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Technique for identifying Schlemm's canal in paediatric glaucoma surgery
Introduction Traditionally, trabeculotomy is the preferred initial surgical intervention for congenital glaucoma when corneal haze precludes the performance of a goniotomy.1 It was first described by Burian in 1960.2 In the classical trabeculotomy ab externo, an external approach is used to cannulate the Schlemm's canal (SC) and connect it to the anterior chamber through incision of the trabecular meshwork using the trabeculotome. Recent modifications of trabeculotomy include circumferential suture techniques with or without the use of flexible illuminated microcatheter and viscotrabeculotomy.3–5 The most critical st...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Medsinge, A., Nischal, K. K. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Endothelial cell loss following tissue harvesting by pneumodissection for endothelial keratoplasty: an ex vivo study
Conclusions Corneal endothelial cell loss in PDEK tissue preparation is no worse, if not slightly better than, in DMEK tissue prepared by pneumodissection. PDEK preparation by pneumodissection represents a viable graft preparation technique. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Altaan, S. L., Gupta, A., Sidney, L. E., Elalfy, M. S., Agarwal, A., Dua, H. S. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Prevention of allergic conjunctivitis in mice by a rice-based edible vaccine containing modified Japanese cedar pollen allergens
Conclusions Oral immunotherapy with transgenic rice expressing modified Japanese cedar pollen allergens suppressed pollen-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis in mice by eliciting immune tolerance. This novel prophylactic approach is potentially safe and effective for allergen-specific oral immunotherapy in allergic conjunctivitis. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Fukuda, K., Ishida, W., Harada, Y., Wakasa, Y., Takagi, H., Takaiwa, F., Fukushima, A. Tags: Conjunctiva, Ocular surface Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Retinal pigment epithelial cells display specific transcriptional responses upon TNF-{alpha} stimulation
Conclusions This study provides insight into the unique responses of RPE cells to TNF-α stimulation and suggests a role for genes involved in apoptosis and retinal epithelial development. These findings contribute to our understanding of the behaviour of RPE cells under inflammatory conditions and the crucial role of RPE cells in vitreoretinal diseases. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Korthagen, N. M., van Bilsen, K., Swagemakers, S. M. A., van de Peppel, J., Bastiaans, J., van der Spek, P. J., van Hagen, P. M., Dik, W. A. Tags: Retina, Vitreous Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Association analysis of TGFBR3 gene with Behcet's disease and idiopathic intermediate uveitis in a Caucasian population
Conclusions RS1805110 is not associated with BD or IIU in Caucasian patients. The T allele frequency is consistent with that presented for Caucasian populations in the HapMap database (p>0.05). Our results differ from the previous analysis in Han Chinese patients (p<0.0001), however, the possibility of having a much smaller effect due to the low minority frequency cannot be excluded. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Barry, R. J., Alsalem, J. A., Faassen, J., Murray, P. I., Curnow, S. J., Wallace, G. R. Tags: Choroid, Ciliary body Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

The development of infantile nystagmus
Conclusions These findings imply that developmental waveform changes are associated with improved visual acuity but only until 1.5–2 years of age. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Theodorou, M., Clement, R., Taylor, D., Moore, A. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Long-term surgical outcomes of infantile-onset esotropia in preterm patients compared with full-term patients
Conclusions The results of this study showed a favourable outcome using a mildly reduced amount of surgery in preterm patients with infantile-onset esotropia. Surgical dose–response was significantly greater in preterm patients than in full-term patients. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Park, K.-A., Oh, S. Y. Tags: Paediatrics, Muscles, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Changes in refractive error in patients with accommodative esotropia after being weaned from hyperopic correction
Conclusions When emmetropisation occurs early in patients with AET, it is necessary to note the development of myopia and the deterioration of ocular alignment. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Cho, Y. A., Ryu, W. Y. Tags: Muscles, Optic nerve, Neurology, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Peripheral refraction in 7- and 14-year-old children in central China: the Anyang Childhood Eye Study
Conclusions Myopic children in mainland China have relative peripheral hyperopia while hyperopic and emmetropic children have relative peripheral myopia. Significant differences exist between 7- and 14-year-old children, with the latter showing more relative peripheral hyperopia, greater rate of change in J45 across the visual field, and higher peripheral J180. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Li, S.-M., Li, S.-Y., Liu, L.-R., Zhou, Y.-H., Yang, Z., Kang, M.-T., Li, H., Yang, X.-Y., Wang, Y.-P., Zhan, S.-Y., Mitchell, P., Wang, N., Atchison, D. A., the Anyang Childhood Eye Study Group Tags: Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Comparison of umbilical cord serum and amniotic membrane transplantation in acute ocular chemical burns
Conclusions Our study suggests that the UCS therapy may be a better alternative to AMT in acute moderate to severe (grades III, IV and V) ocular chemical burns, as it avoids surgical manoeuvre in already inflamed eyes. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sharma, N., Lathi, S. S., Sehra, S. V., Agarwal, T., Sinha, R., Titiyal, J. S., Velpandian, T., Tandon, R., Vajpayee, R. B. Tags: Eye Lids Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Dry eye symptom severity and persistence are associated with symptoms of neuropathic pain
Conclusions NOP features are common in patients with symptomatic dry eye and these features correlate with symptom severity and persistence. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Galor, A., Zlotcavitch, L., Walter, S. D., Felix, E. R., Feuer, W., Martin, E. R., Margolis, T. P., Sarantopoulos, K. D., Levitt, R. C. Tags: Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Long-term efficacy and complications of black diaphragm intraocular lens implantation in patients with traumatic aniridia
Conclusions Glaucoma, corneal decompensation, limbal stem cell failure, and eccentric BDI lenses appeared to be the major long-term complications in BDI lens implantation. BDI lens implantation could effectively improve postoperative outcomes by reducing glare disability, improving visual performance, and addressing cosmetic issues. Because the implantation of the BDI lens in traumatic aniridia had a high incidence of complications, this treatment should be used with caution, and the long-term complications should be seriously considered. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Qiu, X., Ji, Y., Zheng, T., Lu, Y. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Angle, Eye (globe), Intraocular pressure, Iris, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Comparison of ketorolac 0.4% and nepafenac 0.1% for the prevention of cystoid macular oedema after phacoemulsification: prospective placebo-controlled randomised study
Conclusions Used prophylactically after uneventful cataract surgery, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were not efficacious in preventing macular oedema compared with placebo. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials: NCT02084576. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tzelikis, P. F., Vieira, M., Hida, W. T., Motta, A. F., Nakano, C. T., Nakano, E. M., Alves, M. R. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Lens and zonules, Retina, Editor's choice Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Ophthalmic manifestations of perinatally acquired HIV in a US cohort of long-term survivors
Conclusions In the post-HAART era, long-term survivors of perinatally acquired HIV exhibited little vision-threatening disease, but had a high prevalence of strabismus. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rutar, T., Youm, J., Porco, T., Tilton, N., Muskat, M., McNamara, N., Wara, D. Tags: Conjunctiva, Cornea, Eye (globe), Lacrimal gland, Muscles, Ocular surface, Retina, Tears, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

New insights into oculodermal nevogenesis and proposal for a new iris nevus classification
Conclusions Based on our findings we propose classifying iris nevi into sectoral, incomplete sectoral and solitary subtypes. Additionally, we set up a hypothetic concept of oculodermal nevogenesis suggesting a time-dependent embryogenic alteration affecting the normal melanocyte location, migration and maturation along peripheral nerve sheets. Our new concept explains well the morphology and extension of benign melanocytic proliferations in the ocular region as well as their relation to uveal melanoma. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Schwab, C., Zalaudek, I., Mayer, C., Riedl, R., Wackernagel, W., Juch, H., Aigner, B., Brunasso, A. M., Langmann, G., Richtig, E. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Retinal detachment in England: database studies of trends over time and geographical variation
Conclusions Admission rates seem to have increased in recent years. This increase is probably attributable to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes, and so an increase in RD associated with diabetes. Understanding trends over time, and geographical variation, in RD will help match capacity in retinal surgery with need for treatment of RD. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shah, V., Hall, N., Goldacre, M. J. Tags: Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Does ocriplasmin affect the RPE-photoreceptor adhesion in macular holes?
Conclusions Data on ocriplasmin remain controversial. We report on four cases with resolution of VMT following PPV after unsuccessful ocriplasmin treatment. Newly developed subretinal fluid has been described after ocriplasmin treatment, predominantly in cases with resolution of VMT. We also detected this newly developed subretinal fluid after vitrectomy, which persisted for several weeks up to 7 months in two cases with FTMHs. This may be attributable to loosening of the photoreceptor complex due to enzyme activity of ocriplasmin. Long-term effects of ocriplasmin are still to be evaluated using SD-OCT. (Source: Briti...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hager, A., Seibel, I., Riechardt, A., Rehak, M., Joussen, A. M. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Increased expression of M-CSF and IL-13 in vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy: implications for M2 macrophage-involving fibrovascular membrane formation
Conclusions These findings indicate that the M2 polarisation of macrophages is induced by M-CSF and IL-13 in diabetic retinas. The presence of M-CSF and IL-13 would then promote FVM formation by periostin production. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Yoshida, S., Kobayashi, Y., Nakama, T., Zhou, Y., Ishikawa, K., Arita, R., Nakao, S., Miyazaki, M., Sassa, Y., Oshima, Y., Izuhara, K., Kono, T., Ishibashi, T. Tags: Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

EVEREST study report 2: imaging and grading protocol, and baseline characteristics of a randomised controlled trial of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
Conclusions The imaging and grading protocols and baseline characteristics of a multicentre, randomised controlled trial of PCV are described in detail, and may serve as reference for future randomised, controlled trials on PCV. Clinical trial number This work was supported by Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland grant number NCT00674323 (clinicaltrials.gov). (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tan, C. S., Ngo, W. K., Chen, J. P., Tan, N. W., Lim, T. H., on behalf of the EVEREST Study Group, Koh, A., Lee, W. K., Chen, L.-J., Chen, S.-J., Kim, H. Y., Lai, T. Y., Ruamviboonsuk, P. Tags: Choroid, Open access, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

One year results of a phase 1 study of the safety and tolerability of combination therapy using sustained release intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and ranibizumab for subfoveal neovascular AMD
Conclusions Combination therapy IBI-20089 and ranibizumab was well-tolerated and resulted in fewer ranibizumab retreatments. Transient intraocular pressure elevation and cataract progression occurred. Trial registration number NCT01175395. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lim, J. I., Niec, M., Wong, V. Tags: Lens and zonules, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Impact of superior and inferior visual field loss on hazard detection in a computer-based driving test
Conclusions In this study, simulated VF defects impaired the ability to detect driving hazards relative to participants’ normal performances, with superior defects having more impact than inferior defects. These results could help inform the design of fairer tests of the VF component for fitness to drive. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Glen, F. C., Smith, N. D., Crabb, D. P. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

The role of retrobulbar and retinal circulation on optic nerve head and retinal nerve fibre layer structure in patients with open-angle glaucoma over an 18-month period
Conclusions Reductions in retrobulbar and retinal blood flow over time were associated with structural glaucomatous progression, as indicated by retinal and optic nerve changes. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tobe, L. A., Harris, A., Hussain, R. M., Eckert, G., Huck, A., Park, J., Egan, P., Kim, N. J., Siesky, B. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Six-year incidence of ocular hypertension in a South Indian population: the Chennai eye disease incidence study
Conclusions A significant proportion of this normal population converted to OHT. A higher incidence of conversion was seen in the rural population. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Panday, M., George, R., Asokan, R., Ramesh, S. V., Velumuri, L., Choudhari, N. S., Boddupalli, S. D., Sunil, G. T., Vijaya, L. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in glaucoma clinical trials
This article reviews the general requirements for validating surrogate endpoints and provides a critical assessment of the use of intraocular pressure (IOP), visual fields, and structural measurements of the optic nerve as surrogate endpoints in glaucoma clinical trials. A valid surrogate endpoint must be able to predict the clinically relevant endpoint and fully capture the effect of an intervention on that endpoint. Despite its widespread use in clinical trials, no proper validation of IOP as a surrogate endpoint has ever been conducted for any class of IOP-lowering treatments. Evidence has accumulated with regard to the...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Medeiros, F. A. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma Review Source Type: research

Association between variants A69S in ARMS2 gene and response to treatment of exudative AMD: a meta-analysis
This study shows an association between A69S polymorphism in the ARMS2 gene and the anti-angiogenesis treatment response. A69S could be considered predictive of the anti-angiogenic effects, especially in Asian populations. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hu, Z., Xie, P., Ding, Y., Yuan, D., Liu, Q. Tags: Retina Review Source Type: research

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in eyes with acute ischaemic retinal whitening
We present SD-OCT findings of hyper-reflectivity and thickening in four eyes with representative retinal arterial or retinal venous occlusions, specifically branch retinal artery occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, Purtscher-like retinopathy and ophthalmic artery occlusion. The spectrum of retinal ischaemia from various causes was found to manifest in inner nuclear layer hyper-reflectivity and thickening on SD-OCT. En Face OCT imaging further characterises the topographical distribution of ischaemia, and reveals patterns which provide insight into the pathological processes involved. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Coady, P. A., Cunningham, E. T., Vora, R. A., McDonald, H. R., Johnson, R. N., Jumper, J. M., Fu, A. D., Haug, S. J., Williams, S. L., Lujan, B. J. Tags: Retina Review Source Type: research

Periocular tuberculous disease: experience from a UK eye hospital
Conclusions Orbital and periocular TB can be difficult to diagnose and lead to diagnostic delays, with emphasis on clinical suspicion rather than a positive culture result; the management of such cases is not only surgical, but also medical and social. Although surgical intervention can alleviate symptoms and prevent visual loss, the use of a complete course of ATT is paramount for disease management and the patient and their family need to be counselled about the associated public health issues. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Salam, T., Uddin, J. M., Collin, J. R. O., Verity, D. H., Beaconsfield, M., Rose, G. E. Tags: Public health, Lacrimal gland, Tears Global issues Source Type: research

Ophthalmic statistics note 6: effect sizes matter
Why statistical significance alone is not a sufficient basis to interpret the findings of a statistical analysis Medical statistics plays a key role in clinical research by helping to avoid errors of interpretation due to the play of chance. It is, however, critical to understand the limits of what statistical analysis provides and interpret the findings accordingly. Statistical analysis can summarise the statistical evidence but it cannot tell us whether a difference is important per se, as clinical judgement is needed. Suppose we have a clinical trial which compares two drugs for reducing the intraocular pressure (IOP) i...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Cook, J. A., Bunce, C., Dore, C. J., Freemantle, N., on behalf of the Ophthalmic Statistics Group, Cipriani, V., Crabb, D., Cumberland, P., Czanner, G., Donachie, P., Elders, A., Finana, M. G., O'Leary, N., Nash, R., Quartilho, A., Saunders, L., Sivasubra Tags: Public health, Open access, Epidemiology Editorials Source Type: research

Arthur Ferguson MacCallan: trachoma pioneer in Egypt 1903-1923
Arthur Ferguson MacCallan CBE, MD, FRCS (1872–1955) was an ophthalmic surgeon who undertook his pioneering work in Egypt between 1903 and 1923 (figure 1).i He became a world authority on trachoma; the MacCallan Classification of Trachoma, initially published in 1908, was the first grading system used to standardise the diagnosis of trachoma and was later adopted by the WHO. He also established the ophthalmic hospital infrastructure consisting of travelling and permanent hospitals, along with the training of surgeons. This fight to eliminate trachoma continues, with the WHO setting a target date for the Global Elimina...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: MacCallan, M. Tags: Choroid, Conjunctiva, Cornea, Eye (globe), Ocular surface, Open access, Neurology Editorials Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
George et al (see page 604) In this population based cohort study that examined 2852 phakic participants from the Chennai Glaucoma Study, 2.17% developed incident ocular hypertension. Older participants or rural residents were at greatest risk of disease. Harris et al (see page 609) Structural glaucomatous progression as indicated by retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head changes are associated with reductions in retrobulbar and retinal blood flow over an eighteen month period. Crabb et al (see page 613) Simulated visual field defects significantly impaired hazard perception on a computer-based driving test, with s...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Barton, K., Chodosh, J., Jonas, J. Tags: At a glance Source Type: research

Novel CNGA3 mutations in Chinese patients with achromatopsia
Conclusions CNGA3 mutation is the most frequent cause of ACHM in this cohort of patients. Ten novel mutations were identified in CNGA3. Genetic characterisation of patients with ACHM is important for genetic counselling and future gene therapies. This study reports the comprehensive clinical and genetic features of Chinese patients with ACHM. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Liang, X., Dong, F., Li, H., Li, H., Yang, L., Sui, R. Tags: Public health, Vision, Neurology Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Specific association of IL17A genetic variants with panuveitis
Conclusions Polymorphisms within the IL17A locus show a novel association with panuveitis. Our data agree with the elevated levels of this cytokine that are found in patients with uveitis, supporting a crucial role of Th17 cells in this pathology. Subtitle Our results clearly evidenced the role of IL17A as a novel genetic risk factor for panuveitis, thus suggesting the implication of Th17 cells in the extensive inflammation of the uveal tract that occurs in this subtype of uveitis. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mucientes, A., Marquez, A., Cordero-Coma, M., Martin-Villa, J. M., Gorrono-Echebarria, M. B., Blanco, R., Diaz Valle, D., Benitez-del-Castillo, J. M., del Rio, M. J., Blanco, A., Olea, J. L., Cordero, Y., Capella, M. J., Gonzalez, J., Diaz-Llopis, M., Ort Tags: Choroid, Ciliary body Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

All-trans-retinoic acid inhibition of transforming growth factor-{beta}-induced collagen gel contraction mediated by human Tenon fibroblasts: role of matrix metalloproteinases
Conclusions ATRA inhibited TGF-β-induced collagen gel contraction mediated by HTFs, likely in part by attenuating the production of MMP-1 and MMP-3 and by stimulating the production of TIMP-1. ATRA may therefore prove to be of clinical value for inhibition of scar formation in the conjunctiva. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Liu, Y., Kimura, K., Orita, T., Teranishi, S., Suzuki, K., Sonoda, K.-H. Tags: Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

The effect of rectus muscle recession, resection and plication on anterior segment circulation in humans
Conclusions Rectus muscle plication spares the ciliary vessels and may be considered a safer alternative to resection for patients at risk for anterior segment ischaemia, especially when surgery involves a vertical rectus muscle. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Oltra, E. Z., Pineles, S. L., Demer, J. L., Quan, A. V., Velez, F. G. Tags: Muscles, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of congenital cavitary optic disc anomaly (CODA)
Conclusions The RPE usually stops near the optic nerve border separated by a border tissue. With CODA, extension of this hyper-reflective band and retinal tissue into the disc is possible and best evaluable using EDI-OCT or analogous image modalities. Whether this is a finding specific for CODA, linked to specific gene loci or is also seen in patients with other optic disc abnormalities needs further evaluation. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Munk, M. R., Simjanoski, E., Fingert, J. H., Jampol, L. M. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Advising patients on visual fitness to drive: implications of revised DVLA regulations
Conclusions To best predict drivers’ ability to read a number-plate, vision should be assessed using a logMAR letter chart or a Snellen chart scored by full line. Drivers with 6/7.5 (+0.10 logMAR) or better vision can be advised that they meet the driving standard. Drivers with acuity between 6/9 and 6/12 (+0.12—+0.30 logMAR) should be advised to check their ability to read a number-plate, as some may not be able to. Clinicians will see patients who can read a number-plate, but do not achieve 6/12, who will need improved vision to meet visual requirements for driving. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Latham, K., Katsou, M. F., Rae, S. Tags: Retina, Open access, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Simulation contact lenses for AMD health state utility values in NICE appraisals: a different reality
Conclusions A contact lens with a central opacity does not simulate a central scotoma. The clinical differences between simulated and actual AMD suggest there has been an underestimation of the severity of AMD health states. This brings into question the validity of the economic evaluations of treatments for AMD and DMO used by NICE. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Butt, T., Crossland, M. D., West, P., Orr, S. W., Rubin, G. S. Tags: Retina, Vision, Open access, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Mobile app reading speed test
Conclusions Repeatability of the app reading speed test is as good (ORS) or better (CPS) than previous studies on the paper test. While the results are not interchangeable with paper-based charts, mobile app tablet-based tests of reading speed are reliable and rapid to perform, with the potential to capture functional visual ability in research studies and clinical practice. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kingsnorth, A., Wolffsohn, J. S. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Ophthalmological manifestations in patients with Leigh syndrome
Conclusions LS is a group of mitochondrial disorders with variable ophthalmologic manifestations, the most frequent being strabismus in this study. Ptosis could be an initial sign in patients with LS and these patients can be easily misdiagnosed as having juvenile myasthenia gravis. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Han, J., Lee, Y.-M., Kim, S. M., Han, S. Y., Lee, J. B., Han, S.-H. Tags: Eye (globe), Eye Lids, Muscles, Optic nerve, Retina, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Associations between primary open angle glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: record linkage study
Conclusions POAG and AD are neurodegenerative conditions that share some pathological features. However, considering AD after POAG, their coexistence at the individual level is no different from that expected by chance. By contrast, a diagnosis of POAG is modestly associated with later development of vascular dementia, presumably owing to shared vascular risk factors. People with dementia in England are much less likely to be admitted subsequently with POAG, perhaps through poor access to hospital eye services and diagnostic challenges. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Keenan, T. D. L., Goldacre, R., Goldacre, M. J. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Editor's choice, Neurology, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Agreement among graders on Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) topographic change analysis (TCA) glaucoma progression interpretation
Conclusions A simple set of predefined common criteria improves agreement between graders in assessing TCA progression. The inclusion of additional scans from each visit does not improve the agreement. We, therefore, recommend setting standardised criteria for TCA progression evaluation. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Iester, M. M., Wollstein, G., Bilonick, R. A., Xu, J., Ishikawa, H., Kagemann, L., Schuman, J. S. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Thyroid eye disease: a Southeast Asian experience
Conclusions Corneal erosion secondary to acquired epiblepharon is a common sign in East Asian patients with TED, thus increased awareness among physicians should be encouraged. Mean exophthalmometry values and frequencies of upper eyelid retraction and oedema are lower in East Asian patients compared with Caucasian patients. Among Singapore's multi-ethnic population, Malay patients with TED had the highest exophthalmometry reading. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lim, N. C. S., Sundar, G., Amrith, S., Lee, K. O. Tags: Muscles, Optic nerve, Orbit, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Relationship between retinal microstructures and visual acuity after cataract surgery in patients with retinitis pigmentosa
Conclusions The presence of normal IS/OS line in the OCT images is associated with good visual recovery after cataract surgery in RP patients. The integrity of the IS/OS line may be important for predicting good postoperative BCVA. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Nakamura, Y., Mitamura, Y., Hagiwara, A., Kumagai, K., Miura, G., Sugawara, T., Egawa, M., Yamamoto, S. Tags: Eye (globe), Lens and zonules, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Comparing focal and global responses on multifocal electroretinogram with retinal nerve fibre layer thickness by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma
Conclusions Of all responses on mfERG, P1N2 amplitude correlates well with RNFL-FC and RNFL-ST on SD-OCT and can be used for monitoring early and moderate glaucoma. Diffuse structural changes may best be reflected by changes in P1N2 implicit time owing to ceiling effect of the amplitude in all regions in severe glaucoma. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rao, A., Singh, A. K., Mukherjee, S., Chowdhury, M. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Assessment of choroidal thickness before and after steep Trendelenburg position using swept-source optical coherence tomography
Conclusions Choroidal thickness significantly but transiently increases after adopting STP, as evaluated by automated layer segmentation analysis of SS-OCT data. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rim, T. H., Lee, C. S., Kim, K., Kim, S. S. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

A TULP1 founder mutation, p.Gln301*, underlies a recognisable congenital rod-cone dystrophy phenotype on the Arabian Peninsula
Conclusions The TULP1 allele p.Gln301* represents a founder mutation on the Arabian Peninsula and is associated with a recognisable congenital recessive rod–cone dystrophy phenotype in the homozygous state. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Khan, A. O., Bergmann, C., Eisenberger, T., Bolz, H. J. Tags: Eye (globe), Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Correlations among ocular surface temperature difference value, the tear meniscus height, Schirmer's test and fluorescein tear film break up time
Conclusions The thermographer was effective in capturing temperature changes in the ocular surface. The temperature difference 3 s after blinking appears to be correlated with lower TMH and Schirmer test values. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Su, T. Y., Ho, W. T., Lu, C. Y., Chang, S. W., Chiang, H. K. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Correlation between the histological features of corneal surface pannus following ocular surface burns and the final outcome of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation
Conclusions Presence of either calcific deposits or hyperplasia in the excised corneal pannus provides poor prognostication; hence, a proper counselling of such patients is mandatory along with a close follow-up. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sati, A., Basu, S., Sangwan, V. S., Vemuganti, G. K. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Topical brinzolamide (Azopt) versus placebo in the treatment of infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS)
Conclusions Although a prospective large-scale clinical trial is needed to prove effectiveness, an eye-drop-based therapy for INS may emerge as a viable addition to optical, surgical, behavioural and systemic drug therapies for INS. Trial registration number NCT01312402. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hertle, R. W., Yang, D., Adkinson, T., Reed, M. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Autologous blood versus fibrin glue for conjunctival autograft adherence in sutureless pterygium surgery: a randomised controlled trial
Conclusions Feasibilty of adherence of the graft without glue in pterygium surgery is promising and has results comparable with the fibrin glue technique in terms of long-term outcome and recurrence, suggesting the potential for autologous blood to replace fibrin glue in graft fixation. Trial registration number Clinical Trial Registry, India: CTRI/2013/06/003764 and UTN: U1111-1140-6572. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kurian, A., Reghunadhan, I., Nair, K. G. R. Tags: Conjunctiva, Ocular surface, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research