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Protective Effects of Nobiletin Against Endotoxic Shock in Mice Through Inhibiting TNF-α, IL-6, and HMGB1 and Regulating NF-κB Pathway
Abstract Nobiletin (NOB), the major bioactive component of polymethoxyflavones in citrus fruits, has been reported possessing significant biological properties. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of NOB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock in mice. We found pretreatment with NOB increases the survival rate of mice after endotoxin injection. The present study clearly demonstrates that pretreatment with NOB decreases the production of early pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and late-phase mediator HMGB1 in serum and tissues of kidney, lung, and liver. The hi...
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tenuigenin Prevents IL-1β-induced Inflammation in Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes by Suppressing PI3K/AKT/NF-κB Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, these results suggest that TEN inhibits IL-1β-induced inflammation in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Protective Role of Autophagy in Matrix Metalloproteinase-Mediated Cell Transmigration and Cell Death in High-Glucose-Treated Endothelial Cells
In this study, we used HG-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the effect of autophagy on MMP-2-induced cell transmigration and apoptosis. THP-1 transmigration was detected by the transmigration assay. Light chain 3 (LC3, representing autophagy), MMP-2, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP, representing apoptosis) of HG (33 mM)-treated HUVECs were evaluated by western blot analysis. The MMP-2 activity was also examined by gelatin zymography. We used GM6001 (10 μM, an MMP-2 inhibitor) to investigate the relationship of MMP-2 and THP-1 transmigration. Using 3-methyladenine (3MA, 5 mM, ...
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Knockdown of TNFR1 Suppresses Expression of TLR2 in the Cellular Response to Staphylococcus aureus Infection
Abstract Osteomyelitis is a common manifestation of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection characterized by widespread bone loss and destruction. Phagocytes possess various receptors to detect pathogens, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that the S. aureus protein SpA binds directly to pre-osteoblastic cells via tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR-1). In our present study, we investigated the relationship between TLR2 and TNFR-1 in S. aureus-infected osteoblasts. Our results showed that cell viability decreased, and apoptosis, expression of TLR2, and the secretion of...
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Metallothionein in Post-Burn Inflammation
This study is designed to investigate the role of MTs in post-burn inflammation in a mouse burn model. MT-I/II null (−/−) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were randomly divided into sham burn, burn, Zn treated, and Zn-MT-2 treated groups. The inflammatory cytokines levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined by spectrophotometry. In in vitro study, exogenous MT-2 was added to macrophages that were stimulated with burn serum in the presence or absence of a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. The IL-6 and TNF-α messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were detected by ...
Source: Inflammation - February 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Esculetin Attenuates Th2 and Th17 Responses in an Ovalbumin-Induced Asthmatic Mouse Model
Abstract The purpose of the current study was to investigate the anti-asthmatic effect of esculetin (ES) and explore its potential mechanism with a mouse model of allergic asthma. A total number of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control, model, dexamethasone (Dex, 2 mg/kg), and ES (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg). Mouse asthma model was developed with the sensitization and challenge of ovalbumin (OVA). The levels of IgE in serum, eosinophilia infiltration, Th2/Th17 cytokines, Th17 cell frequency, histological condition, and the protein expressions of RORγt, GATA3 were detected. Our study demonstrated that ...
Source: Inflammation - January 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correlation Between the Expression of MicroRNA-301a-3p and the Proportion of Th17 Cells in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic synovial inflammation and subsequent joint destruction. Previous studies have confirmed that Th17 cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. MicroRNA (miR)-301a-3p is a regulatory factor for Th17 cells differentiation that contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The purposes of this study were to identify the alteration of Th17 cells and analyze the correlation between the expression of the miR-301a-3p and the proportion of Th17 cells in RA patients. The results showed that the frequency of Th17 cells and the expression of t...
Source: Inflammation - January 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Apigenin Against Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
In conclusion, apigenin reduces PQ-induced ALI by inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comparison of the Anti-inflammatory Effects of Proanthocyanidin, Quercetin, and Damnacanthal on Benzo( a )pyrene Exposed A549 Alveolar Cell Line
Abstract Phytochemical compounds are emerging as a new group of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer agents that help minimize toxicity in patients with pulmonary diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential curative effects of Quercetin (QC), Damnacanthal (DAM), and Proanthocyanidine (PA) on inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress parameters and to examine the viability of the A549 cell line treated with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in vitro. The A549 cell line was treated with BaP, a BaP/QC combination, a BaP/DAM combination, and BaP/PA combination. Inflammatory markers, oxidative str...
Source: Inflammation - January 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Enolase of Streptococcus Suis Serotype 2 Enhances Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability by Inducing IL-8 Release
In this study, Eno was inducibly expressed and added to an in vitro Transwell co-culture model of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) consisted of porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells (PBMECs) and astrocytes (ACs), the results showed that Eno induces a significant increase in BBB permeability and promotes the release of IL-8 et al. cytokines. Furthermore, IL-8 could significantly destroy the integrity of the BBB model in vitro. In mice models administered Eno for 24 h, Eno could significantly promote Evans blue (EB) moving from the blood to the brain and significantly increased the serum and brain levels of IL-8, as ...
Source: Inflammation - January 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Steroid from Phragmitis rhizoma Modulates LPS-Mediated Signaling Through Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway
In this study, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one (ST) was isolated from Phragmitis rhizoma as a negative regulator of LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages. ST effectively reduced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, which were markedly raised by LPS treatment. In addition, ST blocked the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway via down-regulation of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB α. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing anti-inflammatory activities of ST isolated from Phragmitis rhizoma. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 28, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Golgi-Associated Plant Pathogenesis-Related Protein GAPR-1 Enhances Type I Interferon Signaling Pathway in Response to Toll-Like Receptor 4
Abstract Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) through the TIRAP-MyD88 dependent and TRAM-TRIF dependent signaling pathways, respectively. However, the underlying relevance between two signaling pathways remains largely elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the Golgi-Associated plant Pathogenesis-Related protein (GAPR-1) in type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway in response to TLR4. We found that TIRAP-MyD88 dependent kinase IRAK1 phosphorylated GAPR-1 at Serine 58 site. The phosphorylation of GAPR-1 promoted its interaction with TRAM-TRIF dependent inhibitor TMED7, and impaired TM...
Source: Inflammation - December 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Duration of Systemic Inflammation in the First Postnatal Month Among Infants Born Before the 28th Week of Gestation
ABSTRACT Extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs, <28 completed weeks of gestation) that exhibit fetal and neonatal systemic inflammatory responses are at increased risk for developmental adversity, especially if the inflammatory process is sustained. We evaluated pro-inflammatory cytokine patterns in whole blood of 1220 ELGANs on one or more of postnatal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Protein concentrations were divided into quartiles within gestational week categories. We calculated odds ratios (OR) with 99 % confidence intervals (CI) for having a concentration in the top quartile for each protein given t...
Source: Inflammation - December 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Quercetin on Acute Lung Injury and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Rat Model of Sepsis
In this report, the role of oxidative damage, and inflammation on lung injury, following sepsis model by cecal ligation and puncture, and the effects of quercetin, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory flavonoid, in the lung tissue were investigated. In the present study, we found that administration of single-dose quercetin before cecal ligation and puncture procedure, while markedly diminishing the levels of YKL-40 and oxidant molecules (xanthine oxidase (XO), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA)), increases the antioxidant enzymes levels. Quercetin is beneficial to acute lung injury by decreasing the levels of oxid...
Source: Inflammation - December 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Citral on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
In conclusion, citral inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response via activating PPAR-γ which attenuates NF-κB activation and inflammatory mediator production. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Apigenin Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis by Modulating Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance in Mice
This study aims to investigate the protective effect of apigenin on the development of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) and the underlying mechanisms. An EAM model was induced in BALB/c mice by the injection of porcine cardiac myosin. Apigenin was orally administered from day 1 to 21. The severity of myocarditis was assessed by determination of heart weight/body weight ratio (HW/BW) and histopathological evaluation. Echocardiography was conducted to evaluate the cardiac function and heart structure. Antigen-specific T cell proliferation responses to cardiac myosin were evaluated by the lymphocyte proliferation ass...
Source: Inflammation - December 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Activation of α7nAChR Promotes Diabetic Wound Healing by Suppressing AGE-Induced TNF-α Production
Abstract Diabetes frequently presents accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which might induce excessive TNF-α production from macrophages to cause impaired wound healing. Recent studies have shown that activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages efficiently suppressed TNF-α synthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation of AGEs in the wounds and determine whether PNU282987, an α7nAChR agonist, can improve wound repair by inhibiting AGE-mediated TNF-α production in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model. Animals were assigned...
Source: Inflammation - December 9, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Tanshinone IIA in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages via miRNAs and TLR4–NF-κB Pathway
In this study, we examined whether Tan IIA exerts anti-inflammatory activity and investigated the possible mechanisms, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)–MyD88–nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and microRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Tan IIA could attenuate the inflammatory reaction via decreasing cytokine, chemokine, and acute-phase protein production, including GM-CSF, sICAM-1, cxcl-1, MIP-1α, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), analyzed by Proteome profile array in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Concurrently, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of IL-1β, T...
Source: Inflammation - December 7, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Uncoupling of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Gingival Tissue of Type 2 Diabetic Patients
In this study, we investigate the relation between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in periodontal disease of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. We evaluated immunohistochemical VEGF and iNOS expressions in gingival biopsies from healthy individuals (no chronic periodontitis (CP)), patients with periodontitis alone (CP), patients with diabetes alone (DM) and diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis (DM + CP). We found a significant positive correlation between VEGF and iNOS expression in non-diabetic groups, but not in diabetic ones. Periodontal clinical param...
Source: Inflammation - December 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Induction of the Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 Gene in Bronchial Epithelial Cells by Interferon and Identification of its Novel Functional Polymorphism
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms and roles of MMP-13 secretion in human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and functional polymorphisms of the MMP13 gene. Polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) and interferon β (IFN-β) stimulated the secretion of MMP-13 from SAECs by more than several hundred-fold. Stimulation of the secretion by poly(I:C) was abolished by SB304680 (p38 inhibitor), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor I, RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) inhibitor, and Bay 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), while stimulation by IFN-β was inhibited by all except Bay 11-7082. These data...
Source: Inflammation - December 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Aspirin Inhibits LPS-Induced Expression of PI3K/Akt, ERK, NF-κB, CX3CL1, and MMPs in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells
This study focused on the effects of aspirin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), CX3CL1, and MMPs in human bronchial epithelial cells. Human bronchial epithelial cells were seeded in six-well plates. After 24 h, the cells were classified into six groups: control blank (CK) group; LPS group; PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) (PD) group, treated with LPS + ERK inhibitor; LY294002(PI3K/Akt inhibitor) (LY) group, treated with LPS + PI3K/Akt inhibitor; Aspirin (Asp) group, treated with ...
Source: Inflammation - December 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A 2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator
Abstract Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the...
Source: Inflammation - November 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 (MECP2) Polymorphism in Iranian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease which involves many organs and presents with various symptoms. It has been shown that genetic and environmental factors play a major role in this disease and may affect the onset, activity, damage, and mortality of the disease. According to recent studies, methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) has been associated with SLE in various populations. Herein, we studied MECP2 polymorphism in Iranian lupus patients and controls. The study included a total of 884 samples of Iranian ancestry (492 independent SLE patients and 392 unrelated healthy c...
Source: Inflammation - November 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Potential Role for Acrolein in Neutrophil-Mediated Chronic Inflammation
In this study, we investigated the role of acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde that is ubiquitously present in the environment and produced endogenously at sites of inflammation, in mediating PMN-mediated degradation of collagen facilitating proline-glycine-proline (PGP) production. We treated peripheral blood neutrophils with acrolein and analyzed cell supernatants and lysates for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and prolyl endopeptidase (PE), assessed their ability to break down collagen and release PGP, and assayed for the presence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) and its ability to degrade PGP. Acrolein treatmen...
Source: Inflammation - November 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Thymoquinone Inhibits IL-1β-Induced Inflammation in Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes by Suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, thymoquinone inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammatory mediator production by inhibition of NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways in osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Thymoquinone may be a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chitotriosidase Expression during Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Differentiation and Maturation
Abstract The chitotriosidase (CHIT-1) is a glycosyl hydrolase (GH), which has been found highly expressed in activated macrophages and in different monocyte-derived cell lines such as Kupffer cells and osteoclasts, as well is differently produced in diverse stages of macrophage polarization (M1 and M2). Recent finding suggests that CHIT-1 plays a crucial role in innate and acquired immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a complex group of cells that play a critical role in immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CHIT-1 during the differentiation and maturation of DCs. Magnetically-i...
Source: Inflammation - November 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hypertonic Saline (NaCl 7.5 %) Reduces LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats
Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most severe lung inflammatory manifestation and has no effective therapy nowadays. Sepsis is one of the main illnesses among ARDS causes. The use of fluid resuscitation is an important treatment for sepsis, but positive fluid balance may induce pulmonary injury. As an alternative, fluid resuscitation with hypertonic saline ((HS) NaCl 7.5 %) has been described as a promising therapeutical agent in sepsis-induced ARDS by the diminished amount of fluid necessary. Thus, we evaluated the effect of hypertonic saline in the treatment of LPS-induced ARDS. We fou...
Source: Inflammation - November 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Observing Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Activities of Glycyrrhizin Through Regulating COX-2 and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Expressions in Mice
In conclusion, GL exerts significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by attenuating the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Renoprotective Effect of Humic Acid on Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: An Experimental Study in Rats
Abstract Humic acid is an antioxidant molecule used in agriculture and livestock breeding, as well as in medicine. Our aim was to investigate the potential renoprotective effects of humic acid in a renal ischemia reperfusion model. Twenty-one rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. Intraperitoneal serum or humic acid was injected at 1, 12, and 24 h. Non-ischemic group I was evaluated as sham. The left renal artery was clamped in serum (group II) and intraperitoneal humic acid (group III) to subject to left renal ischemic reperfusion procedure. Ischemia and reperfusion time was 60 min for each. Total...
Source: Inflammation - November 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunoregulatory Effects of Paeoniflorin Exerts Anti-asthmatic Effects via Modulation of the Th1/Th2 Equilibrium
In this study, we investigated immunoregulatory effects of paeoniflorin on anti-asthmatic effects and underlying mechanisms. Asthma model was established by ovalbumin-induced. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and paeoniflorin (10 and 20 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) were measured by the forced oscillation technique; histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; Th1/Th2 cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Th1/Th2 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM); and GATA3 and T-...
Source: Inflammation - November 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Elevated Endomyocardial Biopsy Macrophage-Related Markers in Intractable Myocardial Diseases
This study was designed to assess the ability of macrophage-related markers in endomyocardial biopsies to predict ongoing cardiac injury in non-inflammatory myocardial diseases. We examined levels of macrophage-related markers (CD68, CD163, CD45) in endomyocardial biopsies from patients (n = 86) with various myocardial diseases by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (n = 78) and immunohistochemistry (n = 56). Thirty-three patients without inflammatory cardiac disease such as myocarditis and sarcoidosis were classified as “improved” or “non-improved” defined as a 10 % increase i...
Source: Inflammation - November 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Disrupted Tryptophan Metabolism Induced Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Sepsis-associated Encephalopathy
In conclusion, our study implicates IDO-dependent neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism as a critical factor responsible for the sepsis-induced cognitive impairment and a potential novel target for the treatment of SAE. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Echinocystic Acid Inhibits IL-1β-Induced COX-2 and iNOS Expression in Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes
In conclusion, EA effectively attenuated IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in osteoarthritis chondrocyte which suggesting that EA may be a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fc Gamma Receptor IIA (CD32A) R131 Polymorphism as a Marker of Genetic Susceptibility to Sepsis
Abstract Sepsis is a devastating disease that can affect humans at any time between neonates and the elderly and is associated with mortality rates that range from 30 to 80 %. Despite intensive efforts, its treatment has remained the same over the last few decades. Fc receptors regulate multiple immune responses and have been investigated in diverse complex diseases. FcγRIIA (CD32A) is an immunoreceptor, tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing receptor that binds immunoglobulin G and C-reactive protein, important opsonins in host defense. We conducted a study of 702 patients (184 healthy individuals, 171 non-inf...
Source: Inflammation - October 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Involvement of Prokineticin 2 and Prokineticin Receptor 1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Testitis in Rats
Abstract Prokineticin 2, a newly discovered proinflammatory peptide, has been amply evidenced to be involved in the occurrence and progress of local and systematical inflammation. Although the presence of Prokineticn 2 in mammal testis has been documented clearly, research targeting the involvement of prokineticin 2 in testicular pathology, especially testitis, is rather scarce. Employing a lipopolysaccharide-induced testitis rat model, we for the first time demonstrated the expression and upregulation of prokineticin 2 in orchitis at several levels. Our effort also addressed the differential expression patterns o...
Source: Inflammation - October 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii Infection Promotes Neuroinflammation Through Cytokine Networks and Induced Hyperalgesia in BALB/c Mice
Abstract We hypothesized that in Toxoplasma gondii infection, communication among immune cells promotes neuroinflammation through cytokine networks and induces pain sensitivity under conditions of neuropathic pain. The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20–25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii to BALB/c mice. Amitriptyline (20 mg/kg, i.p., 1/day) administrated to animals for 7 days before behavioral tests. Pain behavioral tests including tail flick, hot plate, and formalin test were evaluated in all the groups. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis f...
Source: Inflammation - October 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Initial Host Response to Bacteria in the Murine Lung Differs Between Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae
Abstract Phagocytosis of bacteria is an important process during early host defence. It has been directly observed only ex vivo or in vitro. Here, we report on the observation of phagocytosis under in vivo conditions by using intravital microscopy in the murine lung. Suspensions of fluorescently labelled Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells were each instilled intratracheally to anaesthetized mice. After thoracotomy, the alveolar surface was observed for 30 min. Alveolar phagocytes exhibiting ingested bacteria could be detected and counted. The highest numbers were foun...
Source: Inflammation - October 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CXCR3 May Help Regulate the Inflammatory Response in Acute Lung Injury via a Pathway Modulated by IL-10 Secreted by CD8 + CD122+ Regulatory T Cells
Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the role of CXCR3 and IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced by LPS injection (10 mg/kg) via the tail vein in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were sacrificed after 2 or 12 h to examine the levels of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histopathologic assessments. At 12 h after LPS injection, mice exhibited more severe lung infiltration by CD8+ T cell and less infiltration by CD8+CD122+ regulatory T cells than at 2 h after LPS challenge or in the control (mice not exposed to LPS). At 12 h, IFN-γ, CXCR...
Source: Inflammation - October 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sesamin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibition of TLR4 Signaling Pathways
In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that sesamin protected against LPS-induced ALI by inhibition of TLR4 signaling pathways. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

No Association Between − 159C/T Polymorphism of the CD14 Gene and Asthma Risk: a Meta-Analysis of 36 Case-Control Studies
Abstract Numerous studies have evaluated the association between −159C/T polymorphism of the CD14 gene and asthma risk; however, these studies have yielded inconsistent results. We performed meta-analyses to investigate the association between CD14-159C/T polymorphism and asthma risk. Studies were identified from PubMed, Embase, and two Chinese databases. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the strength of association. Thirty-six studies were collected for meta-analysis, which involved 6954 cases and 7525 controls. In the overall populations, no significant association bet...
Source: Inflammation - October 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Dipeptidyl Peptidases 4, 8, and 9 in Mouse Monocytes and Macrophages: DPP8/9 Inhibition Attenuates M1 Macrophage Activation in Mice
Abstract Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western countries. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 has emerged as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Family members DPP8 and 9 are abundantly present in macrophage-rich regions of atherosclerotic plaques, and DPP9 inhibition attenuates activation of human M1 macrophages in vitro. Studying this family in a mouse model for atherosclerosis would greatly advance our knowledge regarding their potential as therapeutic targets. We found that DPP4 is downregulated during mouse monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. DPP8 and 9 exp...
Source: Inflammation - October 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Rebamipide Suppresses Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Interleukin-1β Production Through Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Caspase-1 in THP-1 Cells
This study investigated the effect of rebamipide on activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Human monocyte cell line THP-1 and human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to assess the inflammatory response to MSU crystals. NADP/NADPH activity assays were used as a marker of ROS generation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were performed to evaluate levels of IL-1β, caspase-1, NLRP3, associated speck-like protein (ASC), nuclear factor-κB...
Source: Inflammation - October 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erythropoietin Pretreatment Attenuates Seawater Aspiration-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats
ABSTRACT Seawater drowning-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious clinical condition characterized by increased alveolar-capillary permeability, excessive inflammatory responses, and refractory hypoxemia. However, current therapeutic options are largely supportive; thus, it is of great interest to search for alternative agents to treat seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a multifunctional agent with antiinflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic properties. However, the effects of EPO on seawater aspiration-induced ALI remain unclear. In the present study, male rats were randomly ass...
Source: Inflammation - October 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Astragaloside IV Against Paraquat-Induced Lung Injury in Mice by Suppressing Rho Signaling
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of astragaloside IV (AS IV) against paraquat (PQ)-induced pulmonary injury in vivo. Fifty BALB/C mice were randomized into five groups: (1) control, (2) PQ, (3) PQ + dexamethasone (Dex, 5 mg/kg), (4) PQ + AS IV (50 mg/kg), and (5) PQ + AS IV (100 mg/kg). A single dose of PQ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was intraperitoneally given to induced acute lung injury. Then, mice were treated with AS IV (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally) for 5 days. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized; then, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and l...
Source: Inflammation - October 9, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Effect of Colchicine on Platelet-Platelet and Platelet-Leukocyte Interactions: a Pilot Study in Healthy Subjects
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 6, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Naringin Protects Against Cartilage Destruction in Osteoarthritis Through Repression of NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Abstract Naringin was previously reported as a multifunctional agent. Recently, naringin was found to play a protective role in various inflammatory conditions. However, the role of naringin in cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis (OA) progression is still unknown. TNF-α is reported to play a detrimental role in OA. Herein, primary murine chondrocytes were isolated and cultured with stimulation of TNF-α, in the presence or absence of naringin treatment. As a result, naringin attenuated TNF-α-mediated inflammation and catabolism in chondrocyte. Besides, surgically induced OA mice models were established. Ca...
Source: Inflammation - October 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Activation of Neutrophils via IP 3 Pathway Following Exposure to Demodex -Associated Bacterial Proteins
Abstract Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition that predominantly affects the skin of the face. Sera from rosacea patients display elevated reactivity to proteins from a bacterium (Bacillus oleronius) originally isolated from a Demodex mite from a rosacea patient suggesting a possible role for bacteria in the induction and persistence of this condition. This work investigated the ability of B. oleronius proteins to activate neutrophils and demonstrated activation via the IP3 pathway. Activated neutrophils displayed increased levels of IP1 production, F-actin formation, chemotaxis, and production of the pro-i...
Source: Inflammation - October 3, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidative Activities of Paeonol and Its Metabolites Through Blocking MAPK/ERK/p38 Signaling Pathway
Abstract The possible protective and curative effects of paeonol on carrageenan-induced acute hind paw edema in rats and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice have been evaluated. After oral administration, paeonol (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the edema increase in paw volumes and also the development of DSS-induced murine colitis. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of paeonol (1) together with its 10 metabolites (M2~M11) were investigated by using in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant assays. M3 and M11 exhibited significant 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical sc...
Source: Inflammation - October 3, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Attenuates Oxidative Damage in Organs After Sepsis
Abstract Sepsis progression is linked with the imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a powerful antioxidant, in organs of rats submitted to sepsis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation puncture (CLP) and treated with ALA or vehicle. After CLP (12 and 24 h), the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, protein and lipid oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymes in the liver, kidney, heart, and lung were evaluated. ALA was effective in reducing MPO activity, lipid peroxidation in the liver, ...
Source: Inflammation - October 2, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

H 2 Treatment Attenuated Pain Behavior and Cytokine Release Through the HO-1/CO Pathway in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain
Abstract Neuropathic pain (NP) is characterized by persistent pain, tactile allodynia, or hyperalgesia. Peripheral nerve injury contributes to rapid progress of inflammatory response and simultaneously generates neuropathic pain. Hydrogen (H2) has anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-oxidative stress effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that H2 treatment could alleviate allodynic and hyperalgesic behaviors and the release of inflammatory factors in rats with neuropathic pain. Peripheral neuropathic pain was established by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats. H2 was given twice through intra...
Source: Inflammation - September 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research