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Reduced Expression of miR-23a Suppresses A20 in TLR-stimulated Macrophages
Abstract High levels of miR-23a expression in human primary macrophages suggested that miR-23a might have an important role in innate immune cells. Therefore, we investigated whether miR-23a regulates the secretion of cytokines by immune cells. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of miR-23a was reduced in toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated macrophages. By targeting A20, miR-23a could affect NF-κB activity and the expression of downstream NF-κB-target genes that encode proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. In summary, our study describes a novel role for miR-23a in the regulation of inflamma...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Asthmatic Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma Through Relegating Th1/Th2
Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-asthma effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) and its possible mechanisms. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and Rb1 (10 and 20 mg/kg). Airway resistance (RI) was measured; histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; Th1/Th2, ovalbumin (OVA)-specific serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgE levels were evaluated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and T-bet/GATA3 proteins were evaluated by Western blot. Our study demonstrated that R...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Punicalagin Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice
In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that punicalagin protects against LPS-induced ARDS in mice. The underlying mechanisms may include inhibition of TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Vitamin E on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats
Abstract Vitamin E (vit-E) is a lipophilic antioxidant, and its anti-inflammatory activity is still not full characterized. Thus, our goal was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of repeated vit-E treatment in the arthritis induced by the intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). We observed an increase in arthritis scores, interleukin-1β and H2O2 levels, neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and loss of function induced by intraplantar CFA injection. These effects were unaltered after 1 day, partially reversed after 3 days, and inhibited ...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Silymarin Attenuates Airway Inflammation Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Mice
In this study, we investigated the effects of silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the seeds and fruits of milk thistle, on CS-induced airway inflammation and oxidative stress in mice and the possible mechanisms. BALB/c mice were exposed to CS for 2 h twice daily, 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Silymarin (25, 50 mg/kg · day) was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before CS exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was acquired for cell counting and the detection of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Lung tissue was collected for histological examination, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay, superoxide d...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Aurora Kinase A Regulates M1 Macrophage Polarization and Plays a Role in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Abstract Macrophage polarization is a dynamic and integral process of tissue inflammation and remodeling. Here we demonstrate an important role of Aurora kinase A in the regulation of inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization. We found that there was an elevated expression of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages and inhibition of Aurora-A by small molecules or specific siRNA selectively led to the suppression of M1 polarization, sparing over the M2 macrophage differentiation. At the molecular level, we found that the effects of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages were mediated through the down-regulation of NF-κB pathway and subsequ...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MAPK and NF-κB Pathways Are Involved in Bisphenol A-Induced TNF-α and IL-6 Production in BV2 Microglial Cells
Abstract Microglial activation has been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane), known as a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is reported to perform both mimic- and anti-estrogen properties; however, whether it affects cytokine production or immune response in central nervous system remains unclear. The present study was aimed to explore whether BPA was involved in inflammatory action and to investigate the potential mechanisms in microglial cells. BV2, the murine microglial cell line, wa...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Recruitment of Gr1 + CD11b + F4/80 + Population in the Bone Marrow and Spleen by Irradiation-Induced Pulmonary Damage
Abstract Radiation-induced lung injury is a kind of sterile inflammation, which may lead to morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation activate the immune system is not well understood. In the present study, we have investigated the immunological responses induced by local irradiation-induced damage in mouse lung. The left lungs of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated at a high dose of 100 Gy. The histology of the lungs and spleen showed evidences of alveolar inflammation and congestion at 2 weeks after X-ray treatment. Also, prominent increase in cells expressing the cell surface markers, Gr+CD...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Arctigenin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats
Abstract Arctigenin (ATG) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of ATG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. In the present study, our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of ATG on LPS-induced ALI in rats. We found that ATG pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interl...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Association of Interleukin-6-572C/G Gene Polymorphism and Serum or Cerebrospinal Fluid Interleukin-6 Level with Enterovirus 71 Encephalitis in Chinese Han Patients with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
This study was carried out in 59 Chinese Han patients with EV71 encephalitis, 128 EV71-related HFMD without complications, and 232 controls. The IL-6-572C/G polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism gene analysis. Serum or CSF IL-6 levels were determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patients with EV71 encephalitis had a higher frequency of IL-6-572GG/GC genotype compared to the patients with EV71-related HFMD without encephalitis complications (40.7 vs. 15.6 %, odds ratio (OR) = 3.70, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.83–7.50, p...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ox-LDL Upregulates CRP Expression Through the IGF2 Pathway in THP-1 Macrophages
Abstract C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant protein that not only plays a predictive role in determining atherogenesis risk but also represents an active participant in atherogenesis onset and progression. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have reported that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) plays a significant role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of Ox-LDL on CRP expression remains unclear. THP-1 macrophages were treated with 0, 25, 50, or 100 μg/mL of Ox-LDL for 48 h, or 50 μg/mL of Ox-LDL for 0, 12, 24, and...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protease Inhibitor Reduces Airway Response and Underlying Inflammation in Cockroach Allergen-Induced Murine Model
Abstract Protease(s) enhances airway inflammation and allergic cascade. In the present study, effect of a serine protease inhibitor was evaluated in mouse model of airway disease. Mice were sensitized with cockroach extract (CE) or Per a 10 and treated with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) 1 h before or after challenge to measure airway response. Mice were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, and lung to evaluate inflammation. AEBSF treatment significantly reduced the AHR in allergen-challenged mice in dose-dependent manner (p ≤ 0.01). IgE (p ...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chloroquine Differentially Modulates Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells in Response to Inactivated Staphylococcus aureus
This study aimed to investigate the effect of CQ on proinflammatory cytokine expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with heat-inactivated Staphylococcus aureus cells (SAC). The results showed that CQ treatment reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in culture medium but increased intracellular protein expression of TNF-α and CCL2 in SAC-activated cells. However, CQ showed differential effects on their messenger RNA (mRNA) levels: it reduced IL-6 mRNA expression, increased CCL2 mRNA levels, but had no effect on TNF-α mRNA. The SAC-activated i...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rat Mesangial Cells via Inhibition of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) Signaling Pathway
This study was conducted to investigate effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on septic AKI in vitro. ALA of 200 or 400 μM was used to pretreat rat HBZY-1 mesangial cells before commencement of 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data indicated that ALA pretreatment reduced LPS-stimulated release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1 beta (IL-1β), as well as IL-6, in HBZY-1 cell supernatant. Moreover, LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was inhibited by ALA pretreatment, and consequently, the secretion levels...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Alteration and Clinical Significance of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg Cells in Patients with Multiple Myeloma
Abstract Immunological T cells and associated cytokines have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). However, the abnormal immune imbalance of T lymphocyte subsets on MM remains unknown. We investigate the proportions of T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2/Th17/T regulatory (Treg) cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by flow cytometry (FCM), and serum levels of relevant cytokines in MM patients and controls were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of T-bet, STAT6, RORgammat, and Foxp3 was measured by real-time quantitative poly...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-155 Deficiency Promotes Nephrin Acetylation and Attenuates Renal Damage in Hyperglycemia-Induced Nephropathy
In conclusion, miR-155 deficiency promotes nephrin acetylation and attenuates renal damage in hyperglycemia-induced nephropathy. This was associated with inhibited IL-17 production through enhancement of SOCS1 expression. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Inflammatory Marker Levels and Pulmonary Tuberculosis Severity
Abstract We aimed to investigate the correlation between red cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and other inflammatory markers with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) severity. Seventy patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were compared with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls. The mean age of PTB patients was 50.4 ± 21.8 years. There were no differences in terms of age, gender, and smoking history between PTB patients and controls. Patients with advanced PTB had a significantly higher white blood cell count, neutrophil cou...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Secretoglobin 3A2 Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation Through Inhibition of ERK and JNK Pathways in Bronchial Epithelial Cells
Abstract Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, previously known as uteroglobin-related protein 1, is a secreted protein highly expressed in the epithelial cells of the airways. It has been demonstrated that SCGB3A2 is involved in allergic airway inflammation such as bronchial asthma. However, the role of SCGB3A2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation has yet to be reported. The goal of this study was therefore to clarify the role of SCGB3A2 in LPS-induced airway inflammation. We stimulated BEAS-2B, human bronchial epithelial cells, with LPS and analyzed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tumor necrosis facto...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Genetic Variants of Interleukin 17A Are Functionally Associated with Increased Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in elderly populations worldwide. Inflammation, among many factors, has been suggested to play an important role in AMD pathogenesis. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we examined two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2275913G/A and rs3748067C/T, in the IL-17A gene between AMD patients and healthy controls. Results showed that rs2275913AA genotype and rs3748067TT genotype were associated with inc...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Experimental Asthma by Inducing Polarization of Alveolar Macrophages
Abstract The reparative and immunoregulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have made them attractive candidates for cellular therapy. However, the underlying mechanism of the effects of transplanted MSCs on allergic asthma remains elusive. Here, we show that administration of MSCs isolated from human bone marrow provoked a pronounced polarization in alveolar macrophages to M2 subtypes, rather than induced an increase in the total macrophage number, and efficiently inhibited hallmark features of asthma, including airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic accumulation. Moreover, transforming grow...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Estrogenic Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Modulate the Production of Inflammatory Mediators and Cell Viability of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages
Abstract Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that act as competitive inhibitors of estrogen in the endocrine system. By disrupting the endocrine system, EDCs can cause severe disabilities and diseases, including cancers and altered sexual development. Although the influence of these molecules in the endocrine system is evident, the effects of EDCs on the immune system as well as their cytotoxicity have been poorly examined. Therefore, we selected 21 EDCs that are commonly found in Korean ecosystems, such as surface waters and effluents, and studied their immunologic effects b...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammatory Responses by Selenium in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in Primary Culture
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Association Between TSLP Polymorphisms and Eczema in Japanese Women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study
We examined the association between thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases were 188 women who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Controls were 565 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria, who had not been diagnosed with asthma, atopic eczema, and/or allergic rhinitis by a doctor and who had no asthma as defined by the European Community Respiratory Health Survey criteria and no rhinoconjunctivitis according to the ISAAC criteria. Compared with women with the TT g...
Source: Inflammation - February 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Tannic Acid on the Ischemic Brain Tissue of Rats
Abstract Many studies of brain ischemia have shown the role played by massive ischemia-induced production of reactive oxygen species, the main mechanism of neuronal death. However, currently, there is no treatment choice to prevent cell death triggered by reactive oxygen species. In our study, we researched the effects of tannic acid, an antioxidant, on the ischemic tissue of rats with induced middle cerebral artery occlusion. The animals were divided into three groups of eight animals. The sham group were only administered 10 % ethanol intraperitoneally, the second group had middle cerebral artery occlusion indu...
Source: Inflammation - February 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate Through Inhibition of Phospholipase A2/Arachidonic Acid Pathway
Abstract Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) has been known to possess various pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antiviral, and hepatoprotective activities. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG), a magnesium salt of 18-α glycyrrhizic acid stereoisomer, is clinically used for the treatment of inflammatory liver diseases. However, the mechanism by which MgIG exerts its anti-inflammatory effects remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory potential of MgIG in phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway and release of the pathway-generated inf...
Source: Inflammation - February 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Celecoxib Combined with Diacerein Effectively Alleviates Osteoarthritis in Rats via Regulating JNK and p38MAPK Signaling Pathways
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) has long been a difficult to overcome joint disease for medical workers. However, there is still a lack of effective treatments for OA. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the treatment effect of celecoxib (CLX) combined with diacerein (DC) on OA and delineate the underlying molecular mechanism. The OA model was established by using rats, and OA rats were treated with either CLX alone, DC alone, and CLX combined with DC. The results showed that, as compared with a single treatment of CLX or DC, CLX combined with DC markedly attenuated OA and inhibited the levels of inflammatory ...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Slows Down the Progression of Osteoarthritis by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Production and Metalloproteinase Synthesis
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common arthritis and also one of the major causes of joint pain in elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on degenerated-related changes in osteoarthritis (OA). SW1353 cells were stimulated with IL-1β to establish the chondrocyte injury model in vitro. PQQ was administrated into SW1353 cultures 1 h before IL-1β treatment. Amounts of MMP-1, MMP-13, P65, IκBα, ERK, p-ERK, P38, and p-P38 were measured via western blot. The production of NO was determined by Griess reaction assay and reflected by the iNOS leve...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Extracellular Kynurenine Levels, as Detected by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
In this study, we investigated the influence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on KYN production by cultured endothelial cells. KYN and tryptophan (TRP) concentrations in cell supernatants were simultaneously measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a fluorescence detector (FLD) and an ultraviolet detector (UVD). Our results revealed that lipopolysaccharide-stimulated endothelial cells produced more KYN, which was accompanied by a parallel decrease in TRP. When co-cultured with BMSCs, KYN and TRP production were significantly decreased compared to lipopolysaccharide (LP...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Macrophage-Microglia Networks Drive M1 Microglia Polarization After Mycobacterium Infection
In this study, we found that BV2 treated with conditioned media from cultures of macrophages infected with Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) induced the expression of M1 phenotypic genes including iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL10 but reduced that of M2 phenotypic genes such as Arginase 1, Ym1, and CD163. These results suggest that polarization of microglia is partly mediated through macrophage-microglia interactions as a priming signal. Overall, these results provide new insights into the modulatory mechanisms of microglial polarization, thereby possibly facilitating the development of new therapies for CNS-TB infect...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effect of Orientin on Secretory Group IIA Phospholipase A 2
Abstract It is well known that the expression level of secretory group IIA phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is elevated in inflammatory diseases and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) upregulates the expression of sPLA2-IIA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Orientin, a C-glycosyl flavonoid, is known to have anxiolytic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory activity. Here, orientin was examined for its effects on the expression and activity of sPLA2-IIA in HUVECs and mouse. Prior treatment of cells or mouse with orientin inhibited LPS-induced expression and activity of sPLA2-IIA. And orientin suppressed the act...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Effect of Glycyrrhizic Acid on an Experimental Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats
Abstract Cerebral ischemia is still one of the most important topics in neurosciences. Our study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective and anti-oxidant effects of glycyrrhizic acid on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided equally into three groups. A middle cerebral artery occlusion model was performed in this study where sham and glycyrrhizic acid were administered intraperitoneally following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Group I was evaluated as control. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) levels were analyzed biochemically on...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Triptolide Protects Against Ischemic Stroke in Rats
In this study, we investigated the effects of triptolide on cultured neuronal cell line in vitro and experimental ischemic stroke in vivo. Oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulated SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with triptolide. In vivo, rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 23 h. Results of this study showed that triptolide treatment reduced the OGD-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis and blocked TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and p38MAPK in SH-SY5Y cells. Intraperitoneal injection of triptolide showed significant n...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Embelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation and Ameliorates Organ Injuries in Septic Rats Through Downregulating STAT3 and NF-κB Pathways
Abstract Current evidence shows that the majority of the damage induced during sepsis is pursuant to induction and overproduction of endogenous cytokines. Embelin has been reported to suppress cytokine expressions in inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of embelin on cecal and ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced rat sepsis. Single-dose administration of embelin 1 h after surgery significantly improved survival of rats with CLP-induced sepsis. In addition, embelin treatment reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, ...
Source: Inflammation - February 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Salidroside on Myocardial Injury In Vivo In Vitro via Regulation of Nox/NF-κB/AP1 Pathway
Abstract Salidroside (Sal), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from a popular traditional Chinese medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea L., possesses multiple pharmacological actions. This aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Sal against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia. Fifty male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized equally to five groups: control group, ISO group, Sal (20 mg/kg; 40 mg/kg) treatments groups, and propranolol (Pro, 15 mg/kg) group. Rats were treated for 14 days and then given ISO (80 mg/kg) for 2 consecutive days by subcutaneous injection. In vitro, we used H9C2 cells...
Source: Inflammation - February 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Specific Roles of JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway in Sepsis
Abstract The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is a principal signaling pathway for the signal transduction of many pivotal cytokines involved in sepsis. Binding of cytokines to corresponding receptors can activate associated JAK kinases, which selectively phosphorylate STATs. Activated STATs then translocate to the nucleus and play a critical role in the transcription of target genes. During the past several years, significant progress has been made in the understanding of the roles of JAK/STAT pathway in sepsis. The aims of this review are to describe the present kn...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Simvastatin Does Not Reduce Chemokine Production in Obesity Without Comorbidities
ABSTRACT Obesity is considered a subchronic inflammatory disease with high risk of comorbidity development. Obesity-associated inflammation originates from adipose tissue itself, which secretes a panel of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Therefore, we enrolled 23 obese women without comorbidity and evaluated if simvastatin 20 mg/day dose therapy for 6 weeks (n = 15) may modulate plasma levels of inflammatory CXCL-10, CCL-2, CXCL-9, CXCL-8, and CCL-5. A significant decrease of cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) after simvastatin treatment was ob...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Anti-inflammatory Effect of the CXCR4 Antagonist-N15P Peptide and Its Modulation on Inflammation-Associated Mediators in LPS-Induced PBMC
This study aims to clarify the anti-inflammatory potency of N15P polypeptide on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of N15P polypeptide by the LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) model and measured the level of inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MyD88, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of inflammatory factors were analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) microarra...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Esculin Inhibits the Inflammation of LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice Via Regulation of TLR/NF-κB Pathways
In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of esculin (ESC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS, and ESC (20 and 40 mg/kg) was given orally 1 h prior to LPS administration. After 6 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. ESC pretreatment decreased LPS-induced evident lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and lung myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, pretreatment with ESC inhibited inflammatory cells and proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (T...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidative Activities of Safranal in the Reduction of Renal Dysfunction and Damage that Occur in Diabetic Nephropathy
In this study, safranal was found to reduce dysfunction (lowered BUN and CREA levels) and tissue damage (histopathological data) that occur in renal tissue, by means of its both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the light of these results, we suggest that safranal contributes to the development of new treatment protocols in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and its complication diabetic nephropathy. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Analysis of Programmed Death-1 in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis
Abstract Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory co-receptor that is highly expressed in T lymphocytes that has been shown to downregulate inflammatory responses in several inflammatory diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Yet, the role of PD-1 in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has not been studied. In order to fill this gap, we measured the expression levels of PD-1 in peripheral T cells from patients with active disease. Twenty patients and fifteen age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited. The percentage of CD3+PD-1+ T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Despite no...
Source: Inflammation - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CD4 + , CD25 + , FOXP3 + T Regulatory Cell Levels in Obese, Asthmatic, Asthmatic Obese, and Healthy Children
Abstract The aim of this prospective case control study is to determine CD4+, CD25+, and FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) and T helper cells (Ths) in obese, asthmatic, asthmatic obese, and healthy children. Obese (n = 40), asthmatic (n = 40), asthmatic obese (n = 40), and healthy children (n = 40) were included in this study. Blood samples collected from children were marked with CD4, CD25, ve Foxp3 in order to detect Tregs and Ths by flow cytometric method. Statistical analyses were performed. p ≤ 0.05 was chosen as meaningful threshold. Tregs exhibiting anti-inflammatory nature were signif...
Source: Inflammation - February 6, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Aspalathin and Nothofagin from Rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ) In Vitro and In Vivo
Abstract Aspalathin (Asp) and nothofagin (Not) are two major active dihydrochalcones found in green rooibos, which have been reported for their anti-oxidant activity. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of Asp and Not against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated vascular inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory activities of Asp and Not were determined by measuring permeability, monocytes adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in LPS-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. We found that each compound inhibited LPS-...
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

FIZZ1 Promotes Airway Remodeling in Asthma Through the PTEN Signaling Pathway
This study indicates that targeting FIZZ1 and/or PTEN may be a new therapeutic strategy for asthma. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Local Inflammation Alters MMP-2 and MMP-9 Gelatinase Expression Associated with the Severity of Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: a Rat Model Study
In this study, we verified that Nif treatment could lead to gingival overgrowth in rats and that gingival inflammation played a pro-proliferative role in NIGO development. Additionally, we examined the temporal expression of gelatinases on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 40 during NIGO development. The aim was to investigate whether MMP-2 and MMP-9 played significant roles in regulating NIGO development and progression. MMP-2 gene expression was not altered by Nif treatment alone but was significantly inhibited by Nif treatment for 30 days in the presence of local inflammation. However, no significant alterations in MMP-2 prot...
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The NR3C1 Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms May Modulate the TGF-beta mRNA Expression in Asthma Patients
Abstract Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) are basic drugs in therapy of a number of diseases, including chronic diseases of the respiratory system. They are the most important anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of asthma. GCs after binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) form the complex (transcription factor), which acts on promoter and regulatory parts of genes enhancing the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins and decreasing the proinflammatory protein synthesis, including numerous cytokines mediating inflammation in the course of asthma. Non-sensitivity or resistance to GCs favours an increase in the T...
Source: Inflammation - February 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Increased Plasma IL-17F Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Are Responsive to Methotrexate, Anti-TNF, and T Cell Costimulatory Modulation
Abstract The aims of this study are to compare plasma levels of IL17A, A/F, and F biomarkers in RA patients versus controls, and to determine responsiveness to methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNFs, and abatacept. We selected plasma samples from RA cohorts consisting of a cross-sectional RA cohort (N = 78) not receiving DMARDs at the time of sampling, as well as from longitudinal drug start cohorts (N = 71 patients) with pre/post samples including anti-TNF, abatacept, and MTX-treated patients. We assayed IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL17-A/F using a highly sensitive immunoassay system. Plasma levels of IL-17A, IL-17A/F, a...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Relevance of the Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 (MyD88) on RANKL, OPG, and Nod Expressions Induced by TLR and IL-1R Signaling in Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
We examined the role of MyD88 on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) activation and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod) induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-1 beta, and their effect on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) production in bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC). RANKL, Nod1, Nod2, NF-κB, and p38 protein levels were determined by Western blot. Nod2 was stimulated with muramyl dipeptide (MDP) prior to TLR4 stimulation with LPS. MyD88 deficiency markedly inhibited RANKL expression afte...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oral Administration of Saccharomyces boulardii Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats via Reducing Intestinal Permeability and Modulating Gut Microbial Composition
Abstract To investigate the effects of orally administrated Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on the progress of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis, 34 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including the control group (n = 8), the cirrhotic group (n = 10), the preventive group (n = 8), and the treatment group (n = 8). Results showed that the liver expression levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (Col1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine ami...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Attenuation of Morphine Analgesic Tolerance by Rosuvastatin in Naïve and Morphine Tolerance Rats
Abstract Recent studies suggested that statins have anti-inflammatory effects beyond their lipid-lowering properties. Since inflammation in the central nervous system was highly related to morphine tolerance, we sought to investigate whether statins could affect morphine tolerance by mediating glia-derived proinflammatory cytokines secretion. We have undertaken two separate studies: Firstly, we determined the effect of rosuvastatin on naïve rats during induction of morphine tolerance. Secondly, we investigated whether rosuvastation could attenuate the morphine analgesic tolerance in rats that the morphine tolera...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Recombinant Human PDCD5 (rhPDCD5) in a Rat Collagen-Induced Model of Arthritis
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant human PDCD5 (rhPDCD5) in a rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. We find that vaccination of collagen II (CII) induced CIA rats with rhPDCD5 significantly delayed the occurrence and reduced the severity of CIA rats. rhPDCD5 also restored the loss of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and decreased the population of Th1 and Th17 in CIA rats. Simultaneously, rhPDCD5 treatment suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ)) and increased the secr...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research