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Developing transcutaneous nanoenabled anaesthetics for eyelid surgery
In this study, we explore the feasibility of nanoenabled lidocaine delivery across an artificial skin analogue. Materials and methods Three different lidocaine-loaded nanocarriers were characterised. Diffusion studies were performed through cellulose membranes using customised Franz cells. The nanocarriers included polymeric micelles (PMs) (Soluplus), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) (Tripalmitin: Lecithin: Labrasol: polysorbate-20: water; 3.33:1:40:1:4.67 w/w) and self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) (Capryol-90: Transcutol: Labrasol; 1:3:6 w/w). Particles were characterised in terms of size, zeta-potentia...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lalatsa, A., Emeriewen, K., Protopsalti, V., Skelton, G., Saleh, G. M. Tags: Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

CADS grading scale: towards better grading of ophthalmic involvement in facial nerve paralysis
Conclusions We present a validation study of an FNGI specifically designed for ophthalmic involvement of FNP. Objective and subjective parameters helped standardise grading and management planning. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Malhotra, R., Ziahosseini, K., Litwin, A., Nduka, C., El-Shammah, N. Tags: Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Exposure rate of unwrapped hydroxyapatite orbital implants in enucleation surgery
Conclusions The placement of an unwrapped HA orbital implant with rectus end-to-end suturing in enucleation surgery was associated with a low rate of exposure in most cases. The end-to-end suturing creates a joint-like structure over the HA sphere, protecting the Tenon's capsule and conjunctiva from its rough surface and reducing the risk of implant exposure. Prior ocular surgery may be another risk factor for HA exposure. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ye, J., Gao, Q., He, J.-j., Gao, T., Ning, Q.-y., Xie, J.-j. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Interobserver agreement using Goldmann applanation tonometry and dynamic contour tonometry: comparing ophthalmologists, nurses and technicians
Discussion/conclusions Ophthalmologists show good levels of agreement with each other when using GAT, while technicians/nursing staff show better agreement when using the DCT. The DCT may be a better tonometer to use if permanently delegating IOP measurements to non-ophthalmologists, but measurements cannot be interchanged with the GAT. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kotecha, A., Elkarmouty, A., Ajtony, C., Barton, K. Tags: Public health, Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Applanation tonometry: interobserver and prism agreement using the reusable Goldmann applanation prism and the Tonosafe disposable prism
Conclusions There is an acceptable agreement between IOP measurements made with the reusable Goldmann tonometer prism and the disposable Tonosafe prism. Interobserver variability in IOP measurements within an outpatient setting is larger than that found within a research setting, and may be of a level that impacts on clinical decision-making. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ajtony, C., Elkarmouty, A., Barton, K., Kotecha, A. Tags: Public health Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

EP3/FP dual receptor agonist ONO-9054 administered morning or evening to patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: results of a randomised crossover study
Conclusions PM dosing of ONO-0954 was associated with a slightly increased frequency of mild hyperaemia and mild to moderate dryness. Both dosing schedules provided sustained reduction in IOP. Trial registration number NCT01670266. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Berlin, M. S., Rowe-Rendleman, C., Ahmed, I., Ross, D. T., Fujii, A., Ouchi, T., Quach, C., Wood, A., Ward, C. L. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Open access, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Incidence and survival of retinoblastoma in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study 1998-2011
Conclusions The incidence of retinoblastoma in Taiwan exhibited no marked trend over time. There were more cases of males than females and the male-to-female rate ratio increased with age. Survival outcome was significantly associated with the intervention of enucleation. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Li, S.-Y., Chen, S. C.-C., Tsai, C.-F., Sheu, S.-M., Yeh, J.-J., Tsai, C.-B. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Retinopathy of prematurity in Korean infants with birthweight greater than 1500 g
Conclusion Our study confirmed that treatment-requiring ROP does occur in infants with BW >1500 g. To avoid overlooking infants with vision-threatening ROP, an evaluation of the data from larger BW preterm infants is advisable so that screening guidelines in neonatal care units may be refined. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Park, S. H., Yum, H. R., Kim, S., Lee, Y. C. Tags: Paediatrics, Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Retina, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

The ophthalmic phenotype of IFT140-related ciliopathy ranges from isolated to syndromic congenital retinal dystrophy
Conclusions Recessive IFT140 mutations cause a severe congenital retinal dystrophy with high hyperopia and often early photophilia. Developmental delay is common but not universal and not all patients have obvious extraocular findings. The c.1990G>A mutation represents a founder effect or mutational hotspot on the Arabian Peninsula. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bifari, I. N., Elkhamary, S. M., Bolz, H. J., Khan, A. O. Tags: Paediatrics, Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Novel morphological macular findings in juvenile CLN3 disease
Conclusions This study represents the first prospective observational case series documenting retinal abnormalities in CLN3 disease with the aid of the spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The major finding was a characteristic, striated macular pattern in all patients studied. Particularly in early disease cases, macular striae can potentially help to discriminate CLN3 disease from other inherited forms of retinitis pigmentosa. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Dulz, S., Wagenfeld, L., Nickel, M., Richard, G., Schwartz, R., Bartsch, U., Kohlschütter, A., Schulz, A. Tags: Eye (globe), Retina, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Outer retinal tubulations response to anti-VEGF treatment
Conclusions ORTs documented by SD-OCT may exhibit multiple types of longitudinal changes, such as collapse, recurrence or enlargement, which could be associated with anti-VEGF treatment or spontaneous. Some ORTs may have a vascular component or may be vascular in nature, considering their response to anti-VEGF treatment, while other ORTs are likely composed only of degenerating photoreceptor cells and may collapse independently from anti-VEGF treatments. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Espina, M., Arcinue, C. A., Ma, F., Camacho, N., Barteselli, G., Mendoza, N., Ferrara, N., Freeman, W. R., Bartsch Tags: Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in people aged 50 years and older in the Republic of Suriname
Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes and diabetics without regular DR control in people aged ≥50 years in Suriname was higher than expected. The uptake for special services for DR has to be expanded to decrease patient delay and DR-induced blindness. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Minderhoud, J., Pawiroredjo, J. C., Bueno de Mesquita-Voigt, A.-M. T., Themen, H. C., Siban, M. R., Forster-Pawiroredjo, C. M., Limburg, H., van Nispen, R. M., Mans, D. R., Moll, A. C. Tags: Retina, Vision, Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Retinal sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II, Report No. 4)
Conclusions Reduced RS in those subjects with diabetes but no retinopathy suggests the early neuronal damage in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gella, L., Raman, R., Kulothungan, V., Saumya Pal, S., Ganesan, S., Sharma, T. Tags: Retina, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

A prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing a combination of repeated intravitreal Ozurdex and macular laser therapy versus macular laser only in centre-involving diabetic macular oedema (OZLASE study)
Conclusions Visual outcome following combination therapy did not differ from MLT alone in the centre-involving DMO despite a significant decrease in CST likely due to an entry visual acuity-related ceiling effect and cataract development. Trial registration number EudraCT 2011-003339-74 (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Heng, L. Z., Sivaprasad, S., Crosby-Nwaobi, R., Saihan, Z., Karampelas, M., Bunce, C., Peto, T., Hykin, P. G. Tags: Lens and zonules, Retina, Editor's choice, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Anatomical effects of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in diabetic macular oedema: a pooled analysis of 3-year phase III trials
Conclusions DEX implant 0.7 or 0.35 mg, administered at ≥6-month intervals over 3 years, produced sustained retinal structural improvement in DME. Trial registration number NCT00168337 and NCT00168389. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Danis, R. P., Sadda, S., Li, X.-Y., Cui, H., Hashad, Y., Whitcup, S. M. Tags: Retina, Open access Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Ranibizumab 0.5 mg treat-and-extend regimen for diabetic macular oedema: the RETAIN study
Conclusions T&E is a feasible treatment option for patients with DMO, with a potential to reduce treatment burden. Slightly more injections were required versus PRN, likely due to the specifics of the T&E regimen applied here. Trial registration number NCT01171976. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Prünte, C., Fajnkuchen, F., Mahmood, S., Ricci, F., Hatz, K., Studnicka, J., Bezlyak, V., Parikh, S., Stubbings, W. J., Wenzel, A., Figueira, J., and the RETAIN Study Group Tags: Open access Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Long-term treatment with rituximab in severe juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis
Conclusions Rituximab may be a promising effective treatment option for refractory uveitis associated with JIA leading to long-term quiescence of uveitis, particularly for patients who have not previously responded to other biologic therapies. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Miserocchi, E., Modorati, G., Berchicci, L., Pontikaki, I., Meroni, P., Gerloni, V. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Visual phenomena perceived during pars plana vitrectomy under peribulbar block and monitored anaesthesia care
Conclusions The reported prevalence of intraoperative visual phenomena is low when elicited at the first postoperative visit. Surgeons can reliably predict patients’ comfort, and most patients react neutrally to visual and hearing phenomena during PPV under MAC with peribulbar block. The combination of medications used may be responsible for the neutral reception of sensory phenomena. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ramkumar, H. L., Khatibi, A., Freeman, W. R., Barteselli, G., Ezon, I. C., Amini, P., Sharpsten, L., Arcinue, C. A., Nezgoda, J. T., Ferreyra, H. A., Goldbaum, M. H. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Severe adverse events associated with local anaesthesia in cataract surgery: 1 year national survey of practice and complications in the UK
Conclusions There has been a large swing towards ‘non-injection’ LA in recent years. Serious adverse events were reported with all techniques except topical-intracameral and subconjunctival LA, though the incidence appears lower for ‘non-injection’ LA. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lee, R. M. H., Thompson, J. R., Eke, T. Tags: Cornea, Lens and zonules, Ocular surface Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Ophthalmology trainees self-assessment of cataract surgery
Conclusions Trainees were more proficient at assessing their own competence at the global indices of cataract surgery, rather than task-specific components. Compared with junior trainees, senior trainees performed better surgically and were more proficient at assessing their own competence in cataract surgery. Trial registration number SALH1001. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Casswell, E. J., Salam, T., Sullivan, P. M., Ezra, D. G. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Lens and zonules Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Agreement between novice and experienced trachoma graders improves after a single day of didactic training
Conclusion A single day of training improves agreement between prospective and experienced trachoma graders, and provides the basis for certification of workers who are able to accurately grade trachoma and generate reliable prevalence estimates. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Prasad, B. P., Bhatta, R. C., Chaudhary, J., Sharma, S., Mishra, S., Cuddapah, P. A., Stoller, N. E., Yu, S. N., Rahman, S. A., Deiner, M., Keenan, J. D., Gaynor, B. D. Tags: Conjunctiva, Cornea, Eye (globe), Ocular surface Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Arcuate keratotomy on post-keratoplasty astigmatism is unpredictable and frequently needs repeat procedures to increase its success rate
Conclusions In treatment of post-keratoplasty astigmatism, AK does not have a good predictability. Additional procedures such as lengthening of the AK incisions for undercorrection or using compression sutures for overcorrection with significantly gaping wounds are frequently required to improve the final outcome. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bayramlar, H., Karadag, R., Cakici, O., Ozsoy, I. Tags: Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Outcomes of endothelial keratoplasty in pseudophakic corneal oedema: with or without Descemet's membrane stripping
Conclusions nDSEK has outcomes similar to DSEK in PCE with advantages of decreased surgical time and avoidance of inadvertent pull on the posterior stromal fibres that may occur during Descemet's stripping. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mohamed, A., KS, A. R., Chaurasia, S., Ramappa, M. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Cornea, Ocular surface Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Corneal endothelium in xeroderma pigmentosum: clinical specular microscopy study
Conclusions The specular microscopic findings in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum are suggestive of an accelerated endothelial cell loss. It is pertinent that the treating physicians must be involved in emphasising proper ocular protection from ultraviolet radiation to prevent avoidable blindness from xeroderma pigmentosum. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mohamed, A., Peguda, R., Ramappa, M., Ali, M. J., Chaurasia, S. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Cornea, Ocular surface, Vision, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Incomplete response to artificial tears is associated with features of neuropathic ocular pain
Conclusions Both ocular and systemic (non-ocular) pain complaints are associated with a differential subjective response to artificial tears. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Galor, A., Batawi, H., Felix, E. R., Margolis, T. P., Sarantopoulos, K. D., Martin, E. R., Levitt, R. C. Tags: Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Correction: Current therapeutic developments in atrophic age-related macular degeneration
Hanus J, Zhao F, Wang S. Current therapeutic developments in atrophic age-related macular degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100:122–7. In the first paragraph of the "Lipofuscin and visual cycle inhibitors" section of the paper (p. 124), the authors state "A2E, derived from vitamin E, is a byproduct of the visual cycle and a component of lipofuscin". This sentence should read: "A2E, derived from vitamin A, is a byproduct of the visual cycle and a component of lipofuscin". (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Biopsies of cicatricial conjunctivitis cases reveal highly variable sampling practice among ophthalmologists: time for national and international standardisation
Conclusions DIF biopsies for cicatricial conjunctivitis showed highly variable preanalytical phase sampling practice that requires national and international standardisation to facilitate prompt diagnosis, treatment, research and audit. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mudhar, H. S. Tags: Conjunctiva, Ocular surface Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Corticosteroids as a therapy for bacterial keratitis: an evidence-based review of 'who, when and why
Corticosteroids have been proposed as an adjunct to antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial keratitis, with significant controversy regarding the appropriate use of this therapy. Recent prospective randomised controlled trials have provided additional evidence to guide clinical decision-making. A review of the epidemiology and mechanisms of pathogenesis, preliminary animal studies, retrospective human studies and prospective randomised clinical trials that address the potential risks and benefits of corticosteroids in patients with bacterial keratitis was performed. Four prospective randomised controlled trials were ide...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tallab, R. T., Stone, D. U. Tags: Cornea, Ocular surface, Epidemiology Review Source Type: research

A novel use of reticulated hyaluronic acid (Healaflow) for hypotony eyes in patients with uveitis
We present the first case series, in which repeated intracameral injections of highly reticulated hyaluronic acid (Healaflow) have successfully prevented the complications of ocular hypotony in the long term. We believe it is a viable management option that can bring about a significant improvement to the quality of life in this subgroup of patients while avoiding frequent intervention. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Stead, R. E., Juma, Z., Turner, S., Jones, L. D., Sung, V. C. T. Tags: Angle, Neurology Innovations Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
Mudhar et al (see page 736) A retrospective study of 90 biopsies received by a national reference laboratory in patients with the diagnosis of cicatricial conjunctivitis reports a marked inconsistency in sampling method that should be addressed by consensus guidelines. Galor et al (see page 745) In a cross-sectional study of 118 individuals using artificial tears to treat dry-eye associated pain, the authors report a differential subjective response to artificial tear preparations. Chaurasia et al (see page 750) Assessment of corneal endothelium, using specular microscopy, in Xeroderma pigmentosum revealed morphological ch...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Barton, K., Chodosh, J., Jonas, J. Tags: At a glance Source Type: research

Increased choroidal mast cells and their degranulation in age-related macular degeneration
Conclusion Increased MC numbers and degranulation were observed in all AMD choroids. These results suggest that MC degranulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD: death of CC and retinal pigment epithelial and CNV formation. The proteolytic enzymes released from MC granules may result in thinning of AMD choroid. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bhutto, I. A., McLeod, D. S., Jing, T., Sunness, J. S., Seddon, J. M., Lutty, G. A. Tags: Choroid, Retina Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

CFH Y402H polymorphism and the complement activation product C5a: effects on NF-{kappa}B activation and inflammasome gene regulation
Conclusion The at-risk polymorphism of the CFH Y402H may contribute to AMD disease process through increased complement and NF-B activation, and the upregulation of IL-18, a product of inflammasome activation. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Cao, S., Wang, J. C. C., Gao, J., Wong, M., To, E., White, V. A., Cui, J. Z., Matsubara, J. A. Tags: Retina Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Does the presence of QAC genes in staphylococci affect the efficacy of disinfecting solutions used by orthokeratology lens wearers?
Conclusion The efficacy of MPS solutions for RGP lenses against staphylococci varied. The presence of disinfectant-resistance genes significantly adversely affected disinfecting capacity of RGP solutions. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shi, G.-s., Boost, M. V., Cho, P. Tags: Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Optic neuropathy in late-onset neurodegenerative Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Conclusions This report expands the ophthalmological phenotype of the late-onset neurodegenerative form of CHS to include optic neuropathy with progressive vision loss, even in the absence of ocular albinism, and abnormal prominence of the interdigitation zone between cone outer segment tips and apical processes of retinal pigment epithelium cells on macular OCT. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Desai, N., Weisfeld-Adams, J. D., Brodie, S. E., Cho, C., Curcio, C. A., Lublin, F., Rucker, J. C. Tags: Eye (globe), Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Comparison of rates of retinal nerve fibre layer thinning between patients with non-myopic and myopic glaucoma
Conclusion Overall rate of RNFL thinning was not different among the glaucoma subgroups based on refractive error. However, sectoral RNFL thinning showed significant difference. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lee, J. Y., Sung, K. R., Yun, S.-C. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Optic nerve, Glaucoma, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Re-accumulation of macular pigment after successful macular hole surgery
Conclusions Revisualisation of macular pigment after successful macular hole surgery is not associated with improved visual acuity and may merely be an accompanying sign of the reapposition of the edges of the hole. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bottoni, F., Zanzottera, E., Carini, E., Cereda, M., Cigada, M., Staurenghi, G. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Deferral of surgery for epiretinal membranes: Is it safe? Results of a randomised controlled trial
Conclusions Vitrectomy for early symptomatic ERM is beneficial in preserving excellent vision. A watchful waiting approach with 1 year of follow-up is safe in the sense that this group does not lose five ETDRS letters in waiting. Deferral of surgery by regular monitoring of patients is a safe approach. Trial registration numbers H-C-2008-026 and NCT00902629. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kofod, M., Christensen, U. C., la Cour, M. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Choroid, Eye (globe), Retina, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Individualised risk assessment for diabetic retinopathy and optimisation of screening intervals: a scientific approach to reducing healthcare costs
Conclusions The algorithm reliably identifies patients at high risk of developing advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, including preproliferative R2, active proliferative R3A and maculopathy M1. Majority of patients have less than 5% risk of progression between stages within a year and a small high-risk group is identified. Screening visit frequency and presumably costs in a diabetic retinopathy screening system can be reduced by 40% by using a 2 year ceiling. Individualised risk assessment with 2 year ceiling on screening intervals may be a pragmatic next step in diabetic retinopathy screening in UK, in that...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lund, S. H., Aspelund, T., Kirby, P., Russell, G., Einarsson, S., Palsson, O., Stefansson, E. Tags: Public health, Retina, Open access, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Choroidal maps in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration
Conclusions CMs appeared thinner in early non-exudative AMD with intermediate distribution of reticular pseudodrusen versus control subjects and early non-exudative AMD with drusen alone. Same results were found in the group with variable combination of large soft drusen and reticular pseudodrusen. In GA eyes, a choroidal thinning could be detected independently of the retinal pigmented epithelium status. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Capuano, V., Souied, E. H., Miere, A., Jung, C., Costanzo, E., Querques, G. Tags: Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Reproducibility and repeatability of foveal avascular zone measurements in healthy subjects by optical coherence tomography angiography
Conclusions FAZ area measurements by means of OCT-A showed excellent reproducibility and repeatability in healthy eyes. OCT-A is a non-invasive diagnostic method, and its reliability makes it an interesting potential diagnostic tool for disease detection and follow-up in retinal pathologies involving foveal microcirculation. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Carpineto, P., Mastropasqua, R., Marchini, G., Toto, L., Di Nicola, M., Di Antonio, L. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Management of choroidal naevomelanocytic lesions: feasibility and safety of a virtual clinic model
Conclusions In this pilot study, a streamlined, dedicated, virtual service for rapid assessment (within 2 weeks of referral) of choroidal naevomelanocytic lesions was shown to be feasible and safe. Such a model of service delivery may prove cost-efficient while optimising patient experience. Further prospective studies are required for formal validation of the proposed service model. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Balaskas, K., Gray, J., Blows, P., Rajai, A., Flaye, D., Peto, T., Sagoo, M. S. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Suspected vitreous seeding of uveal melanoma: relevance of diagnostic vitrectomy
Conclusion The outcome of this small cohort study shows that obtaining a vitreous specimen helps to distinguish melanophages from vital tumour cells. We could not observe an increased risk of metastasis in patients who showed melanoma cell dissemination inside the eye, compared with those patients only showing melanophages. We therefore suggest to carefully re-evaluate the necessity of enucleation in every patient. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Metz, C. H. D., Bornfeld, N., Metz, K. A., Gök, M. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Eye (globe), Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Topographical relationship between the choroidal watershed zone and submacular idiopathic choroidal neovascularisation
Conclusions The findings of a CWZ were related to the location and functional outcome of idiopathic CNV. Our results suggest that choroidal circulation is a predisposing factor for the development of CNV in young patients. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lee, J. E., Shin, M. K., Chung, I. Y., Lee, J. E., Kim, H. W., Lee, S. J., Park, S. W., Byon, I. S. Tags: Choroid, Editor's choice Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Graded vertical rectus tenotomy for small-angle cyclovertical strabismus in sagging eye syndrome
Conclusion GVRT precisely corrects hypertropia of up to 10, but because of variable effect, it should be performed with intraoperative monitoring under topical anaesthesia. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chaudhuri, Z., Demer, J. L. Tags: Muscles, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Intraorbital corticosteroid injection for the treatment of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease
Conclusions Intraorbital injection of corticosteroid may be a useful treatment option for IgG4-ROD. It may have a role as a first-line therapy in selected cases of IgG4-ROD centred in the anterior orbit. However, most cases require repeat injections due to incomplete response and relapse. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Andrew, N. H., Gajdatsy, A., Selva, D. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Scleral fixation of intraocular lenses using Gore-Tex suture: clinical outcomes and safety profile
Conclusions Ab externo scleral fixation of IOLs with Gore-Tex suture was well tolerated in all cases. No suture-related complications were encountered. This procedure led to improvement in visual acuity and was not associated with significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Khan, M. A., Gupta, O. P., Smith, R. G., Ayres, B. D., Raber, I. M., Bailey, R. S., Hsu, J., Spirn, M. J. Tags: Angle, Anterior chamber, Choroid, Eye (globe), Intraocular pressure, Retina, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Effect of the pigment-free optical zone diameter of decorative tinted soft contact lenses on visual function
Conclusion Decorative tinted contact lenses significantly increased ocular aberrations and decreased optical quality and contrast sensitivity, as the pigment-free optical zone diameter decreased. Therefore, consumers of tinted lenses should be informed about the possible disturbance in visual function. Trial registration number NCT02537275. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jung, J. W., Kim, S. M., Han, S. H., Kim, E. K., Seo, K. Y., Kim, T.-i. Tags: Optic nerve, Neurology, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Fifteen years follow-up of photorefractive keratectomy up to 10 D of myopia: outcomes and analysis of the refractive regression
Conclusions Photorefractive keratectomy is a safe refractive procedure in the long term within the range of myopia currently considered suitable for its use, although its efficacy decreases with time, especially, in high myopia. The model developed predicts a myopic regression of 2.00 D at 15 years for an ablation depth of 130 µm. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Alio, J. L., Soria, F. A., Abbouda, A., Pena-Garcia, P. Tags: Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Factors influencing big-bubble formation during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in keratoconus
Conclusions The rate of successful big-bubble formation was 79.2% in keratoconus. Among the different factors, recipient sex and trephination size significantly influenced this rate. Females had a lower probability of big-bubble formation, and a large trephination size was associated with an increase in the probability of achieving a bare DM. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Feizi, S., Javadi, M. A., Daryabari, S.-H. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Conjunctiva, Cornea, Ocular surface Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

En face optical coherence tomography angiography for corneal neovascularisation
Conclusions In this preliminary clinical study, we describe a method for acquiring angiography images with ‘en face’ views, using an OCTA system adapted for the evaluation of corneal neovascularisation. Further studies are required to compare the scans to other invasive angiography techniques for the quantitative evaluation of abnormal corneal vessels. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ang, M., Cai, Y., Shahipasand, S., Sim, D. A., Keane, P. A., Sng, C. C. A., Egan, C. A., Tufail, A., Wilkins, M. R. Tags: Cornea, Ocular surface, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research