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Carvacrol Exerts Neuroprotective Effects Via Suppression of the Inflammatory Response in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rats
In conclusion, we have shown that carvacrol inhibits the inflammatory response via inhibition of the NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, carvacrol may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Erdosteine in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells
Abstract Erdosteine is widely used as a mucolytic agent and also has free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine. We investigated the effect of erdosteine on the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kB/inhibitor of NFkB (IkB), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Cultured RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with erdosteine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In Western blotting, pretreatment with erdosteine inhibited the IkBα degradatio...
Source: Inflammation - June 18, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Susceptibility to Aspergillus Infections in Rats with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease via Deficiency Function of Alveolar Macrophages and Impaired Activation of TLR2
In this study, we used cigarette smoke exposure to generate COPD rat model. colony-forming units (CFU) count assessment and phagocytosis were applied to evaluate the defense function of COPD rats against Aspergillus challenge. ELISA, western blotting, and GST-Rac1 pull-down assays were conducted to determine the expressions of cytokines and TLR2-associated signaling pathway. Our data showed that Aspergillus burdens increased, phagocytosis of Aspergillus as well as the expressions of inflammatory cytokines from alveolar macrophages (AMs) were impaired in COPD rats compared with normal rats. Though TLR2 signaling-related pro...
Source: Inflammation - June 16, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Coptisine Prevented IL-β-Induced Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Chondrocytes
Abstract Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Coptisine is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Coptidis rhizome and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of coptisine on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated chondrocytes have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coptisine on IL-1β-induced inflammation in human articular chondrocytes. Our results showed that coptisine greatly inhibited the production of n...
Source: Inflammation - June 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Geraniin Inhibits LPS-Induced THP-1 Macrophages Switching to M1 Phenotype via SOCS1/NF-κB Pathway
In conclusion, geraniin inhibits LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages switching to M1 phenotype through SOCS1/NF-κB pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 11, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Statins and IL-1β, IL-10, and MPO Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid: Preliminary Results
Abstract Statins possess a wide variety of pleiotropic properties that are independent of their lipid-lowering abilities such as attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, platelet aggregation and stimulating bone formation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of statins on clinical periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in inflammatory periodontal diseases. Seventy-nine subjects with hyperlipidemia and 48 systemically healthy controls (C) were included. Hyperlipidemic patients were either given a diet (HD) or prescribe...
Source: Inflammation - June 11, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor {Delta} Increases Sphingomyelin Synthase Activity in THP-1 Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell
Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors, which mediate glucose and lipid homeostasis by regulating the expression of a large number of transcription factors. Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of sphingomyelin (SM), and its expression and activity have been reported to be associated with atherosclerosis (AS). Although there have been many functional PPAR and SMS studies on atherosclerosis in recent years, few have investigated the correlation between the activation of PPARδ and the activity of SMS. In his study, macrophage-induced foam cells we...
Source: Inflammation - June 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Polyomavirus BK Induces Inflammation via Up-regulation of CXCL10 at Translation Levels in Renal Transplant Patients with Nephropathy
Abstract Polyomavirus BK-associated nephropathy (BKAN) is an important mechanism for renal losing after kidney transplantation. It seems that Polyomavirus BK can induce nephropathy by direct cell lysis and stimulation of the immune system and induction of inflammation. CXCL10 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which stimulates the migration and activation of immune cells to the infected sites. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of CXCL10 in the Polyomavirus BK-infected and Polyomavirus BK-non-infected post renal transplanted nephropathic patients in comp...
Source: Inflammation - June 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Leukocytes Enhance Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production in a Mouse Air-Pouch-Type Inflammation Model
In this study, we investigated the contribution of LPS-activated leukocytes to the production of TSLP in a mouse air-pouch-type inflammation model. LPS induced the production of TSLP in this model but not in the mouse keratinocyte cell line PAM212. Transfer of the infiltrated leukocytes collected from an LPS-injected air pouch to the air pouch of another mouse enhanced TSLP production. Further, the LPS-activated leukocytes produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); a deficiency in these cytokines attenuated the LPS-induced production of TSLP. TSLP production was induced by TNF-α and enh...
Source: Inflammation - June 7, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Enhanced p62 Is Responsible for Mitochondrial Pathway-Dependent Apoptosis and Interleukin-1β Production at the Early Phase by Monosodium Urate Crystals in Murine Macrophage
Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the role of p62-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in the initiation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in macrophages. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by MSU crystals was measured using western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, or PARP1, and by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting was applied to detect ubiquitination of p62, TRAF6, and caspase-9. Mitochondrial apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell ...
Source: Inflammation - June 7, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Evaluation and Toxicological Analysis of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg
Abstract Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Myrtaceae) is used in Brazilian traditional medicine against fever, diabetes, hypercholesteremic, obesity, and urinary diseases. In the present study, the compounds 2′,6′-dihydroxy-3′-methyl-4′-metoxychalcone and 2′,4′-dihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethyl-6′-methoxychalcone were identified for the first time in leaves of the C. xanthocarpa. These compounds and the hydroethanolic extract (HECX) significantly inhibited paw edema and reduced both leukocyte migration and the leakage of protein into the pleural cavity. No toxicity was detected by HECX in an acute ...
Source: Inflammation - June 7, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Melatonin Inhibits CXCL10 and MMP-1 Production in IL-1β-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
Abstract Melatonin is a hormone that is mainly secreted by the pineal gland and exhibits a wide spectrum of activities, including antioxidant functions. Melatonin has been detected in gingival crevicular fluid. However, the role of melatonin in periodontal tissue is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of melatonin on inflammatory mediator expression in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Interleukin (IL)-1β induced CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 production in HPDLC. Melatonin decreased CXCL10 ...
Source: Inflammation - June 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Attenuates Neutrophil Recruitment by a Mechanism Dependent on Nicotinic Receptor and the Spleen
Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the effect of beta-adrenergic receptor activation on neutrophil migration in experimental peritonitis elucidating the neuroimmune components involved such as nicotinic receptors and the spleen. Mice pre-treated with mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist) and propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist) or splenectomized animals were treated with isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) prior to intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan. After 4 h, the infiltrating neutrophils and the local cytokine/chemokine levels were evaluated in the peritoneal lavage. The effect of isopro...
Source: Inflammation - June 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 Signaling Pathway
ABSTRACT Ischemic stroke can activate multiple transcription factors and cause inflammatory reactions, which involve pattern recognition receptors with immunostimulatory effects. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the receptors related to innate immunity and several inflammatory reactions. The promising anti- inflammatory activity of salvianolic acid B (SAB) had been previously reported, but its effect on ischemic stroke remains unknown. An oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in vitro and a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in vivo were used in this paper, and the results show...
Source: Inflammation - June 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Rifampin, Povidone-Iodine and Hydrogen Peroxide on the Formation of Epidural Fibrosis in the Experimental Epidural Fibrosis Model
Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the effect of direct application of rifampin, povidone-iodine, and hydrogen peroxide on the formation of epidural fibrosis in rats. Forty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were equally and randomly divided into four groups (laminectomy, topical rifampin, topical povidone-iodine, and topical hydrogen peroxide). Laminectomy was performed at the T12 level in all rats. Four weeks later, the extent of epidural fibrosis was assessed both macroscopically and histopathologically. ANOVA test was used for the evaluation of dural thickness. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the...
Source: Inflammation - June 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Autoimmune Lupus, Arthritis
Abstract Hypoxia elicits an orchestrated response in cells, tissues, and entire organisms to survive a hypoxic challenge. On a molecular level, this response can be controlled by oxygen-dependent stabilization of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Recently, studies have shown that HIF-1α plays an important role in the development and function of T helper (Th) cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells, and dendritic cells (DCs). Because these cells are critical in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, the roles of HIF-1α in these ...
Source: Inflammation - May 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Review: the Multiple Roles of Monocytic Microparticles
Abstract Monocytic microparticles (mMP) are microparticles derived from human monocytes either under in vivo or in vitro conditions. The size of mMP is between 0.1 and 1.0 μm. Apart from the size range, mMPs are also identified based on phosphatidylserine and CD14 expression on their surface, though this is not always the case. Monocytic MP are critical players in inflammation, endothelial cell function, and blood coagulation. They exhibit dual function by either helping the progression of such conditions or limiting it, depending on certain factors. Furthermore, the numbers of mMP are elevated in some autoimmun...
Source: Inflammation - May 24, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effect of Pressure-Controlled Ventilation and Volume-Controlled Ventilation in Prone Position on Pulmonary Mechanics and Inflammatory Markers
This study revealed that there is no difference regarding inflammatory marker levels between volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 24, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of the T lymphocytes and Remodeling in Asthma
This study used immunohistochemical techniques for identified monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, ECP, MBP, tenascin, and laminin) in the bronchi. The highest number of eosinophils and T lymphocyte cells in bronchial biopsies was found in AA, and NAA. The number of T lymphocytes in AA was significantly higher than in NAA and HC. The degree of epithelial damage was higher in the AA group compared to the other groups. The tenascin- and laminin-positive layers in AA were thicker than other groups. In AA, a significant negative correlation was found between epithelial integrity and the count for eosinophils or T lympho...
Source: Inflammation - May 24, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Synergistic Effects of Electroacupuncture and Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats
Abstract Electroacupuncture (EA) and transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are both promising therapeutic applications for intestinal disorders. The current study examined their combined effect on rat intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the possible mechanism. Five groups were performed: con group (shame operation),I/R group (model group), MSC group (I/R + MSC), EA group (I/R + EA), and combined group (I/R + MSC + EA). Intestinal histological damage, crypt cell proliferation degree, mucosal cytokines expression, and levels of inflammation factors were studied for...
Source: Inflammation - May 24, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Soluble Levels of Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) and Progression of Atherosclerosis in Individuals Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: ACTG NWCS 332
Abstract Identification of biomarkers and/or mediators of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with HIV infection would be of diagnostic and therapeutic value. As soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory (esRAGE) have been implicated in vascular complications in other settings, we investigated whether either soluble form of RAGE was associated with changes in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in HIV-infected patients and HIV-uninfected controls. We found no differences in sRAGE, esRAGE, or CIMT among groups at study entry, or in yearly rates of change in sRAGE, es...
Source: Inflammation - May 23, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Recombinant DNA Plasmid Encoding the sIL-4R-NAP Fusion Protein Suppress Airway Inflammation in an OVA-Induced Mouse Model of Asthma
Abstract Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease. It was prevalently perceived that Th2 cells played the crucial role in asthma pathogenesis, which has been identified as the important target for anti-asthma therapy. The soluble IL-4 receptor (sIL-4R), which is the decoy receptor for Th2 cytokine IL-4, has been reported to be effective in treating asthma in phase I/II clinical trail. To develop more efficacious anti-asthma agent, we attempt to test whether the Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP), a novel TLR2 agonist, would enhance the efficacy of sIL-4R in anti-asthma therapy. In ou...
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Optimization of Folate-Targeted Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Experimental Arthritis
Abstract Folate-targeted immunotherapy constitutes a powerful method for the treatment of established arthritis in multiple animal models of the disease. The therapy involves immunization of the animal against a hapten to induce anti-hapten antibodies, followed by injection with a folate-hapten conjugate to decorate the surface of folate receptor-positive (activated) macrophages with the antigenic hapten. The hapten-marked macrophages are then recognized by the anti-hapten antibodies and eliminated by immune mechanisms, leading to attenuation of disease symptoms. In the following paper, we optimize the therapy for...
Source: Inflammation - May 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of Low-Power Laser (LPL) and Light-Emitting Diode (LED) on Inflammatory Response in Burn Wound Healing
Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the biochemical and molecular changes in the process of epidermal healing of burn injuries after therapeutic treatment with low-power laser (LPL) and light-emitting diode (LED). Rats were divided into six groups: skin without injury (Sham), burn wounds (BWs), BW + 660-nm LPL, BW + 904-nm LPL, BW + 632-nm LED, and BW + 850-nm LED. The burn wound model was performed using a 100 °C copper plate, with 10 s of contact in the skin. The irradiations started 24 h after the lesion and were performed daily for 7 days. The burn wound groups showed an incre...
Source: Inflammation - May 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Behavioral Alterations Are Alleviated by Sodium Phenylbutyrate via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammatory Cascade
Abstract Oxido-nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, and reduced level of neurotrophins are implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive illness. A few recent studies have revealed the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathophysiology of stress and depression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective potential of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), an ER stress inhibitor against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior in Swiss albino mice. Anxiety and depressive-like behavior was induced by LPS (0.83 mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Vario...
Source: Inflammation - May 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Selenium Pretreatment for Mitigation of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Cardiovascular Surgery: Influence on Acute Organ Damage and Inflammatory Response
ABSTRACT Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Multi-organ damage is associated with substantial decreases of blood selenium (Se) levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. We compared the influence of a dietary surplus of Se and pretreatment with ebselen, a mimic of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase, on IRI-induced tissue damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed either a Se-adequate diet containing 0.3 ppm Se or supplemented with 1 pp...
Source: Inflammation - May 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Altered Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis is not Related to Clinical Classifications
Abstract Elevated COX-2 activity is associated with the development of chronic lung diseases leading to bronchial obstruction, including sarcoidosis. The aim of the study was to examine expression pattern of COX-2 messenger RNA (mRNA). Expression was performed by q-PCR method in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes in sarcoidosis patients (n = 61) and control group (n = 30). Analysis of COX-2 mRNA expression level in BAL fluid and PB revealed downregulation in sarcoidosis and control groups. In PB lymphocytes, the statistically significant difference between patients and...
Source: Inflammation - May 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Sildenafil Decreases the Proinflammatory Chemokine CXCL10 in Human Cardiomyocytes and in Subjects with Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
In conclusion, sildenafil could be a pharmacologic tool to control CXCL10-associated inflammation in diabetic cardiomyopathy. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 10, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Infiltration of IL-17-Producing T Cells and Treg Cells in a Mouse Model of Smoke-Induced Emphysema
The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of lungs CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells and IL-17-producing CD4 and CD8 (Th17 and Tc17) lymphocytes in mice with cigarette-induced emphysema. Groups of mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or room air. At weeks 12 and 24, mice were sacrificed to observe histological changes by HE stain. The frequencies of Th17 (CD4+IL-17+T), Tc17 (CD8+IL-17+T), and Treg (CD4+Foxp3+T) cells in lungs from these mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA levels of orphan nuclear receptor ROR γt and Foxp3 were performed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein lev...
Source: Inflammation - May 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Resolvin D1 Alleviates the Lung Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via Complement, Immunoglobulin, TLR4, and Inflammatory Factors in Rats
Abstract Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) is still an unsolved medical issue, which negatively affects the prognosis of many lung diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of RvD1 on LIRI and the potential mechanisms involved. The results revealed that the levels of complement, immunoglobulin, cytokines, sICAM-1, MPO, MDA, CINC-1, MCP-1, ANXA-1, TLR4, NF-κBp65, apoptosis index, and pulmonary permeability index were increased, whereas the levels of SOD, GSH-PX activity, and oxygenation index were decreased in rats with LIRI. Except for ANXA-1, these responses induced by LIRI were significa...
Source: Inflammation - May 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fenton Reaction-Generated Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Induces Inflammation in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells
Abstract Fenton reaction is a new mechanism able to generate advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) by exposing the human serum albumin to the Fenton system. Here, we characterized the effects of Fenton reaction-generated advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP-FR) on the gene transcription of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). To investigate the effects of AOPP-FR and AOPP-HOCl on transcription of inflammatory genes, the NF-κB, COX-2, and IL-6 luciferase promoter activities were analyzed. AOPP-FR and AOPP-HOCl were...
Source: Inflammation - May 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Isorhamnetin ameliorates LPS-induced inflammatory response through downregulation of NF-κB signaling
In this study, we investigated whether isorhamnetin exerts potent antiinflammatory effects in RAW264.7 cell and mouse model stimulated by LPS. The cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) levels were determined. In the mouse model of acute lung injury, the phosphorylation of NF-κB proteins was analyzed and inhibitor of NF-κB signaling (PDTC) was used on mice. Our results showed that isorhamnetin markedly decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations and suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling. Meanwhile, isorhamnetin reduced the amount of inflammatory cells, the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, protein leakage, and mye...
Source: Inflammation - May 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gamma-Linolenic Acid Suppresses NF-κΒ Signaling via CD36 in the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in Primary Goat Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells
Abstract Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and linoleic acid (LA), which are both n-6 unsaturated fatty acids, play vital roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The multi-functional protein scavenger receptor CD36 has also been shown to participate in inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between CD36 and GLA or LA in LPS-induced inflammation remain unclear. We used small interfering RNA and adenoviral systems to manipulate CD36 expression in primary goat mammary gland epithelial cells (pGMECs), and the results showed that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels were ...
Source: Inflammation - April 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Expression of CysLTR1 and 2 in Maturating Lymphocytes of Hyperplasic Tonsils Compared to Peripheral Cells in Children
The objectives of this study are to compare CysLTRs expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes with expression in maturating lymphocytes of hyperplasic tonsil and to check the influence of respiratory allergies in this process. Leukocytes of peripheral blood (PL) and hyperplasic tonsils of children were immunostained for CysLTR1, CysLTR2, CD3 (T cells), and CD19 (B cells) and read in flow cytometer. Lymphocyte of tonsils were divided in differentiating small cells (SC) and mitotic large cells (LC); percentage of B and T cells expressing CysLTRs was determined, and comparison was done using ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Data w...
Source: Inflammation - April 26, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Genetic Polymorphisms of X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing Group 1 and Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease-1 in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous collection of conditions characterized by irreversible expiratory airflow limitation. The disease is interspersed with exacerbations; periods of acute symptomatic, physiological, and functional deterioration. The present study was designed to investigate the role of X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) polymorphisms and the risk of COPD. Blood samples from 354 unrelated subject (age range 18–60 years; 156 with COPD, 198 healthy controls) were collected. Genomic DNA was isolated and genot...
Source: Inflammation - April 23, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Frequently Increased but Functionally Impaired CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus
In this study, to investigate whether there are intrinsic factors that might cause functional changes in Tregs in this disease, we evaluated the frequency of Tregs in peripheral blood and oral lesions and the expression levels of function-related transcription factors, forkhead/winged-helix transcription factor box P3 (FOXP3), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and TGF-β receptors (TβRI and TβRII) mRNAs in Tregs of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). We also investigated the frequency of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17A) producing Foxp3+ regulatory cells. Increased proportio...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Paeonol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced HMGB1 Translocation from the Nucleus to the Cytoplasm in RAW264.7 Cells
Abstract Transport of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved non-histone DNA-binding protein, from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Secretion of HMGB1 appears to be a key lethal factor in sepsis, so it is considered to be a therapeutic target. Previous studies have suggested that paeonol (2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxyacetophenone), an active compound of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of paeonol on HMGB1 is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of paeonol on the expression, location, and secretion of HMGB1 in LPS-in...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tormentic Acid Inhibits IL-1β-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes
In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of TA in human OA chondrocytes. TA significantly inhibits the IL-1β-induced inflammatory response by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, TA may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Impaired Ca 2+ Homeostasis and Decreased Orai1 Expression Modulates Arterial Hyporeactivity to Vasoconstrictors During Endotoxemia
ABSTRACT We hypothesized that SIRS/endotoxemia-associated hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors is mediated by smaller increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels due to reduced signaling via the STIM/Orai. Male Wistar rats were injected either with saline or bacterial LPS (i.p.; 10 mg/kg), and experiments were performed 24 h later. LPS-injected rats exhibited decreased systolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, neutrophils’ migration into the peritoneal cavity, and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels. Additionally, second-order mesenteric arteries from endotoxemic rats displayed hyporeactivity to contrac...
Source: Inflammation - April 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A Levels in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Associations with Disease Severity
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a systemic disorder characterized by chronic airflow limitation and an increased inflammatory response of the airways. Comorbidities are frequent in COPD and it is crucial to predict these in early stage for adequate management of COPD. Recent studies have reported that elevated levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a zinc-binding metalloproteinase, detected in patients with asthma, lung cancer, and pulmonary embolism and independently associated with cardiovascular events. We aimed to assess serum PAPP-A levels in COPD and the as...
Source: Inflammation - April 18, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lipoic Acid Exerts Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects in Response to Heat Shock in C 2 C 12 Myotubes
This study explored that lipoic acid treatment for 24 h significantly upregulated and promoted heat shock-induced catalase expression and downregulated GPx1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, indicating that lipoic acid exhibits antioxidant activity in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by upregulating catalase expression. Moreover, lipoic acid treatment for 3 h increased and promoted heat shock-induced interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA and protein levels and that for 24 h downregulated IL-6 mRNA expression, suggesting a dual effect of lipoic acid on IL-6 regulation. Lipoic acid alone failed to increase or reduce tumor necrosis...
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dynamic Analysis of Changes of Protein Levels and Selected Biochemical Indices in Rat Serum in the Course of Experimental Pleurisy
Abstract A significant role is played in inflammation by the liver, which, stimulated by inflammatory mediators, synthetizes plasma proteins with various dynamics. The purpose of these studies is to generate a detailed dynamic analysis of changes to concentrations of plasma and serum protein fractions and selected acute-phase proteins as well as nonspecific biochemical indices during the course of an induced pleurisy. The studies were conducted on female inbred Buffalo rats, which were divided into two groups: a control group (C) and an experimental group (IP) in which pleurisy was induced. In the IP group, signif...
Source: Inflammation - April 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Blockade of CD354 (TREM-1) Ameliorates Anti-GBM-Induced Nephritis
Abstract CD354, Triggering Receptor of Myeloid Cells-1 (TREM-1), is a potent amplifier of myeloid immune responses. Our goal was to determine the expression and function of TREM-1 in immune-mediated nephritis. An anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM)-induced nephritis model was employed, where mice were sensitized with rabbit IgG followed by anti-GBM serum to induce disease. Anti-GBM-treated 129x1/svJ mice developed severe nephritis whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice were resistant to disease. Anti-GBM disease resulted in elevated renal TREM-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels and increased urine TREM...
Source: Inflammation - April 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Preliminary Study on Gene Expression of Chitinase-Like Cytokines in Human Airway Epithelial Cell Under Chitin and Chitosan Microparticles Treatment
This study demonstrates that chitin potently induces CHI3L1 expression, but chitosan is relatively inert. This effect and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) suggest that chitosan MPs may possess more potential for therapeutic uses in human airway allergic inflammation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

HSP90 Inhibition Suppresses PGE2 Production via Modulating COX-2 and 15-PGDH Expression in HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells
In conclusion, we found that inhibitory effects of 17-AAG on PGE2 levels in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells were mediated through modulating COX-2 and 15-PGDH expression. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Shikonin Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
Abstract Shikonin, which is derived from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, a herb used in traditional medicine, has long been considered to be a useful treatment for various diseases in traditional oriental medicine. Shikonin has recently been reported to have several pharmacological properties, e.g., it has anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to examine whether shikonin is able to influence the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and/or chemokine C-C motif ligand (CCL)20, which contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, in human periodontal ligament cells...
Source: Inflammation - April 12, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of IL-22 on the Inflammatory Mediator Production, Proliferation, and Barrier Function of HUVECs
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interleukin (IL)-22 on proliferation function and inflammatory mediator production and barrier function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The expression of mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The proliferation ability of cells was evaluated using a cell counting kit assay. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of inflammatory mediators. The endothelial barrier permeability was assessed by measuring permeability to FITC-labeled dextran. The distribution of occludin was detected by immunofluorescence....
Source: Inflammation - April 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Melatonin can Ameliorate Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation-Related Deterioration of Bone Quality in Rat Femur
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effects of melatonin on the biomechanical properties of bone in comparison to amifostine (WR-2721). Forty Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into 5 groups namely; control (C), irradiation (R; single dose of 50 Gy), irradiation + WR-2721 (R + WR-2721; irradiation + 200 mg/kg WR-2721) radiation + melatonin 25 mg/kg (R + M25; irradiation + 25 mg/kg melatonin), and radiation + melatonin 50 mg/kg (R + M50; irradiation + 50 mg/kg melatonin). In order to measure extrinsic (organ-level mechanical prope...
Source: Inflammation - April 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IFN-τ Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs Pathway Activation in Mice
Abstract IFN-τ, which is a type I interferon with low cytotoxicity, is defined as a pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants. Type I interferons have been used as anti-inflammatory agents, but their side effects limit their clinical application. The present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of IFN-τ in a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated acute lung injury (ALI) model and in RAW264.7 cells and to confirm the mechanism of action involved. The methods used included histopathology, measuring the lung wet/dry ratio, determining the myeloperoxidase activity, ELISA, qPCR, and western blot. The results...
Source: Inflammation - April 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Leukocyte Infiltration Triggers Seizure Recurrence in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Abstract Epilepsy, which affects about 1 % of the population worldwide, leads to poor prognosis and increased morbidity. However, effective drugs providing satisfactory control on seizure relapse were rare, which encouraged more etiological studies. Whether inflammation is one of key events underlying seizure is in debate. In order to explore the role of inflammatory in the pathogenesis and development of epilepsy, we conducted intra-caudal vein injection of leukocytes to aggravated brain inflammatory process in kainic acid-induced seizure model in this study. The results showed that intravenous administration of...
Source: Inflammation - April 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research