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Increased choroidal mast cells and their degranulation in age-related macular degeneration
Conclusion Increased MC numbers and degranulation were observed in all AMD choroids. These results suggest that MC degranulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD: death of CC and retinal pigment epithelial and CNV formation. The proteolytic enzymes released from MC granules may result in thinning of AMD choroid. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bhutto, I. A., McLeod, D. S., Jing, T., Sunness, J. S., Seddon, J. M., Lutty, G. A. Tags: Choroid, Retina Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

CFH Y402H polymorphism and the complement activation product C5a: effects on NF-{kappa}B activation and inflammasome gene regulation
Conclusion The at-risk polymorphism of the CFH Y402H may contribute to AMD disease process through increased complement and NF-B activation, and the upregulation of IL-18, a product of inflammasome activation. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Cao, S., Wang, J. C. C., Gao, J., Wong, M., To, E., White, V. A., Cui, J. Z., Matsubara, J. A. Tags: Retina Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Does the presence of QAC genes in staphylococci affect the efficacy of disinfecting solutions used by orthokeratology lens wearers?
Conclusion The efficacy of MPS solutions for RGP lenses against staphylococci varied. The presence of disinfectant-resistance genes significantly adversely affected disinfecting capacity of RGP solutions. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shi, G.-s., Boost, M. V., Cho, P. Tags: Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Optic neuropathy in late-onset neurodegenerative Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Conclusions This report expands the ophthalmological phenotype of the late-onset neurodegenerative form of CHS to include optic neuropathy with progressive vision loss, even in the absence of ocular albinism, and abnormal prominence of the interdigitation zone between cone outer segment tips and apical processes of retinal pigment epithelium cells on macular OCT. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Desai, N., Weisfeld-Adams, J. D., Brodie, S. E., Cho, C., Curcio, C. A., Lublin, F., Rucker, J. C. Tags: Eye (globe), Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Comparison of rates of retinal nerve fibre layer thinning between patients with non-myopic and myopic glaucoma
Conclusion Overall rate of RNFL thinning was not different among the glaucoma subgroups based on refractive error. However, sectoral RNFL thinning showed significant difference. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lee, J. Y., Sung, K. R., Yun, S.-C. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Optic nerve, Glaucoma, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Re-accumulation of macular pigment after successful macular hole surgery
Conclusions Revisualisation of macular pigment after successful macular hole surgery is not associated with improved visual acuity and may merely be an accompanying sign of the reapposition of the edges of the hole. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bottoni, F., Zanzottera, E., Carini, E., Cereda, M., Cigada, M., Staurenghi, G. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Deferral of surgery for epiretinal membranes: Is it safe? Results of a randomised controlled trial
Conclusions Vitrectomy for early symptomatic ERM is beneficial in preserving excellent vision. A watchful waiting approach with 1 year of follow-up is safe in the sense that this group does not lose five ETDRS letters in waiting. Deferral of surgery by regular monitoring of patients is a safe approach. Trial registration numbers H-C-2008-026 and NCT00902629. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kofod, M., Christensen, U. C., la Cour, M. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Choroid, Eye (globe), Retina, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Individualised risk assessment for diabetic retinopathy and optimisation of screening intervals: a scientific approach to reducing healthcare costs
Conclusions The algorithm reliably identifies patients at high risk of developing advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, including preproliferative R2, active proliferative R3A and maculopathy M1. Majority of patients have less than 5% risk of progression between stages within a year and a small high-risk group is identified. Screening visit frequency and presumably costs in a diabetic retinopathy screening system can be reduced by 40% by using a 2 year ceiling. Individualised risk assessment with 2 year ceiling on screening intervals may be a pragmatic next step in diabetic retinopathy screening in UK, in that...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lund, S. H., Aspelund, T., Kirby, P., Russell, G., Einarsson, S., Palsson, O., Stefansson, E. Tags: Public health, Retina, Open access, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Choroidal maps in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration
Conclusions CMs appeared thinner in early non-exudative AMD with intermediate distribution of reticular pseudodrusen versus control subjects and early non-exudative AMD with drusen alone. Same results were found in the group with variable combination of large soft drusen and reticular pseudodrusen. In GA eyes, a choroidal thinning could be detected independently of the retinal pigmented epithelium status. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Capuano, V., Souied, E. H., Miere, A., Jung, C., Costanzo, E., Querques, G. Tags: Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Reproducibility and repeatability of foveal avascular zone measurements in healthy subjects by optical coherence tomography angiography
Conclusions FAZ area measurements by means of OCT-A showed excellent reproducibility and repeatability in healthy eyes. OCT-A is a non-invasive diagnostic method, and its reliability makes it an interesting potential diagnostic tool for disease detection and follow-up in retinal pathologies involving foveal microcirculation. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Carpineto, P., Mastropasqua, R., Marchini, G., Toto, L., Di Nicola, M., Di Antonio, L. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Management of choroidal naevomelanocytic lesions: feasibility and safety of a virtual clinic model
Conclusions In this pilot study, a streamlined, dedicated, virtual service for rapid assessment (within 2 weeks of referral) of choroidal naevomelanocytic lesions was shown to be feasible and safe. Such a model of service delivery may prove cost-efficient while optimising patient experience. Further prospective studies are required for formal validation of the proposed service model. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Balaskas, K., Gray, J., Blows, P., Rajai, A., Flaye, D., Peto, T., Sagoo, M. S. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Suspected vitreous seeding of uveal melanoma: relevance of diagnostic vitrectomy
Conclusion The outcome of this small cohort study shows that obtaining a vitreous specimen helps to distinguish melanophages from vital tumour cells. We could not observe an increased risk of metastasis in patients who showed melanoma cell dissemination inside the eye, compared with those patients only showing melanophages. We therefore suggest to carefully re-evaluate the necessity of enucleation in every patient. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Metz, C. H. D., Bornfeld, N., Metz, K. A., Gök, M. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Eye (globe), Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Topographical relationship between the choroidal watershed zone and submacular idiopathic choroidal neovascularisation
Conclusions The findings of a CWZ were related to the location and functional outcome of idiopathic CNV. Our results suggest that choroidal circulation is a predisposing factor for the development of CNV in young patients. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lee, J. E., Shin, M. K., Chung, I. Y., Lee, J. E., Kim, H. W., Lee, S. J., Park, S. W., Byon, I. S. Tags: Choroid, Editor's choice Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Graded vertical rectus tenotomy for small-angle cyclovertical strabismus in sagging eye syndrome
Conclusion GVRT precisely corrects hypertropia of up to 10, but because of variable effect, it should be performed with intraoperative monitoring under topical anaesthesia. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chaudhuri, Z., Demer, J. L. Tags: Muscles, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Intraorbital corticosteroid injection for the treatment of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease
Conclusions Intraorbital injection of corticosteroid may be a useful treatment option for IgG4-ROD. It may have a role as a first-line therapy in selected cases of IgG4-ROD centred in the anterior orbit. However, most cases require repeat injections due to incomplete response and relapse. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Andrew, N. H., Gajdatsy, A., Selva, D. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Scleral fixation of intraocular lenses using Gore-Tex suture: clinical outcomes and safety profile
Conclusions Ab externo scleral fixation of IOLs with Gore-Tex suture was well tolerated in all cases. No suture-related complications were encountered. This procedure led to improvement in visual acuity and was not associated with significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Khan, M. A., Gupta, O. P., Smith, R. G., Ayres, B. D., Raber, I. M., Bailey, R. S., Hsu, J., Spirn, M. J. Tags: Angle, Anterior chamber, Choroid, Eye (globe), Intraocular pressure, Retina, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Effect of the pigment-free optical zone diameter of decorative tinted soft contact lenses on visual function
Conclusion Decorative tinted contact lenses significantly increased ocular aberrations and decreased optical quality and contrast sensitivity, as the pigment-free optical zone diameter decreased. Therefore, consumers of tinted lenses should be informed about the possible disturbance in visual function. Trial registration number NCT02537275. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jung, J. W., Kim, S. M., Han, S. H., Kim, E. K., Seo, K. Y., Kim, T.-i. Tags: Optic nerve, Neurology, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Fifteen years follow-up of photorefractive keratectomy up to 10 D of myopia: outcomes and analysis of the refractive regression
Conclusions Photorefractive keratectomy is a safe refractive procedure in the long term within the range of myopia currently considered suitable for its use, although its efficacy decreases with time, especially, in high myopia. The model developed predicts a myopic regression of 2.00 D at 15 years for an ablation depth of 130 µm. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Alio, J. L., Soria, F. A., Abbouda, A., Pena-Garcia, P. Tags: Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Factors influencing big-bubble formation during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in keratoconus
Conclusions The rate of successful big-bubble formation was 79.2% in keratoconus. Among the different factors, recipient sex and trephination size significantly influenced this rate. Females had a lower probability of big-bubble formation, and a large trephination size was associated with an increase in the probability of achieving a bare DM. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Feizi, S., Javadi, M. A., Daryabari, S.-H. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Conjunctiva, Cornea, Ocular surface Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

En face optical coherence tomography angiography for corneal neovascularisation
Conclusions In this preliminary clinical study, we describe a method for acquiring angiography images with ‘en face’ views, using an OCTA system adapted for the evaluation of corneal neovascularisation. Further studies are required to compare the scans to other invasive angiography techniques for the quantitative evaluation of abnormal corneal vessels. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ang, M., Cai, Y., Shahipasand, S., Sim, D. A., Keane, P. A., Sng, C. C. A., Egan, C. A., Tufail, A., Wilkins, M. R. Tags: Cornea, Ocular surface, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Use of the Delphi process in paediatric cataract management
Conclusions Those questions where consensus was not reached highlight areas of either poor evidence or contradicting evidence, and may help investigators identify possible research questions. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Serafino, M., Trivedi, R. H., Levin, A. V., Wilson, M. E., Nucci, P., Lambert, S. R., Nischal, K. K., Plager, D. A., Bremond-Gignac, D., Kekunnaya, R., Nishina, S., Tehrani, N. N., Ventura, M. C. Tags: Lens and zonules Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Impression membrane for the diagnosis of microbial keratitis
Conclusions In this study, the isolation of microorganisms from cases of suspected microbial keratitis was significantly higher using a CIM than a surgical blade. A CIM may be a useful alternative or addition for sample collection in microbial keratitis. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kaye, S., Sueke, H., Romano, V., Chen, J. Y., Carnt, N., Tuft, S., Neal, T. Tags: Cornea, Ocular surface Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Histological features of Cytomegalovirus-related corneal graft infections, its associated features and clinical significance
Conclusion CMV infection is not limited as endotheliitis, but extends into the corneal stroma, and is a potential reservoir for graft infection, especially in partial thickness endothelial surgery. Clinical features are often non-specific, although glaucoma was present in our patients. CMV-infected grafts showed CD163-positive M2 macrophages in close association with the infected keratocytes, suggesting that the macrophage may be important in CMV graft infection. Histological examination with CMV IHC is a useful method to detect CMV infection postoperatively. Post penetrating keratoplasty, CMV systemic treatment with valga...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chan, A. S., Mehta, J. S., Al Jajeh, I., Iqbal, J., Anshu, A., Tan, D. T. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Review and meta-analysis of ab-interno trabeculectomy outcomes
We analysed all of the PubMed publications on ab-interno trabeculectomy (AIT) with the Trabectome (Neomedix, Irvine, California, USA) to determine the reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications following the procedure. For IOP outcomes, PubMed was searched for ‘trabectome’, ‘ab interno trabeculotomy’ and ‘ab interno trabeculectomy’ and all available papers retrieved. The meta-analysis used a random-effects model to achieve conservative estimates and assess statistical heterogeneity. To investigate complications, we included all abstracts from the American Glaucoma Society, A...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kaplowitz, K., Bussel, I. I., Honkanen, R., Schuman, J. S., Loewen, N. A. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Angle, Intraocular pressure, Lens and zonules, Glaucoma Review Source Type: research

Population-based assessment of vision-related quality of life in corneal disease: results from the CORE study
Conclusions VR-QoL is impaired in patients with corneal disease, more so in patients with corneal blindness. This is the first population-based study to document VR-QoL through IND-VFQ-33 in the Indian population with corneal disease. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Vashist, P., Gupta, N., Tandon, R., Gupta, S. K., Dwivedi, S., Mani, K. Tags: Cornea, Ocular surface, Vision, Neurology, Epidemiology Global issues Source Type: research

Medial transposition of split lateral rectus augmented with fixation sutures in cases of complete third nerve palsy
We describe a modification of the existing technique of medial transposition of the split lateral rectus by force augmentation through the use of equatorial fixation sutures resulting in an improved outcome in primary gaze alignment. The modified technique involves splitting of the lateral rectus into two halves followed by transposing the superior half from below the superior oblique and superior rectus and inferior half from below the inferior oblique and inferior rectus to attach them at the superior and inferior edge of the medial rectus insertion, respectively. This is followed by placing non-absorbable sutures to fix...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Saxena, R., Sharma, M., Singh, D., Dhiman, R., Sharma, P. Tags: Muscles, Neurology Innovations Source Type: research

Eye hazards of laser 'pointers in perspective
Eight years ago media coverage of incidents involving laser pointers in which individuals claimed to have suffered eye damage resulted in a perspective being published in this journal.1 The final sentence concluded ‘laser pointers, pens or key rings if used appropriately are not an eye hazard, and even if used inappropriately will not cause permanent eye damage’. This statement has been supported by the finding that until recently no irreversible eye injuries had been reported for a period of almost 15 years other than those caused by deliberate and prolonged viewing of laser beams.2 During this time perio...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Marshall, J., O'Hagan, J. B., Tyrer, J. R. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Vision, Neurology, Glaucoma Editorials Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
Tan et al (see page 601) Cytomegalovirus related corneal graft infections can result in recurrent graft failures. The histology of these infected grafts showed stromal viral cytopathic changes that may serve as a reservoir for reinfection. Kaye et al (see page 607) A corneal impression membrane was found to provide a good alternative or addition to the use of sharp instruments for collection of samples from cases of suspected microbial keratitis, leading to an increased isolation rate. Levin et al (see page 611) Through the Delphi process, we identified areas of consensus and non-consensus between 16 paediatric cataract su...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Barton, K., Chodosh, J., Jonas, J. Tags: At a glance Source Type: research

Anterior chamber interleukin 1{beta}, interleukin 6 and prostaglandin E2 in patients undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery
Conclusions Inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 significantly increased after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, which maybe the cause of intraoperative miosis seen in these patients. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wang, L., Zhang, Z., Koch, D. D., Jia, Y., Cao, W., Zhang, S. Tags: Lens and zonules, Pupil, Neurology Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Global cell-by-cell evaluation of endothelial viability after two methods of graft preparation in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty
Conclusions Eye bank estimations of central endothelial cell density overestimate true cell density after graft preparation in DMEK. A peel method is less damaging and more consistent than a liquid bubble method. Cell loss correlated strongly with the degree of stromal hydration prior to bubble separation in the liquid bubble group. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bhogal, M., Balda, M. S., Matter, K., Allan, B. D. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Open access Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

Apparent accommodation in pseudophakic eyes with refractive against-the-rule, with-the-rule and minimum astigmatism
Conclusion There was no significant difference in the average amount of apparent accommodation in pseudophakic eyes with refractive ATR, WTR and minimum astigmatism. However, the factors relevant to apparent accommodation varied depending on the status of postoperative refractive astigmatism. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Yamamoto, T., Hiraoka, T., Oshika, T. Tags: Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Neurology, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Effect of bilateral sequential cataract extraction on intraocular pressure in non-glaucomatous Asian eyes
Conclusions There is sustained decrease in IOP after cataract extraction in non-glaucomatous eyes. This decrease is of greater magnitude in eyes with higher presurgical IOP and is not affected by the type of surgery performed. The effect of IOP decrease after surgery is unilateral and does not affect the fellow eye. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ngo, W. K., Tan, C. S. H. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Lens and zonules Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Vector analysis of astigmatic correction after small-incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond-assisted LASIK for low to moderate myopic astigmatism
Conclusions Our results showed that SMILE offered a less favourable astigmatic correction comparable to femtosecond-assisted LASIK in eyes with low to moderate myopic astigmatism. The alignment of treatment was more variable in SMILE, leading to a lower efficacy compared with LASIK by 3 months postoperatively. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chan, T. C. Y., Ng, A. L. K., Cheng, G. P. M., Wang, Z., Ye, C., Woo, V. C. P., Tham, C. C. Y., Jhanji, V. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Optic nerve, Optics and refraction Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Protective effect of soft contact lenses after Boston keratoprosthesis
Conclusions Presence of a contact lens after Boston keratoprosthesis implantation decreases the risk of postoperative complications; this has been clinically experienced by ophthalmologists, but never before has the benefit of contact lens use in this patient population been statistically documented. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kammerdiener, L. L., Speiser, J. L., Aquavella, J. V., Harissi-Dagher, M., Dohlman, C. H., Chodosh, J., Ciolino, J. B. Tags: Eye (globe), Iris Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Anterior segment morphology after acute primary angle closure treatment: a randomised study comparing iridoplasty and medical therapy
Conclusions We observed a greater increase in angle width after ALPI compared with after medical treatment in eyes with APAC. Treatment modality and pretreatment I-Curv were the most significant predictors of angle width change after treatment. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sng, C. C. A., Aquino, M. C. D., Liao, J., Zheng, C., Ang, M., Chew, P. T. K. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Postural and diurnal fluctuations in intraocular pressure across the spectrum of glaucoma
Conclusions The significantly higher supine IOP is frequently missed in routine glaucoma practice. An early morning supine IOP measurement may reveal a peak IOP hitherto not picked up during routine office IOP measurements, and may be a useful measurement in unexplained progressive glaucoma. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gautam, N., Kaur, S., Kaushik, S., Raj, S., Pandav, S. S. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Influence of disc-fovea angle and retinal blood vessels on interindividual variability of circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer
Conclusions Although reaching an improvement in some sectors, rotation of RNFL measurements according to the DFA on average does not reduce intersubject variability of RNFL. However, adjusting for RVD reduced the variance significantly. The results reinforce our work in assessing RVD as an important anatomical factor responsible for intersubject variability in RNFL measurements. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Resch, H., Pereira, I., Hienert, J., Weber, S., Holzer, S., Kiss, B., Fischer, G., Vass, C. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Fronto-orbital mucocele and orbital involvement in occult obstructive frontal sinus disease
Conclusions We present a large series of patients with occult sinus disease presenting with orbital involvement. As patients with this potentially life-threatening condition are often misdiagnosed, we hope this paper draws the ophthalmologist's attention to key pearls in the history and examination to make a prompt diagnosis. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tailor, R., Obi, E., Burns, J., Sampath, R., Durrani, O. M., Ford, R. Tags: Orbit, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Validation and reliability of the Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children using Rasch analysis in a Turkish population
Conclusions The Turkish version of the CVAQC is a valid, reliable, and unidimensional questionnaire for partially sighted children aged 6–18 years. Trial registration number Ankara University Ethics Committees registry number 06-177-12. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Özen Tunay, Z., Caliskan, D., Öztuna, D., Idil, A. Tags: Public health Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in Eastern China: results from screening of preschool children aged 36-72 months
Conclusions The prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in preschool children in Eastern China were 1.20% and 5.65%, respectively. The refractive and strabismus are the main factors associated with amblyopia. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chen, X., Fu, Z., Yu, J., Ding, H., Bai, J., Chen, J., Gong, Y., Zhu, H., Yu, R., Liu, H. Tags: Public health, Muscles, Vision, Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Risk of optic pathway glioma in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and optic nerve tortuosity or nerve sheath thickening
Conclusions Optic nerve tortuosity at baseline is associated with OPG development among patients with NF-1, but does not predispose to aggressive OPG with associated vision loss. Neither nerve nor sheath thickening at baseline is associated with OPG development. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Levin, M. H., Armstrong, G. T., Broad, J. H., Zimmerman, R., Bilaniuk, L. T., Feygin, T., Li, Y., Liu, G. T., Fisher, M. J. Tags: Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Anatomic and visual function outcomes in paediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Conclusions Clinical observation of high papilledema grade on presentation is predictive of poor visual outcomes. Vision loss is associated not only with optic atrophy but also with photoreceptor damage. Interestingly, a high proportion of study eyes had optic disc drusen, which was not associated with vision loss, but can be a diagnostic challenge in distinguishing true papilledema from pseudopapilledema. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gospe, S. M., Bhatti, M. T., El-Dairi, M. A. Tags: Paediatrics, Optic nerve, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Reduced utility of serum IGF-1 levels in predicting retinopathy of prematurity reflects maternal ethnicity
Conclusions There were significant differences in GA, BW, AWG and IGF-1 at 32 and 33 weeks between those babies with severe ROP and those with minimal ROP. However, there was no threshold level of IGF-1 at a time point between 31 and 33 weeks that can be used to exclude a large proportion of babies from screening. We also found ethnic differences in IGF-1 levels with infants born to black mothers having significantly lower IGF-1 levels at 32 and 33 weeks gestation. The determination of ROP risk using IGF-1 is a race-specific phenomenon. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Reddy, M. A., Patel, H. I., Karim, S. M., Lock, H., Perry, L., Bunce, C., Kempley, S., Sinha, A. K. Tags: Retina, Editor's choice, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

A novel homozygous truncating GNAT1 mutation implicated in retinal degeneration
Conclusion These data suggest that some truncating GNAT1 variants can indeed cause a recessive, mild, late-onset retinal degeneration in human beings rather than just stationary night-blindness as reported previously, with notable similarities to the phenotype of the Gnat1 knockout mouse. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Carrigan, M., Duignan, E., Humphries, P., Palfi, A., Kenna, P. F., Farrar, G. J. Tags: Eye (globe), Retina, Open access Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Radial versus raster spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scan patterns for detection of macular fluid in neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Conclusions The 12-line radial scan is statistically comparable with the 25-line raster scan in detecting the presence of intraretinal/subretinal fluid in neovascular AMD. The 12-line radial SD-OCT pattern alone may be adequate to guide day-to-day clinical decisions in a more time-efficient manner. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Adam, M. K., Rayess, N., Rahimy, E., Maguire, J. I., Hsu, J. Tags: Retina Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

A novel automated segmentation method for retinal layers in OCT images proves retinal degeneration after optic neuritis
Conclusions The algorithm presented here was found to be a valid tool for replacing cumbersome manual segmentation methods in the quantification of inner retinal layers in OCT. The observed increases in thickness of INL and OS-RPE may be attributed to primary retinal inflammation, repair and/or plasticity mechanisms following the immune attack. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Droby, A., Panagoulias, M., Albrecht, P., Reuter, E., Duning, T., Hildebrandt, A., Wiendl, H., Zipp, F., Methner, A. Tags: Optic nerve, Retina, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Pars plana vitrectomy with juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation versus vitrectomy without juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation for the treatment of optic disc pit maculopathy: the results of the KKESH International Collaborative Retina Study Group
Conclusions PPV with JLP for optic disc pit maculopathy had similar functional and anatomic outcomes compared with vitrectomy without JLP. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Abouammoh, M. A., Alsulaiman, S. M., Gupta, V. S., Mousa, A., Hirakata, A., Berrocal, M. H., Chenworth, M., Chhablani, J., Oshima, Y., AlZamil, W. M., Casella, A. M., Papa-Oliva, G., Banker, A. S., Arevalo, J. F., for the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospit Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Vitreous Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Choroidal thickening prior to anterior recurrence in patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease
Conclusions The choroid in eyes with VKH disease thickened in association with the anterior segment recurrence, and this thickening was observed prior to the recurrence. EDI-OCT may be useful for detecting latent choroidal inflammation in VKH disease, whereas it may not for patients with the relatively thin choroid. Trial registration number The trial registration number of the internal review board of Hokkaido University Hospital is 014-0384. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tagawa, Y., Namba, K., Mizuuchi, K., Takemoto, Y., Iwata, D., Uno, T., Fukuhara, T., Hirooka, K., Kitaichi, N., Ohno, S., Ishida, S. Tags: Choroid, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Detection of tumour cells in the bloodstream of patients with uveal melanoma: influence of surgical manipulation on the dissemination of tumour cells in the bloodstream
Conclusion The change in the percentage of patients with detected tumour cells in their bloodstream was not statistically significant. The frequent shifts from negative to positive samples as well as from positive to negative samples comparing preoperative to postoperative samples indicates discontinuous shedding or variation due to measurements close to the threshold of detection. As a conclusion, the surgical manipulation does not seem to have a measurable contribution to the spread of melanoma cells in the bloodstream. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Charitoudis, G., Schuster, R., Joussen, A. M., Keilholz, U., Bechrakis, N. E. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant proton beam irradiation followed by transscleral resection of uveal melanoma in 106 cases
Conclusion Neoadjuvant proton beam irradiation may help to prevent local recurrence after transscleral resection. Additional vitreoretinal surgery was frequently needed in the presented series. The majority of patients avoided enucleation and functional blindness. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Willerding, G. D., Cordini, D., Moser, L., Krause, L., Foerster, M. H., Bechrakis, N. E. Tags: Eye (globe), Vision, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research