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British Journal of Ophthalmology

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Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Caucasian patients with presumed age-related macular degeneration
In this study, the authors included patients who were evaluated with ICGA only after receiving ≥8 ranibizumab injections. Prior to evaluation with ICGA, the patients who were eventually diagnosed with PCV had received a mean of 6.7±3.1 ranibizumab... (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tan, C. S., Ngo, W. K., Cheong, K. X., Lim, T. H. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Increased risk of coronary heart disease in male patients with central serous chorioretinopathy: results of a population-based cohort study
Actually we used two survival analyses in the paper:1 a Kaplan–Meier (KM) plot with log-rank test (figure 1), and stratified Cox regression (table 2). Among the 815 cases and 4075 controls, 41 cases and 164 controls had pre-coronary heart disease (CHD). In the KM analysis, we excluded only those with pre-CHD, and the corresponding (unadjusted) p value from log-rank test for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is 0.002. However, in stratified Cox regression, we did exclude 41 cases along with their fivefold matched controls (as stated in the legend of figure 1, 774 cases and 3870 controls were used), and came out ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chen, S.-N., Lian, I. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the cortical vitreous and the vitreoretinal interface in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: assessment of vitreoschisis, neovascularisation and the internal limiting membrane
Anomalous posterior vitreous detachment leads to shrinkage of the inner vitreous with the outer precortical vitreous cortex remaining attached to the macula and retina, resulting in vitreoschisis.1 Sebag and coworkers have reported vitreoschisis in macular disorders, and vitreoschisis has been demonstrated using ultrasonography and histopathology.2–4 Swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) is a new imaging technology (Atlantis DRI-OCT-1, Topcon, Japan). We demonstrate for the first time in vivo the microstructural tomographic features of and spatial vitreoretinal relationships between vitreoschisis, retinal and optic nerve head ne...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Muqit, M. M. K., Stanga, P. E. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

High-frequency ultrasound-guided transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation
Introduction Coagulation of the ciliary body via transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation (cyclodiode) of the ciliary body is a therapeutic option for numerous types of glaucoma. It is commonly used in patients with refractory glaucoma for a temporising effect prior to drainage procedures, as an adjunct to surgery, in patients who are precluded from undergoing general anaesthesia, or in individuals who have no visual potential and need pain relief.1 Typically, the probe is applied to a point corresponding to the pars plicata of the ciliary body. This has been historically identified as 1–2 mm behind the li...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Way, A. L., Nischal, K. K. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Blue light injures corneal epithelial cells in the mitotic phase in vitro
Introduction Blue light is a part of the visible light spectrum in the wavelength range of 390–490 nm. In modern society, light-emitting diode lamps and computer displays deliver much more blue light to the cornea than ever before. The retinal phototoxicity of blue light has been extensively investigated because of concerns about macular degeneration.1 2 The effects of blue light on the health of the ocular surface are less clear.3 4 Like skin,5 the ocular surface is directly exposed to visible blue light and this contributes to photophobia and ocular pain.6 We have carried out culture experiments to examine the...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Niwano, Y., Kanno, T., Iwasawa, A., Ayaki, M., Tsubota, K. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Are worldwide albinism prevalence figures an accurate reflection? An incidental finding from a Northern Ireland study
Person et al,1 and Witkop et al,2 suggest global prevalence figures for albinism of 1 in 20 000 and 1 in 17 000, respectively. Person et al's1 figure is widely quoted in the literature but it is unclear how it was derived. Grønskov et al,3 investigated birth prevalence and mutation spectrum in Danish patients with autosomal recessive albinism suggesting a minimum birth prevalence of 1 in 14 000. Similarly Froggatt4 had investigated the occurrence of albinism in Northern Ireland (NI) in 1960 and reported a prevalence of 1 in 10 000. Clearly there are discrepancies in the literature in terms o...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Healey, N., McLoone, E., Saunders, K. J., Jackson, A. J., McClelland, J. F. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Evidence of early ultrastructural photoreceptor abnormalities in light-induced retinal degeneration using spectral domain optical coherence tomography
Conclusions Longitudinal SD-OCT reveals intraretinal changes that cannot be observed by histopathology at early time points in the light injury model. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Aziz, M. K., Ni, A., Esserman, D. A., Chavala, S. H. Tags: Retina Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) and the testing of three different adhesives for bonding bovine teeth with optical poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cylinder
Conclusions Excellent bonding strength combined with easy application was found for universal resin cement, and thus, it is a potential alternative to acrylic bone cement in OOKP preparation. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Weisshuhn, K., Berg, I., Tinner, D., Kunz, C., Bornstein, M. M., Steineck, M., Hille, K., Goldblum, D. Tags: Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Change in choroidal thickness and axial length with change in intraocular pressure after trabeculectomy
Conclusions The dynamic relationship between change in IOP and the state of sclera and choroid was confirmed by sequential measurements in postoperative trabeculectomy patients, providing estimates of the magnitude of choroidal swelling and scleral volume decrease with IOP lowering. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Saeedi, O., Pillar, A., Jefferys, J., Arora, K., Friedman, D., Quigley, H. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in migraine patients: implications for the association of migraine and glaucoma
Conclusions Choroidal thickness was found to be significantly increased in migraine patients during the attack period when compared to basal levels. The possible implications of this finding on the association between migraine and glaucoma are discussed. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Dadaci, Z., Doganay, F., Oncel Acir, N., Aydin, H. D., Borazan, M. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Neurology, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Does choroidal melanoma regression correlate with chromosome 3 loss after ruthenium brachytherapy?
Conclusions The rate of choroidal melanoma regression after ruthenium-106 brachytherapy does not appear to correlate with chromosome 3 loss, suggesting that tumour thickness reduction 6 months after treatment is unlikely to predict survival. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chiam, P. J. T., Coupland, S. E., Kalirai, H., Groenewald, C., Heimann, H., Damato, B. E. Tags: Public health Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

WINROP can modify ROP screening praxis: a validation of WINROP in populations in Sormland and Vastmanland
Conclusions WINROP identified all the infants at risk for developing stage 3 ROP (100% sensitivity) and had a 59% specificity. The alarm was registered several weeks before screening for ROP began. WINROP can be used to complement conventional ROP screening. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Eriksson, L., Liden, U., Lofqvist, C., Hellstrom, A. Tags: Retina, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Desegmentation of Ozurdex implant in vitreous cavity: report of two cases
Conclusions With more and more microsurgical implantation procedures, clinicians should be well aware of these unusual although rare complications. Even though the desegmented implants do not appear to cause more intraocular complications compared with single-piece implants, patients with defragmented implants should be followed up carefully to monitor for unexpected complications. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Agrawal, R., Fernandez-Sanz, G., Bala, S., Addison, P. K. F. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Long-term results of intravitreal ranibizumab for the treatment of retinal angiomatous proliferation and utility of an advanced RPE analysis performed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography
Conclusions The intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was effective for stabilising vision in patients with RAP, as evaluated at a 3-year follow-up examination. Advanced RPE analysis is useful for investigating atrophic areas after IVR. Visual acuity at baseline and progression of MA might be important for BCVA after IVR. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Inoue, M., Arakawa, A., Yamane, S., Kadonosono, K. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Aflibercept treatment for patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration who were incomplete responders to multiple ranibizumab injections (TURF trial)
Conclusions Aflibercept 2.0 mg treatment maintained mean visual acuity improvements previously achieved with high-dose 2.0-mg ranibizumab injections in recalcitrant wet AMD patients. Aflibercept 2.0 mg treatment led to significant anatomic improvement and was required monthly in most patients. Clinical Trials Registration FDA IND#12462. NCT 01543568. Trial Details IND 12462, NCT 01543568 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01543568. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wykoff, C. C., Brown, D. M., Maldonado, M. E., Croft, D. E. Tags: Retina, Open access Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Macular abnormalities in Italian patients with retinitis pigmentosa
Conclusions Macular abnormalities are more frequent in RP compared to the general population. For that reason, screening RP patients with OCT is highly recommended to follow-up the patients, evaluate the natural history of disease, and identify those patients who could benefit from current or innovative therapeutic strategies. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Testa, F., Rossi, S., Colucci, R., Gallo, B., Di Iorio, V., della Corte, M., Azzolini, C., Melillo, P., Simonelli, F. Tags: Eye (globe), Lens and zonules, Retina, Open access, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Normal macular structure measured with optical coherence tomography across ethnicity
Conclusions Differences in macular morphology due to ethnicity should be considered in determining control values for diagnostic purposes, and can be used to guide future studies in risk and prognosis for macular pathologies. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Pilat, A. V., Proudlock, F. A., Mohammad, S., Gottlob, I. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Patients with diffuse uveitis and inactive toxoplasmic retinitis lesions test PCR positive for Toxoplasma gondii in their vitreous and blood
Conclusions No active lesions were observed, but both patients possessed sufficient parasite DNA in their vitreous to permit genotyping. Several hypotheses to explain the persistence of the vitritis and anterior uveitis in the absence of active retinitis are discussed. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Novais, E. A., Commodaro, A. G., Santos, F., Muccioli, C., Maia, A., Nascimento, H., Moeller, C. T. A., Rizzo, L. V., Grigg, M. E., Belfort, R. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Choroid, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Prevalence and aetiology of ocular hypertension in acute and chronic uveitis
Conclusions OHT in non-granulomatous uveitis was mainly steroid-induced open-angle OHT with some cases of angle-closure OHT caused by pupillary block, while that in granulomatous uveitis was mostly inflammation-induced open-angle OHT with no pupillary block-related angle-closure OHT. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kanda, T., Shibata, M., Taguchi, M., Ishikawa, S., Harimoto, K., Takeuchi, M. Tags: Angle, Choroid, Intraocular pressure, Iris, Sclera and apisclera, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Ganfort) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week randomised controlled trial
Conclusions Bimatoprost/timolol PF demonstrated non-inferiority and equivalence in IOP lowering compared with bimatoprost/timolol, with no significant differences in safety and tolerability. Trial registration number NCT01177098. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Goldberg, I., Gil Pina, R., Lanzagorta-Aresti, A., Schiffman, R. M., Liu, C., Bejanian, M. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Open access, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Frequency of abnormal retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell layer SDOCT scans in healthy eyes and glaucoma suspects in a prospective longitudinal study
Conclusions Specificity in this sample of healthy eyes was very high for RNFLT and GCC parameters. Confirmation of suspected SDOCT abnormalities is recommended to differentiate reproducible loss from long-term variability. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Iverson, S. M., Feuer, W. J., Shi, W., Greenfield, D. S., Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Comparison of additional pseudophakic multifocal lenses and multifocal intraocular lens in the capsular bag
Conclusions Only small functional differences between the examined methods were found. Both types of multifocal IOL performed well at all distances. There were no intraoperative and postoperative complications in the add-on IOL group which affirms the high safety level such as with conventional multifocal IOL in the capsular bag. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Schrecker, J., Feith, A., Langenbucher, A. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Sleeveless-extrusion cannula for levitation of dislocated intraocular lens
Conclusions The early results demonstrate this surgical intervention as a reliable, reproducible and an effective alternative treatment option for levitation of dislocated IOLs with a low complication rate. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Agarwal, A., Narang, P., Agarwal, A., Kumar, D. A. Tags: Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Anterior and posterior capsular opacification with the Tecnis ZCB00 and AcrySof SA60AT IOLs: a randomised intraindividual comparison
Conclusions Both IOLs had a similar low rate of PCO 1 year after surgery. However, there seems to be a difference in the anterior capsule behaviour between both IOL models. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kahraman, G., Schrittwieser, H., Walch, M., Storch, F., Nigl, K., Ferdinaro, C., Amon, M. Tags: Lens and zonules Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Optimising deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using intraoperative online optical coherence tomography (iOCT)
Conclusions iOCT assists with visualisation of injection needle placement and with assessment of bare Descemet's membrane as well as interface fluid during the DALK procedure. Overall iOCT may be a helpful device that supports surgeons in all steps of DALK procedure. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Steven, P., Le Blanc, C., Lankenau, E., Krug, M., Oelckers, S., Heindl, L. M., Gehlsen, U., Huettmann, G., Cursiefen, C. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Open access, Editor's choice Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty: full and partial-thickness cut wound strength and endothelial cell loss across a variety of wound patterns
Conclusions Partial thickness zigzag, top hat and mushroom-style partial FLAK incisions left an intact tissue wall with high resistance to rupture, whereas full-thickness cuts were more variable. Laser trephination and eye bank handling protocol for donor FLAK buttons leads to moderate peripheral endothelial cell loss in tissue with both complete and partial cuts. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kopani, K. R., Page, M. A., Holiman, J., Parodi, A., Iliakis, B., Chamberlain, W. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Ophthalmic features of PLA2G6-related paediatric neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation
Conclusions Upgaze palsy, although not a previously reported finding, was confirmed in all patients (except in one for whom assessment could not be performed) and thus can be considered part of the phenotype in children and young adults. Other frequent findings not previously highlighted were abnormal convergence, saccadic pursuit, and saccadic intrusions. Optic nerve head pallor and strabismus, previously reported findings in the disease, were found in 100% and 50% of our cohort, respectively, and the strabismus in our series was always exotropia. Taken together, these clinical findings may be helpful in distinguishing PL...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Khan, A. O., AlDrees, A., Elmalik, S. A., Hassan, H. H., Koenig, M., Stevanin, G., Azzedine, H., Salih, M. A. Tags: Muscles, Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Cavernous venous malformations of the orbit (so-called cavernous haemangioma): a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, imaging and histologic nature
Conclusions Cavernous haemangioma demonstrate clinical features and growth characteristics of a benign mass. Dynamic imaging highlights their slow flow vascular nature. Histologically, the hypercellularity and stromal changes identified can be understood within the pathogenic context of thrombosis and recanalisation in an organised lesion. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rootman, D. B., Heran, M. K. S., Rootman, J., White, V. A., Luemsamran, P., Yucel, Y. H. Tags: Orbit, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Effects of corrective surgery on social phobia, psychological distress, disease-related disability and quality of life in adult strabismus patients
Conclusions Adult strabismus patients seem to gain benefits from corrective surgery not only for their ocular misalignment but also for social anxiety levels that may be associated with improvements in their QoL and disability levels. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Alpak, G., Coskun, E., Erbagci, I., Bez, Y., Okumus, S., Oren, B., Gurler, B. Tags: Muscles, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Consecutive esotropia after surgery for intermittent exotropia: the clinical course and factors associated with the onset
Conclusions Divergence excess type, bilateral lateral rectus recession, amblyopia, younger age at diagnosis and surgery, shorter duration from onset to surgery and overcorrection of ≥20 PD at postoperative day 1 were predisposing factors for consecutive esotropia. In less than half the consecutive esotropia patients (11/26), esodeviation persisted with non-surgical management. Surgery for consecutive esotropia showed relatively favourable outcomes. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kim, H. J., Choi, D. G. Tags: Muscles, Vision, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

An educational intervention to improve adherence to high-dosage patching regimen for amblyopia: a randomised controlled trial
Conclusions Our study shows that an intense educational/motivational intervention can improve adherence to patching to high prescribed doses although no significant improvement in visual outcome was observed. Trials registration number: ISRCTN05346737 (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register). (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Pradeep, A., Proudlock, F. A., Awan, M., Bush, G., Collier, J., Gottlob, I. Tags: Vision, Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Ocular prosthetic obturator: an innovative medical device
The following article describes the methods, materials and techniques used in the long-term management of an anophthalmic patient. Following aggressive surgery to remove a squamous cell carcinoma, the patient had no orbital implant inserted at the time of surgery and remains reticent in regard to further surgery. She presented with a large orbital socket requiring imaginative and innovative ocular rehabilitation. This paper describes the materials and methods of fabricating this new and innovative medical device. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Worrell, E. Tags: Innovations Source Type: research

Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS)
Conclusions Refractive errors affect the majority of the population. The Gutenberg Health Study sample contains more myopes than other study cohorts in adult populations. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of a generally lower prevalence of myopia among adults in Europe as compared with East Asia. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wolfram, C., Hohn, R., Kottler, U., Wild, P., Blettner, M., Buhren, J., Pfeiffer, N., Mirshahi, A. Tags: Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Global issues Source Type: research

Retinal implants: a systematic review
Retinal implants present an innovative way of restoring sight in degenerative retinal diseases. Previous reviews of research progress were written by groups developing their own devices. This systematic review objectively compares selected models by examining publications describing five representative retinal prostheses: Argus II, Boston Retinal Implant Project, Epi-Ret 3, Intelligent Medical Implants (IMI) and Alpha-IMS (Retina Implant AG). Publications were analysed using three criteria for interim success: clinical availability, vision restoration potential and long-term biocompatibility. Clinical availability: Argus I...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chuang, A. T., Margo, C. E., Greenberg, P. B. Tags: Retina Review Source Type: research

Are lens implant modifications the best way to prevent posterior capsule opacification?
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication in intraocular lens surgery, occurring months to years after uncomplicated cataract surgery, and decreasing visual acuity significantly.1–4 A common and objective method to evaluate PCO is the EPCO software developed by Tetz et al,5 which has become widely accepted for PCO grading.6–11 The pathogenesis of PCO has been studied over several years, and several influential factors have been found. Different causes affect the migration and proliferation of residual lens epithelial cells from the periphery to the central area of the posterior capsu...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kretz, F. T. A., Auffarth, G. U. Tags: Lens and zonules Editorials Source Type: research

Keratoprostheses: are we there yet?
Since the dawn of the 18th century, efforts to develop an ideal keratoprosthesis (KPro) have not yielded the dream KPro yet, but the journey to such an invention has given us a few notable devices and valuable experience with a number of biomaterials. The invention of a KPro started with a piece of silver-rimmed glass proposed by Pellier de Quengsy.1 We now have the latest iteration of Boston Type 1 KPro with a porous titanium back plate.2 Although the Pintucci KPro (Dacron mesh skirt and PMMA optic) and the AlphaCor (hydrogel matrix) were in clinical use for a good length of time, they failed to retain over the long term....
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Avadhanam, V. S., Liu, C. S. C. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
Wykoff and colleagues determined whether 2.0 mg intravitreal aflibercept as therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration could maintain or even improve upon the visual acuity and anatomic gains of the Super-dose Anti-VEGF (SAVE) Trial in patients who had received 2.0 mg intravitreal ranibizumab for recalcitrant exudative age-related macular degeneration.1 The study included 46 patients with a mean of 42 prior intravitreal treatments. At 6 months after baseline, BCVA had not changed significantly (P=0.71), while central subfield thickness had improved significantly. At 6 months after baseline, ten of 45 ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Barton, K., Chodosh, J., Jonas, J. B. Tags: At a glance Source Type: research

Histomorphological analysis of a Ridley intraocular lens implanted 45 years ago
Sir Harold Ridley is recognised today as the inventor of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. The first surgery in a human eye was performed in 1949, and approximately 1000 lenses have been implanted worldwide.1 2 Since then, significant changes in IOL technology have allowed ophthalmic surgeons to correct not only aphakia, but also other refractive errors such as astigmatism or presbyopia. To date, only a few cases with a Ridley IOL and a long postoperative follow-up of 30–40 years have been reported.3 Sixty-four years after the first IOL implantation, we have had the opportunity to analyse a Ridley IOL implant...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sabater, A. L., Guarnieri, A., Moreno-Montanes, J. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Response: Optical coherence tomography of the suprachoroid after CyPass Micro-Stent implantation for the treatment of open angle glaucoma
In the recently published article, Saheb et al1 evaluated changes to the anatomy of the supraciliary space with anterior segment optical coherence tomography imaging after CyPass Micro-Stent implantation. Postoperative outcomes were assessed on each participant over three successive time points. Based on purely descriptive information, the authors’ interpretation of the data alludes to there being differences in postoperative outcomes over time; however, they provide no statistical support for the interpretation of their observations. Thus, the authors are strongly urged to conduct an appropriate statistical analysis...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Huisingh, C., McGwin, G. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Increased risk of coronary heart disease in male patients with central serous chorioretinopathy: results of a population-based cohort study
In the recent article published in British Journal of Ophthalmology, Chen et al1 concluded that central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) was a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The abstract mentioned that 835 subjects were in the CSCR group and 4175 subjects were in the non-CSCR group. However, the materials and methods figured 815 in the CSCR group and 4075 in the non-CSCR group. The authors stated that for each case of CSCR, they had five age-matched and gender-matched controls. But when they excluded 41 patients with pre-existing CHD in the CSCR group, only 164 patients (fourfold) (4075–3911) from the c...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Modi, R. R., Behera, U. C., Sureka, S. P. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

'Dilatation' and 'dilation': trends in use on both sides of the Atlantic
We examined trends in usage in medical and wider English-language literature using three open access digital databases: the PubMed database (http://www.pubmed.com) provides data for citations per year; the Google Scholar search engine (http://scholar.google.com) searches more widely, including non-medical literature and patents; and the Google Books Ngram Viewer (http://books.google.com/ngrams) searches corpora of... (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mahroo, O. A., Shalchi, Z., Hammond, C. J. Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Ophthalmic statistics note: the perils of dichotomising continuous variables
Introduction Continuous variables (such as intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, contrast sensitivity) are commonly measured in clinical ophthalmology and vision research. In clinical practice, a ‘status’ (category) can sometimes be assigned to an individual patient using a cutpoint in the value of a continuous variable; for example, a diagnosis of glaucoma might be confirmed by an elevated IOP measurement (eg, IOP >21 mm Hg). Indeed much of medicine revolves around an implicit classification of individuals into diseased and non-diseased. In clinical research, continuous variables may likewise...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Cumberland, P. M., Czanner, G., Bunce, C., Dore, C. J., Freemantle, N., Garcia-Finana, M., On behalf of the Ophthalmic Statistics Group Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Vision, Neurology, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Education Source Type: research

Novel splice-site and missense mutations in the ALDH1A3 gene underlying autosomal recessive anophthalmia/microphthalmia
Conclusions In conclusion, novel ALDH1A3 mutations identified in the present study confirm the pivotal role of ALDH1A3 in human eye development. Autistic features, previously reported as an associated finding, were considered to be the result of social deprivation and inadequate parenting during early infancy in the presented families. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Semerci, C. N., Kalay, E., Yıldırım, C., Dincer, T., Olmez, A., Toraman, B., Kocyiğit, A., Bulgu, Y., Okur, V., Şatıroğlu-Tufan, L., Akarsu, N. A. Tags: Paediatrics, Public health, Neurology, Visual development Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

ND4L gene concurrent 10609T>C and 10663T>C mutations are associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in a large pedigree from Kuwait
Conclusions The two identified mutations associated with LHON in this family may exert their pathogenicity through a cumulative or haplogroup effect. This is the first report of the presence of two concurrent mutations in the ND4L gene in individuals with LHON who carry the L3 haplogroup. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Behbehani, R., Melhem, M., Alghanim, G., Behbehani, K., Alsmadi, O. Tags: Optic nerve, Open access, Neurology Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Different effects of intravitreally injected ranibizumab and aflibercept on retinal and choroidal tissues of monkey eyes
Conclusions Ranibizumab permeated the retina through intercellular spaces, whereas aflibercept was taken up by neuronal and RPE cells. Aflibercept induced protein complex formation and more haemolysis in the choriocapillaris, leading to individual RPE cell death. The clinical significance and relation of these findings to the Fc domain or to other characteristics of aflibercept remain to be investigated. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Julien, S., Biesemeier, A., Taubitz, T., Schraermeyer, U. Tags: Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Evaluation of mouse experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by spectral domain optical coherence tomography
Conclusions SD-OCT is useful for evaluating the development and severity of mouse EAU. The SD-OCT scoring system we developed accurately reflects clinical and histopathological changes. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Harimoto, K., Ito, M., Karasawa, Y., Sakurai, Y., Takeuchi, M. Tags: Retina Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Nestin expression in pterygia: potential role in angiogenesis
Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time the expression of nestin in the pterygium vasculature and indicate that this protein may play a central role in the angiogenic response, which characterises this disease. Targeting nestin pharmacologically could be considered as an alternative or adjuvant therapeutic strategy. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tonthat, C. V., Di Girolamo, N. Tags: Conjunctiva, Ocular surface Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in pterygia may have a predictive value for a higher postoperative recurrence rate
Conclusions The results suggest that VEGF may play a key role through VEGFR-2 in the pathogenesis of pterygium. Moreover, overexpression of VEGFR-2 in pterygia may have a predictive value for a higher postoperative recurrence rate. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gumus, K., Karakucuk, S., Mirza, G. E., Akgun, H., Arda, H., Oner, A. O. Tags: Conjunctiva, Ocular surface Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Rates of referable eye disease in the Scottish National Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme
Conclusions The commonest cause for referral is for suspected macular oedema (maculopathy). Referral rates for retinopathy have stabilised, as predicted, at relatively low rates. However, ophthalmology workload continues to rise as new treatment options (ie, monthly intraocular injections) have unexpectedly increased the impact on ophthalmology. A review of the screening referral path for maculopathy may be timely. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Looker, H. C., Nyangoma, S. O., Cromie, D. T., Olson, J. A., Leese, G. P., Black, M. W., Doig, J., Lee, N., Lindsay, R. S., McKnight, J. A., Morris, A. D., Pearson, D. W. M., Philip, S., Wild, S. H., Colhoun, H. M., on behalf of the Scottish Diabetes Rese Tags: Retina, Open access, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

The course of retinal vasculitis
Conclusions The heterogeneity of retinal vasculitis should be considered in providing prognostic information. Neovascularisation occurs more commonly in occlusive retinal vasculitis, and ERM is diagnosed more frequently in conjunction with cotton wool spots and intraretinal haemorrhage rather than just vascular sheathing. Cigarette use predicts visual loss and patients who are relatively young often receive treatment beyond oral corticosteroids. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ali, A., Ku, J. H., Suhler, E. B., Choi, D., Rosenbaum, J. T. Tags: Public health, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research