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Riparin B, a Synthetic Compound Analogue of Riparin, Inhibits the Systemic Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in Mice
Abstract The aim of our study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-oxidant action of Riparin B in vivo. We performed experiments in which we induced paw edema by carrageenan and other mediators, carrageenan-induced peritonitis and the level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), malondialdehyde (MDA) acid, and glutathione (GSH) from the peritoneal fluid. We also performed behavior tests such as acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced linking, and the hot plate test. Among the doses tested of the Riparin B (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg), the dos...
Source: Inflammation - July 3, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lymphoid-Like Structures with Distinct B Cell Areas in Kidney Allografts are not Predictive for Graft Rejection. A Non-human Primate Study
Abstract Kidney allograft biopsies were analyzed for the presence of B cell clusters/aggregates using CD20 staining. Few B cells were found in the diffuse interstitial infiltrates, but clusters of B cells were found in nodular infiltrates. These nodular infiltrates were smaller shortly after transplantation, and their size increased over time. At the time of clinical rejection, the nodules often presented as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) with lymphoid-like follicles. The presence of small B cell clusters during the first 2 months after transplantation was not associated with early rejection. Even in animals ...
Source: Inflammation - July 3, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

KPNA2 Contributes to the Inflammatory Processes in Synovial Tissue of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and SW982 Cells
Abstract Karyopherin-α2 (KPNA2) functions as an adaptor that transports several proteins to the nucleus. We investigated the function and possible mechanisms of KPNA2 involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed the protein expression of KPNA2 increased in synovial tissue of RA patients compared with the healthy controls. Double immunofluorescent staining indicated that KPNA2 co-localized with T cells, macrophage-like synoviocytes, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and neutrophils in synovial tissue of RA patients. Moreover, the expression of KPNA2 in SW982 cells was increas...
Source: Inflammation - July 2, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cytokine Responses to Specific Immunotherapy in House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Rhinitis Patients
Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only immunomodulatory treatment that may alter the natural course of allergic disease. However, cytokine responses accompanying sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) responder phenotypes have not been fully understood. Herein, we examined the level of crucial plasma cytokines during SLIT and evaluated whether their changes correlated to symptom scores. We observed that the levels of interleukin (IL)-17 and complement components C3a and C5a as well as IL-4 at year 3 of SLIT were significantly decreased than those at baseline. In contrast, there was no significant difference...
Source: Inflammation - July 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fusion Peptides CPU1 and CPU2 Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinases and Protect Mice from Endotoxin Shock Within a Strict Time Window
Abstract Endotoxin shock induction in mice is a commonly used animal model to evaluate the protective effect of biologically active reagents. After an lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulus, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are rapidly degranulated and released by neutrophils, aside other enzymes and effector molecules. MMPs cleave extracellular matrix components and cytokines, and such processes contribute to shock syndrome development. CPU1 and CPU2 are two peptide MMP inhibitors with different in vitro IC50 values to several key enzymes, including MMP-8 and MMP-9. In vivo wo...
Source: Inflammation - June 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phospholipid Incorporation of Non-Methylene-Interrupted Fatty Acids (NMIFA) in Murine Microglial BV-2 Cells Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Mediator Production
In conclusion, Δ7-ETrA, PNA, and SCA are anti-inflammatory NMIFA that may be useful in suppressing in vitro immune responses involved in neural inflammation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Salidroside Mitigates Sepsis-Induced Myocarditis in Rats by Regulating IGF-1/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling
Abstract Sepsis-induced myocardial injury (SIMI) is caused by various mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salidroside (Sal) on SIMI and its mechanisms in rats. The sepsis model was established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (15 mg/kg in sterile saline). Sal decreased the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), whereas the expressions of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling-related proteins, such as IGF-1 and its corresponding receptor...
Source: Inflammation - June 24, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ameliorative Effect of Vicenin-2 and Scolymoside on TGFBIp-Induced Septic Responses
In this study, we investigated the antiseptic effects and underlying mechanisms of vicenin-2 and scolymoside, two active compounds in C. subternata against TGFBIp-mediated septic responses in HUVECs and mice. The anti-inflammatory activities of vicenin-2 or scolymoside were determined by measuring permeability, human neutrophils adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in TGFBIp-activated HUVECs and mice. According to the results, vicenin-2 or scolymoside effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced release of TGFBIp and suppressed TGFBIp-mediated septic responses, such as hyperpermeability, ...
Source: Inflammation - June 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Disturbed Th17/Treg Balance in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of Th17 and Treg cells in the peripheral blood of patients with NSCLC. Blood samples were collected from 19 patients with NSCLC and 19 healthy donors. Samples were processed to detect CD4+IL-17+ Th17 cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells by flow cytometry, and related gene expressions were assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-23, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis (ELISA). The frequency of circulati...
Source: Inflammation - June 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Analysis of ADRB2 (Arg16Gly) Gene Variant with Susceptibility, Pharmacogenetic Response and Disease Severity in South Indian Asthmatics
Abstract β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) plays a crucial role in asthma pathophysiology by regulating, processes of the lung function, and clinical response to bronchodilators. The +46G>A- Gly16Arg polymorphism in the gene encoding β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) has been associated with receptor non-responsiveness after β2-agonist exposure. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the possible association of Gly16Arg polymorphism with asthma susceptibility, pharmacogenetic response to Salbutamol, and varying degrees of disease severity. Three hundred ninety-eight clinically diagnosed patients and 456 heal...
Source: Inflammation - June 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ox-LDL Upregulates IL-6 Expression by Enhancing NF-κB in an IGF2-Dependent Manner in THP-1 Macrophages
Abstract Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is well established as a vital factor in determining the risk of coronary heart disease and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, accumulating evidences have shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can promote IL-6 expression in macrophages. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of how ox-LDL upregulates IL-6 expression remains largely unexplained. We found that the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IL-6 was upregulated at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in a d...
Source: Inflammation - June 12, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies Induce Macrophage Subset Disequilibrium in RA Patients
Abstract We used samples from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to examine whether Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) alter macrophage subset distribution and promote RA development. Macrophage subset distributions and interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and IRF5 expressions were analyzed. ACPAs were purified by affinity column. After RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients’ macrophages were cocultured with ACPAs, macrophage subsets and IRF4 and IRF5 expressions were measured. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were transfected into ACPA-activated cells to suppress IRF4 or IRF5. Fluorescence-activated cel...
Source: Inflammation - June 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Astragalin Attenuates Allergic Inflammation in a Murine Asthma Model
Abstract The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of astragalin (AG) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Our study demonstrated that AG inhibited OVA-induced increases in eosinophil count; IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IgE were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that AG substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Western blot analysis demonstrated that AG treatments markedly inhibited OVA-induced SOCS-3...
Source: Inflammation - June 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effect of Coumaric Acid on Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury of Sciatic Nerve in Rats
Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the effect of coumaric acid on sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion (SNI) injury in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (no medication or surgical procedure), SNI group, SNI + coumaric acid (CA) group, and SNI + methylprednisolone (MP) group. Ischemia was achieved by abdominal aorta clamping, and all animals were sacrificed 24 h after ischemia. Harvested sciatic nerve segments were investigated histopathologically and for tissue biochemistry. A significant decrease in MDA, an increase in NRF1 levels, and increase in SOD activity...
Source: Inflammation - June 7, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Rosiglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-γ Agonist, Attenuates Inflammation Via NF-κB Inhibition in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Peritonitis
ABSTRACT We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritonitis rat model. LPS was intraperitoneally injected into rats to establish peritonitis model. Male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to normal saline (the solvent of LPS), LPS, rosiglitazone plus LPS, and rosiglitazone alone. A simple peritoneal equilibrium test was performed with 20 ml 4.25 % peritoneal dialysis fluid. We measured the leukocyte count in dialysate and ultrafiltration volume. Peritoneal membrane histochemical staining ...
Source: Inflammation - June 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CCR5 Blockade Suppresses Melanoma Development Through Inhibition of IL-6-Stat3 Pathway via Upregulation of SOCS3
Abstract In order to understand how tumor cells can escape immune surveillance mechanisms and thus develop antitumor therapies, it is critically important to investigate the mechanisms by which the immune system interacts with the tumor microenvironment. In our current study, we found that chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) neutralization resulted in reduced melanoma tumor size, decreased percentage of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and increased proportion of cluster of differentiation (CD)3+ T cells in tumor tissues. Suppressive activity of MDSCs on CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cell proliferation is s...
Source: Inflammation - June 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-hyperalgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Alternanthera Maritima Extract and 2″-O-α- l -rhamnopyranosylvitexin in Mice
In conclusion, this study demonstrated that EEAM is an anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic agent, and the results suggested that 2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosylvitexin is responsible for the effects of EEAM and the mechanism involves the TNF pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Roles of Egr-2 in Autoimmune Diseases
Abstract Being a member of the early growth response (Egr) family of transcription factors, Egr-2 is expressed in a variety of cell types of the immune system. Recent findings imply that Egr-2 is important in the development and function of T helper (Th) 17 cell, regulatory T (Treg) cell, as well as dendritic cell (DC). Although these cells perform significantly in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis, the roles of Egr-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases can not be neglected. In this article, we will discuss recent findi...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Preventive Effects of Protocatechuic Acid on LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Gingival Fibroblasts via Activating PPAR-γ
In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of PCA is associated with activating PPAR-γ, thereby inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Supplemental Carvacrol Can Reduce the Severity of Inflammation by Influencing the Production of Mediators of Inflammation
ABSTRACT Carvacrol (CVC) is a monoterpenic phenol, which is present in the essential oil of various plants. It has been widely used both as antibacterial feed additive and food preservative. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the prophylactic effects of carvacrol on inflammatory mediators of sepsis. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 levels as proinflammatory markers were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined in the sample by using thiobarbituric acid test. Nitric oxide (NO) levels and arginase activity and also all measurements...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Cordycepin on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Inflammation by Strengthening Treg Response and Suppressing Th17 Responses in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice
Abstract The aim of the current study was to use a mouse model of allergic asthma to investigate whether cordycepin has antiasthmatic effects, and if so, to determine the mechanism of these effects. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (Dex, 2 mg/kg), and cordycepin (20–40 mg/kg). Histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin staining, OVA-specific serum and BALF IgE levels and Treg/Th17 cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and RORγt and Foxp3 were evaluated by western blot. Our study demonstrated tha...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alterations of T Helper Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Sepsis, Severe Sepsis, and Septic Shock: A Prospective Observational Study
In this study, the Th1, Th2, Treg transcription factors, and related cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 levels of sepsis and severe sepsis patients in peripheral blood were significantly higher than those of the normal controls. Except for IL-17, the T-bet, GATA-3, and IFN-γ levels of septic shock patients were lower than those of sepsis patients. We also observed that the proportions of Th17/Treg in the sepsis and septic shock groups were inversed. From the above, the inflammatory response especially the adaptive immune response is still activated in sepsis and severe sepsis, but significant immunosuppression was develope...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of JEUD-38, a New Sesquiterpene Lactone from Inula japonica Thunb, on LPS-Induced iNOS Expression in RAW264.7 Cells
ABSTRACT We isolated JEUD-38, a new sesquiterpene lactone from Inula japonica Thunb. JEUD-38 dramatically attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Consistent with this finding, the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was blocked by JEUD-38 in a concentration-dependent manner. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined the effect of JEUD-38 on LPS-stimulated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation, inhibitory factor-κB (IκB) phosphorylation, and degradation. JEUD-38 reduced the translocation of p65, via abrogating IκB-α phosphorylation and degrad...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Overexpression and Potential Regulatory Role of IL-17F in Pathogenesis of Chronic Periodontitis
This study indicates that IL-17F may be involved in pathogenesis of periodontitis like IL-17A. The role of IL-17F in disease pathogenesis needs to be further investigated. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Ergosterol, Isolated from Scleroderma Polyrhizum Pers., on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Acute Lung Injury
Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of ergosterol, isolated from Scleroderma polyrhizum Pers., in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by LPS (0.5 mg/kg), and ergosterol (25 and 50 mg/kg) was administrated orally 1 h prior to LPS administration. Ergosterol pretreatment at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg decreased LPS-induced lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio. In addition, pretreatment with ergosterol inhibited inflammatory cells and proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleuk...
Source: Inflammation - April 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Systemic Lipopolysaccharide Administration-Induced Cognitive Impairments are Reversed by Erythropoietin Treatment in Mice
In conclusion, our data suggested that treatment with EPO reduced the mortality rate and ameliorated cognitive impairments in an animal model of SAE. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Efficacy of Sodium Aescinate on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats
This study is aimed to evaluate the potential effects of sodium aescinate (SA, the sodium salt of aescin) on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. An excision skin wound was created in diabetic rats, and the wounded rats were divided into three groups: I) control group, II) gel-treated group, and III) SA-treated group. The control group wounds received topically normal saline once daily for 19 days. The gel-treated and SA-treated wounds received topically 400 μl of pluronic F-127 gel (25 %) and 400 μl of SA (0.3 %) in pluronic gel, respectively, once daily for 19 days. SA application in diabetic ra...
Source: Inflammation - April 24, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice
Abstract The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 106 SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative ...
Source: Inflammation - April 24, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Effect of Syringic Acid on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats
Abstract Acute arterial occlusions via different vascular pathologies are the main causes of spinal cord ischemia. We investigated neuroprotective effects of syringic acid on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: (I) sham-operated control rats, (II) spinal cord ischemia group, (III) spinal cord ischemia group performed syringic acid, and (IV) spinal cord ischemia group performed methylprednisolone intraperitoneally. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathologica...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NLRP3, a Double-edged Sword in Lung Injury Diseases
Abstract Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) plays a key role in lung injury diseases regulation, and its expression is increased in lung injury diseases. NLRP3 may be a good therapeutic target for lung injury diseases. The molecular mechanisms of NLRP3 in lung injury diseases remain unclear. It is a key to study the potential mechanism of NLRP3 during lung injury diseases, so that to exploit it as a good target for lung injury diseases therapy. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lysozyme Against HMGB1 in Human Endothelial Cells and in Mice
Abstract High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was recently shown to be an important extracellular mediator of severe vascular inflammatory disease, sepsis. Lysozyme protects us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection and binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with a high affinity. Here, we show, for the first time, the anti-septic effects of lysozyme in HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. The data showed that lysozyme posttreatment suppressed LPS-mediated release of HMGB1 and HMGB1-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement. Lysozyme also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability an...
Source: Inflammation - April 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intrathecal Injection of JWH-015 Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain Via Time-Dependent Modification of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Expression and Astrocytes Activity in Spinal Cord
Abstract Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) agonists display potential analgesic effects in acute and neuropathic pain. However, its complex cellular and molecular mechanisms in bone cancer pain remain unclear. And less relevant reports concerned its time-dependent effects on the long-lasting modifications of behavior, spinal inflammatory cytokines levels, astrocytes activity induced by bone cancer pain. A rat model of bone cancer pain induced by intra-tibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells was utilized. Pain behaviors at different time points were assessed by ambulatory pain scores and paw w...
Source: Inflammation - April 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Potential Role of Hepatitis C Virus Alternate Reading Frame Protein in Negative Regulation of T-Bet Gene Expression
Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and has led to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in a majority of infected individuals. We have previously demonstrated that the HCV alternate reading frame protein (F protein) is related to Th1/Th2 bias in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, and we aimed to explore the relative molecular mechanisms here. A total of 104 cases including CHC patients and healthy donors were enrolled. T-bet and GATA-3 expression levels were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The levels of signal transducer and activator of transcriptio...
Source: Inflammation - April 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Upregulation of PTP1B After Rat Spinal Cord Injury
Abstract Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, attaches to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via its C-terminal tail. Previous studies have reported that PTP1B participates in various signal transduction pathways in many human diseases, including diabetes, cancers, osteoporosis, and obesity. It also plays an important role in the ER stress. ER stress induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) was reported to result in cell apoptosis. Till now, the role of PTP1B in the injury of the central nervous system remains unknown. In the present study, we built an adult rat SCI ...
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Phosphorylated Cx43 on PKC Mediated Ser368 in Lung Injury Induced by Seawater Inhalation
In conclusion, seawater aspiration causes p-Cx43 expression by PKC pathway, which is involved in the on come and development of pulmonary inflammation and lung edema. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Decreased UBASH3A mRNA Expression Levels in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Abstract Increasing evidence has demonstrated the association between UBASH3A gene and multiple autoimmune diseases (ADs). The aim of our study was to explore the potential effect of UBASH3A messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and its role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). UBASH3A mRNA levels were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in total RNA, isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 32 SLE patients and 30 healthy donors with TRIzol Reagent. The expression level of UBASH3A mRNA was significantly reduced in PBMCs...
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Identification of Novel Inflammatory Cytokines and Contribution of Keratinocyte-Derived Chemokine to Inflammation in Response to Vibrio vulnificus Infection in Mice
Abstract Currently, only tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin family cytokines have been found to be elicited in Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus)-infected animal models and humans. However, multiple other cytokines are also involved in the immune and inflammatory responses to foreign microorganism infection. Antibody array technology, unlike traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is able to detect multiple cytokines at one time. Therefore, in this study, we examined the proinflammatory cytokine profile in the serum and liver homogenate samples of bacterial-infected mice using antib...
Source: Inflammation - April 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Analysis of Programmed Death-1 in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 6, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Reduced Expression of miR-23a Suppresses A20 in TLR-stimulated Macrophages
Abstract High levels of miR-23a expression in human primary macrophages suggested that miR-23a might have an important role in innate immune cells. Therefore, we investigated whether miR-23a regulates the secretion of cytokines by immune cells. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of miR-23a was reduced in toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated macrophages. By targeting A20, miR-23a could affect NF-κB activity and the expression of downstream NF-κB-target genes that encode proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. In summary, our study describes a novel role for miR-23a in the regulation of inflamma...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Asthmatic Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma Through Relegating Th1/Th2
Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-asthma effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) and its possible mechanisms. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and Rb1 (10 and 20 mg/kg). Airway resistance (RI) was measured; histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; Th1/Th2, ovalbumin (OVA)-specific serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgE levels were evaluated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and T-bet/GATA3 proteins were evaluated by Western blot. Our study demonstrated that R...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Punicalagin Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice
In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that punicalagin protects against LPS-induced ARDS in mice. The underlying mechanisms may include inhibition of TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Vitamin E on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats
Abstract Vitamin E (vit-E) is a lipophilic antioxidant, and its anti-inflammatory activity is still not full characterized. Thus, our goal was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of repeated vit-E treatment in the arthritis induced by the intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). We observed an increase in arthritis scores, interleukin-1β and H2O2 levels, neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and loss of function induced by intraplantar CFA injection. These effects were unaltered after 1 day, partially reversed after 3 days, and inhibited ...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Silymarin Attenuates Airway Inflammation Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Mice
In this study, we investigated the effects of silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the seeds and fruits of milk thistle, on CS-induced airway inflammation and oxidative stress in mice and the possible mechanisms. BALB/c mice were exposed to CS for 2 h twice daily, 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Silymarin (25, 50 mg/kg · day) was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before CS exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was acquired for cell counting and the detection of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Lung tissue was collected for histological examination, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay, superoxide d...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Aurora Kinase A Regulates M1 Macrophage Polarization and Plays a Role in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Abstract Macrophage polarization is a dynamic and integral process of tissue inflammation and remodeling. Here we demonstrate an important role of Aurora kinase A in the regulation of inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization. We found that there was an elevated expression of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages and inhibition of Aurora-A by small molecules or specific siRNA selectively led to the suppression of M1 polarization, sparing over the M2 macrophage differentiation. At the molecular level, we found that the effects of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages were mediated through the down-regulation of NF-κB pathway and subsequ...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MAPK and NF-κB Pathways Are Involved in Bisphenol A-Induced TNF-α and IL-6 Production in BV2 Microglial Cells
Abstract Microglial activation has been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane), known as a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is reported to perform both mimic- and anti-estrogen properties; however, whether it affects cytokine production or immune response in central nervous system remains unclear. The present study was aimed to explore whether BPA was involved in inflammatory action and to investigate the potential mechanisms in microglial cells. BV2, the murine microglial cell line, wa...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Recruitment of Gr1 + CD11b + F4/80 + Population in the Bone Marrow and Spleen by Irradiation-Induced Pulmonary Damage
Abstract Radiation-induced lung injury is a kind of sterile inflammation, which may lead to morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation activate the immune system is not well understood. In the present study, we have investigated the immunological responses induced by local irradiation-induced damage in mouse lung. The left lungs of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated at a high dose of 100 Gy. The histology of the lungs and spleen showed evidences of alveolar inflammation and congestion at 2 weeks after X-ray treatment. Also, prominent increase in cells expressing the cell surface markers, Gr+CD...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Arctigenin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats
Abstract Arctigenin (ATG) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of ATG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. In the present study, our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of ATG on LPS-induced ALI in rats. We found that ATG pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interl...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Association of Interleukin-6-572C/G Gene Polymorphism and Serum or Cerebrospinal Fluid Interleukin-6 Level with Enterovirus 71 Encephalitis in Chinese Han Patients with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
This study was carried out in 59 Chinese Han patients with EV71 encephalitis, 128 EV71-related HFMD without complications, and 232 controls. The IL-6-572C/G polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism gene analysis. Serum or CSF IL-6 levels were determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patients with EV71 encephalitis had a higher frequency of IL-6-572GG/GC genotype compared to the patients with EV71-related HFMD without encephalitis complications (40.7 vs. 15.6 %, odds ratio (OR) = 3.70, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.83–7.50, p...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ox-LDL Upregulates CRP Expression Through the IGF2 Pathway in THP-1 Macrophages
Abstract C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant protein that not only plays a predictive role in determining atherogenesis risk but also represents an active participant in atherogenesis onset and progression. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have reported that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) plays a significant role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of Ox-LDL on CRP expression remains unclear. THP-1 macrophages were treated with 0, 25, 50, or 100 μg/mL of Ox-LDL for 48 h, or 50 μg/mL of Ox-LDL for 0, 12, 24, and...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protease Inhibitor Reduces Airway Response and Underlying Inflammation in Cockroach Allergen-Induced Murine Model
Abstract Protease(s) enhances airway inflammation and allergic cascade. In the present study, effect of a serine protease inhibitor was evaluated in mouse model of airway disease. Mice were sensitized with cockroach extract (CE) or Per a 10 and treated with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) 1 h before or after challenge to measure airway response. Mice were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, and lung to evaluate inflammation. AEBSF treatment significantly reduced the AHR in allergen-challenged mice in dose-dependent manner (p ≤ 0.01). IgE (p ...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research