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Association between perineal trauma and pain in primiparous women
Conclusion Primiparous women are subject to a high frequency of perineal trauma, with episiotomy being the most prominent. Perineal pain affects approximately one-third of primiparous women and is associated with the postpartum time and perineal traumas. Objetivo Identificar la asociación entre el trauma y el dolor perineal en 473 primíparas. Método Estudio transversal, en el que el dolor se midió por medio de la escala numérica del dolor (0 a 10; 0 = ningún dolor y 10 = dolor máximo). Resultados La prevalencia y el promedio de intensidad del dolor fueron 33,0% y 4,7 (Desviación Estándar = 2,0) puntos en la esca...
Source: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP - December 19, 2014 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

166: Episiotomies: who does them and do they help?
To examine episiotomy rates in relation to obstetric provider characteristics and maternal and neonatal injury. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - December 19, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Janet Burlingame, Chieko Kimata, Kelly Yamasato, Bruce Huegel, Marsha Durbin, Melinda Ashton Tags: Poster session I Source Type: research

313: Maternal and neonatal outcomes following implementation of a policy of restricted use of episiotomy
Restricted use of episiotomy was recommended by ACOG in 2006 despite limited data detailing the impact of such a change on maternal and neonatal outcomes. We sought to determine the impact of a policy of restricted use of episiotomy in a large tertiary care hospital. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - December 19, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Erin Habecker, Matthew Hoffman Tags: Poster session II Source Type: research

Anal incontinence, urinary incontinence and sexual problems in primiparous women ¿ a comparison between women with episiotomy only and women with episiotomy and obstetric anal sphincter injury
Conclusion: Women with OASIS had more AI and sexual problems than those without OASIS. Episiotomy characteristics varied greatly between the women. Episiotomy with protective characteristics was not associated with increased dysfunctions. OASIS should be avoided, and correct episiotomy used if indicated. (Source: BMC Women's Health)
Source: BMC Women's Health - December 16, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Mona StedenfeldtJouko PirhonenEllen BlixTom WilsgaardBarthold VonenPål Øian Source Type: research

Maternal Asian ethnicity and the risk of anal sphincter injury
ConclusionThere are ethnic differences in the rates of anal sphincter injury not fully explained by known risk factors for such trauma. This may have implications for care provision.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica)
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - December 12, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Miranda Davies‐Tuck, Mary‐Anne Biro, Joanne Mockler, Lynne Stewart, Euan M Wallace, Christine East Tags: Main Research Article Source Type: research

Board #306 - Technology Innovation Modifications to the SimMan3G Advanced Patient Simulator for a High-fidelity Postpartum Hemorrhage Team-based Scenario (Submission #8851).
Conclusion: The postpartum hemorrhage model was constructed over a period of one week and tested for required functionality. The completed model was successfully deployed and tested with the simulation scenario for a postpartum/labor and delivery multi-department in-situ training session. The model worked as intended. Initial anecdotal reviews had favorable responses. The participants did not require additional familiarization with the model. Future research will include assessing if the participants in the postpartum hemorrhage simulation scenario improved competency and ultimately if this reflects in an improvement in cl...
Source: Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare - December 1, 2014 Category: Medical Equipment Tags: Abstracts: 1st PLACE AWARD WINNER: PDF Only Source Type: research

A Comparison of the “Hands-Off” and “Hands-On” Methods to Reduce Perineal Lacerations: A Randomised Clinical Trial
Conclusion Application of the “Hands-off” method for vaginal delivery has a positive effect on the mother’s health because of the reduction of Episiotomy and third degree tearing. Therefore, we conclude that the “Hands-off” method offers a safer alternative for perineal control during labor. (Source: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India)
Source: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India - December 1, 2014 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Risk factors for severe perineal trauma during vaginal childbirth: A Western Australian retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSION: Parity differences in risk factors such as episiotomy, infant weight, OP delivery, gestational diabetes and prolonged second stage warrant investigation into clinical management. Although rates differ internationally, and replication evidence has confirmed consistency for certain demographic and obstetric factors, the development of internationally endorsed clinical guidelines and further research around interventions to protect the perineum are recommended. PMID: 25476878 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Women Birth)
Source: Women Birth - December 1, 2014 Category: Midwifery Authors: Hauck YL, Lewis L, Nathan EA, White C, Doherty DA Tags: Women Birth Source Type: research

Evaluation of In Vivo Properties of Velosorb™ Fast Versus Vicryl™ Rapide in a Functional Rabbit Model of Intradermic Suture and Episiotomy.
Conclusions: Velosorb™ Fast seems to be as efficient as Vicryl™ Rapide for use in perineal and skin closure. PMID: 25437773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hand Surgery)
Source: Hand Surgery - December 1, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Vieille P, Huberlant S, Bastide S, Bayon Y, de Tayrac R Tags: J Invest Surg Source Type: research

OASI: a preventable Injury?
Conclusions Most risk factors related to OASI are non-modifiable however gestational age and episiotomy are modifiable risk factors. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology)
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - November 27, 2014 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Provider contribution to an episiotomy risk model
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - November 25, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Tags: article Source Type: research

National survey of perineal trauma and its subsequent management in the United Kingdom
Conclusions This study provides comprehensive data regarding the incidence and management of perineal trauma across the UK. Clinicians and policy-makers, both local and at the RCOG, can devise up-to-date realistic guidelines on the anticipated rate of OASIS and help to assess the compliancy of units with guidelines on the appropriate management of perineal trauma. (Source: International Urogynecology Journal)
Source: International Urogynecology Journal - November 18, 2014 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Effect of different episiotomy techniques on perineal pain and sexual activity 3 months after delivery
Conclusions No difference was found in perineal pain perception 3 months postpartum between different episiotomy techniques or when comparing midline and lateral incision points. Dyspareunia was not associated with any particular episiotomy technique or incision point. (Source: International Urogynecology Journal)
Source: International Urogynecology Journal - November 18, 2014 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

NIH state-of-the-science conference statement on prevention of fecal and urinary incontinence in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: (1) Fecal incontinence and urinary incontinence will affect more than one fourth of all U.S. adults during their lives. The natural history of fecal incontinence is unknown, and the natural history of urinary incontinence over several years is not well described. (2) Fecal incontinence and urinary incontinence often have serious effects on the lives of the many individuals who suffer physical discomfort, embarrassment, stigma, and social isolation, and on family members, caregivers, and society. Financial costs are substantial and may be underestimated because of underreporting. (3) Routine episiotomy is the m...
Source: NIH Consensus and State of the Science Statements - November 16, 2014 Category: American Health Tags: NIH Consens State Sci Statements Source Type: research

Routine perineal shaving on admission in labour.
CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to recommend perineal shaving for women on admission in labour. PMID: 25398160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - November 14, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Basevi V, Lavender T Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of early postpartum pain and healing outcomes after mediolateral versus lateral episiotomy
Conclusion Incidence and extent of pain in the first 10days after LE correspond to those after adequately performed MLE. (Source: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics)
Source: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics - November 12, 2014 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Hands-poised technique: The future technique for perineal management of second stage of labour? A modified systematic literature review.
CONCLUSION: as the five studies selected for this review have widely differing variables, comparisons that have been drawn must be viewed with caution. Evidence would suggest that the hands-poised technique is a safe and recommended technique for perineal management and discussions of such a technique should be included in all midwifery education and training programmes. The challenge for midwives is how to support women in making informed choices about perineal management during childbirth. Until there is conclusive evidence, the choice of the hands-on or hands-poised technique will ultimately be determined by the clinica...
Source: Midwifery - November 5, 2014 Category: Midwifery Authors: Petrocnik P, Marshall JE Tags: Midwifery Source Type: research

Effects of cinnamon on perineal pain and healing of episiotomy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
Conclusion Cinnamon can be used for reducing perineal pain and improving healing of episiotomy incision. (Source: Journal of Integrative Medicine)
Source: Journal of Integrative Medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of vaginal delivery on the external anal sphincter muscle innervation pattern evaluated by multichannel surface EMG: results of the multicentre study TASI-2
Conclusions Right episiotomy reduces the number of IZs on the right-ventral side of the EAS. The fast and reliable test proposed indicates the sphincter innervation pattern before delivery and helps obstetricians to evaluate the risks and to choose the preferred side of the episiotomy, if deemed necessary at the time of delivery. (Source: International Urogynecology Journal)
Source: International Urogynecology Journal - October 9, 2014 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Antibiotic prophylaxis for third- and fourth-degree perineal tear during vaginal birth.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the data suggest that prophylactic antibiotics help to prevent perineal wound complications following third- or fourth-degree perineal tear, loss to follow-up was very high. The results should be interpreted with caution as they are based on one small trial. PMID: 25289960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - October 7, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Buppasiri P, Lumbiganon P, Thinkhamrop J, Thinkhamrop B Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

The implantation of cervical neoplasia at postpartum episiotomy scar: the clinical evidence
Conclusion Clinicians should be aware about the importance of carefully examining not only the cervix at the time of labor, but also the episiotomy scar in women following a pregnancy complicated by cervical cancer. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 7, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Chronic non-healing sinus manifesting in episiotomy scar: hidden fistula-in-ano
We report one such woman. There were no underlying risk factors like third- or fourth-degree tear or inflammatory bowel disease. In spite of previous attempted exploration the problem had persisted. Examination of the case under anaesthesia revealed it to be a low fistula-in-ano. The methodical evaluation and management of the case is detailed. Fistulectomy completely cured the patient. Most of these patients present to obstetricians and gynaecologists. Awareness and a high index of suspicion of communication with the anorectal canal are important. A team approach with the colorectal surgeon would help in better preoperati...
Source: International Urogynecology Journal - September 25, 2014 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Interventions for treating postpartum constipation.
CONCLUSIONS: We could not make explicit conclusions on interventions for treating postpartum constipation because we found no studies for inclusion in this review. Rigorous and well-conducted large randomised controlled trials aimed at treating postpartum women diagnosed with constipation would be beneficial. These trials should also address the criteria for administering the intervention (time and stage of a diagnosis of postpartum constipation), and the safety and effectiveness of such interventions. PMID: 25246307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - September 23, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Turawa EB, Musekiwa A, Rohwer AC Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Evaluation of accuracy of mediolateral episiotomy incisions using a training model.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Episiotomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide. In the UK the use of episiotomy is selective, rather than routine, and a right mediolateral episiotomy (RMLE) is considered standard practice. According to The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE, 2007) guideline for intrapartum care such an episiotomy should be cut at an angle between 45° and 60° to the vertical axis. Recent evidence suggests that the angle of incision of mediolateral episiotomy (MLE) is associated with risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS). OBJECTIVE: to assess t...
Source: Midwifery - September 2, 2014 Category: Midwifery Authors: Silf K, Woodhead N, Kelly J, Fryer A, Kettle C, Ismail KM Tags: Midwifery Source Type: research

Widespread non‐adherence to evidence‐based maternity care guidelines: a population‐based cluster randomised household survey
ConclusionPresent practices fall short of evidence‐based guidelines, with relative overuse of interventions in private hospitals and deficiency of patient‐centred practices such as labour support in public hospitals. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - August 22, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: J Nagpal, A Sachdeva, R Sengupta Dhar, VL Bhargava, A Bhartia Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Widespread non-adherence to evidence-based maternity care guidelines: a population-based cluster randomised household survey.
CONCLUSION: Present practices fall short of evidence-based guidelines, with relative overuse of interventions in private hospitals and deficiency of patient-centred practices such as labour support in public hospitals. PMID: 25145674 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - August 22, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Nagpal J, Sachdeva A, Sengupta Dhar R, Bhargava V, Bhartia A Tags: BJOG Source Type: research

Prevalence and Predictors of Genito‐Pelvic Pain in Pregnancy and Postpartum: The Prospective Impact of Fear Avoidance
ConclusionsResults suggest that about half of women may develop genito‐pelvic pain during pregnancy, which will persist for about a third, and a subset will develop this pain after childbirth. Prior recurrent nongenito‐pelvic pain may enhance the risk of developing genito‐pelvic pain postpartum, while greater pain‐related anxiety in pregnancy may increase the risk for greater intensity of postpartum genito‐pelvic pain. Glowacka M, Rosen N, Chorney J, Snelgrove−Clarke E, and George RB. Prevalence and predictors of genito‐pelvic pain in pregnancy and postpartum: The prospective impact of fear avoidance. J Sex M...
Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine - August 15, 2014 Category: Sexual Medicine Authors: Maria Glowacka, Natalie Rosen, Jill Chorney, Erna Snelgrove−Clarke, Ronald B. George Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Selective episiotomy vs. implementation of a non episiotomy protocol: a randomized clinical trial
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the episiotomy rate should be around 10%, which is already a reality in many European countries. Currently the use of episiotomy should be restricted and physicians are encouraged to use their clinical judgment to decide when the procedure is necessary. There is no clinical evidence corroborating any indication of episiotomy, so until the present moment it is not yet known whether episiotomy is indeed necessary in any context of obstetric practice.Objectives: To compare maternal and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing a protocol of not performing episiotomy ver...
Source: Reproductive Health - August 14, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Inês MeloLeila KatzIsabela CoutinhoMelania Amorim Source Type: research

Adherence to evidence based care practices for childbirth before and after a quality improvement intervention in health facilities of Rajasthan, India
Conclusions: An intervention based on repeated facility visits combined with actions at the level of decision makers can lead to substantial improvements in quality of childbirth practices at health facilities. (Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth - Latest articles - August 13, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Kirti IyengarMotilal JainSunil ThomasKalpana DashoraWilliam LiuParamsukh SainiRajesh DattatreyaIndrani ParkerSharad Iyengar Source Type: research

Perineal outcome and the risk of pelvic floor dysfunction: A cohort study of primiparous women
ConclusionsThis study shows a relationship between perineal outcome and PFD and suggests that an episiotomy is associated with the least morbidity due to symptoms of urinary incontinence. Additional large‐scale prospective research is required to further investigate and delineate the impact of childbirth on PFD. (Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - August 13, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Joan Rikard‐Bell, Jay Iyer, Ajay Rane Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Obstetric interventions during labor and childbirth in Brazilian low-risk womenEscola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz.
This study evaluated the use of best practices (eating, movement, use of nonpharmacological methods for pain relief and partograph) and obstetric interventions in labor and delivery among low-risk women. Data from the hospital-based survey Birth in Brazil conducted between 2011 and 2012 was used. Best practices during labor occurred in less than 50% of women and prevalence of the use of these practices was lower in the North, Northeast and Central West Regions. The rate of use of oxytocin drips and amniotomy was 40%, and was higher among women admitted to public hospitals and in women with a low level of education. The ute...
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - August 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Leal MD, Pereira AP, Domingues RM, Filha MM, Dias MA, Nakamura-Pereira M, Bastos MH, Gama SG Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research

Are recent graduates enough prepared to perform obstetric skills in their rural and compulsory year? A study from Ecuador
Conclusions In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - July 31, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sanchez del Hierro, G., Remmen, R., Verhoeven, V., Van Royen, P., Hendrickx, K. Tags: Open access, Health services research, Medical education and training, Public health, Obgyn Source Type: research

Mediolateral Episiotomy Reduces Obstetrical InjuryMediolateral Episiotomy Reduces Obstetrical Injury
The controversial approach during operative vaginal delivery significantly reduces the risk for injury, according to a large Dutch database study. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - July 28, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Ob/Gyn & Women ' s Health News Source Type: news

Outcomes of the Evidence-Based Pitocin Administration Checklist at a Tertiary-Level Hospital
Pitocin, a synthetic form of the hormone oxytocin, is a high-alert medication that heightens patient harm when used incorrectly. This investigation examined the outcomes of an evidence-based Pitocin administration checklist used for labor augmentation at a tertiary-level hospital. Data came from patient records. Using the Perinatal Trigger Tool, N = 372 clinical records (n = 194 prior to and n = 178 following checklist implementation) were reviewed. Checklist implementation resulted in statistically significant reductions in the duration of hospitalization (1.72 vs. 2.02 days, p = .0005), presence of meconium (23.7% vs. 6....
Source: Western Journal of Nursing Research - July 28, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Wojnar, D. M., Cowgill, K., Hoffman, L., Carlson, H. Tags: Intervention Studies Source Type: research

Assessing the association of oxytocin augmentation with obstetric anal sphincter injury in nulliparous women: a population-based, case-control study
Conclusions Oxytocin augmentation was associated with a higher OR of obstetric anal sphincter injuries during spontaneous deliveries of normal-size infants. We observed a considerable effect modification between the most important factors predicting anal sphincter injuries in the active second stage of labour. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - July 24, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Rygh, A. B., Skjeldestad, F. E., Korner, H., Eggebo, T. M. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Obgyn Research Source Type: research

Comparison between two incision angles of mediolateral episiotomy in primiparous women: A randomized controlled trial
ConclusionWhen compared to the 40°‐angled mediolateral episiotomies, 60°‐angled ones were associated with significantly higher short‐term‐related pain. Although they were also associated with lower rate of third/fourth‐degree perineal tears and higher rate of long‐term related pain and dyspareunia, these differences did not reach a statistically significant level. (Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research)
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research - July 23, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Adel S. S. El‐Din, Magdy M. Kamal, Malaka A. Amin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Mediolateral episiotomy significantly reduces the risk of obstetric-associated anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in women who deliver via vacuum extraction
Commentary on: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, et al.. Modifiable risk factors of obstetric anal sphincter injury in primiparous women: a population-based cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014;210:59.e1–6. Context Approximately 10% of women sustain obstetric-associated anal sphincter injury (OASIS) during vaginal delivery.1 Obstetric trauma is the most common cause of anal sphincter injury. Preventing OASIS is critical because between one-thirds and two-thirds of women with OASIS develop faecal incontinence (FI) with profound consequent physical and psychological effects. Primiparity, excess birth&n...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - July 18, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Bharucha, A. E., Prichard, D. Tags: EBM Aetiology, Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Pain (neurology), Contraception, Drugs: obstetrics and gynaecology, Pregnancy, Pain (palliative care), Pain (anaesthesia) Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of early postpartum pain and healing outcomes after mediolateral versus lateral episiotomy
To evaluate short-term perineal pain among primiparous women after mediolateral episiotomy (MLE) and lateral episiotomy (LE). (Source: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics)
Source: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics - July 17, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Jaroslava Karbanova, Zdenek Rusavy, Lucie Betincova, Magdalena Jansova, Pavlina Necesalova, Vladimir Kalis Source Type: research

Analysis of hemorrhage at vaginal delivery by erythrocyte and hematocrit indices
Conclusion: The analysis of hemorrhage at vaginal delivery by using hemoglobin and hematocrit indices showed variation among the three types of vaginal delivery studied. There was greater hemorrhage with forceps delivery and less hemorrhage with spontaneous delivery. In women with forceps delivery, postpartum indices were lower than those at hospital admission. (Source: Acta Paulista de Enfermagem)
Source: Acta Paulista de Enfermagem - June 25, 2014 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Curved versus straight scissors to avoid 3rd and 4th degree perineal tears: A randomised feasibility study.
The objective of this study was to compare the use of straight scissors for cutting an episiotomy with the use of curved scissors, which are designed to curve away from the anal sphincter. METHODS: We used a single-centre, randomised feasibility trial. The intervention was the use of curved scissors. Women were recruited during a prenatal visit and randomised in the delivery suite, when it became clear that an episiotomy was required. The feasibility outcomes were the proportion of women able to be recruited, randomised and followed up. We also calculated the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury when either str...
Source: Women Birth - June 24, 2014 Category: Midwifery Authors: Swift A, Webster J, Conroy AM, Hampton S, Kirby SJ, Minuzzo L, Kimble R Tags: Women Birth Source Type: research

Curved versus straight scissors to avoid 3rd and 4th degree perineal tears: A randomised feasibility study
The objective of this study was to compare the use of straight scissors for cutting an episiotomy with the use of curved scissors, which are designed to curve away from the anal sphincter. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 24, 2014 Category: Midwifery Authors: Angela Swift, Joan Webster, Annette Mary Conroy, Sue Hampton, Sarah Jane Kirby, Lee Minuzzo, Rebecca Kimble Source Type: research

A multifaceted intervention to increase prophylactic oxytocin use during the third stage of labor and to reduce routine episiotomies in Nicaragua
(Source: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics)
Source: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics - June 19, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Ezequiel García-Elorrio, Alicia Aleman, Maria L. Cafferata, Mercedes Colomar, Giselle Tomasso, Yann Lacayo, Henry Espinoza, Shirley Villadiego, Susheela Engelbrecht, Fernando Althabe Source Type: research

Sexual violence and mode of delivery: a population-based cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Women with a history of rape had higher odds of elective caesarean section and induction and significantly fewer episiotomies. PMID: 24939396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - June 18, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Henriksen L, Schei B, Vangen S, Lukasse M Tags: BJOG Source Type: research

Sexual violence and mode of delivery: a population‐based cohort study
ConclusionsWomen with a history of rape had higher odds of elective caesarean section and induction and significantly fewer episiotomies. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - June 18, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: L Henriksen, B Schei, S Vangen, M Lukasse Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Maternal Morbidity of Women Receiving Birth Center Care in New South Wales: A Matched‐Pair Analysis Using Linked Health Data
ConclusionsBirth centers are a safe option for low‐risk women; however, further research is required for some rare maternal outcomes. (Source: Birth)
Source: Birth - June 17, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Paula J. Laws, Fenglian Xu, Alec Welsh, Sally K. Tracy, Elizabeth A. Sullivan Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Effect on anal pressure of percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence
ConclusionPercutaneous PTNS was effective in over 70% of patients in the present study with improvements in urgency, anal pressures and Wexner score. (Source: Colorectal Disease)
Source: Colorectal Disease - June 12, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: A. López‐Delgado, A. Arroyo, J. Ruiz‐Tovar, M. J. Alcaide, M. Diez, P. Moya, J. Santos, R. Calpena Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Use of intrapartum ultrasound in the prediction of complicated operative forceps delivery of fetuses in non‐occiput posterior position
ConclusionThe sonographic parameters AOP and HD can be used to predict complicated operative forceps delivery in fetuses in non‐occiput posterior position. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (Source: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology - June 3, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: M. J. Cuerva, C. Bamberg, P. Tobias, M. M. Gil, M. De La Calle, J. L. Bartha Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research

Automatic detection of motor unit innervation zones of the external anal sphincter by multichannel surface EMG
A method to detect automatically the location of innervation zones (IZs) from 16-channel surface EMG (sEMG) recordings from the external anal sphincter (EAS) muscle is presented in order to guide episiotomy during child delivery. The new algorithm (2DCorr) is applied to individual motor unit action potential (MUAP) templates and is based on bidimensional cross correlation between the interpolated image of each MUAP template and two images obtained by flipping upside-down (around a horizontal axis) and left–right (around a vertical axis) the original one. (Source: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology)
Source: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology - May 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Khalil Ullah, Corrado Cescon, Babak Afsharipour, Roberto Merletti Source Type: research