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Role of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 in the Immune Modulation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Abstract The underlying mechanisms of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on immune modulation to treat allergic diseases remain unclear. Here, we showed that the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is an important immune modulator expressed by MSCs, which is significantly increased by interferon-γ (IFN-γ). In addition, we observed that SOCS3 is a crucial mediator of the anti-proliferative and functional effects of MSCs on T cells and B cells. The immune modulation of MSCs through SOCS3 is mediated by cell–cell contacts. Moreover, SOCS3 could serve as an indicator to predict the potential immune modulatory...
Source: Inflammation - August 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of Colchicine on Platelet-Platelet and Platelet-Leukocyte Interactions: a Pilot Study in Healthy Subjects
Abstract The cardioprotective mechanisms of colchicine in patients with stable ischemic heart disease remain uncertain. We tested varying concentrations of colchicine on platelet activity in vitro and a clinically relevant 1.8-mg oral loading dose administered over 1 h in 10 healthy subjects. Data are shown as median [interquartile range]. Colchicine addition in vitro decreased light transmission platelet aggregation only at supratherapeutic concentrations but decreased monocyte- (MPA) and neutrophil-platelet aggregation (NPA) at therapeutic concentrations. Administration of 1.8 mg colchicine to healthy subjects...
Source: Inflammation - August 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Acetylsalicylic Acid Usage on Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Hemodialysis Patients
Abstract The aims of this study were to determine the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in hemodialysis (HD) patients and to examine the associations between these markers and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of participants. The study included 36 subjects who used 300 mg of ASA for 60 days. Inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed based on levels of biochemical markers. ASA usage promoted a decrease in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p = 0.01). The level of hydrogen peroxide increased after 30 days of use of ASA and subsequently ...
Source: Inflammation - August 28, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Icariin Attenuates High-cholesterol Diet Induced Atherosclerosis in Rats by Inhibition of Inflammatory Response and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, the present study indicated that icariin inhibited the HCD-induced dyslipidemia in rats, the mechanisms may be associated with the anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, and downregulation of p-p38 MAPK by icariin. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Determination of the Relationship Between rs4986790 and rs4986791 Variants of TLR4 Gene and Lung Cancer
The objective of our study is to determine the relationship between rs4986790(+896A/G) and rs4986791(+1196C/T) gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. PCR-RFLP technique was carried out to identify the genotypes in 100 control individuals and 160 lung cancer patients. DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples were amplified and digested with NcoI and HinfI then visualized. We did not find any difference between genotype frequencies between controls and patients (p > 0.05) in rs4986790. But a significant difference between control group and patients with lung cancer as for genotype frequencies (χ 2...
Source: Inflammation - August 24, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Imbalance Between Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells During Monophasic Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis
Abstract The aim of this study is to explore the dynamic changes in IL-17-expressing T cells (Th17)/Treg expression in monophasic experimental autoimmune uveitis (mEAU). mEAU was induced in Lewis rats with IRBP1177–1191 peptide and evaluated clinically and pathologically on days 9, 13, 18, 23, 28, 35, and 48. Lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes were subjected to flow cytometry to analyze the frequency of Th17/Treg cells. The levels of cytokines (IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-P...
Source: Inflammation - August 23, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alteration of the RANKL/RANK/OPG System in Periprosthetic Osteolysis with Septic Loosening
Abstract The pathogenesis of periprosthetic osteolysis with septic loosening remains incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether expression of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system is altered in septic interface membranes (SIMs). Seventeen cases with a SIM, 26 cases with an aseptic interface membrane (AIM), and 12 cases with a normal synovium (NS) were assessed. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively) were used to observe the microscopic morphology of three tissue conditions. Differences in RANKL, RANK, and OPG expression at the mRNA level were assessed by re...
Source: Inflammation - August 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Major Ozonated Autohemotherapy Preconditioning Ameliorates Kidney Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
The objective of the present study was to determine whether preischemic application of MOA would attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits. Twenty-four male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups, each including six animals: (1) Sham-operated group, (2) Ozone group (the MOA group without IRI), (3) IR group (60 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion), and (4) IR + MOA group (MOA group). The effects of MOA were examined by use of hematologic and biochemical parameters consisting of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), ische...
Source: Inflammation - August 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Apigenin on LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators and AP-1 Factors in Human Lung Epithelial Cells
Abstract Apigenin is one of the plant flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables, acting as an important nutraceutical component. It is recognized as a potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory molecule. In the present study, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and activator protein-1 (AP-1) factors in human lung A549 cells was investigated. The anti‐inflammatory activity of apigenin on LPS-induced inflammation was determined by analyzing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), ...
Source: Inflammation - August 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ghrelin Inhibits Interleukin-6 Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke Extract in the Bronchial Epithelial Cell Via NF-κB Pathway
Abstract Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway inflammation is the main pathogenesis of COPD. The present study was designed to evaluate whether ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, can affect the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE) and its possible mechanism. 16-HBE cells were pre-incubated with vehicle or ghrelin (0.1 to 1000 ng/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner, and then CSE (0 to 16 %) was added. The protein levels of IL-6 in the medium were determined by ELISA, and the mRNA e...
Source: Inflammation - August 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in the Lung Tissue: May Acetylsalicylic Acid Have a Positive Role?
Abstract The lung is relatively sensitive to irradiation. It is shown that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) might reduce oxidative injury and that it has a place in protection from cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential radioprotective effects of ASA. Whole-body irradiation (6 Gy, single dose) was applied to the rats. Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the lung tissue were measured. Control (C), Radiation (R), Radiation + ASA (R + ASA; received irradiation and 25 mg/kg of ASA intraperitoneally (i.p.)), and Radiation + Amifost...
Source: Inflammation - August 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Silencing Triggering Receptors Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 Impaired the Inflammatory Response to Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Macrophages
In conclusion, in macrophages, oxLDL enhanced expression of TREM-1, which amplifies the innate immune response of TLR pathway; activation of TREM-1 contributes to atherogenesis process by enhancing proinflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TLR4-MyD88-TRAF6-TAK1 Complex-Mediated NF-κB Activation Contribute to the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of V8 in LPS-Induced Human Cervical Cancer SiHa Cells
In this study, we investigated the effects of V8 on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory reaction in human cervical cancer SiHa cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activity in cervical cancer SiHa (HPV16+) cells, but not in HeLa (HPV18+) and C33A (HPV−) cells. In addition, V8 inhibited LPS-induced expression of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF6 and phosphorylation of TAK1, and their interaction with TLR4 in SiHa cells, resulting in an inhibition of TLR4-MyD88-TRAF6-TAK1 complex. Moreover, V8 blocked LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB and IKK, resulting in inhibition of the nuclear translocation of P65-NF-κB i...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Probenecid Application Prevents Clinical Symptoms and Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
In conclusion, probenecid prevented the onset of EAE. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Isorhamnetin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
Abstract Isorhamnetin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-proliferative effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of isorhamnetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The effects of isorhamnetin on LPS-induced lung pathological damage, wet/dry ratios and the total protein level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammatory cytokine release, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were examined. In add...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fisetin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury via TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Rats
Abstract Acute lung injury (ALI), a common component of systemic inflammatory disease, is a life-threatening condition without many effective treatments. Fisetin, a natural flavonoid from fruits and vegetables, was reported to have wide pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of fisetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and investigate the potential mechanism. Fisetin was injected (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min before LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.v.). Our results showed that fisetin effe...
Source: Inflammation - August 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Quercetin Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting HMGB1-TLR Expression and Down-Regulating the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Pathway
Abstract The dietary flavonoid quercetin has hepatoprotective effects. We analyzed the effects of quercetin on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Mice were administered quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before intravenous administration of ConA. Quercetin pretreatment significantly reduced the ConA-induced elevations in plasma aminotransferase concentrations and liver necrosis, as well as reducing serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-4. Quercetin ...
Source: Inflammation - August 12, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Identification of Rab6a as a New Target of microRNA-155 Involved in Regulating Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TNF Secretion
This study aims to provide experimental proof that Rab6a is an efficient target of microRNA-155 in regulating pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in macrophages. We identified Rab6a as a new target of microRNA-155 (miR-155) and found that overexpression of miR-155 decreased Rab6a expression at both protein and mRNA levels, which resulted in a significant reduction of TNF secretion induced by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. We have demonstrated that miR-155 can negatively regulate inflammatory TNF secretion in lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages, partly by targ...
Source: Inflammation - August 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Guggulsterone Attenuated Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Inner Medullary Collecting Duct-3 Cells
Abstract Guggulsterone (GS) is a phytosterol that has been used to treat inflammatory diseases such as colitis, obesity, and thrombosis. Although many previous studies have examined activities of GS, the effect of GS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in mouse inner medullary collecting duct-3 (mIMCD-3) cells have not been examined. Therefore, here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory action of GS on mIMCD-3 cells exposed to LPS. LPS treatment on mIMCD-3 cells produced pro-inflammatory molecules such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
Source: Inflammation - August 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Infliximab, a Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alfa Inhibitor, on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Rats
Abstract We aimed to investigate the preventive effect of Infliximab (IFX), a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor, on bleomycin (BLC)-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Rats were assigned into four groups as follows: I—BLC group, a single intra-tracheal BLC (2.5 mg/kg) was installed; II—control group, a single intra-tracheal saline was installed; III—IFX + BLC group, a single-dose IFX (7 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), 72 h before the intra-tracheal BLC installation; IV—IFX group, IFX (7 mg/kg) was administered alone i.p. on the same day with IFX + BLC group. All animals were...
Source: Inflammation - August 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Citrate Attenuates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats by Modulating the Th17/Treg Cell Balance
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of citrate on the balance of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in CRF. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) were significantly increased in the CRF model group compared to the control group, and were decreased in the citrate-treated groups. Citrate treatment inhibited the viability of Th17 cells while elevating the viability of Treg cells in CRF rats. Moreover, Th17-related cytokines significantly decreased while the Treg-related cytokines significantly increased with citrate treatment. Moreover, citrate had a negative in...
Source: Inflammation - August 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammation and Edema in the Lung and Kidney of Hemorrhagic Shock Rats Are Alleviated by Biliary Tract External Drainage via the Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway
Abstract The lung and kidney are two organs that are easily affected by hemorrhagic shock (HS). We investigated roles of biliary tract external drainage (BTED) in inflammation and edema of the lung and kidney in HS and its relationship with the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Rat models of HS were induced by drawing blood from the femoral artery until a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 ± 5 mmHg was achieved. A MAP of 40 ± 5 mmHg was maintained for 60 min. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to the following groups: sham group; HS group; HS + zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a specific ...
Source: Inflammation - August 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Poly- l -Arginine Acts Synergistically with LPS to Promote the Release of IL-6 and IL-8 via p38/ERK Signaling Pathways in NCI-H292 Cells
Abstract Major basic protein (MBP) derived from activated eosinophil can exacerbate atopic asthma induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The pharmacological function of MBP can be mimicked by poly-l-arginine (PLA), however, the potential signaling mechanisms of LPS-PLA-induced release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 remain unclear. In the present study, airway epithelia NCI-H292 cell lines were treated with LPS and/or PLA. We found that the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by LPS-PLA were increased significantly compared with that in untreated cells. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation...
Source: Inflammation - August 6, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Functional Effects of WNT1-Inducible Signaling Pathway Protein-1 on Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Proliferation in OVA-Induced Airway Remodeling
In conclusion, WISP1 may be a potential inducer of ASM proliferation and hypertrophy in asthma. The pro-remodeling effect of WISP1 is likely due to be involved in PI3K-GSK3β-dependent noncanonical TGF-β signaling. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Recruitment of Gr1 + CD11b + F4/80 + Population in the Bone Marrow and Spleen by Irradiation-Induced Pulmonary Damage
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: Different Aspects of Sartan + Calcium Antagonist Association Compared to the Single Therapy on Inflammation and Metabolic Parameters in Hypertensive Patients
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Apoptotic Effect of Geniposide on Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Inhibiting ERK Signal Pathway In Vitro
In conclusion, geniposide effectively induces AIA FLS apoptosis through regulating the apoptosis-related gene expressions and inhibiting ERK signal pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 2, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Antioxidant Peptide SS-31 Against Multiple Organ Dysfunctions During Endotoxemia
In conclusion, our data suggested that the protective effects of SS-31 on sepsis-induced organ dysfunctions were associated with the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Elimination Half-Lives of Acute Phase Proteins in Rats and Beagle Dogs During Acute Inflammation
ABSTRACT The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respect...
Source: Inflammation - July 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cyanidin-3- O -Glucoside Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Injury Both In Vivo and In Vitro Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways
This study aimed to investigate the protective ability of C3G against inflammatory and oxidative injuries, as well as to clarify the possible mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and acute respiratory distress syndrome mouse model in vivo. HUVECs or male Kunming mice were pretreated with C3G 1 h before LPS stimulation. C3G significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL) -6, and IL-1β) in cell supernatants and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...
Source: Inflammation - July 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Arachidonic Acid Against Paraquat-Induced Pulmonary Injury
In this study, we aimed to study the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) on acute lung injury (ALI) caused by paraquat (PQ) in mice. Male Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group, PQ group, and PQ + AA group (n = 24). The mice in the PQ and PQ + AA groups received a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg bodyweight PQ, and the mice of the PQ + AA group were challenged by 500 mg/kg bodyweight AA posttreatment 2 h after PQ administration. The results indicated that the administration of AA significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), decreased the activity of myeloperox...
Source: Inflammation - July 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Wnt1 Participates in Inflammation Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Through Upregulating Scavenger Receptor A and NF-kB
Abstract The study investigated the role of wnt1 in the inflammatory response initiated by lipolysaccharide (LPS), and analyzed the association between wnt1, NF-KB, and inflammatory factors. THP-1 cells were activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and treated with LPS to induce inflammation. THP-1 cells were transfected with wnt1siRNA and overexpression plasmid to explore the relationship among wnt1, SRA, and NF-KB. Inhibitor of β-catenin and siRNA of FZD1were used to investigate the signaling events involved in SRA activation induced by wnt1. Levels of NF-kB protein and inflammatory cytokines were ...
Source: Inflammation - July 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Riparin B, a Synthetic Compound Analogue of Riparin, Inhibits the Systemic Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in Mice
Abstract The aim of our study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-oxidant action of Riparin B in vivo. We performed experiments in which we induced paw edema by carrageenan and other mediators, carrageenan-induced peritonitis and the level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), malondialdehyde (MDA) acid, and glutathione (GSH) from the peritoneal fluid. We also performed behavior tests such as acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced linking, and the hot plate test. Among the doses tested of the Riparin B (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg), the dos...
Source: Inflammation - July 3, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lymphoid-Like Structures with Distinct B Cell Areas in Kidney Allografts are not Predictive for Graft Rejection. A Non-human Primate Study
Abstract Kidney allograft biopsies were analyzed for the presence of B cell clusters/aggregates using CD20 staining. Few B cells were found in the diffuse interstitial infiltrates, but clusters of B cells were found in nodular infiltrates. These nodular infiltrates were smaller shortly after transplantation, and their size increased over time. At the time of clinical rejection, the nodules often presented as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) with lymphoid-like follicles. The presence of small B cell clusters during the first 2 months after transplantation was not associated with early rejection. Even in animals ...
Source: Inflammation - July 3, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

KPNA2 Contributes to the Inflammatory Processes in Synovial Tissue of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and SW982 Cells
Abstract Karyopherin-α2 (KPNA2) functions as an adaptor that transports several proteins to the nucleus. We investigated the function and possible mechanisms of KPNA2 involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed the protein expression of KPNA2 increased in synovial tissue of RA patients compared with the healthy controls. Double immunofluorescent staining indicated that KPNA2 co-localized with T cells, macrophage-like synoviocytes, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and neutrophils in synovial tissue of RA patients. Moreover, the expression of KPNA2 in SW982 cells was increas...
Source: Inflammation - July 2, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cytokine Responses to Specific Immunotherapy in House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Rhinitis Patients
Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only immunomodulatory treatment that may alter the natural course of allergic disease. However, cytokine responses accompanying sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) responder phenotypes have not been fully understood. Herein, we examined the level of crucial plasma cytokines during SLIT and evaluated whether their changes correlated to symptom scores. We observed that the levels of interleukin (IL)-17 and complement components C3a and C5a as well as IL-4 at year 3 of SLIT were significantly decreased than those at baseline. In contrast, there was no significant difference...
Source: Inflammation - July 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fusion Peptides CPU1 and CPU2 Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinases and Protect Mice from Endotoxin Shock Within a Strict Time Window
Abstract Endotoxin shock induction in mice is a commonly used animal model to evaluate the protective effect of biologically active reagents. After an lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulus, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are rapidly degranulated and released by neutrophils, aside other enzymes and effector molecules. MMPs cleave extracellular matrix components and cytokines, and such processes contribute to shock syndrome development. CPU1 and CPU2 are two peptide MMP inhibitors with different in vitro IC50 values to several key enzymes, including MMP-8 and MMP-9. In vivo wo...
Source: Inflammation - June 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phospholipid Incorporation of Non-Methylene-Interrupted Fatty Acids (NMIFA) in Murine Microglial BV-2 Cells Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Mediator Production
In conclusion, Δ7-ETrA, PNA, and SCA are anti-inflammatory NMIFA that may be useful in suppressing in vitro immune responses involved in neural inflammation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Salidroside Mitigates Sepsis-Induced Myocarditis in Rats by Regulating IGF-1/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling
Abstract Sepsis-induced myocardial injury (SIMI) is caused by various mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salidroside (Sal) on SIMI and its mechanisms in rats. The sepsis model was established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (15 mg/kg in sterile saline). Sal decreased the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), whereas the expressions of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling-related proteins, such as IGF-1 and its corresponding receptor...
Source: Inflammation - June 24, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ameliorative Effect of Vicenin-2 and Scolymoside on TGFBIp-Induced Septic Responses
In this study, we investigated the antiseptic effects and underlying mechanisms of vicenin-2 and scolymoside, two active compounds in C. subternata against TGFBIp-mediated septic responses in HUVECs and mice. The anti-inflammatory activities of vicenin-2 or scolymoside were determined by measuring permeability, human neutrophils adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in TGFBIp-activated HUVECs and mice. According to the results, vicenin-2 or scolymoside effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced release of TGFBIp and suppressed TGFBIp-mediated septic responses, such as hyperpermeability, ...
Source: Inflammation - June 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Disturbed Th17/Treg Balance in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of Th17 and Treg cells in the peripheral blood of patients with NSCLC. Blood samples were collected from 19 patients with NSCLC and 19 healthy donors. Samples were processed to detect CD4+IL-17+ Th17 cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells by flow cytometry, and related gene expressions were assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-23, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis (ELISA). The frequency of circulati...
Source: Inflammation - June 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Analysis of ADRB2 (Arg16Gly) Gene Variant with Susceptibility, Pharmacogenetic Response and Disease Severity in South Indian Asthmatics
Abstract β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) plays a crucial role in asthma pathophysiology by regulating, processes of the lung function, and clinical response to bronchodilators. The +46G>A- Gly16Arg polymorphism in the gene encoding β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) has been associated with receptor non-responsiveness after β2-agonist exposure. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the possible association of Gly16Arg polymorphism with asthma susceptibility, pharmacogenetic response to Salbutamol, and varying degrees of disease severity. Three hundred ninety-eight clinically diagnosed patients and 456 heal...
Source: Inflammation - June 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ox-LDL Upregulates IL-6 Expression by Enhancing NF-κB in an IGF2-Dependent Manner in THP-1 Macrophages
Abstract Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is well established as a vital factor in determining the risk of coronary heart disease and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, accumulating evidences have shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can promote IL-6 expression in macrophages. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of how ox-LDL upregulates IL-6 expression remains largely unexplained. We found that the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IL-6 was upregulated at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in a d...
Source: Inflammation - June 12, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies Induce Macrophage Subset Disequilibrium in RA Patients
Abstract We used samples from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to examine whether Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) alter macrophage subset distribution and promote RA development. Macrophage subset distributions and interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and IRF5 expressions were analyzed. ACPAs were purified by affinity column. After RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients’ macrophages were cocultured with ACPAs, macrophage subsets and IRF4 and IRF5 expressions were measured. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were transfected into ACPA-activated cells to suppress IRF4 or IRF5. Fluorescence-activated cel...
Source: Inflammation - June 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Astragalin Attenuates Allergic Inflammation in a Murine Asthma Model
Abstract The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of astragalin (AG) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Our study demonstrated that AG inhibited OVA-induced increases in eosinophil count; IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IgE were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that AG substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Western blot analysis demonstrated that AG treatments markedly inhibited OVA-induced SOCS-3...
Source: Inflammation - June 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effect of Coumaric Acid on Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury of Sciatic Nerve in Rats
Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the effect of coumaric acid on sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion (SNI) injury in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (no medication or surgical procedure), SNI group, SNI + coumaric acid (CA) group, and SNI + methylprednisolone (MP) group. Ischemia was achieved by abdominal aorta clamping, and all animals were sacrificed 24 h after ischemia. Harvested sciatic nerve segments were investigated histopathologically and for tissue biochemistry. A significant decrease in MDA, an increase in NRF1 levels, and increase in SOD activity...
Source: Inflammation - June 7, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Rosiglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-γ Agonist, Attenuates Inflammation Via NF-κB Inhibition in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Peritonitis
ABSTRACT We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritonitis rat model. LPS was intraperitoneally injected into rats to establish peritonitis model. Male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to normal saline (the solvent of LPS), LPS, rosiglitazone plus LPS, and rosiglitazone alone. A simple peritoneal equilibrium test was performed with 20 ml 4.25 % peritoneal dialysis fluid. We measured the leukocyte count in dialysate and ultrafiltration volume. Peritoneal membrane histochemical staining ...
Source: Inflammation - June 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CCR5 Blockade Suppresses Melanoma Development Through Inhibition of IL-6-Stat3 Pathway via Upregulation of SOCS3
Abstract In order to understand how tumor cells can escape immune surveillance mechanisms and thus develop antitumor therapies, it is critically important to investigate the mechanisms by which the immune system interacts with the tumor microenvironment. In our current study, we found that chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) neutralization resulted in reduced melanoma tumor size, decreased percentage of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and increased proportion of cluster of differentiation (CD)3+ T cells in tumor tissues. Suppressive activity of MDSCs on CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cell proliferation is s...
Source: Inflammation - June 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-hyperalgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Alternanthera Maritima Extract and 2″-O-α- l -rhamnopyranosylvitexin in Mice
In conclusion, this study demonstrated that EEAM is an anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic agent, and the results suggested that 2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosylvitexin is responsible for the effects of EEAM and the mechanism involves the TNF pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Roles of Egr-2 in Autoimmune Diseases
Abstract Being a member of the early growth response (Egr) family of transcription factors, Egr-2 is expressed in a variety of cell types of the immune system. Recent findings imply that Egr-2 is important in the development and function of T helper (Th) 17 cell, regulatory T (Treg) cell, as well as dendritic cell (DC). Although these cells perform significantly in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis, the roles of Egr-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases can not be neglected. In this article, we will discuss recent findi...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research