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50 facets of a trait —50 ways to mess up?
The idea of multifaceted personality traits has inspired the construction of many personality questionnaires. Empirical evidence supports the utility of these facets in many cases. Still, doubts remain, especially regarding other aspects such as reliability and construct validity. This editorial is meant to provide a different look onto the concept of facets. Moreover problems, which should be addressed when proposing a facetted measure, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) < img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/apa-journals-jpa/~4/Fr_XHq7KuGg" height="1" width="1" alt=""/ > (Sourc...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - June 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ziegler, Matthias; B äckström, Martin Source Type: research

50 facets of a trait—50 ways to mess up?
The idea of multifaceted personality traits has inspired the construction of many personality questionnaires. Empirical evidence supports the utility of these facets in many cases. Still, doubts remain, especially regarding other aspects such as reliability and construct validity. This editorial is meant to provide a different look onto the concept of facets. Moreover problems, which should be addressed when proposing a facetted measure, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment)
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - June 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ziegler, Matthias; Bäckström, Martin Source Type: research

The role of personality in predicting (change in) students’ academic success across four years of secondary school.
Little longitudinal research has addressed the question of whether the Big Five personality traits (i.e., O, C, E, A, N) predict educational outcomes and whether the Big Five provide incremental predictive validity for educational outcomes when prior achievement, intelligence, and academic self-concept are controlled for. Also, little is known about whether noncognitive factors are related to change in academic success, especially grades, after controlling for its stability. To address these research questions, we used data from the Luxembourg longitudinal extension of the 2009 cycle of the Program for International Studen...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Lüdtke, Oliver Source Type: research

The role of noncognitive factors in predicting academic trajectories of high school students in a selective private school.
In this study, surveys of self-efficacy, locus of control, and intrinsic motivation were administered to 8,586 applicants to a prestigious private college-preparatory high school during the admissions process; simultaneously, standardized test scores (SSAT) were obtained. Enrolled and nonenrolled students were compared on prior academic performance and noncognitive measures. Further, noncognitive variables and trajectories of GPA (grade point averages) across 4 years (12 time points) were explored among the enrolled students (n = 818). The enrolled students, compared to the nonenrolled, showed advantageous scores on all me...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mourgues, Catalina V.; Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Diffley III, Ray; Grigorenko, Elena L. Source Type: research

Effects of psychosocial characteristics of middle school students on high school grades and on-time graduation.
We report on a longitudinal study of middle school students followed through high school completion. We found that high school GPA mediates the effects of prior academic achievement, demographics, and most PSFs on on-time high school graduation. A measure of self-regulation had a significant direct effect on on-time graduation. The results underscore the importance of PSFs in predicting academic outcomes, even after accounting for prior achievement and demographics. Implications of examining PSFs early in students’ academic progression are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: E...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Moore, Joann L.; Way, Jason D.; Casillas, Alex; Burrus, Jeremy; Allen, Jeff; Hanson, Mary Ann Source Type: research

Sense of belonging to school in 15-year-old students: The role of parental education and students’ attitudes toward school.
Worldwide, students’ health and subjective well-being increasingly are regarded as important. One central noncognitive aspect that threatens students’ well-being and that is related to students’ socioeconomic background is whether they feel they belong to their social context (e.g., school) or instead feel socially ostracized. The present study investigated the relation between parents’ education and students’ sense of belonging to school and the role of students’ and parents’ attitudes toward school as mediators across different countries. The results indicate that students whose parents have a higher educat...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Marksteiner, Tamara; Kruger, Susanne Source Type: research

Measurement equivalence of the PALS academic self-efficacy scale.
There is consistent evidence of the importance of academic self-efficacy beliefs within educational research, as they are linked to critical academic outcomes. Ethnic and gender differences in academic self-efficacy have been found in nations outside of the United States, suggesting differences in how individual students perceive their academic abilities. However, if researchers are interested in making mean-level comparisons of academic self-efficacy across diverse subpopulations of students, it is imperative to assess the measurement equivalence of the scale used across these subgroups prior to drawing any conclusions ba...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dever, Bridget V.; Kim, Samuel Y. Source Type: research

Assessing collaborative behavior in students: An experiment-based assessment approach.
In this study, we developed a computer-assisted assessment for collaborative behavior (COLBAS) following the experiment-based assessment of behavior approach (objective personality tests; Cattell, 1958). The instrument captures participants’ collaborative behavior in problem-solving tasks using the MicroDYN approach while participants work collaboratively with a computer-agent. COLBAS can thereby assess problem-solving and collaborative behavior expressed through communication acts. To investigate its validity, we administered COLBAS to 483 German seventh graders along with MicroDYN as a measure of individual problem-sol...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Krkovic, Katarina; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel Source Type: research

Anchoring vignettes: Can they make adolescent self-reports of social-emotional skills more reliable, discriminant, and criterion-valid?
Individuals differ in the way they use rating scales to describe themselves, and these differences are particularly pronounced in children and early adolescents. One promising remedy is to correct (or “anchor”) an individual’s responses according to the way they use the scale when they rate an anchoring vignette (a set of hypothetical targets differing on the attribute of interest). Studying adolescents’ self-reports of their socio-emotional attributes, we compared traditional self-report scores with vignette-corrected scores in terms of reliability (internal consistency), discriminant validity (scale intercorrelat...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Primi, Ricardo; Zanon, Cristian; Santos, Daniel; De Fruyt, Filip; John, Oliver P. Source Type: research

The multiple faces of risk-taking: Scoring alternatives for the balloon-analogue risk task.
The Balloon-Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., 2002) is one of the most popular behavioral tasks suggested to assess risk-taking in the laboratory. Previous research has shown that the conventionally computed score is predictive, but neglects available information in the data. We suggest a number of alternative scores that are motivated by theories of risk-taking and that exploit more of the available data. These scores can be grouped around (1) risk-taking, (2) task performance, (3) impulsive decision making, and (4) reinforcement sequence modulation. Their theoretical rationale is detailed and their validity is tes...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schmitz, Florian; Manske, Karsten; Preckel, Franzis; Wilhelm, Oliver Source Type: research

Development of an inventory assessing social and emotional skills in Brazilian youth.
Discussion focuses on the contribution to socio-emotional research in education and its measurement as well as on limitations and suggestions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment)
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Primi, Ricardo; Santos, Daniel; John, Oliver P.; Fruyt, Filip De Source Type: research

Noncognitive assessment in K12 education: New constructs and approaches for the twenty-first century.
This special issue on noncognitive assessment in K12 education represents a call for evidence-centered accounts of the interface among personality assessment, educational applications, and policy-making that are based on decent sample sizes, best practices, and emerging (or sometimes re-emergent) theory. We delimited this further by focusing on K12 education (i.e., school-aged children and adolescents, ranging from kindergarten to the last year of high school), across theory, applications, and policy. Table l provides key features of accepted articles that went through a rigorous review process (many thanks also to readers...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Petway, Kevin; Allen, Veleka; Roberts, Richard D. Source Type: research

"Diagnostic concordance between categorical and dimensional instruments to assess personality disorder in chronic fatigue sydrome": Correction to Calvo et al., 2015.
Reports an error in "Diagnostic Concordance Between Categorical and Dimensional Instruments to Assess Personality Disorder in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: PDQ-4+ and TCI-R" by Natalia Calvo, Naia Sáez-Francàs, Sergi Valero, Jesús Castro-Marrero, José Alegre Martín and Miquel Casas (European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 28, 2015, np). The correct author affiliations are present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-42715-001.) Abstract. The study examines the relationship between a categorical and a dimensional personality assessmen...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - January 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: No authorship indicated Source Type: research

Testing the unidimensionality of items: Pitfalls and loopholes.
Constructing a test, an interview, or a behavior observation often aims at deriving scores that are interpreted as manifestations of a trait. In order to test whether such an interpretation is feasible, different psychometric criteria have been suggested. Within this editorial we want to put the spotlight onto an often neglected aspect, relevant to the interpretation of test scores—the dimensionality of the underlying items. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment)
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - January 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ziegler, Matthias; Hagemann, Dirk Source Type: research

“F*** you, I won’t do what you told me!”—Response biases as threats to psychological assessment.
An overwhelming number of papers in the European Journal of Psychological Assessment focus on what Cattell (1958) called Q-data. More specifically, Cattell described three methods to assess personality: L-, T-, and Q-data. Regarding Q-data he wrote, "Observations of personality which come to the psychologist in terms of introspective, verbal, self-record and self-evaluation...." Ever since questionnaire data have been used, there has been a seemingly never-ending discussion regarding their shortcomings. There is ample empirical evidence that Q-data are valid predictors of human behavior in such diverse areas as scholastic ...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - August 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ziegler, Matthias Source Type: research

Correction to Coroiu et al., 2014.
Reports an error in "Brief Form of the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (ICQ-15): Development and Preliminary Validation With a German Population Sample" by Adina Coroiu, Alexandra Meyer, Carlos A. Gomez-Garibello, Elmar Brähler, Aike Hessel and Annett Körner (European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 10, 2014, np). The article contained an error on the title page. The list of authors and their affiliations are present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-55403-001.) The Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (ICQ) developed by ...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - June 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: No authorship indicated Source Type: research

Discovering the second side of the coin: Integrating situational perception into psychological assessment.
Within the last editorials, several issues directly related to manuscript rejections have been discussed. To this end, issues of validity (Ziegler, Booth, & Bensch, 2013; Ziegler & Vautier, 2014), item selection (Ziegler, 2014b), and the test construction process itself (Ziegler, 2014c; Ziegler & Bensch, 2013; Ziegler, Kemper, & Lenzner, 2015) were addressed. The goal of these endeavors was to influence the content and quality of the papers being submitted to the journal by providing general guidelines to authors. This editorial has a different goal. It sets out to demonstrate how research on situational perception affects...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - June 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ziegler, Matthias; Horstmann, Kai Source Type: research

Development of the Fear of Intimacy Components Questionnaire (FICQ): Embracing a dependence component.
We developed a new instrument designed to measure fear of intimacy in romantic relationships. We suggest assessing fear of intimacy through two dimensions: self-revelation and dependence. The Fear of Intimacy Components Questionnaire (FICQ) was validated across three studies in which a 10-item solution systematically emerged. Consistently with a two component perspective, a two-factor solution fitted data the best: fear of losing the self (FLS) and fear of losing the other (FLO). Qualitative analyses verified content validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses tested the factor structure. Multigroup analyses sup...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - March 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pedro Sobral, Maria; Emília Costa, Maria Source Type: research

A reliability generalization study for a multidimensional loneliness scale: The Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents.
Research on the average reliability and factors that affect the reliability of loneliness scales has been restricted to unidimensional measures. A reliability generalization (RG) study was conducted for a multidimensional loneness measure, that is, the Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA). Multilevel meta-analyses were performed on 79 studies that comprised 92 samples (for a total of 41,076 participants). Average reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) across samples was good (i.e., .80 or above) for all four subscales. Studies with higher sampling quality yielded slightly higher alphas for one of th...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - March 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Maes, Marlies; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc Source Type: research

Ultra-brief measures for the Situational Eight DIAMONDS domains.
People perceive psychological situations on the “Situational Eight” DIAMONDS characteristics (Duty, Intellect, Adversity, Mating, pOsitivity, Negativity, Deception, Sociality; Rauthmann et al., 2014). To facilitate situational assessment and economically measure these dimensions, we propose four ultra-brief one-item scales (S8-I, S8-II, S8-III-A, S8-III-P) validated against the already existing 24-item S8*. Convergent/discriminant validity of the four S8-scales was examined by analyses of the multi-characteristics multi-measures matrix, and their nomological associations with external criteria were compared. Applicatio...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - March 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rauthmann, John F.; Sherman, Ryne A. Source Type: research

Measuring the Situational Eight DIAMONDS characteristics of situations: An optimization of the RSQ-8 to the S8*.
It has been suggested that people perceive psychological characteristics of situations on eight major dimensions (Rauthmann et al., 2014): The “Situational Eight” DIAMONDS (Duty, Intellect, Adversity, Mating, pOsitivity, Negativity, Deception, Sociality). These dimensions have been captured with the 32-item RSQ-8. The current work optimizes the RSQ-8 to derive more economical yet informative and precise scales, captured in the newly developed S8*. Nomological associations of the original RSQ-8 and the S8* with situation cues (extracted from written situation descriptions) were compared. Application areas of the S8* are...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - March 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rauthmann, John F.; Sherman, Ryne A. Source Type: research

Selecting the best items for a short-form of the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire.
Five studies were conducted to develop a short form of the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire with optimal psychometric properties. Study 1 involved Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses of the responses of 2,066 adults, resulting in a 12-item form of the ECR containing the most discriminating items. The psychometric properties of the ECR-12 were further demonstrated in two longitudinal studies of community samples of couples (Studies 2 and 3), in a sample of individuals in same-sex relationships (Study 4), and with couples seeking therapy (Study 5). The psychometric properties of the ECR-12 are as good a...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - March 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lafontaine, Marie-France; Brassard, Audrey; Lussier, Yvan; Valois, Pierre; Shaver, Philip R.; Johnson, Susan M. Source Type: research

Measurement invariance of the Self-Description Questionnaire II in a Chinese sample.
Studies on the construct validity of the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQII) have not compared the factor structure between the English and Chinese versions of the SDQII. By using rigorous multiple group comparison procedures based upon confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of measurement invariance, the present study examined the responses of Australian high school students (N = 302) and Chinese high school students (N = 322) using the English and Chinese versions of the SDQII, respectively. CFA provided strong evidence that the factor structure (factor loading and item intercept) of the Chinese version of the SDQII in...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - March 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Abduljabbar, Adel S. Source Type: research

The Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS): Measurement invariance and cross-national comparisons of youth from seven European countries.
This study examines psychometric properties of the U-MICS in a large adolescent sample from seven European countries focused on the interplay of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Participants were 1,007 adolescents from Bulgaria (n = 146), the Czech Republic (n = 142), Italy (n = 144), Kosovo (n = 150), Romania (n = 142), Slovenia (n = 156), and the Netherlands (n = 127). We tested the U-MICS measurement invariance, reliability estimates in each language version, and compared latent identity means across groups. Results showed that the U-MICS has good internal consistency as well as confi...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - March 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dimitrova, Radosveta; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Buzea, Carmen; Jordanov, Venzislav; Kosic, Marianna; Tair, Ergyul; Taušová, Jitka; van Cittert, Natasja; Uka, Fitim Source Type: research

The Beck Hopelessness Scale: Specific factors of method effects?
The aim of the present study was to examine the construct and cross-cultural validity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS; Beck, Weissman, Lester, & Trexler, 1974). Beck et al. applied exploratory Principal Components Analysis and argued that the scale measured three specific components (affective, motivational, and cognitive). Subsequent studies identified one, two, three, or more factors, highlighting a lack of clarity regarding the scale’s construct validity. In a large clinical sample, we tested the original three-factor model and explored alternative models using both confirmatory and exploratory factor analytical t...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - March 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Szabó, Marianna; Mészáros, Veronika; Sallay, Judit; Ajtay, Gyöngyi; Boross, Viktor; Udvardy-Mészáros, Àgnes; Vizin, Gabriella; Perczel-Forintos, Dóra Source Type: research

The issue of fuzzy concepts in test construction and possible remedies.
This editorial introduces the current issue on the topic of fuzzy concepts in test construction. This issue focuses more specifically on a mixed methods approach in test construction. The quantitative aspects of testing a newly constructed assessment tool range prominently within this journal (Alonso-Arbiol & van de Vijver, 2010). However, some issues arising during the test development process cannot be dealt with using quantitative methods alone. Along with the coauthors of this editorial—experts in the application of a mixed methods approach in test construction—these issues are explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - February 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ziegler, Matthias; Kemper, Christoph J.; Lenzner, Timo Source Type: research

The answer is blowing in the wind: Weather effects on personality ratings.
This study examined the effects of weather on personality self-ratings. Single-assessment data were derived from the German General Social Survey conducted in 2008. For a subset of the participants (N = 478), official weather station data for the day a personality inventory was completed could be determined. Among these respondents, 140 (29%) completed the personality inventory on an unambiguously sunny day, 59 (12%) completed the measure on an unambiguously rainy day, and 279 (59%) completed the questionnaire on a day characterized by mixed weather conditions. Results revealed that self-ratings for some personality domain...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - December 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rammstedt, Beatrice; Mutz, Michael; Farmer, Richard F. Source Type: research

Experience and diagnostic anchors in referral letters.
In conclusion, the diagnosis in a referral letter influences the diagnostic decision made by moderately experienced clinicians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment)
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - December 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Spaanjaars, Nanon L.; Groenier, Marleen; van de Ven, Monique O. M.; Witteman, Cilia L. M. Source Type: research

Brief form of the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (ICQ-15): Development and preliminary validation with a German population sample.
The Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (ICQ) developed by Buhrmester and colleagues (1988) in the US assesses the multidimensional construct of social competence via five distinct, but related subscales. Two versions comprising 40 and 30 items, respectively, are available in German. The purpose of the current study is to develop and validate a brief version of the ICQ among a large adult sample that is representative of the German general population. Data were collected from 2,009 participants. Three confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted in order to develop and validate the ICQ-15. Cronbach’s alpha coeffi...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - December 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Coroiu, Adina; Meyer, Alexandra; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos A.; Brähler, Elmar; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett Source Type: research

The Dutch Symptom Checklist-90-Revised: Is the use of the subscales justified?
In this study, we evaluated to what extent the scale scores of the Dutch SCL-90-R reflect general and/or specific aspects of psychological distress in a psychiatric outpatients sample (N = 1,842), using a hierarchical factor model. The results revealed that the total scale score measures general psychological distress, with high reliability. The subscale scores Sleep Difficulties, Agoraphobia, Hostility, and Somatization reflect the specific primary symptoms reasonably well, with high reliability. The subscale score Depression hardly measures specific symptoms of distress, but instead a very common construct as is measured...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - December 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Smits, Iris A. M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Meijer, Rob R. Source Type: research

How test takers see test examiners: How they are perceived and who is preferred.
We addressed potential test takers’ preferences for women or men as examiners as well as how examiners were perceived depending on their gender. We employed an online design with 375 students who provided preferences for and ratings of examiners based on short video clips. The clips showed four out of 15 psychologists who differed in age (young vs. middle-aged) and gender giving an introduction to a fictional intelligence test session. Employing multivariate multilevel analyses we found female examiners to be perceived as more social competent and middle-aged examiners being perceived as more competent. Data analyses rev...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - December 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vormittag, Isabella; Ortner, Tuulia M.; Koch, Tobias Source Type: research

Factor structure of the Ruminative Responses Scale: A community-sample study.
The 10-item Ruminative Responses Scale is used to measure two facets of rumination: brooding and reflection. These subscales are used to seek differential correlations with other variables of interest (e.g., depression). The validity of these facets, however, is questionable because brooding and reflection were distinguished based on factor analyses, but subsequent analyses have been inconsistent. We investigated these facets using factor analyses in a large community-based sample (N = 625). Other measures of rumination and depression were used as criteria for validity analyses. Only the brooding items formed a robust scal...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - December 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Griffith, James W.; Raes, Filip Source Type: research

Detection of differential item functioning in the Cornell Critical Thinking Test between Turkish and United States students.
This study examined the CCTT Turkish version. Specifically, translated items were examined for measurement equivalence by determining if items function differently across students from United States and Turkey. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis via logistic regression was employed. Results demonstrated that each subtest contained DIF items and 10% of the items in the instrument were identified as DIF. Mean differences between students in each country were not influenced by these items. A critical content review of the translated item gave insight as to why items may be functioning differently. (PsycINFO Database...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - December 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sahin, Hafize; French, Brian F.; Hand, Brian; Gunel, Murat Source Type: research

Stop and state your intentions!: Let’s not forget the ABC of test construction.
In this editorial Ziegler focuses on the very beginnings of the test construction process. The reason is that more and more papers are using impressive and sophisticated statistical methods, large data sets or data sets from different countries, or new technical approaches to measurement. All of this is important and contributes to advancing the field. However, the solid base for all of these papers needs to be a sound test construction strategy. Unfortunately, there are numerous papers being submitted and eventually rejected that could also be regarded as examples for the positive attributes stated above. What those paper...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - November 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ziegler, Matthias Source Type: research

Item response model investigation of the (German) Interpersonal Reactivity Index empathy questionnaire: Implications for analyses of group differences.
Abstract. The interpersonal reactivity index (IRI) is a widely used personality questionnaire for measuring empathy. We investigated the psychometric properties of the German version using the partial credit model. If this model fits the data, the raw-scores are fair measures of the latent construct. Only in such a case, further analyses based on the raw-scores are accurate and valid. The results showed model fit only for the subscale empathic concern. The subscales perspective taking and fantasy consisted of two theoretically explainable sub-dimensions. For the subscale personal distress, no model fit could be achieved. O...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - October 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Koller, Ingrid; Lamm, Claus Source Type: research

Impact of verb tense on response to the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ).
We examined the effects of the verb tense on the response to the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) in a population-based sample (N = 4,959; present tense N = 605; past tense N = 4,354). We determined whether the verb tense impacted the overall response rate, the scale structure, differential item functioning, reliability, proportions of respondents scoring above a range of cut-offs, and mean scale scores. The verb tense did not influence response rate, scale structure, item functioning, and reliability. The present tense increased the number of respondents scoring above very low cut-offs for distress and somati...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - October 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Terluin, Berend; Marchand, Miquelle A. G.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M. Source Type: research

Exploring outcome and validity of the GAF in psychiatric inpatient care.
This study aimed to explore the influence of clinical and socio-demographic factors in a psychiatric inpatient setting in relation to treatment outcome measured by the GAF. The studied psychiatric inpatient sample consisted of 816 episodes of care, with GAF ratings made at both admission and discharge. Multiple linear regressions were performed to analyze what variables predicted GAF scores at admission and at discharge. Significant predictors of GAF scores at admission were age, schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders, and no registered diagnosis. GAF scores at admission, patients’ diagnoses, and ward affiliation were ...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - October 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sonesson, Ove; Arvidsson, Hans; Tjus, Tomas Source Type: research

Extending the assessment of complex problem solving to finite state automata: Embracing heterogeneity.
Abstract. Recent advancements in the assessment of Complex Problem Solving (CPS) build on the use of homogeneous tasks that enable the reliable estimation of CPS skills. The range of problems featured in established instruments such as MicroDYN is consequently limited to a specific subset of homogeneous complex problems. This restriction is problematic when looking at domain-specific examples of complex problems, which feature characteristics absent from current assessment instruments (e.g., threshold states). We propose to utilize the formal framework of Finite State Automata (FSA) to extend the range of problems included...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - October 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Neubert, Jonas C.; Kretzschmar, André; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel Source Type: research

The digit span backwards task: Verbal and visual cognitive strategies in working memory assessment.
Abstract. The “digit span backwards” (DSB) is the most commonly used test in clinical neuropsychology to assess working memory capacity. Yet, it remains unclear how the task is solved cognitively. The present study was conducted to examine the use of visual and verbal cognitive strategies in the DSB. Further, the relationship between the DSB and a complex span task, based on the Simultaneous Storage and Processing task (Oberauer et al., 2003), was investigated. Visualizers performed better than verbalizers in the dual task condition (rPB = .23) only when the relevant digits were presented optically. Performance in the ...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - October 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hilbert, Sven; Nakagawa, Tristan T.; Puci, Patricia; Zech, Alexandra; Bühner, Markus Source Type: research

Substance and artifact in interest self-reports: A multiple-rater twin study.
Abstract. Although self-reports are often distorted by response biases, nearly all knowledge about interests rely on self-reports. This multiple-rater twin study investigated the degree to which interest self-reports reflect substance. Specifically, we examined whether genetic variance in interest self-reports reflect substance in terms of genetically based motivational attributes or artifact in terms of genetically influenced self-rater biases. We compared normative and ipsatized self- and peer reports on interests from 844 individuals (incl. 225 monozygotic and 113 dizygotic twin pairs) regarding psychometric qualities a...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - October 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nelling, Annika; Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer Source Type: research

Hungarian validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ): Method effects and comparison of paper-pencil versus online administration.
Abstract. The Hungarian version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) was validated in two studies, using five different samples. Study 1 tested the factor structure and internal consistency of the PSWQ in two undergraduate student samples, comparing the psychometric properties of the paper-pencil and the online versions of the scale. Study 2 assessed construct validity in two undergraduate student samples and in a sample of patients diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and matched control participants. Our results suggest that the Hungarian PSWQ demonstrates good psychometric properties. We found no di...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - October 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pajkossy, Péter; Simor, Péter; Szendi, István; Racsmány, Mihály Source Type: research

General and specific avoidance: The development and concurrent validation of a new measure of avoidance coping.
Abstract. Research on coping has been hampered by psychometric shortcomings in coping scales, which have typically relied on items based on face-value, extracted too many factors or lacked the evidence for the obtained structure from confirmatory factor analysis. The present paper describes the development and concurrent validation of a new three-factor avoidance coping scale, the General and Specific Avoidance Questionnaire (GSAQ), which comprises General Avoidance, Emotional Avoidance, and Conflict Avoidance. In contrast to earlier scales the items were derived from a scenario technique which elicits items from participa...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stemmet, Lehan; Roger, Derek; Kuntz, Joana; Borrill, Jo Source Type: research

Measuring decision-making regret among French populations: Translation and validation of the Regret Scale.
Most studies examining decision-making processes are conducted in English. As a result, the majority of scales that are used to measure relevant constructs are unavailable in other languages. The Regret Scale (Schwartz, Ward, Monterosso, Lyubomirsky, White, & Lehman, 2002) consists of five items that assess an individual’s tendency to experience regret. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate this scale into French. Psychometric properties of the newly created Échelle de Regret were verified with a sample of native French-speaking participants. The properties of the translated scale were then compared to...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bonaccio, Silvia; Girard, Annie J. Source Type: research

Factorial invariance of the DASS-21 among adolescents in four countries.
In this study we examined the factor structure of the short 21-item form of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21), when it was applied to adolescent samples recruited from high schools in Australia (N = 371), Chile (N = 448), China (N = 558), and Malaysia (N = 388). Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the purported three-factor structure of the DASS-21 was supported in each location with structural invariance across locations. While convergent and divergent validity studies are required to support this finding, the DASS-21 appears to be suitable for use with adolescents in these locations. ...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mellor, David; Vinet, Eugenia V.; Xu, Xiaoyan; Bt Mamat, Norul Hidayah; Richardson, Ben; Román, Francisca Source Type: research

Italian validation of Montreal Cognitive Assessment.
Neuropsychological testing is a milestone of good practice to document cognitive deficits in a rapidly aging population. The aim of this paper is to validate the Italian version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We compared subjects' performance at the Italian version of MoCA with performance at standard Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The whole sample is composed of 287 subjects. All participants were administered three MoCA and a standard MMSE within 4 weeks. Through ROC analysis the optimal MoCA cut-off point was identified, showing high levels of sensitivity and specificity and an accuracy of .96, with 95%...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pirrotta, Fabio; Timpano, Francesca; Bonanno, Lilla; Nunnari, Domenica; Marino, Silvia; Bramanti, Placido; Lanzafame, Pietro Source Type: research

Alternative models of the Outcome Questionnaire-45.
The Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ) reliably quantifies level of psychological functioning and change during treatment. The three subscales, however, are not well validated. Could alternative scales, based on personality dimensions or other groupings of psychological problems better explain patterns of response? In Study 1, the intended structure and four alternative models were compared using EFA and CFA in random thirds of a community clinic intake sample (N = 1,822). Oblique and bi-level models were compared. Preferred models were tested for stability in samples from later time points. In Study 2, the models were compared...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gayle Thalmayer, Amber Source Type: research

Psychometric properties of a revised version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory.
Gosling, Rentfrow, and Swann (2003) developed the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) to meet the need of very short measures of the Big Five for time-limited contexts or large survey questionnaires. In this paper we show the inadequacy of the Italian version downloadable from Gosling’s website and we report the results of four studies in which the psychometric properties of a revised version (I-TIPI-R) were investigated in student and general population samples. This new version showed adequate factor structure, test-retest reliability, self-observer agreement and convergent and discriminant validity with the Big Five...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Chiorri, Carlo; Bracco, Fabrizio; Piccinno, Tommaso; Modafferi, Cinzia; Battini, Valeria Source Type: research

Evaluating the construct validity of objective personality tests using a multitrait-multimethod-multioccasion-(MTMM-MO)-approach.
In this study, we examined the convergent and discriminant validity of objective (personality) tests, Implicit Association Tests (IATs), and self-report measures for the assessment of conscientiousness and intelligence. Moreover, the convergent and discriminant validity of these measures was assessed on the trait (stable) and occasion specific (momentary) level by using the multimethod latent state-trait (MM-LST) model proposed by Courvoisier, Nussbeck, Eid, and Cole (2008) which allows for the decomposition of different sources of variance. Data from 367 students assessed on three different measurement occasions was incor...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Koch, Tobias; Ortner, T. M.; Eid, M.; Caspers, J.; Schmitt, M. Source Type: research

The tendency to fall for distracting information while making judgments: Development and validation of the Objective Heuristic Thinking Test.
Conclusions are drawn regarding possible future applications of the OHTT as a promising tool for studying the origins of heuristic thinking processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment)
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jasper, Fabian; Ortner, Tuulia M. Source Type: research

Advances and continuing challenges in objective personality testing.
The use of objective behavioral indicators instead of self-reported behaviors and self-ratings has a long history in personality assessment. The basic idea of objective personality tests (OPTs) can be traced back to James McKeen Cattell’s proposal of mental tests in 1890. At present, there is a very large and diverse collection of OPTs available. More recent developments in OPTs have been inspired and facilitated by the availability of digital technologies that have become more powerful and affordable at the same time. All OPTs share as a common principle the use of observable behavior on performance tasks or other highl...
Source: European Journal of Psychological Assessment - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ortner, Tuulia M.; Schmitt, Manfred Source Type: research