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Correction
Muqit MM, Stanga PE. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography evaluation of retinal and optic nerve head neovascularisation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 2014;98:65–72. M Muqit's affiliation for this article is incorrect. The work was undertaken at ‘Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK’ and not Moorfields Eye Hospital. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction
Pepple KL, Cusick M, Jaffe GJ, et al. SD-OCT and autofluorescence characteristics of autoimmune retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 2013;97:139–144. The fourth figure was accidentally omitted from print version of article. For the full version, please see the Online First version of the article available here: http://bjo.bmj.com/content/early/2012/12/04/bjophthalmol-2012-302524 (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Abnormal retinal thickening is a common feature among patients with ARSACS-related phenotypes
Autosomal-recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) was first described among French Canadian patients from Québec presenting with a stereotypical triad of early-onset cerebellar ataxia, spastic paraplegia and peripheral neuropathy. Two recurring pathogenic mutations in the SACS gene were subsequently identified in these families in keeping with a mutational founder event in a geographically isolated population.1 However, ARSACS is being increasingly recognised worldwide as an important cause of inherited ataxia.2 Interestingly, non-Québec patients can show strikingly variable features marked b...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Yu-Wai-Man, P., Pyle, A., Griffin, H., Santibanez-Korev, M., Horvath, R., Chinnery, P. F. Tags: Open access Letters Source Type: research

A novel RPGR mutation masquerading as Stargardt disease
Introduction An adult male was referred for a second opinion of his retinal dystrophy. His prior genetic testing identified an ABCA4 gene variant associated with Stargardt disease. He had an affected younger brother, and the rest of his family was reported to be asymptomatic. He wanted to know if he would qualify for any Stargardt gene or stem cell therapy trials. Case description The adult male proband (III:A) experienced blurred central vision, nyctalopia and photophobia since childhood. His best-corrected visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/200, respectively. Fundus examination demonstrated a bull's eye maculopathy and peri...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bassuk, A. G., Sujirakul, T., Tsang, S. H., Mahajan, V. B. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Focal digital pressure for the management of posterior chamber tube shunts: a novel technique
Background Glaucoma affects 2–3 millions of Americans and is a leading cause of blindness.1 The only proven intervention to slow disease progression is to reduce the intraocular pressure which can be done with medications, lasers and surgery.1 Glaucoma drainage implants (GDI) are useful adjuncts in surgical management.2 Several types of implants are currently available and vary in surface area, shape, material composition, and presence or absence of a flow-restricting valve. GDIs may be placed in the anterior chamber, ciliary sulcus or pars plana.3 The location of the tube is determined by the surgeon and often depen...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Medina, C. A., Davis, R., Schuman, J. S. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Follicle size in trachoma: assessment of a well-known trachoma grading diagram
Introduction Trachoma remains the world's leading infectious cause of blindness.1 Trachoma control programmes determine when to start and stop mass antibiotic treatments based on the prevalence of follicular trachoma (TF) in children aged 1–9 years, as assessed by examination of the upper tarsal conjunctiva using the WHO simplified grading system.2 According to the WHO classification, TF is defined as the presence of ≥5 follicles at least 0.5 mm in diameter. The original paper describing the WHO simplified grading system included a diagram of the everted conjunctiva with examples of follicles that were 0.5&nb...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Morberg, D. P., Amza, A., Gebresillasie, S., Tadesse, Z., Yu, S. N., Stoller, N. E., Emerson, P. M., Gaynor, B. D., Lietman, T. M., Keenan, J. D. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Minimum histological safety margins in periocular basal cell carcinoma
What should the surgeon do following excision of a periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) when the histopathology reports a narrow histological safety margin (HSM) of less than 0.5 mm? This is a common scenario in which there are few recommended guidelines for management. First, it is well described that terms such as ‘close’ or ‘narrow’ alone have little value in the reporting of histological margins as they are open to widely varying interpretations.1 Objective reporting should include measurement of the narrowest HSM in lateral and deep margins as recommended in pathological reporting guideli...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sun, M. T., Figueira, E., Huilgol, S. C., Selva, D. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Random conjunctival biopsy in multiorgan disease
A previously fit and well 43-year-old woman from West Africa presented with a 9 month history of productive cough, weight loss and unsteadiness on her feet. She denied night sweats. On examination she was apyrexial. Blood cultures were negative. Full blood count was normal, serum ACE was elevated at 194, and she was hypercalcaemic with a low parathyroid hormone level. She was HIV negative. Chest X-ray and subsequent CT chest showed bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymph node enlargement. MRI brain and spine were normal. Lumbar puncture revealed no organisms, low protein and glucose. On further questioning she gave a se...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Silvester, A., Armstrong, S., Matthews, C., Hamid, B. Tags: Education Source Type: research

Ophthalmic statistics note 2: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence
Scenario 1 Patients undergoing vitrectomy surgery for idiopathic full-thickness macular holes used to be routinely advised to follow a strict regime of posturing face down for a variable period (up to 2 weeks) after surgery.1–3 There was a scientific rationale for this—the tractional forces of gravity would force gases against the macula allowing it to heal more readily. Patients who postured were therefore believed to be less at risk of their macular hole reopening and of the need for repeat surgery to repair the hole. Medicine has clearly changed very significantly over time with a far greater emphasis o...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bunce, C., Patel, K. V., Xing, W., Freemantle, N., Dore, C. J., On behalf of the Ophthalmic Statistics Group, Cook, Crabb, Cumberland, Czanner, Donachie, Elders, Garcia-Finana, Nash, O'Leary, Prevost, Rogers, Saunders, Sivasubramanium, Stratton, Vasconcel Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Retina, Open access, Epidemiology Education Source Type: research

Internal structure consistent with remodelling in very small drusen, revealed by filipin histochemistry for esterified cholesterol
Conclusions Over half of very small drusen at the edge of clinical detectability have evidence for internal remodelling, suggesting that both formative and removal events are present early in the druse lifecycle. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rudolf, M., Seckerdieck, K., Grisanti, S., Curcio, C. A. Tags: Retina Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

The collagen matrix of the human trabecular meshwork is an extension of the novel pre-Descemet's layer (Dua's layer)
Conclusions This study provides an insight into the origins of the collagen core of the TM as an extension of the PDL of the cornea. This finding adds to the knowledge base of the TM and cornea and has the potential to impact future research into the TM and glaucoma. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Dua, H. S., Faraj, L. A., Branch, M. J., Yeung, A. M., Elalfy, M. S., Said, D. G., Gray, T., Lowe, J. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Changes in ocular factors according to depth variation and viewer age after watching a three-dimensional display
Conclusions Watching a 3D display affects accommodation and convergence abilities and tear dynamics in a transient fashion, especially in the case of 3D images with a large binocular disparity, and in older subjects. These results provide helpful information for establishment of guidelines for 3D equipment manufacturers. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Yum, H. R., Park, S. H., Kang, H.-B., Shin, S. Y. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Screening for convergence insufficiency using the CISS is not indicated in young adults
Conclusions ‘Visual symptoms’ are common in young adults, but often not related to any clinical defect, while true CI may be asymptomatic. This study suggests that screening for CI is not indicated. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Horwood, A. M., Toor, S., Riddell, P. M. Tags: Muscles, Open access, Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Ocular haemodynamics in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease
Conclusions (1) Flow disturbances within the ocular blood vessels of patients with type 2 diabetes were associated with atherogenic changes of coronary arteries. (2) In patients with type 2 diabetes and concomitant coronary artery disease, impaired blood flow within the ophthalmic and short posterior ciliary arteries was not related to diabetic retinopathy, but diabetic retinopathy was related to additional blood flow impairment within the central retinal artery. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Krasnicki, P., Dmuchowska, D. A., Proniewska-Skretek, E., Dobrzycki, S., Mariak, Z. Tags: Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Effect of peripapillary retinoschisis on retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement in glaucomatous eyes
Conclusions Transient increase in RNFL thickness as determined by OCT was observed in glaucomatous eyes with peripapillary retinoschisis. Caution is warranted when interpreting the RNFL thickness measurement in eyes with peripapillary retinoschisis. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hwang, Y. H., Kim, Y. Y., Kim, H. K., Sohn, Y. H. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Ocular Trauma Scores in paediatric open globe injuries
Conclusions The OTS has a high predictive value for visual outcome after open globe injuries in children, even without evaluation of RAPD. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Schorkhuber, M. M., Wackernagel, W., Riedl, R., Schneider, M. R., Wedrich, A. Tags: Paediatrics, Anterior chamber, Lens and zonules, Retina, Vitreous, Editor's choice, Cleveland Clinic CME Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Secondary iris-claw anterior chamber lens implantation in patients with aphakia without capsular support
Conclusions Iris-claw IOL implantation in aphakic eyes is an effective, predictable and safe procedure in the first 5 years of follow-up. However, a longer follow-up is required to demonstrate its long-term safety. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Guell, J. L., Verdaguer, P., Elies, D., Gris, O., Manero, F., Mateu-Figueras, G., Morral, M. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Lens and zonules, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Corneal biomechanical properties of patients with acromegaly
Conclusions These findings indicate that acromegaly has target organ effects on the eye. Consequently, it can change corneal biomechanical properties such as corneal hysteresis and the CRF. Corneal biomechanical properties are known to affect the accuracy of IOP measurements. These findings should be taken into account when measuring IOP values in acromegaly patients, as IOP readings may be overestimated. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ozkok, A., Hatipoglu, E., Tamcelik, N., Balta, B., Gundogdu, A. S., Ozdamar, M. A., Kadioglu, P. Tags: Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Paediatric and adolescent elevated conjunctival lesions in the plical area: lymphoma or reactive lymphoid hyperplasia?
Conclusions It is clinically difficult to differentiate between conjunctival RLH and MALT lymphoma in the paediatric and adolescent population. Both lesions are rare in this age group, particularly MALT lymphoma. Molecular analysis of excised lesions does not always correlate with histopathology. A short treatment course with antiallergic drops may sometimes assist diagnosis without compromising the patients due to the indolent nature of lymphoma in that area. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Beykin, G., Pe'er, J., Amir, G., Frenkel, S. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Impact of dry eye on reading in a population-based sample of the elderly: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation
Conclusions Dry eye did not significantly affect reading speed but was associated with self-reported reading difficulty and avoidance of newspaper reading in this elderly population-based sample. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: van Landingham, S. W., West, S. K., Akpek, E. K., Munoz, B., Ramulu, P. Y. Tags: Public health, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe: 1990-2010
Conclusions In highly developed countries, prevalence of blindness and MSVI has been reduced by 50% and 38%, respectively, and the number of blind people and people with MSVI decreased by 17.4% and 12.6%, respectively, even with the increasing number of older people in the population. In high-income countries, macular degeneration has become the most important cause of blindness, but uncorrected refractive errors continue to be the leading cause of MSVI. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bourne, R. R. A., Jonas, J. B., Flaxman, S. R., Keeffe, J., Leasher, J., Naidoo, K., Parodi, M. B., Pesudovs, K., Price, H., White, R. A., Wong, T. Y., Resnikoff, S., Taylor, H. R., on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Retina, Vision, Neurology, Glaucoma, Optics and refraction Global issues Source Type: research

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Latin America and the Caribbean: 1990-2010
Conclusions While models suggest a decrease in age-standardised prevalence estimates, better data are needed to evaluate the disparities in the region. The increasing numbers of older people, coupled with the increase in vision loss associated with older age, will require further intervention to continue to reduce prevalence rates and to prevent a rise in absolute numbers of blind. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Leasher, J. L., Lansingh, V., Flaxman, S. R., Jonas, J. B., Keeffe, J., Naidoo, K., Pesudovs, K., Price, H., Silva, J. C., White, R. A., Wong, T. Y., Resnikoff, S., Taylor, H. R., Bourne, R. R. A., on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global B Tags: Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Retina, Vision, Neurology, Optics and refraction Global issues Source Type: research

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa: 1990-2010
Conclusions The age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased substantially from 1990 to 2010, although there was a moderate increase in the absolute numbers with blindness or MSVI. Significant subregional and gender disparities exist. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Naidoo, K., Gichuhi, S., Basanez, M.-G., Flaxman, S. R., Jonas, J. B., Keeffe, J., Leasher, J. L., Pesudovs, K., Price, H., Smith, J. L., Turner, H. C., White, R. A., Wong, T. Y., Resnikoff, S., Taylor, H. R., Bourne, R. R. A., on behalf of the Vision Los Tags: Angle, Conjunctiva, Cornea, Eye (globe), Intraocular pressure, Lens and zonules, Ocular surface, Optic nerve, Retina, Vision, Neurology, Glaucoma, Optics and refraction, Epidemiology Global issues Source Type: research

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in North Africa and the Middle East: 1990-2010
Conclusions Although the absolute numbers of people with blindness and MSVI increased from 1990 to 2010, the overall age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI among all ages and among those aged 50 years and older decreased significantly (p<0.05). Cataract and uncorrected refractive error were the major causes of blindness and MSVI. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Khairallah, M., Kahloun, R., Flaxman, S. R., Jonas, J. B., Keeffe, J., Leasher, J., Naidoo, K., Pesudovs, K., Price, H., White, R. A., Wong, T. Y., Resnikoff, S., Taylor, H. R., Bourne, R. R., on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group Tags: Angle, Conjunctiva, Cornea, Eye (globe), Intraocular pressure, Lens and zonules, Ocular surface, Optic nerve, Retina, Vision, Neurology, Glaucoma, Optics and refraction Global issues Source Type: research

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia: 1990-2010
Conclusions There has been a significant reduction in prevalence of blindness in East Asia, but a substantial absolute number of people remain blind and visually impaired, largely caused by cataract and uncorrected refractive error. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wong, T. Y., Zheng, Y., Jonas, J. B., Flaxman, S. R., Keeffe, J., Leasher, J., Naidoo, K., Pesudovs, K., Price, H., White, R. A., Resnikoff, S., Taylor, H. R., Bourne, R. R. A., on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Stu Tags: Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Vision, Neurology, Optics and refraction, Epidemiology Global issues Source Type: research

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia: 1990-2010
Conclusions The prevalence of blindness and MSVI in South Asia is still three times higher than in Central Asia and globally, with women generally more often affected than women. In both regions, cataract and undercorrected refractive error were major causes of blindness and MSVI. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jonas, J. B., George, R., Asokan, R., Flaxman, S. R., Keeffe, J., Leasher, J., Naidoo, K., Pesudovs, K., Price, H., Vijaya, L., White, R. A., Wong, T. Y., Resnikoff, S., Taylor, H. R., Bourne, R. R. A., on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Glo Tags: Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Vision, Neurology, Optics and refraction Global issues Source Type: research

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Southeast Asia and Oceania: 1990-2010
Conclusions The prevalence of blindness has reduced significantly from 1990 to 2010, with moderate but non-significant lowering of MSVI. Cataract and uncorrected refractive error are the main causes of vision impairment and blindness; cataract continues as the main cause of blindness, but at lower proportions. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Keeffe, J., Taylor, H. R., Fotis,, K., Pesudovs, K., Flaxman, S. R., Jonas, J. B., Leasher, J., Naidoo, K., Price, H., White, R. A., Wong, T. Y., Resnikoff, S., Bourne, R. R. A., on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease St Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Retina, Vision, Neurology, Glaucoma, Optics and refraction Global issues Source Type: research

Techniques and outcomes of minimally invasive trabecular ablation and bypass surgery
Minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS) can improve the conventional, pressure-dependent outflow by bypassing or ablating the trabecular meshwork (TM), or creating alternative drainage routes into the suprachoroidal or subconjunctival space. They have a highly favourable risk profile compared to penetrating surgeries, and lower intraocular pressure with variable efficacy that may depend on the extent of outflow segments accessed. Since they are highly standardised procedures that use clear corneal incisions, they can elegantly be combined with cataract and refractive procedures to improve vision in the same session. T...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kaplowitz, K., Schuman, J. S., Loewen, N. A. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Lens and zonules, Glaucoma Review Source Type: research

Guillaume Pellier de Quengsy: a bold eye surgeon
Many procedures have changed, many principles have remained—hsd The subject of this month's cover feature is the two volume book of Pellier de Quengsy's ‘Course of Eye Operations...’ It was the first monograph in the world's literature devoted exclusively to eye surgery. Guillaume Pellier de Quengsy's father, Jean-Henri, was a master of surgery and city physician in Bar-le-Duc and Metz. He had been a pupil of Jacques Daviel. Pellier learned ophthalmology from his father and regarded it as the most difficult part of surgery. He dedicated his whole life to this speciality. Pellier later dropped the ‘D...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Keeler, R., Singh, A. D., Dua, H. S. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Lens and zonules Cover illustration Source Type: research

Can conjunctival lymphoma be a clinical diagnosis?
Conjunctiva contains specialised lymphoid tissue and is a part of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) system acting as a barrier to both endoantigens and exoantigens. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) is a result of antigen stimulation of the conjunctival MALT system. RLH affects males and females equally, and tends to occur in young patients.1 It has morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic features, which indicate that the lesion consists of polyclonal B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes in similar proportions. On the other hand, non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) of B-cell type can also arise within this...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Coupland, S., Heegaard, S. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Dry eyes, are we getting anywhere?
Dry eye syndrome is one of the most common diagnoses encountered in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is accompanied by increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface.1 The prevalence of dry eye symptoms increases with age and it affects 80% of the population over the age of 80.2 Patients usually complain of gritty, sandy foreign body sensation and visual blurry vision that clears temporarily upon blinking which is attr...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sangwan, V. S., Bhalekar, S., Basu, S. Tags: Lacrimal gland, Tears, Epidemiology Editorials Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
Paediatric and adolescent elevated conjunctival lesions in the plica Beykin et al report clinical, histopathological and molecular features of ‘salmon patch’-like conjunctival lesions in 11 patients (aged 6–21 years). Nine patients underwent an excisional biopsy that histopathologically disclosed extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma in two cases and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) in seven cases. Molecular diagnosis showed polyclonal B cells in six patients, monoclonal B cells in two patients, and a questionable status in one patient. The authors conclude that it is clinically difficult to differe...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Singh, A., Dua, H. Tags: At a glance Source Type: research

Authors' response
We appreciate the comment and questions from Drs Huising and McGwin, which help us with the opportunity to further clarify the relationship between central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and coronary heart disease (CHD). In our study,1 the stratified Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that patients with CSCR are at higher risk of developing CHD; however, the conditional logistic regression analysis of CSCR status on CHD did not reveal that CHD is a risk factor for CSCR. It seems a little contradictory on condition that CSCR and CHD share some possible common predisposing factors, including imbalance between coagulati...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chen, S.-N., Lian, I. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Authors' response: pars planavitrectomy to repair retinal detachment following brachytherapy for uveal melanoma
We thank Dr Chia Seen Nee for the interest in our research.1 As Dr Chia Seen Nee have described,2 the cases which are presented in our manuscript demonstrate retinal detachment that is conceivably secondary to chronic exudative detachment complicated by PVR, and in some of the cases, retinal breaks. While several of our uveal melanoma cases which we have treated also underwent vitrectomy to correct other pathologies, at present we do not have the statistical data on this issue and cannot compare our findings with those of Dr Chia Seen Nee and colleagues. Data from additional centres caring for patients with uveal melanoma ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Beykin, G., Pe'er, J., Hemo, Y., Frenkel, S., Chowers, I. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Comment on: 'Pars plana vitrectomy to repair retinal detachment following brachytherapy for uveal melanoma'
We read with interest the study by Beykin et al1 which appears to show a much higher rate of late retinal detachment following brachytherapy for posterior uveal melanoma than was found during a recent review of our own service. Between 1998 and 2013, 445 eyes with posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy in the Scottish Ocular Oncology Service, and only 1 eye (0.22%) developed a retinal detachment. This contrasts with 7 from 473 eyes (1.48%) reported by Beykin et al. Furthermore, our patient developed a superior macula-off rhegmatogenous detachment 2 days after plaque removal, ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chia, S. N., Smith, H. B., Kemp, E. G. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Increased risk of coronary heart disease in male patients with central serous chorioretinopathy: results of a population-based cohort study
In the recent article published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, Chen et al1 investigated whether patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) have an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The authors conclude that those with CSCR (specifically males) had a higher rate of developing CHD than those without CSCR. However, in our opinion, the authors did not provide the necessary context to adequately explain the relationship between CSCR and CHD reported in this study. The statistical analysis described using a Cox proportional hazard model for a prospective cohort analysis and a logistic regressio...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Huisingh, C., McGwin, G. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Author's response: Outcomes of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy treated with ranibizumab monotherapy
I thank Dr Tan and associates for their comments1 regarding my article entitled ‘Results of 2 years of treatment with as-needed ranibizumab reinjection for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV)’,2 and welcome the opportunity to discuss treatment of PCV. In their comments, Dr Tan and associates pointed out the apparently higher regression rate of polypoidal lesions after photodynamic therapy (PDT) compared with ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech, South San Francisco, California, USA) monotherapy and emphasised the important implication of regression of polypoidal lesions in the outcomes of treatment for PCV...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hikichi, T. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Central toxic keratopathy: a clinical case series
Dear Editor, We read with great interest the article by Marí Cotino and associates1 about an epidemic of central toxic keratopathy (CTK) that occurred after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), presumably caused by the change of the brand of the surgical gloves. Although its aetiology is unknown, CTK has common features with grade IV diffuse lamellar keratitis, but it is widely accepted that it represents a separate clinical entity. It has received other names in the literature, such as ‘central flap necrosis’. Marí Cotino et al1 state in their article that CTK does not have a specific treatment ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Garcia-Gonzalez, M., Teus, M. A. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Transdermal androgen patches in evaporative dry eye syndrome with androgen deficiency: a pilot study
We report the outcomes of our audit. Methods A retrospective series of 14 consecutive females with EDE and low serum testosterone, were treated with the androgen... (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Nanavaty, M. A., Long, M., Malhotra, R. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Clarifying the role of ATOH7 in glaucoma endophenotypes
Conclusions This study finds that ATOH7 is associated with optic disc size but not independently with CDR. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Venturini, C., Nag, A., Hysi, P. G., Wang, J. J., Wong, T. Y., Healey, P. R., Mitchell, P., Hammond, C. J., Viswanathan, A. C., Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2, BMES GWAS Group Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphism and protein expression in the pathogenesis of pterygium
Conclusions We suggest that VEGF could be used as a target for pterygium therapy in patients with the 936C>T genotype. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Peng, M.-L., Tsai, Y.-Y., Tung, J.-N., Chiang, C.-C., Huang, Y.-C., Lee, H., Cheng, Y.-W. Tags: Conjunctiva, Ocular surface Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Factors associated with quality of life and mood in adults with strabismus
Conclusions Psychosocial rather than clinical characteristics were identified as determinants of well-being in this population. It is important for clinicians planning surgery to be aware of these factors which could influence outcomes. Longitudinal studies need to be conducted to explore the direction of causality before interventions to improve well-being are developed and evaluated. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: McBain, H. B., MacKenzie, K. A., Au, C., Hancox, J., Ezra, D. G., Adams, G. G. W., Newman, S. P. Tags: Muscles, Vision, Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

The evaluation and surgical management of cyclodialysis clefts that have failed to respond to conservative management
Conclusions Most clefts were closed with one procedure. A trend towards larger cleft size as a preoperative risk factor for failure to achieve closure with one procedure was observed. In this series, imaging was not found to be sufficiently precise to replace viscoelastic-assisted gonioscopy in the diagnosis and evaluation of cyclodialysis clefts. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ioannidis, A. S., Bunce, C., Barton, K. Tags: Open access Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Correlation between retinal vessel density profile and circumpapillary RNFL thickness measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography
Conclusions Using our model of the circumpapillary retinal vessel distribution, 70% of the RNFL thickness is influenced by RVD. On average, 7% of the interindividual variance of the RNFL thickness may be explained by RVD. A normative database that takes into account the circumpapillary blood vessels might slightly improve the diagnostic power of RNFL measurement. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Pereira, I., Weber, S., Holzer, S., Resch, H., Kiss, B., Fischer, G., Vass, C. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Pars plana vitrectomy in patients with myopic macular retinoschisis
Conclusions PPV generally resulted in stable or improved VA for eyes with myopic macular retinoschisis. Eyes with concurrent macular hole or foveal retinal detachment often had improved VA, but to a lesser extent than eyes with myopic macular retinoschisis alone. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chang, J. S., Flynn, H. W., Engelbert, M., Shane, A. R., Smiddy, W. E., Chang, S. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

A prospective and nationwide study investigating endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy: incidence and risk factors
Conclusions Endophthalmitis following PPV is rare. Operating with smaller gauge port sizes does not increase the risk of endophthalmitis. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Park, J. C., Ramasamy, B., Shaw, S., Prasad, S., Ling, R. H. L., Foot, Belam, Hutchings, Frimpong-Ansah, Raman, Doyle, James, Cole, Sheehan, Charles, Ho, Yorston, Awan, MacLaren, Patel, Rosen, Fletcher, Membrey, Muthiah, Price, Chalioulias, Mahomed, Toor, Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Choroid, Eye (globe), Retina, Editor's choice, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory therapy with tumour necrosis factor {alpha} inhibitors in children with antinuclear antibody-associated chronic anterior uveitis: long-term results
Conclusions Our data show that adalimumab and infliximab have beneficial effects in the therapy of severe ANA-associated anterior uveitis in children. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Doycheva, D., Zierhut, M., Blumenstock, G., Stuebiger, N., Januschowski, K., Voykov, B., Deuter, C. Tags: Choroid Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Intravitreal bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation in serpiginous choroiditis
Conclusions IVB can achieve anatomical stabilisation of CNV secondary to SC, avoiding a decline in visual acuity, in almost 90% of cases over a 12-month follow-up. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Parodi, M. B., Iacono, P., La Spina, C., Knutsson, K. A., Mansour, A., Arevalo, J. F., Bandello, F. Tags: Choroid, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Predictors of visual acuity and genotype-phenotype correlates in a cohort of patients with Stargardt disease
Conclusions Epidemiological and genotypical findings portend visual prognosis in patients with Stargardt disease. Select sequence variations in ABCA4 may confer a specific phenotype. The present data will help in assessing patients for emerging therapies. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Miraldi Utz, V., Coussa, R. G., Marino, M. J., Chappelow, A. V., Pauer, G. J., Hagstrom, S. A., Traboulsi, E. I. Tags: Retina, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Fluorescein angiographic observations of peripheral retinal vessel growth in infants after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab as sole therapy for zone I and posterior zone II retinopathy of prematurity
Conclusions Although bevacizumab appears effective in bringing resolution of zone I and posterior zone II ROP and allowing growth of peripheral retinal vessels, in our series of 20 eyes, complete normal peripheral retinal vascularisation was not achieved in half of the patients. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tahija, S. G., Hersetyati, R., Lam, G. C., Kusaka, S., McMenamin, P. G. Tags: Retina, Open access Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research