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Activation of Nicotinic Receptors Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Production of Pro-inflammatory Mediators Through the JAK2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes
In conclusion, nicotine has an anti-inflammatory effect on RA by downregulating production of IL-6 and MCP-1 in FLSs, and this is mediated through activation of the JAK2–STAT3 signal pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 23, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Arctigenin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Suppression of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS Signaling
Abstract Arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa (Nubang), has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS + DMSO, and LPS + Arctigenin. Mice in the LPS + Arctigenin group were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of arctigenin 1 h before an intratracheal administration of LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected. Histological changes of the lung were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Arctigen...
Source: Inflammation - January 23, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intensive Atorvastatin Therapy Attenuates the Inflammatory Responses in Monocytes of Patients with Unstable Angina Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Activation
In conclusion, a single high (80 mg) loading dose of atorvastatin reduced the inflammatory response in Chinese patients with unstable angina following PCI. The anti-inflammatory role of intensive atorvastatin was possibly due to attenuation of inflammatory response in monocytes via PPARγ activation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Trichostatin A Protects Against Experimental Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure in Rats Through Regulating the Acetylation of Nuclear Factor-κB
In this study, the protective effects of Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDACi, on experimental acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in rat were explored. An ACLF model was established in rats, and animals were randomly divided into control, model, and TSA-treated groups. The rats in TSA-treated group received TSA (2 mg/kg) at 2 h before induction of ACLF. Samples were obtained at 24 h after ACLF induction. We found that the rats in model group showed severe damage to liver tissue at 24 h after ACLF induction. TSA improved liver injury effectively. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (...
Source: Inflammation - January 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Antiasthmatic Effects of Eugenol in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma by Regulation of Vitamin D3 Upregulated Protein 1/NF-κB Pathway
Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the antiasthmatic effects of eugenol (EUG) and the possible mechanisms. Asthma model was established by ovalbumin induction. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, OVA, OVA + dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), OVA + EUG (10 mg/kg), and OVA + EUG (20 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) were measured, histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1 (VDUP1), IκBα, P-IκB...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

GlycA is a Novel Marker of Inflammation Among Non-Critically Ill Hospitalized Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
This study evaluated traditional and novel (GlycA) inflammatory markers among 121 patients who were stratified by admission diagnoses: congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac non-CHF (CARD), infection (INF), and other (OTH). HbA1c was similar across groups (8.0–9.2 %, p = 0.20). Inflammatory markers were elevated but varied significantly across disease categories, with the highest values of interleukin-6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (CRP), and GlycA in the INF group and the highest tumor necrosis factor-α and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in CHF group. GlycA was associated with higher IL-6 and CRP, lower he...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Blockade of Notch Signalling by γ-Secretase Inhibitor in Lung T Cells of Asthmatic Mice Affects T Cell Differentiation and Pulmonary Inflammation
Abstract Notch is a single-pass transmembrane receptor protein expressed by T cells, which contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma through regulation of the development and differentiation of T cells. γ-Secretase inhibitor (GSI) acts as an effective blocker of Notch signalling. The present study aimed to investigate the role of GSI MW167 in T cell differentiation and antigen-induced airway inflammation. An OVA-induced airway inflammation mouse model was established. Blockade of Notch signalling was achieved using MW167. The expression of IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, Notch1 signalling and pro-inflammatory transcription f...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Propofol Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Production Through Enhancing apoM and foxa2 Expression in HepG2 Cells
Abstract Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a cytokine that mediates the influx of cells to sites of inflammation. Our group recently reported that propofol exerted an anti-inflammatory effect and could inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the effect and possible mechanisms of propofol on MCP-1 expression remain unclear. LPS-stimulated HepG2 cells were treated with 50 μM propofol for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The transcript and protein levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. We found that ...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Resveratrol on the Treatment of Inflammatory Response Induced by Severe Burn
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to preliminarily investigate the effects of resveratrol on the treatment of systemic inflammatory response induced by severe burn wounding. Through the simulation experiment in vivo on burned mice and simulative experiment in vitro on mice macrophage respectively, differences of the related pro-inflammatory cytokines and SIRT1 expression levels between the resveratrol-treated group and the untreated control group were detected and analyzed. The results of the simulation experiment in vivo on burned mice manifested that the survival rate of the mice in the resveratrol-treated grou...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Platycodin D Attenuates Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma by Regulation NF-κB Pathway
Abstract In this work, the anti-asthma potential of platycodin D (PLD) was studied by investigation of its effect to suppress airway inflammation, a murine model of asthma and the possible mechanisms. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, ovalbumin (OVA), OVA+ dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) and OVA + PLD (40, 80 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) were measured; airway histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5(IL-5), and interleukin-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated by enzyme-linked...
Source: Inflammation - January 12, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Wear Particles Impair Antimicrobial Activity Via Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and ERK1/2 Phosphorylation in Activated Macrophages
Abstract Implant-related infection (IRI) is closely related to the local immunity of peri-implant tissues. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in activated macrophages plays a prominent role in the innate immune response. In previous studies, we indicated that implant wear particles promote endotoxin tolerance by decreasing the release of proinflammatory cytokines. However, it is unclear whether ROS are involved in the damage of the local immunity of peri-implant tissues. In the present study, we assessed the mechanism of local immunosuppression using titanium (Ti) particles and/or lipopolysaccharide (...
Source: Inflammation - January 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Recombinant TB9.8 of Mycobacterium bovis Triggers the Production of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 in RAW264.7 Macrophages via Activation of the p38, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways
Abstract The TB9.8 of Mycobacterium bovis can induce strong antigen-specific T-cell responses in proliferation assays and IFN-γ assays. However, whether and how TB9.8 activates innate immune cells remain unclear. Therefore, recombinant protein TB9.8 (rTB9.8)-induced proinflammatory cytokine profile by RAW264.7 cells was investigated and the related signaling pathway was studied. Stimulation with rTB9.8 triggered RAW264.7 cells to produce IL-6 and IL-12 p40. In addition, rTB9.8 activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in RAW264.7 cells by inducing the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-re...
Source: Inflammation - January 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Selenium Deficiency Facilitates Inflammation Through the Regulation of TLR4 and TLR4-Related Signaling Pathways in the Mice Uterus
In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that Se deficiency makes mice uterus more prone to inflammation. An appropriate Se supplement could enhance the immune condition of the uterus. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Polydatin on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of polydatin (PD) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions at protein and transcriptional levels, as well as the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for these symptoms, we investigated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression. NO was analyzed with the Griess method. PGE2 was measured by enzyme-linked imm...
Source: Inflammation - January 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Reduced Serum B7-H3 Levels in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis
This study aimed to investigate molecule B7-H3 expression profiles of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and the clinical significance of B7-H3 in the pathogenesis of AS. Serum B7-H3 levels were measured by ELISA in patients with AS and healthy controls. The expression of B7-H3 protein and mRNA on CD14+ monocytes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum levels of T cell-associated cytokines were also analyzed. The serum B7-H3 levels in AS patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls. The expression of B7-H3 protein and mRNA on CD14+ monocytes of PBMCs and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, an...
Source: Inflammation - January 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Genistein Exerts Neuroprotective Effect on Focal Cerebral Ischemia Injury in Rats
Abstract Brain ischemia and treatment are one of the important topics in neurological science. Free oxygen radicals and inflammation formed after ischemia are accepted as the most important causes of damage. Currently, there are studies on many chemopreventive agents to prevent cerebral ischemia damage. Our aim is to research the preventive effect of the active ingredient in genistein, previously unstudied, on oxidative damage in cerebral ischemia. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (no medication or surgical procedure), ischemia group, and artery ischemia + genistein group, sacrificed...
Source: Inflammation - January 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Additive Suppression of LPS-Induced IL-10 and TNF-α by Pre-treatment of Dexamethasone and SB203580 in a Murine Alveolar Macrophage Cell Line (MH-S)
Abstract P38 inhibitors are potent anti-inflammatory agents with distinctive mechanism of action from corticosteroid; the potential combined use of both anti-inflammatory agents could be an effective treatment for inflammatory lung disease; however, the impact of such combination on the homeostasis of immune response was poorly understood. To investigate the combined effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and/or SB203580 on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (pro-inflammatory) and interleukin (IL)-10 (anti-inflammatory) secretion in mouse alveolar macrophage cell line. Secreted TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Phosphor...
Source: Inflammation - January 7, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Actions of Systemically or Locally Treated Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Inflammatory Model
ABSTRACT Cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells provide hopeful results. Therefore, in this present study, possible anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive actions of locally or systemically treated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) investigated in experimental inflammation model. ADMSCs were isolated from a male Wistar rat under anesthesia, and then they were cultured and expanded for transplantation in all the experimental animals. Effects of intraperitoneal or intraplantar ADMSC treatments on the hallmarks of the inflammatory nociception, such as hyperalgesia, allodynia, edema, and sever...
Source: Inflammation - January 7, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic Conditioning Before and After Pulmonary Allergic Inflammation
We examined IgE and IgG1 levels, eosinophil counting, expression of Th1 (interleukin (IL)-2, IFN-α) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and airway remodeling. IgE and IgG1 were decreased only when exercise was performed before sensitization (ACBS); however, there was a decrease of eosinophils, Th2 cytokines, VEGF, and airway remodeling and increase in IL-10 in either ACBS or ACAS groups. Our results demonstrate that aerobic conditioning reduces Th2 response before and after sensitization by increasing IL-10 while the production of anaphylactic antibodies is reduced only...
Source: Inflammation - December 24, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Treatment with the Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor 4-Methylumbelliferone Suppresses LPS-Induced Lung Inflammation
Abstract Exposure to bacterial endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). To date, there are no known effective treatments for LPS-induced inflammation. In the current study, we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) on LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing LPS-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production, and an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU ...
Source: Inflammation - December 24, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin-4 -589C/T Polymorphism is Associated with Increased Pediatric Asthma Risk: A Meta-Analysis
Abstract IL4 -589C/T polymorphism has been implicated in susceptibility to pediatric asthma risk. Several studies investigated the association of this polymorphism with pediatric asthma in different populations. However, the results were contradictory. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between IL4 -589C/T polymorphism and pediatric asthma risk. Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wangfang were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association...
Source: Inflammation - December 24, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mesenteric Lymph Duct Drainage Attenuates Acute Lung Injury in Rats with Severe Intraperitoneal Infection
Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate the hypothesis that the mesenteric lymphatic system plays an important role in acute lung injury in a rat model induced by severe intraperitoneal infection. Male Wistar rats weighing 250 ∼ 300 g were randomly divided into 3 groups and subjected to sham operation, intraperitoneal infection, or mesenteric lymphatic drainage. The activity of diamine oxidase (DAO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured by enzymatic assay. The endotoxin levels in plasma, lymph, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated using the limulus amoebocyte lysate reagent. ...
Source: Inflammation - December 24, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intranasal Curcumin Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
Abstract Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the most powerful proinflammatory factor and can induce acute pulmonary inflammation even lung injury after inhalation or systemic administration. LPS induces sepsis and multiple organ damage. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a major component of turmeric, exhibits protection against LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). We aimed to investigate effects of intranasal curcumin on LPS-induced ALI in mice where curcumin (10 mg/kg, intranasal (i.n.) was given an hour before LPS exposure. After 24 h of intranasal LPS instillation, a marked increase in neutrophil recruitment and my...
Source: Inflammation - December 20, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Recovery of Acute Lung Injury by Upregulating Tim-3
Abstract Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar injury and uncontrolled inflammation. Mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of ALI are unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), either natural or induced, suppress a variety of physiological and pathological immune responses. In the current study, we investigated whether Tregs were involved in the development of ALI. Proportion of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ Tregs in the peripheral blood of 66 ALI patients and 30 healthy controls were examined by flow cytometry. Data showed that the percentage of Tregs in CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in patients than that ...
Source: Inflammation - December 20, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Natural Killer Cell Functional Activity After 4-1BB Costimulation
Abstract Reports show enhancement of CD8 T cells’ activity through CD137 (4-1BB) signal; however, not all data proved similar effect in natural killer (NK) cells. Here, the impact of 4-1BB signal on NK cells’ function was assessed during short term cultures. To that end, cytokine-activated NK cells were cocultured with adenovirally transduced MCF-7 stimulator cells expressing 4-1BB ligand. Cellular cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and expression of cytotoxicity related genes were assessed after overnight cultures. Sharp decrease of CD56+ and CD56bright NK cells was demonstrated. 4-1BB neither enhanced cellul...
Source: Inflammation - December 18, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

In Vitro Neutrophil Migration Requires Protein Kinase C-Delta (δ-PKC)-Mediated Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C-Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) Phosphorylation
We report that treatment of human neutrophils with the δ-PKC inhibitor rottlerin significantly attenuates f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-induced MARCKS phosphorylation (IC50 = 5.709 μM), adhesion (IC50 = 8.4 μM), and migration (IC50 = 6.7 μM), while α-, β-, and ζ-PKC inhibitors had no significant effect. We conclude that δ-PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation is essential for human neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. These results implicate δ-PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation as a key step in the inflammatory response of neutrophils. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 17, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-22 Up-Regulates β-Defensin-2 Expression in Human Alveolar Epithelium via STAT3 but Not NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Abstract Human β-defensin-2(HBD-2) is one of the two major vertebrate antimicrobial peptide families (α and β), which is highly expressed by proinflammatory induction in the lung and exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. We observed that IL-22 receptors high expressed on the membrane of A549 cells; HBD-2 mRNA was expressed in a time- and concentration-dependent manners in A549 cells when treated with IL-22; further studies demonstrated that HBD-2 expression was attenuated by AG490, but to JSH-23, inhibitors of p-STAT3 DNA binding and NF-κB/ p65 subunit nuclear translocation, respectively. These result...
Source: Inflammation - December 16, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective and Therapeutic Effect of Apocynin on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Rats
In this study, both protective and therapeutic effects of APO against BLC-induced lung fibrosis were demonstrated for the first time. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 14, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

In Vitro Oxidation of Fibrinogen Promotes Functional Alterations and Formation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products, an Inflammation Mediator
Abstract Fibrinogen (FB) is a soluble blood plasma protein and is a key molecule involved in coagulation. Oxidative modification of proteins, such as the formation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a heterogeneous family of protein compounds structurally modified and derived from oxidative stress, may be associated with the pathophysiology of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the formation of this mediator of inflammation occurs from FB and whether its generation is associated with structural changes. Results of the present study sugge...
Source: Inflammation - December 14, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NOD1 and NOD2 Interact with the Phagosome Cargo in Mast Cells: A Detailed Morphological Evidence
ABSTRACT Mast cells (MC) play a key role in triggering the inflammatory process and share some functions with professional phagocytes. It is not clear whether or not the phagocytic process in MC follows the same route and has the same meaning of that of professional phagocytes. Herein we analyze in detail the structure of the phagosome in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). The ultrastructural analysis of the phagosome, containing either model particles or bacteria, reveals that these vacuoles are very tight, and in several areas, their membrane seems to have dissolved. RPMC express NOD1 and NOD2 proteins whose role...
Source: Inflammation - December 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phenyl-β- d -Glucopyranoside Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Activity in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated RAW 264.7 Cells
Abstract Phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside is a component of Phellodendron amurense with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the role of phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside in inflammation using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine Raw 264.7 macrophages. Phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside not only inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production but also significantly inhibited the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) without inducing cytotoxicity. Phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside also attenuated proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF...
Source: Inflammation - December 11, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Potential Effects of Calcium Binding Protein S100A12 on Severity Evaluation and Curative Effect of Severe Acute Pancreatitis
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 9, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bergenin Plays an Anti-Inflammatory Role via the Modulation of MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in a Mouse Model of LPS-Induced Mastitis
In conclusion, bergenin reduced the expression of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways, and it may represent a novel treatment strategy for mastitis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 7, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Piperine Suppresses the Expression of CXCL8 in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated SW480 and HT-29 Cells via Downregulating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways
Abstract The anti-inflammatory effect of piperine has been largely investigated in macrophages, but its activity on epithelial cells in inflammatory settings is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of piperine on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human epithelial-like SW480 and HT-29 cells. Our data showed that although piperine inhibited the proliferation of SW480 and HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner, it had low cytotoxicity on these cell lines with 50 % inhibiting concentration (IC50) values greater than 100 μM. As epithelial-like cells, ...
Source: Inflammation - December 4, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Upregulation of HO-1 Attenuates LPS-Stimulated Proinflammatory Responses Through Downregulation of p38 Signaling Pathways in Rat Ovary
Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. However, the specific mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory role of HO-1 in the reproductive system is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the mechanism of HO-1 in the regulation of the inflammatory response stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat ovary. LPS-stimulated inflammatory models were established. Rats were pretreated with HO-1 activator (hemin) or inhibitor (ZnPP) before LPS stimulation, and we evaluated the expression of HO-1 by real-time PCR and Western blot. The messenger...
Source: Inflammation - December 2, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Systemic and Flap Inflammatory Response Associates with Thrombosis in Flap Venous Crisis
ABSTRACT Venous crisis represents the most common complication in flap surgery and often results in flap failure. The gold standard for free flap monitoring is frequent clinical examination. The current study examined the systemic inflammatory response during the immediate post-operative period following flap venous crisis. Superficial epigastric artery perforator flap transplantation was performed in a total of 30 rabbits. Fifteen animals received venous obstruction by vein ligation (venous crisis group, n = 15) and others were sham treated (control group, n = 15). Venous thrombosis was examined by immuno...
Source: Inflammation - December 2, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Decreased Flow-Mediated Dilatation in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Meta-analysis
In this study, to derive a more precise comparison of FMD% difference between SLE patients and healthy controls, a meta-analysis was performed. Databases were searched to identify all available studies comparing FMD% between SLE patients and healthy controls. The study eligibility criteria were cohort or case–control studies with data on both patients diagnosed with SLE and healthy controls, and use of high-resolution ultrasonography to detect FMD. Random effect meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the overall mean FMD% difference between the two groups. Publication bias was detected by funnel plot and Egger’s test....
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Treatment of MSCs Attenuates Inflammation and Cardiac Dysfunction Following MI
In this study, we demonstrated that IGF-1-treated MSCs’ transplantation attenuate cardiac dysfunction, increase the survival of engrafted cells in the ischemic heart, decrease myocardium cells apoptosis, and inhibit protein production and gene expression of inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. IGF-1 pretreatment of MSCs may play anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation roles in post-myocardial infarction. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The Differential Roles of mTOR, ERK, and JNK Pathways in Invariant Natural Killer T-cell Function and Survival
ABSTRACT Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a critical element for both innate and adaptive immunity. The quick responses of mature iNKT cells to TCR stimulation require activation of several different signaling pathways. However, the roles of these signaling pathways in mature iNKT cell biology remain incompletely understood. To address this issue, single signaling pathway was blocked with inhibitor in iNKT cells, and the roles of these signaling pathways were estimated. Results showed that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an essential role for cytokine production and survival in iNKT cells. In ...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Preventive Effect of Chrysin on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Rats
In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that CRS significantly prevents BLC-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in rats. Further studies are needed to assess the role of CRS in the treatment of lung inflammation and fibrosis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Development of Asthmatic Response upon Bronchial Allergen Challenge Is Associated with Dynamic Changes of Interleukin-10-Producing and Interleukin-10-Responding CD4+ T Cells
Abstract The role of adaptive immune system in regulation of asthmatic responses remains elusive. Here, we performed a comprehensive time-course analysis of mutual relationships between development of asthmatic response following allergen challenge and changes in several CD4+ T cell subsets which we characterized as either releasing interleukin-10 (CD4+CD25−CD127− and CD4+CD25+CD127+ T cells) or responding to IL-10 (CD4+ T cell subsets expressing CD210). Patients that developed asthmatic reaction were described as responders (R) whereas the others were named non-responders (NR). In R, in contrast to NR, at 6...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

IL-22 Enhances CCL20 Production in IL-1β-Stimulated Human Gingival Fibroblasts
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of IL-1β- and/or IL-22-induced CCL20 production in HGFs. A single stimulation of IL-22 could not induce CCL20 production. On the other hand, IL-22 could increase CCL20 production from IL-1β-stimulated HGFs in a dose-dependent manner. C-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (IκB)-α phosphorylation were increased in IL-1β- and IL-22-stimulated HGFs. An inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB decreased IL-1β- and IL-22-induced CCL20 production, though an inhibitor of JNK did not modulate CCL20 production. These data suggest that IL-1β in cooperation w...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Apigenin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory in Acute Lung Injury by Suppressing COX-2 and NF-kB Pathway
This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and the possible mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated. Pretreatment with apigenin prior to the administration of intratracheal LPS significantly induced a decrease in lung wet weight/dry weight ratio in total leukocyte number and neutrophil percent in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in IL-6 and...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Thalidomide on H1N1 Influenza Virus-Induced Pulmonary Injury in Mice
Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide (Thd) on H1N1-induced acute lung injury in mice. BALB/C mice were infected intranasally with influenza A virus (H1N1) and then treated with Thd at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Weight loss and survival of mice were monitored for 14 days after virus challenge, and the serum and lung tissues were collected at 4 days for histological and biochemical analysis. The results showed that Thd significantly improved the survival rate, reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and cytokine (e.g., IL-6, TNF-...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Lack of Association Between TESPA1 Gene Polymorphisms (rs1801876, rs2171497, rs4758994, and rs997173) and Ankylosing Spondylitis in a Chinese Population
Abstract We investigated whether TESPA1 gene polymorphisms were associated with increased risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We also studied whether TESPA1 gene interacts with environmental factors. A total of 494 patients with AS and 478 matched healthy controls were genotyped for four SNPs (rs1801876, rs2171497, rs4758994, and rs997173) in the TESPA1 gene. We found no evidence of association between these SNPs and AS susceptibility, and between their haplotypes and the disease. But, patients with rs1801876 GA, GG, and AA genotypes had significantly different Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional I...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The Effects of Morin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Suppressing the Lung NLRP3 Inflammasome
In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of morin on acute lung injury using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The cell counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The animal lung edema degree was evaluated by wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pathological ch...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Chelerythrine Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Endotoxic Shock in Mice
Abstract Chelerythrine (CHE), a quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects. Although CHE has been used to treat various diseases, the protective effects of CHE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock have not been explored. The aims of the study were to investigate the protective effects of CHE on LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice and clarify the mechanism of the effects. We found that pretreatment with CHE (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, po) at 1 and 12 h before injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg/kg LPS markedly decreased the production of interleukin-...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expression and Role of BAG-1 in Eosinophilic and Non-eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps
In conclusion, eosinophils triggered a more severe form of inflammation in CRSwNP compared with non-eosinophilic inflammatory cells. The expressions of BAG-1 and Hsp70 were upregulated in CRSwNP, especially in ECRSwNP. IL-4, IL-17A, and IL-1β may be critical for BAG-1 gene expression. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Wogonoside Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
In conclusion, our results indicate that wogonoside exhibits a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI via suppression of TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Tetrahydrocoptisine Protects Rats from LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that tetrahydrocoptisine possesses a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI through inhibiting of NF-κB signaling pathways, which may involve the inhibition of pulmonary inflammatory process. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research