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Long-term preservation of donor corneas in glycerol for keratoplasty: exploring new protocols
Conclusions Corneal tissue preserved at –80°C was the best method for preservation as it maintained the sterility, thickness, optical transparency, mechanical strength and ultrastructural features. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tripathi, H., Mehdi, M. U., Gupta, D., Sen, S., Kashyap, S., Nag, T. C., Purwar, M., Jassal, M., Agrawal, A. K., Mohanty, S., Tandon, R. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

KIF11 mutations are a common cause of autosomal dominant familial exudative vitreoretinopathy
Conclusions Identification of mutations in 8.3% patients suggests KIF11 mutations as a common cause of FEVR. Patients with KIF11 mutations showed typical, but variable, signs of FEVR with or without microcephaly, lymphoedema and mental retardation. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hu, H., Xiao, X., Li, S., Jia, X., Guo, X., Zhang, Q. Tags: Public health, Retina, Editor's choice, Neurology Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

TERT promoter mutations in periocular carcinomas: implications of ultraviolet light in pathogenesis
Conclusions We demonstrate that ultraviolet light-signature TERT promoter mutations are very common in periocular BCCs, SCCs and CIN III lesions, indicating important roles of ultraviolet light in the pathogenesis of these tumours. In addition, the mutations are present in in situ stage. By contrast, no TERT promoter mutation is found in PSCs. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lin, S.-Y., Liao, S.-L., Hong, J.-B., Chu, C.-Y., Sheen, Y.-S., Jhuang, J.-Y., Tsai, J.-H., Liau, J.-Y. Tags: Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Corneal inlay implantation complicated by infectious keratitis
Conclusions Infectious keratitis can occur at an early or late stage following corneal inlay implantation. Final visual acuity can be limited by stromal scarring; in the cases where the infiltrate was small and off the visual axis at the time of presentation, the final visual acuity was better than those patients who presented with larger lesions affecting the visual axis. Though infection may necessitate removal of the inlay, early positive response to treatment may enable the inlay to be left in situ. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Duignan, E. S., Farrell, S., Treacy, M. P., Fulcher, T., O'Brien, P., Power, W., Murphy, C. C. Tags: Cornea, Ocular surface, Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Factors influencing 1-year rotational stability of AcrySof Toric intraocular lenses
Conclusions Long AXL is a risk factor for toric IOL rotation, while higher ACO grade may decrease toric IOL rotation, indicating that reducing the polishing of anterior capsule may improve the rotational stability of a toric IOL. Trial registration number NCT02182921. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Zhu, X., He, W., Zhang, K., Lu, Y. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Optic nerve, Pupil, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Comparative evaluation of aspheric toric intraocular lens implantation and limbal relaxing incisions in eyes with cataracts and
Conclusions Both toric IOL implantation and LRI were effective in correcting corneal astigmatism ≤3 D during phacoemulsification, while LRI tended to undercorrect astigmatism. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lam, D. K. T., Chow, V. W. S., Ye, C., Ng, P. K.-F., Wang, Z., Jhanji, V. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Four-year visual outcomes after photorefractive keratectomy in pilots with low-moderate myopia
Conclusions PRK for pilots with low to moderate myopia is safe and effective in the long term. High-altitude environmental stress exposure has no effect on the refractive stability after PRK. Trial registration number ROKAF-ASMC-2015-IRB-002. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Moon, C. H. Tags: Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

The Royal College of Ophthalmologists National Ophthalmology Database Study of vitreoretinal surgery: report 5, anaesthetic techniques
Conclusions LA for VR surgery has steadily increased over the last decade in the UK but marked intercentre variation exists. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sallam, A. A. B., Donachie, P. H. J., Williamson, T. H., Sparrow, J. M., Johnston, R. L. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of intravitreal ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a well defined region of the UK
Conclusions These long-term real-world data demonstrate that in general VA increases during the loading phase but returns to near baseline levels after 2–5 years of treatment for each baseline VA category. Patients should be identified and treated as early as possible, since presenting VA predicts the VA maintained after 5 years of treatment. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guidance advising treatment only for eyes with vision below 70 letters does not promote best long-term VA outcomes for patients. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Buckle, M., Donachie, P. H. J., Johnston, R. L. Tags: Choroid, Eye (globe), Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Measuring the precise area of peripheral retinal non-perfusion using ultra-widefield imaging and its correlation with the ischaemic index
Conclusions Using stereographic projection software, lesion areas on UWF images can be calculated in anatomically correct physical units (mm2). Eyes with RVO show large areas of peripheral retinal non-perfusion. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tan, C. S., Chew, M. C., van Hemert, J., Singer, M. A., Bell, D., Sadda, S. R. Tags: Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

The Diabetes Visual Function Supplement Study (DiVFuSS)
Conclusions This study provides strong evidence of clinically meaningful improvements in visual function, hsCRP and peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes, both with and without retinopathy, and without affecting glycaemic control. Trial registration number www.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01646047 (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chous, A. P., Richer, S. P., Gerson, J. D., Kowluru, R. A. Tags: Retina, Open access, Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Radius of curvature changes in spontaneous improvement of foveoschisis in highly myopic eyes
Conclusions Spontaneous improvement of myopic foveoschisis may be due to changes in tractional forces from the internal limiting membrane, cortical vitreous or staphyloma or, alternatively, from a delayed or fluctuant recovery course after intervention. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hoang, Q. V., Chen, C.-L., Garcia-Arumi, J., Sherwood, P. R., Chang, S. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Retina, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

The prevalence of microcystic macular changes on optical coherence tomography of the macular region in optic nerve atrophy of non-neuritis origin: a prospective study
Conclusions Microcystic macular changes are a frequent observation in patients with optic atrophy of another cause than optic neuritis. The cause of these abnormalities remains a matter of debate. It is important for clinicians to recognise these macular changes and to realise that the cause may lie remotely away from the macula. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Pott, J. W. R., de Vries-Knoppert, W. A. E. J., Petzold, A. Tags: Optic nerve, Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Peripherin mutations cause a distinct form of recessive Leber congenital amaurosis and dominant phenotypes in asymptomatic parents heterozygous for the mutation
Conclusions Bi-allelic PRPH2 mutations cause a distinct Leber congenital amaurosis phenotype in infancy; affected adults have prominent maculopathy. Heterozygous parents can be asymptomatic but have clinically obvious macular phenotypes with or without peripheral retinal findings, which can be helpful in making the genetic diagnosis in affected children. The difference between the heterozygous and homozygous phenotypes is likely related to gene product dosage effect. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Khan, A. O., Al Rashaed, S., Neuhaus, C., Bergmann, C., Bolz, H. J. Tags: Public health, Optic nerve, Vision, Neurology, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Sclerotherapy treatment of orbital lymphatic malformations: a large single-centre experience
Conclusions Sclerotherapy is a safe and highly effective treatment for orbital LMs with excellent VA outcomes. It should be considered as the first-line treatment for this condition. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Barnacle, A. M., Theodorou, M., Maling, S. J., Abou-Rayyah, Y. Tags: Orbit Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Real-time PCR using the 529 bp repeat element for the diagnosis of atypical ocular toxoplasmosis
Conclusions The novel real-time PCR assay described is more sensitive than those targeting the Toxoplasma B1 gene owing to the higher number of repeats and highly conserved sequence level. This technique can be applied in clinical practice and provides a valuable tool for the rapid diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Steeples, L. R., Guiver, M., Jones, N. P. Tags: Choroid, Eye (globe), Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Influence of drug therapy on the risk of recurrence of ocular toxoplasmosis
Conclusions Although our study shows that drug therapy seems to influence the risk of recurrence of OT, there is no consensus regarding the choice of antiparasitic agents for treatment regimens in the catchment area of the Interdisciplinary Uveitis Center, University of Heidelberg. Survey results provide useful information for treating physicians and for clinical investigators interested in therapy. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Reich, M., Becker, M. D., Mackensen, F. Tags: Eye (globe) Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Clinical features, microbiological profile and treatment outcome of patients with Corynebacterium endophthalmitis: review of a decade from a tertiary eye care centre in southern India
Conclusions The prevalence of corynebacterial endophthalmitis is low. The organisms are susceptible to vancomycin, and early appropriate treatment results in favourable outcome. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Joseph, J., Nirmalkar, K., Mathai, A., Sharma, S. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Choroid, Eye (globe) Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Invasive fungal disease of the sinus and orbit: a comparison between mucormycosis and Aspergillus
Conclusions Patients with orbital fungal infections are more likely to be infected with mucormycosis compared with Aspergillus and have a higher mortality compared with infections sparing the orbit. History of transplant portends a dismal prognosis in orbital infections. Invasive fungal disease should be considered in any immunocompromised patient presenting with a new cranial neuropathy or ocular motility abnormality. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Trief, D., Gray, S. T., Jakobiec, F. A., Durand, M. L., Fay, A., Freitag, S. K., Lee, N. G., Lefebvre, D. R., Holbrook, E., Bleier, B., Sadow, P., Rashid, A., Chhabra, N., Yoon, M. K. Tags: Eye (globe), Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Location of the inferior oblique muscle origin with reference to the lacrimal caruncle and its significance in oculofacial surgery
Conclusions The lacrimal caruncle is easily identifiable and a reliable external landmark for prediction of the IOM origin. The IOM origin is located approximately where the vertical line through the apex of the lacrimal caruncle intersects the inferior orbital rim. The findings of this anatomical study of the exact location of the IOM origin can help to improve the safety of oculofacial surgery. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shin, H. J., Shin, K.-J., Lee, S.-H., Koh, K.-S., Song, W.-C., Gil, Y.-C. Tags: Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Clinical presentation and survival of retinoblastoma in Indian children
Conclusions Delayed presentation is a matter of concern. Improving awareness about the early signs and creating facilities for diagnosing and treating RB at the primary and secondary levels of healthcare are required to reduce mortality and morbidity, and lead to improved outcomes that are comparable with the developed nations. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chawla, B., Hasan, F., Azad, R., Seth, R., Upadhyay, A. D., Pathy, S., Pandey, R. Tags: Paediatrics, Public health, Orbit, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Changing trends over the last decade in the aetiology of childhood blindness: a study from a tertiary referral centre
Conclusions The prevalence of CVI was found to be relatively increased due to the significant reduction in the frequency of preventable causes of SVI. Furthermore our clinical practice for visual rehabilitation in aphakia has resulted in a considerable decrease in SVI in the last decade. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ozturk, T., Er, D., Yaman, A., Berk, A. T. Tags: Lens and zonules, Retina, Vision, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Assessing interventions to increase compliance to patching treatment in children with amblyopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions Interventions to increase patching compliance should include educational elements. High quality research is needed to further assess the effectiveness of specific elements of educational interventions and additional behaviour change techniques. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Dean, S. E., Povey, R. C., Reeves, J. Tags: Vision, Neurology, Epidemiology Review Source Type: research

Surrogate scleral rim with fibrin glue: a novel technique to expand the pool of donor tissues for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty
Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty is being performed in increasing number of cases each year. An adequate scleral rim on all sides is mandatory for the donor cornea to be mounted on the artificial anterior chamber for microkeratome-assisted dissection. Occasionally, the scleral rim may however be inadequate. The primary cause of inadequate scleral rim is poorly trained technicians in in-situ excision technique. Hence, we devised a novel technique for performing successful microkeratome-assisted dissection in donor corneas with inadequate scleral rim. A surrogate scleral rim was obtained from the donor t...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sharma, N., Arora, T., Kaur, M., Titiyal, J. S., Agarwal, T. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures Innovations Source Type: research

Systematic screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Hong Kong: prevalence of DR and visual impairment among diabetic population
Conclusions DR was prevalent in this population and one in 10 had STDR. This suggests the need for systematic screening to ensure timely referral to an ophthalmologist for monitoring and/or treatment. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lian, J. X., Gangwani, R. A., McGhee, S. M., Chan, C. K. W., Lam, C. L. K., Primary Health Care Group,, Wong, D. S. H., Wong, Wong, Chu, Tsui, Kwong, Li, Chao, Chan, Lai, Yiu, Luk, Fu, Hui, Liang, Chan Tags: Public health, Retina, Epidemiology Global issues Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
Berk et al (see page 166) The frequency of significant visual impairment was found to be 5.9% in patients attending a paediatric ophthalmology and strabismus tertiary referral unit. Cerebral visual cortex, retina, crystalline lens and optic nerve were the most frequently involved anatomic sites for childhood blindness. Chawla et al (see page 172) In a retrospective review of 600 children in India newly diagnosed with retinoblastoma, delayed presentation was a major concern, with a survival probability of 83% and 65% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Extra-ocular invasion was predictive of poor survival. Gil et al (see page 1...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Barton, K., Chodosh, J., Jonas, J. Tags: At a glance Source Type: research

Retraction notice
This article is being retracted as a result of: (1) Overwhelming evidence of fabrication, related to the fact that the distributions of many variables reported by Dr Fujii in these studies could not have occurred by chance;1 2 and (2) The inability of Dr Fujii’s institutions to attest to the integrity of the study and/or its data conducted under their auspices, as set out in the Joint Editors-in-Chief Request for Determination of April 9, 2012.3 (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease: review and update on molecular mechanisms
Orbital changes in thyroid orbitopathy (TO) result from de novo adipogenesis, hyaluronan synthesis, interstitial oedema and enlargement of extraocular muscles. Cellular immunity, with predominantly CD4+ T cells expressing Th1 cytokines, and overexpression of macrophage-derived cytokines, perpetuate orbital inflammation. Orbital fibroblasts appear to be the major effector cells. Orbital fibroblasts express both thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) at higher levels than normal fibroblasts. TSHR expression increases in adipogenesis; TSHR agonism enhances hyaluronan production. IGF-1R ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Khong, J. J., McNab, A. A., Ebeling, P. R., Craig, J. E., Selva, D. Tags: Public health Review Source Type: research

Ocular manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can involve many parts of the eye, including the eyelid, ocular adnexa, sclera, cornea, uvea, retina and optic nerve. Ocular manifestations of SLE are common and may lead to permanent blindness from the underlying disease or therapeutic side effects. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common manifestation. However, vision loss may result from involvement of the retina, choroid and optic nerve. Ocular symptoms are correlated to systemic disease activity and can present as an initial manifestation of SLE. The established treatment includes prompt systemic corticosteroids, steroid-sparin...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Silpa-archa, S., Lee, J. J., Foster, C. S. Tags: Conjunctiva, Cornea, Eye (globe), Lacrimal gland, Ocular surface, Tears, Vision, Neurology, Epidemiology Review Source Type: research

Ocular neuropathic pain
As the biological alarm of impending or actual tissue damage, pain is essential for our survival. However, when it is initiated and/or sustained by dysfunctional elements in the nociceptive system, it is itself a disease known as neuropathic pain. While the critical nociceptive system provides a number of protective functions, it is unique in its central role of monitoring, preserving and restoring the optical tear film in the face of evaporative attrition without which our vision would be non-functional. Meeting this existential need resulted in the evolution of the highly complex, powerful and sensitive dry eye alarm sys...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rosenthal, P., Borsook, D. Tags: Open access, Neurology Review Source Type: research

Current therapeutic developments in atrophic age-related macular degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder of the central retina, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of the advanced form of dry AMD, also named geographic atrophy (GA) or atrophic AMD, remains unclear. Consequently, no cure is available for dry AMD or GA. The only prevention option currently available is the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation, which has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of dry AMD. This review summarises recent advances in therapy for dry AMD and GA. Building on the new understanding of the disease and re...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hanus, J., Zhao, F., Wang, S. Tags: Public health, Retina, Vision, Editor's choice, Neurology, Epidemiology Review Source Type: research

The cone dysfunction syndromes
We describe the clinical, psychophysical, electrophysiological and imaging findings that are characteristic to each condition in order to aid their accurate diagnosis, as well as highlight some classically held notions about these diseases that have come to be challenged over the recent years. The latest data regarding the genetic aetiology and pathological changes observed in the cone dysfunction syndromes are discussed, and, where relevant, translational avenues of research, including completed and anticipated interventional clinical trials, for some of the diseases described herein will be presented. Finally, we briefly...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Aboshiha, J., Dubis, A. M., Carroll, J., Hardcastle, A. J., Michaelides, M. Tags: Vision, Open access, Neurology Review Source Type: research

Extending the diabetic retinopathy screening interval beyond 1 year: systematic review
To determine whether the recommended screening interval for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the UK can safely be extended beyond 1 year. Systematic review of clinical and cost-effectiveness studies. Nine databases were searched with no date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, prognostic or economic modelling studies which described the incidence and progression of DR in populations with type 1 diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes mellitus of either sex and of any age reporting incidence and progression of DR in relation to screening interval (vs annual screening interval) and/or prognostic ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Taylor-Phillips, S., Mistry, H., Leslie, R., Todkill, D., Tsertsvadze, A., Connock, M., Clarke, A. Tags: Retina, Open access, Epidemiology Review Source Type: research

Optic neuropathy in methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia
Conclusions Our study suggests that ON is under-reported in patients with MMA and PA. Clinical presentation can be acute or insidious, and episodes of acute metabolic decompensation appear to trigger visual loss. Photoreceptor involvement may coexist. Active clinical surveillance of affected patients is important as comorbidities and cognitive impairment may delay diagnosis. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Martinez Alvarez, L., Jameson, E., Parry, N. R. A., Lloyd, C., Ashworth, J. L. Tags: Optic nerve, Neurology Review Source Type: research

Developments in laser trabeculoplasty
Laser trabeculoplasty has an increasing important role in the management of glaucoma as more emphasis is placed on minimally invasive therapies. In recent years, the following laser trabeculoplasty technologies have been introduced: micropulse laser trabeculoplasty, titanium-sapphire laser trabeculoplasty and pattern scanning trabeculoplasty. These lasers help to reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the burden of glaucoma medical therapy. Literature findings regarding the safety and efficacy of these newer forms of laser trabeculoplasty in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma is summarised. These relatively newer proc...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tsang, S., Cheng, J., Lee, J. W. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma Review Source Type: research

Global variations and time trends in the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG): a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review of published population based surveys to examine the relationship between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) prevalence and demographic factors. A literature search identified population-based studies with quantitative estimates of POAG prevalence (to October 2014). Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log-odds of POAG was used to examine the effect of age and gender among populations of different geographical and ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. Eighty-one studies were included (37 countries, 216 214 participants, 5266 POAG cases). Black populations showed highest POAG preva...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kapetanakis, V. V., Chan, M. P. Y., Foster, P. J., Cook, D. G., Owen, C. G., Rudnicka, A. R. Tags: Public health, Angle, Intraocular pressure, Open access, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Review Source Type: research

Glaucoma in Asia: regional prevalence variations and future projections
Conclusions Across the Asian subregions, there was greater glaucoma burden in South-Central and East Asia. Sustainable public health strategies to combat glaucoma in Asia are needed. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chan, E. W., Li, X., Tham, Y.-C., Liao, J., Wong, T. Y., Aung, T., Cheng, C.-Y. Tags: Public health, Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Review Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure and the eye
Cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) interacts with intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure to exert a major influence upon the eye, particularly the optic nerve head region. There is increased interest regarding the influence of CSFP upon disorders affecting this region, in particular glaucoma and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Additionally, a high proportion of astronauts develop features similar to idiopathic intracranial hypertension that persist for years after returning to Earth. The factors that affect the CSFP influence upon the optic nerve and globe are likely to influence the outcome of various ophtha...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Morgan, W. H., Balaratnasingam, C., Lind, C. R. P., Colley, S., Kang, M. H., House, P. H., Yu, D.-Y. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Neurology, Glaucoma Review Source Type: research

A review of the surgical options for the correction of presbyopia
This article is a review of the options available and those that are in development stages and are likely to be available in the near future for the surgical correction of presbyopia. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gil-Cazorla, R., Shah, S., Naroo, S. A. Tags: Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Review Source Type: research

Persistent dilemmas in zoster eye disease
Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) is a common, vision and potentially life-threatening disease caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in the distribution of the first division of cranial nerve V. Although the rate of herpes zoster increases with age, over half of the people with zoster in general, including HZO, are under age 60. In addition, over 90% of people with zoster are immunocompetent, even though the disease is more common and severe in immunocompromised patients. The incidence of zoster is increasing worldwide for unknown reasons. The epidemiology has not yet been impacted by the zoster vac...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Cohen, E. J., Kessler, J. Tags: Eye (globe), Neurology, Epidemiology Review Source Type: research

In vivo confocal microscopic corneal images in health and disease with an emphasis on extracting features and visual signatures for corneal diseases: a review study
There is an evolution in the demands of modern ophthalmology from descriptive findings to assessment of cellular-level changes by using in vivo confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy, by producing greyscale images, enables a microstructural insight into the in vivo cornea in both health and disease, including epithelial changes, stromal degenerative or dystrophic diseases, endothelial pathologies and corneal deposits and infections. Ophthalmologists use acquired confocal corneal images to identify health and disease states and then to diagnose which type of disease is affecting the cornea. This paper presents the main fe...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Alzubaidi, R., Sharif, M. S., Qahwaji, R., Ipson, S., Brahma, A. Tags: Cornea, Ocular surface Review Source Type: research

Management of advanced corneal ectasias
Corneal ectasias include a group of disorders characterised by progressive thinning, bulging and distortion of the cornea. Keratoconus is the most common disease in this group. Other manifestations include pellucid marginal degeneration, Terrien's marginal degeneration, keratoglobus and ectasias following surgery. Advanced ectasias usually present with loss of vision due to high irregular astigmatism. Management of these disorders is difficult due to the peripheral location of ectasia and associated severe corneal thinning. Newer contact lenses such as scleral lenses are helpful in a selected group of patients. A majority ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Maharana, P. K., Dubey, A., Jhanji, V., Sharma, N., Das, S., Vajpayee, R. B. Tags: Cornea, Ocular surface, Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Review Source Type: research

Corneal wound healing after laser vision correction
Any trauma can trigger a cascade of responses in tissues, with the purpose of safeguarding the integrity of the organ affected by the trauma and of preventing possible damage to nearby organs. Subsequently, the body tries to restore the function of the organ affected. The introduction of the excimer laser for keratorefractive surgery has changed the treatment landscape for correcting refractive errors, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. In recent years, with the increased understanding of the basic science of refractive errors, higher-order aberrations, biomechanics, and the biology of corneal wound healing, a red...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Spadea, L., Giammaria, D., Trabucco, P. Tags: Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Review Source Type: research

Blood-derived topical therapy for ocular surface diseases
Human serum-derived and plasma-derived therapies have become increasingly popular in the treatment of ocular surface disorders, with mounting clinical and scientific evidence suggesting good safety and efficacy profiles. These therapies may be considered for various ocular surface conditions, such as dry eye syndrome and persistent epithelial defect, when conservative management does not suffice. The costly and inconvenient process of obtaining the blood-derived products is the barrier to their more widespread use. Some blood-derived therapies, such as umbilical cord serum-derived and platelet-derived plasma preparations, ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Soni, N. G., Jeng, B. H. Tags: Lacrimal gland, Tears Review Source Type: research

Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty
(DMEK) allows for selective replacement of damaged endothelial cells, using only donor Descemet's membrane with endothelium. However, early adoption by corneal surgeons has been limited (illustrated by graft registry reports: 0.7% all corneal transplants in the USA; 0.4% in Australia for 2011) due to challenges in donor preparation and surgical technique. Recently, innovative donor preparation techniques may improve availability of pre-stripped DMEK donors from eye banks. The refinement of donor insertion and manipulation techniques has also improved outcomes and reduced graft detachment rates—still, the most common...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ang, M., Wilkins, M. R., Mehta, J. S., Tan, D. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures Review Source Type: research

Corneal confocal microscopy for assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a meta-analysis
Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that CCM may be valuable for detecting and assessing early nerve damage in DPN patients. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jiang, M.-S., Yuan, Y., Gu, Z.-X., Zhuang, S.-L. Tags: Neurology Review Source Type: research

Cornea verticillata supports a diagnosis of Fabry disease in non-classical phenotypes: results from the Dutch cohort and a systematic review
Conclusions CV is related to classical or biopsy-proven non-classical FD, with a very high sensitivity in classical men. Thus, presence of CV in an individual with an uncertain diagnosis of FD indicates a pathogenic GLA variant, in the absence of medication that may induce CV; if CV is absent, FD cannot be excluded. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: van der Tol, L., Sminia, M. L., Hollak, C. E. M., Biegstraaten, M. Tags: Epidemiology Review Source Type: research

Progress in the past century and future of eye care
Since the first issue of British Journal of Ophthalmology a century ago, the progress in controlling blindness and visual impairment globally has been impressive. Transformative outcomes of eye research, innovative ways of eye care delivery, rapid dissemination of knowledge (in which BJO has played a major role) and the true spirit of partnership have made this possible. While the initial benefits were largely limited to the population of more advanced economies, in the past two to three decades, increasingly visible impact is made in the low/middle-income countries. The pace is now accelerating and the coverage more wides...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rao, G. N. Tags: Paediatrics, Public health, Angle, Conjunctiva, Cornea, Eye (globe), Intraocular pressure, Lens and zonules, Ocular surface, Optic nerve, Retina, Vision, Neurology, Glaucoma, Optics and refraction Editorials Source Type: research

Congratulations to the British Journal of Ophthalmology
The numbers of consistently first rate journals that survive for a century are few. The numbers of century survivors who have a true international perspective, editorial board and contributing authors are fewer still when they reach 100 years of publication. Such is the British Journal of Ophthalmology. This journal is long recognised for its editorial integrity, its international leadership and contributors, and its wide-ranging content of the full scope of ophthalmology. I congratulate the editors, the contributors, the staff and all the predecessors who have made this an outstanding contributor to ophthalmic educat...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Spivey, B. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Congratulations on one hundred years of ophthalmic publishing
It is a particular pleasure professionally and personally to be able to congratulate the British Journal of Ophthalmology on successfully reaching its 100 year anniversary. What a wonderful achievement. I first learnt about the Journal nearly 50 years ago at the very start of my career in ophthalmology. While the BMJ was called the BMJ, the BJO was The British Journal. I remember with great pride in 1977 when my first paper was published in the BJO. It was also with great pleasure that I served on the Editorial Board for some years in the late 1990s. The longevity and consistent high quality of the journal is qui...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - December 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Taylor, H. R. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research