidence. These should not be used as absolute values and need to be interpreted individually in each case. Post-mortem redistribution needs to be considered as a main factor in alteration of DA concentration measurement. Furthermore, proof of DA ingestion found in gastric content should only be interpreted quantitatively due to unreliable calculation of the ingested amount. In conclusion, a variety of factors, such as the time period between time of death and the time of the first toxicological analysis, the co...
Source: Science and Justice - November 18, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Lena Eckes, Michael Tsokos, Sieglinde Herre, René Gapert, Sven Hartwig Tags: Scientific and Technical Articles Source Type: research

Bitter Taste Receptor Function in Asthmatic and Nonasthmatic Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.
Abstract Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) have recently been found to be expressed on human airway smooth muscle (HASM) and their activation results in marked relaxation. These agents have been proposed as a new class of bronchodilators in the treatment of obstructive lung diseases since they act via a different mechanism than -agonists. The TAS2R signal transduction pathway in HASM has multiple elements that are potentially subject to regulation by inflammatory, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms associated with asthma. To address this, expression, signaling and physiologic functions of the three major TAS2Rs (s...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - November 12, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Robinett KS, Koziol-White CJ, Akoluk A, An SS, Panettieri Jr RA, Liggett SB Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Mechanism-Driven Phase I Translational Study of Trifluoperazine in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.
Abstract Recent evidence of neuropathic pain among adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) reveals a need for adjuvant analgesic treatments for these patients. Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) has a known role in neuropathic pain and trifluoperazine is a potent CaMKIIα inhibitor. The study aim was to determine trifluoperazine's acute effects, primarily on adverse effects and secondarily on pain intensity reduction, in adults with SCD. In a phase I, open-label study of 6 doses of trifluoperazine (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 7.5, 10mg), we obtained 7-hourly and 24-hour repeated measures of adverse effects, pain inte...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - November 7, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Molokie RE, Wilkie DJ, Wittert H, Suarez ML, Yao Y, Zhao Z, He Y, Wang ZJ Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research

Acute pain transfusion reaction.
Abstract A 34-year-old woman with a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) received a double umbilical cord blood transplantation following a myeloablative chemotherapy preparative regimen with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. HLH is a rare, potentially fatal hematologic disorder characterized by the overactivation of histocytes and T lymphocytes, leading to organ infiltration and acute illness. On day 25 post-transplantation, the patient required a platelet transfusion for a platelet count of 6,000 per ml (normal range = 150,000-450,000 per ml). The patient's blood type prior to the cord blood transpla...
Source: Oncology Nursing Forum - November 1, 2013 Category: Nursing Authors: Hardwick J, Osswald M, Walker D Tags: Oncol Nurs Forum Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic variability of flecainide in younger Japanese patients and mechanisms for renal excretion and intestinal absorption
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition)
Source: Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition - October 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Asuka Horie, Kazuya Ishida, Kaito Shibata, Masato Taguchi, Ayaka Ozawa, Keiichi Hirono, Fukiko Ichida, Yukiya Hashimoto Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research

Simultaneous determination of three major lignans in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Diphylleia sinensis extract.
Abstract A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of three major lignans (podophyllotoxin, epipodophyllotoxin, and 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin) in rat plasma using diphenhydramine as the internal standard. The analytes were detected using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer that was equipped with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion and selected reaction monitoring modes. The linearity of the calibration curve was good, with coefficients of determination (r(2) ) >0.9914 for all of the analytes. The de...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - October 14, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhao C, Zhang N, He W, Li R, Shi D, Pang L, Dong N, Xu H, Ji H Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

Anaphylactic shock associated with intravenous thrombolytics
We report a case report of anaphylactic reaction directly attributable to intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and identify additional cases through review of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. A systematic review of Adverse Event Reporting System was performed for allergic adverse events occurring in conjunction with IV thrombolytics. We reviewed 924 adverse events which occurred between 2004 and 2012 that were associated with thrombolytics. We subsequently acquired detailed individual safety reports of 33 cases in which allergic events were documented. Out of the 33 repo...
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - October 2, 2013 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Amna Zarar, Asif A. Khan, Malik M. Adil, Adnan I. Qureshi Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis in a patient receiving high-dose recombinant interleukin-2
To the Editor: A 65-year-old man with metastatic renal cell carcinoma was hospitalized for cycle 2 of standard high-dose recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy at a dose of 720,000 units per kg administered every 8 hours. The patient had received 12 doses of IL-2 during the first cycle, which was completed 1 week earlier. After the administration of 6 doses of IL-2 in the second cycle, the patient developed erythroderma. Within the erythrodermic areas were numerous nonfollicular pustules, most prominently on the trunk and extremities (). There were no mucous membrane lesions, nail changes, or joint pains. The eruption wa...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - September 20, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Nilanthi D. Gunawardane, Sapna P. Vaghani, Timothy M. Kuzel, Jonathan A. Cotliar Tags: JAAD Online Source Type: research

Insomnia treatment in the third trimester of pregnancy reduces postpartum depression symptoms: A randomized clinical trial
Abstract: Mental health is an important medical issue in perinatal care, and there is increasing evidence that insomnia during pregnancy is associated with postpartum depression (PPD). Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of insomnia treatment during the third trimester of pregnancy on PPD symptoms. Fifty-four pregnant women with insomnia were randomly assigned to trazodone, diphenhydramine, or placebo treatment. Sleep quality was measured by actigraphy at baseline, and after 2 and 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, depression was assessed 2 and 6 weeks after delivery. Trazodone and diphenhydramine improved sl...
Source: Psychiatry Research - September 3, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Habibolah Khazaie, Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami, David C. Knight, Farnoosh Emamian, Masoud Tahmasian Tags: Depression and depressive disorder Source Type: research

Topiramate for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Topiramate is without evidence of efficacy in diabetic neuropathic pain, the only neuropathic condition in which it has been adequately tested. The data we have includes the likelihood of major bias due to LOCF imputation, where adverse event withdrawals are much higher with active treatment than placebo control. Despite the strong potential for bias, no difference in efficacy between topiramate and placebo was apparent. PMID: 23996081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - August 30, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Lunn MP, Moore RA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Diphenhydramine produces local cutaneous analgesia in response to dorsal skin noxious stimuli in the rat
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology - August 16, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yu‐Wen Chen, Jann‐Inn Tzeng, Ting‐Yun Chen, Jhi‐Joung Wang, Yu‐Chung Chen, Ching‐Hsia Hung Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Caution with interpreting laboratory results after lipid rescue therapy
Intravenous lipid rescue therapy (LRT) may be implemented to attenuate drug toxicity. Little is known about LRT interference with laboratory tests in overdose settings. A 54-year-old man with a history of depression consumed unknown amounts of diphenhydramine, amitriptyline, and acetaminophen (APAP). Initial workup showed aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of 138 U/L, APAP of 177 μg/mL, and a QRS interval of 136 milliseconds. N-acetylcysteine, sodium bicarbonate, and 20% intravenous LRT were initiated. Laboratory test results drawn less than 6 hours later showed an APAP level of 44 μg/mL and an undetectable AST (Siemens Vi...
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - August 12, 2013 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Mohan Punja, Stewart G. Neill, Stella Wong, Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Exuberant connubial allergic contact dermatitis from diphenhydramine.
We report a case of a connubial dermatitis caused by topical diphenhydramine in a woman who applied the cream on her husband's back. PMID: 23848819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology)
Source: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology - July 12, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Teixeira V, Cabral R, Gonçalo M Tags: Cutan Ocul Toxicol Source Type: research

Interaction of active compounds from Aegle marmelos CORREA with histamine-1 receptor.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on molecular docking, Amino acid residues involved in ligand protein interactions were Asp107, Lys179, Lys191, Asn198, and Trp428. PMID: 23750086 [PubMed] (Source: Bioinformation)
Source: Bioinformation - June 15, 2013 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Nugroho AE, Agistia DD, Tegar M, Purnomo H Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research

Antihistamines and other prognostic factors for adverse outcome in hyperemesis gravidarum.
CONCLUSION: Poor outcomes are significantly greater in women with HG and are associated with gestational hypertension, early symptoms, and antihistamine use. Given these results, there is an urgent need to address the safety and effectiveness of medications containing antihistamines in women with severe nausea of pregnancy. PMID: 23751910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Reproductive Biology)
Source: Reproductive Biology - June 7, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Fejzo MS, Magtira A, Schoenberg FP, Macgibbon K, Mullin P, Romero R, Tabsh K Tags: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol Source Type: research

Use of QT‐prolonging medications in US emergency departments, 1995–2009
ConclusionUse of QT‐prolonging medications is increasing in EDs nationally. A small number of agents account for a large proportion of these visits and may represent an area for targeted screening or monitoring interventions in the ED. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety)
Source: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety - May 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Khoon‐Yen Tay, Michele Burns Ewald, Florence T. Bourgeois Tags: Original Report Source Type: research