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Resolvin D1 Alleviates the Lung Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via Complement, Immunoglobulin, TLR4, and Inflammatory Factors in Rats
Abstract Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) is still an unsolved medical issue, which negatively affects the prognosis of many lung diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of RvD1 on LIRI and the potential mechanisms involved. The results revealed that the levels of complement, immunoglobulin, cytokines, sICAM-1, MPO, MDA, CINC-1, MCP-1, ANXA-1, TLR4, NF-κBp65, apoptosis index, and pulmonary permeability index were increased, whereas the levels of SOD, GSH-PX activity, and oxygenation index were decreased in rats with LIRI. Except for ANXA-1, these responses induced by LIRI were significa...
Source: Inflammation - May 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fenton Reaction-Generated Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Induces Inflammation in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells
Abstract Fenton reaction is a new mechanism able to generate advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) by exposing the human serum albumin to the Fenton system. Here, we characterized the effects of Fenton reaction-generated advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP-FR) on the gene transcription of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). To investigate the effects of AOPP-FR and AOPP-HOCl on transcription of inflammatory genes, the NF-κB, COX-2, and IL-6 luciferase promoter activities were analyzed. AOPP-FR and AOPP-HOCl were...
Source: Inflammation - May 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Isorhamnetin ameliorates LPS-induced inflammatory response through downregulation of NF-κB signaling
In this study, we investigated whether isorhamnetin exerts potent antiinflammatory effects in RAW264.7 cell and mouse model stimulated by LPS. The cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) levels were determined. In the mouse model of acute lung injury, the phosphorylation of NF-κB proteins was analyzed and inhibitor of NF-κB signaling (PDTC) was used on mice. Our results showed that isorhamnetin markedly decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations and suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling. Meanwhile, isorhamnetin reduced the amount of inflammatory cells, the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, protein leakage, and mye...
Source: Inflammation - May 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gamma-Linolenic Acid Suppresses NF-κΒ Signaling via CD36 in the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in Primary Goat Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells
Abstract Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and linoleic acid (LA), which are both n-6 unsaturated fatty acids, play vital roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The multi-functional protein scavenger receptor CD36 has also been shown to participate in inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between CD36 and GLA or LA in LPS-induced inflammation remain unclear. We used small interfering RNA and adenoviral systems to manipulate CD36 expression in primary goat mammary gland epithelial cells (pGMECs), and the results showed that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels were ...
Source: Inflammation - April 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Expression of CysLTR1 and 2 in Maturating Lymphocytes of Hyperplasic Tonsils Compared to Peripheral Cells in Children
The objectives of this study are to compare CysLTRs expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes with expression in maturating lymphocytes of hyperplasic tonsil and to check the influence of respiratory allergies in this process. Leukocytes of peripheral blood (PL) and hyperplasic tonsils of children were immunostained for CysLTR1, CysLTR2, CD3 (T cells), and CD19 (B cells) and read in flow cytometer. Lymphocyte of tonsils were divided in differentiating small cells (SC) and mitotic large cells (LC); percentage of B and T cells expressing CysLTRs was determined, and comparison was done using ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Data w...
Source: Inflammation - April 26, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Genetic Polymorphisms of X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing Group 1 and Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease-1 in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous collection of conditions characterized by irreversible expiratory airflow limitation. The disease is interspersed with exacerbations; periods of acute symptomatic, physiological, and functional deterioration. The present study was designed to investigate the role of X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) polymorphisms and the risk of COPD. Blood samples from 354 unrelated subject (age range 18–60 years; 156 with COPD, 198 healthy controls) were collected. Genomic DNA was isolated and genot...
Source: Inflammation - April 23, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Frequently Increased but Functionally Impaired CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus
In this study, to investigate whether there are intrinsic factors that might cause functional changes in Tregs in this disease, we evaluated the frequency of Tregs in peripheral blood and oral lesions and the expression levels of function-related transcription factors, forkhead/winged-helix transcription factor box P3 (FOXP3), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and TGF-β receptors (TβRI and TβRII) mRNAs in Tregs of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). We also investigated the frequency of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17A) producing Foxp3+ regulatory cells. Increased proportio...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Paeonol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced HMGB1 Translocation from the Nucleus to the Cytoplasm in RAW264.7 Cells
Abstract Transport of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved non-histone DNA-binding protein, from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Secretion of HMGB1 appears to be a key lethal factor in sepsis, so it is considered to be a therapeutic target. Previous studies have suggested that paeonol (2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxyacetophenone), an active compound of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of paeonol on HMGB1 is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of paeonol on the expression, location, and secretion of HMGB1 in LPS-in...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tormentic Acid Inhibits IL-1β-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes
In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of TA in human OA chondrocytes. TA significantly inhibits the IL-1β-induced inflammatory response by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, TA may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Impaired Ca 2+ Homeostasis and Decreased Orai1 Expression Modulates Arterial Hyporeactivity to Vasoconstrictors During Endotoxemia
ABSTRACT We hypothesized that SIRS/endotoxemia-associated hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors is mediated by smaller increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels due to reduced signaling via the STIM/Orai. Male Wistar rats were injected either with saline or bacterial LPS (i.p.; 10 mg/kg), and experiments were performed 24 h later. LPS-injected rats exhibited decreased systolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, neutrophils’ migration into the peritoneal cavity, and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels. Additionally, second-order mesenteric arteries from endotoxemic rats displayed hyporeactivity to contrac...
Source: Inflammation - April 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A Levels in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Associations with Disease Severity
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a systemic disorder characterized by chronic airflow limitation and an increased inflammatory response of the airways. Comorbidities are frequent in COPD and it is crucial to predict these in early stage for adequate management of COPD. Recent studies have reported that elevated levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a zinc-binding metalloproteinase, detected in patients with asthma, lung cancer, and pulmonary embolism and independently associated with cardiovascular events. We aimed to assess serum PAPP-A levels in COPD and the as...
Source: Inflammation - April 18, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lipoic Acid Exerts Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects in Response to Heat Shock in C 2 C 12 Myotubes
This study explored that lipoic acid treatment for 24 h significantly upregulated and promoted heat shock-induced catalase expression and downregulated GPx1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, indicating that lipoic acid exhibits antioxidant activity in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by upregulating catalase expression. Moreover, lipoic acid treatment for 3 h increased and promoted heat shock-induced interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA and protein levels and that for 24 h downregulated IL-6 mRNA expression, suggesting a dual effect of lipoic acid on IL-6 regulation. Lipoic acid alone failed to increase or reduce tumor necrosis...
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dynamic Analysis of Changes of Protein Levels and Selected Biochemical Indices in Rat Serum in the Course of Experimental Pleurisy
Abstract A significant role is played in inflammation by the liver, which, stimulated by inflammatory mediators, synthetizes plasma proteins with various dynamics. The purpose of these studies is to generate a detailed dynamic analysis of changes to concentrations of plasma and serum protein fractions and selected acute-phase proteins as well as nonspecific biochemical indices during the course of an induced pleurisy. The studies were conducted on female inbred Buffalo rats, which were divided into two groups: a control group (C) and an experimental group (IP) in which pleurisy was induced. In the IP group, signif...
Source: Inflammation - April 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Blockade of CD354 (TREM-1) Ameliorates Anti-GBM-Induced Nephritis
Abstract CD354, Triggering Receptor of Myeloid Cells-1 (TREM-1), is a potent amplifier of myeloid immune responses. Our goal was to determine the expression and function of TREM-1 in immune-mediated nephritis. An anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM)-induced nephritis model was employed, where mice were sensitized with rabbit IgG followed by anti-GBM serum to induce disease. Anti-GBM-treated 129x1/svJ mice developed severe nephritis whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice were resistant to disease. Anti-GBM disease resulted in elevated renal TREM-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels and increased urine TREM...
Source: Inflammation - April 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Preliminary Study on Gene Expression of Chitinase-Like Cytokines in Human Airway Epithelial Cell Under Chitin and Chitosan Microparticles Treatment
This study demonstrates that chitin potently induces CHI3L1 expression, but chitosan is relatively inert. This effect and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) suggest that chitosan MPs may possess more potential for therapeutic uses in human airway allergic inflammation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

HSP90 Inhibition Suppresses PGE2 Production via Modulating COX-2 and 15-PGDH Expression in HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells
In conclusion, we found that inhibitory effects of 17-AAG on PGE2 levels in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells were mediated through modulating COX-2 and 15-PGDH expression. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Shikonin Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
Abstract Shikonin, which is derived from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, a herb used in traditional medicine, has long been considered to be a useful treatment for various diseases in traditional oriental medicine. Shikonin has recently been reported to have several pharmacological properties, e.g., it has anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to examine whether shikonin is able to influence the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and/or chemokine C-C motif ligand (CCL)20, which contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, in human periodontal ligament cells...
Source: Inflammation - April 12, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of IL-22 on the Inflammatory Mediator Production, Proliferation, and Barrier Function of HUVECs
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interleukin (IL)-22 on proliferation function and inflammatory mediator production and barrier function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The expression of mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The proliferation ability of cells was evaluated using a cell counting kit assay. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of inflammatory mediators. The endothelial barrier permeability was assessed by measuring permeability to FITC-labeled dextran. The distribution of occludin was detected by immunofluorescence....
Source: Inflammation - April 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Melatonin can Ameliorate Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation-Related Deterioration of Bone Quality in Rat Femur
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effects of melatonin on the biomechanical properties of bone in comparison to amifostine (WR-2721). Forty Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into 5 groups namely; control (C), irradiation (R; single dose of 50 Gy), irradiation + WR-2721 (R + WR-2721; irradiation + 200 mg/kg WR-2721) radiation + melatonin 25 mg/kg (R + M25; irradiation + 25 mg/kg melatonin), and radiation + melatonin 50 mg/kg (R + M50; irradiation + 50 mg/kg melatonin). In order to measure extrinsic (organ-level mechanical prope...
Source: Inflammation - April 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IFN-τ Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs Pathway Activation in Mice
Abstract IFN-τ, which is a type I interferon with low cytotoxicity, is defined as a pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants. Type I interferons have been used as anti-inflammatory agents, but their side effects limit their clinical application. The present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of IFN-τ in a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated acute lung injury (ALI) model and in RAW264.7 cells and to confirm the mechanism of action involved. The methods used included histopathology, measuring the lung wet/dry ratio, determining the myeloperoxidase activity, ELISA, qPCR, and western blot. The results...
Source: Inflammation - April 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Leukocyte Infiltration Triggers Seizure Recurrence in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Abstract Epilepsy, which affects about 1 % of the population worldwide, leads to poor prognosis and increased morbidity. However, effective drugs providing satisfactory control on seizure relapse were rare, which encouraged more etiological studies. Whether inflammation is one of key events underlying seizure is in debate. In order to explore the role of inflammatory in the pathogenesis and development of epilepsy, we conducted intra-caudal vein injection of leukocytes to aggravated brain inflammatory process in kainic acid-induced seizure model in this study. The results showed that intravenous administration of...
Source: Inflammation - April 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Serum Cystatin C as an Inflammatory Marker in Exacerbated and Convalescent COPD Patients
In conclusion, serum Cys C is a positive acute-phase reactant in COPD patients and might indicate systemic inflammation during the progression of COPD. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Growth Arrest-Specific Protein 6 (Gas6) on Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury
Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of sepsis, which has a high mortality rate. Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6), the protein product of the growth arrest specific gene 6, has been shown to have an anti-apoptotic effect as well as pro-survival capability. Here, we investigated the effects of Gas6 on sepsis-associated AKI in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that the administration of rmGas6 significantly reduced serum urea nitrogen and creatinine and improved the survival of septic mice. Furthermore, the renal pathological damage induced by CLP was atten...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Antibodies to Type IV Collagen Induce Type 1 Autoimmune Pancreatitis
This study was performed to investigate if anti-collagen type IV antibodies (ACIVAbs) are the key factor of fiber deposition and recruit leukocytes, resulting in obliterative vasculitis in pancreas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent analyses (ELISA) were used to measure the expression of Col IV and ACIVAbs in serum of patients with and without AIP. In vitro, adhesion and proliferation were determined by human lymphocytes incubated with Col IV and ACIVAbs. In vivo, C57BL0/6 mice were immunized with IgG-ACIVAbs, followed by analysis of clinical phenotype. IgG-ACIVAbs were recognized by the serum specimens from 12 of 22 patients wi...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Licochalcone A Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation
In conclusion, our results suggest that Lico A has protective effects against LPS-induced AKI and Lico A exhibits its anti-inflammatory effects through inhibiting LPS-induced NF-κB activation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibition of SOCs Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Rats and PMVECs Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide
Abstract Acute lung injury (ALI) is a critical complication of the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), characterized by increased pulmonary permeability with high mortality. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) injury and apoptosis play a key role in ALI. Previous studies indicated that store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) could regulate a variety of cellular processes. The present study was to investigate the effects of SOCE inhibition on ALI induced by SAP in Sprague-Dawley rats, and PMVECs injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rat model of SAP-associated ALI were established by the retrograde in...
Source: Inflammation - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Analysis of Soluble Molecular Fibronectin-Fibrin Complexes and EDA-Fibronectin Concentration in Plasma of Patients with Atherosclerosis
Abstract Atherosclerosis, a chronic vascular disease, leads to molecular events bound with interplaying processes of inflammation and coagulation. In the present study, fibronectin (FN), FN containing extra domain A (EDA-FN), frequency of occurrence, and relative amounts of soluble plasma FN-fibrin complexes were analyzed in 80 plasma samples of patients suspected of coronary artery disease based on clinical evaluation and changes in arteries found by computed tomographic coronary angiography. The study showed that in the plasma of the patients’ group with high risk of coronary artery disease EDA-FN concentratio...
Source: Inflammation - March 29, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Induction of the Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 Gene in Bronchial Epithelial Cells by Interferon and Identification of its Novel Functional Polymorphism
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hesperetin Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW 264.7 Cells via the Inhibition of NF-κB and Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Pathways
In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Hesp on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Our results indicated that Hesp treatment dramatically suppressed secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β; reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression; inhibited NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation; and blocked IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. Further studies revealed Hesp markedly enhanced the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression, which were involved w...
Source: Inflammation - March 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of the Macrolide-Induced Inhibition of Superoxide Generation by Neutrophils
ABSTRACT The effect of macrolides on the superoxide (O2 −) production by neutrophils was studied. Resting neutrophils become primed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and primed neutrophils generate O2 − in response to fMLP or adhesion, respectively. Both LPS-primed fMLP-stimulated O2 − generation by macrolide-treated neutrophils and adhesion-stimulated O2 − generation by macrolide-treated fMLP-primed neutrophils were inhibited. Macrolide inhibition of O2 − generation was dependent on serum o...
Source: Inflammation - March 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Angiopoietin-Like Protein 7 Promotes an Inflammatory Phenotype in RAW264.7 Macrophages Through the P38 MAPK Signaling Pathway
Abstract Angiopoietin-like protein 7 (Angptl7) has been extensively studied for decades, but its potential immune functions have not been characterized. Hence, we investigated the relationship between Angptl7 and inflammation by using RAW264.7 monocyte/macrophage cells. The expression of genes encoding inflammation-associated factors cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)) decreased after RAW264.7 cells were treated with anti-Angptl7 polyclonal antibody but incr...
Source: Inflammation - March 14, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Piperine Augments the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Mice
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, ...
Source: Inflammation - March 12, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-10-Expressing Th2 Cells Contribute to the Elevated Antibody Production in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease associated with progressive disability, systemic complications, and early death. Multiple lines of evidence have placed adaptive immune responses in the center of RA pathogenesis. However, the functional roles of T helper cells are insufficiently described. Here, we examined the Th2 cell subsets and their functions in RA patients. A downregulation of IL-4+ cells in CD4+ T cells were observed in RA patients, indicating a downregulation of Th2 cells, and these results were confirmed by using and CXCR3 and CCR6 surface markers. We then found that CXCR3...
Source: Inflammation - March 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Does Inflammation Mediate the Association Between Obesity and Insulin Resistance?
Abstract In adult obesity, low-grade systemic inflammation is considered an important step in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). The association between obesity and inflammation is less well established in adolescents. Here, we ascertain the importance of inflammation in IR among obese adolescents by utilizing either random forest (RF) classification or mediation analysis approaches. The inflammation balance score, composed of eight pro- and anti-inflammatory makers, as well as most of the individual inflammatory markers differed significantly between lean and overweight/obese. In contrast, adiponectin w...
Source: Inflammation - March 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Propofol Protects Rats and Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Inhibiting HMGB1 Expression
In this study, we investigated the effects of propofol on the expression of HMGB1 in a rat model of LPS-induced ALI. Rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of LPS to mimic sepsis-induced ALI. Propofol bolus (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) was infused continuously 30 min after LPS administration, followed by infusion at 5 mg/(kg · h) through the left femoral vein cannula. LPS increased wet to dry weight ratio and myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissues and caused the elevation of total protein and cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Moreover, HMGB1 and other cytokine level...
Source: Inflammation - March 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CSTMP Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects on LPS-Induced Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Pathways
Abstract (E)-2-(2-chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (CSTMP), a novel stilbene derivative, have been shown to have cytoprotective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human endothelial cells. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects in lupus nephritis (LN). In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of CSTMP on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (hRPTECs) and elucidated its molecular mechanisms. CSTMP significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity and suppressed the release of proinflammatory mediators, including iNO...
Source: Inflammation - March 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Senegenin Ameliorate Acute Lung Injury Through Reduction of Oxidative Stress and Inhibition of Inflammation in Cecal Ligation and Puncture-Induced Sepsis Rats
Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the protective effect of senegenin on acute lung injury (ALI) in rats induced by sepsis. Rat ALI model was reproduced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). All rats were randomly divided into five groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (CLP), group 3 (CLP + senegenin 15 mg/kg), group 4 (CLP + senegenin 30 mg/kg), and group 5 (CLP + senegenin 60 mg/kg). CLP + senegenin groups received senegenin by gavage daily for consecutive 5 days, respectively, while the mice in control and CLP groups were given an equivalent volume of saline. We detected the lung ...
Source: Inflammation - March 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine Ameliorates Prostatitis via miR-141 Regulating Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling
In this study, we determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on prostatitis and the molecular mechanism involved in it. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group (group A, n = 20), carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP) model group (group B, n = 20), and carrageenan-induced CNP model group with NAC injection (group C, n = 20). Eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression, and Evans blue were compared in these three groups. The expression of miR-141 was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, p...
Source: Inflammation - March 3, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Salivary Periostin Levels in Non-Smoker Subjects With Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis
This study aimed to evaluate the levels of periostin in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to non-periodontitis (NP). Individuals were submitted to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva sampling. Periodontal examination consisted of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements. Assays for periostin were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontitis patients presented more severe clinical indices compared to the NP group (p < 0.001). The mean GCF level of periostin was...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Novel Selective Prostaglandin E 2 Synthesis Inhibitor Relieves Pyrexia and Chronic Inflammation in Rats
We report here the profile of a novel selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitor, compound A [N-[(1S,3S)-3-carbamoylcyclohexyl]-1-(6-methyl-3-phenylquinolin-2-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamide], in animal models of pyrexia and inflammation. The compound selectively suppressed the synthesis of PGE2 in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells and rat macrophages. In the lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model, this compound selectively reduced PGE2 production in cerebrospinal fluid and showed an anti-pyretic effect. In the adjuvant-induced arthritis model, compound A therapeutically decreased foot swelling in the established ar...
Source: Inflammation - February 29, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oridonin Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes
Abstract Oridonin, an active diterpenoid compound from Rabdosia rubescens, has anti-tumor effects. Rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLS), a pathological hallmark of RA, exhibits “tumor-like” phenotype. Here, we investigated the effects of oridonin on the proliferation and apoptosis of RAFLS. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the phosphorylation of extra-cellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2), C...
Source: Inflammation - February 29, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

In Vitro Oxidation of Collagen Promotes the Formation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products and the Activation of Human Neutrophils
Abstract The accumulation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) has been linked to several pathological conditions. Here, we investigated collagen as a potential source for AOPP formation and determined the effects of hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-treated collagen (collagen-AOPPs) on human neutrophil activity. We also assessed whether alpha-tocopherol could counteract these effects. Exposure to HOCl increased the levels of collagen-AOPPs. Collagen-AOPPs also stimulated the production of AOPPs, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide radicals (O2 −), and HOCl by neutrophils. Collagen-AOPPs induced apoptos...
Source: Inflammation - February 27, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Naringin Protects Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma
Abstract Many plant species containing flavonoids have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Naringin, a well-known flavanone glycoside of citrus fruits, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-ulcer, anti-osteoporosis, and anti-carcinogenic properties. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of naringin and the possible mechanisms. Asthma model was established by ovalbumin. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, and dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, orally) and naringin (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, orally). Airway resist...
Source: Inflammation - February 27, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs): a New Sight for Chrysophanol to Treat Paraquat-Induced Lung Injury
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of chrysophanol (CH) against paraquat (PQ)-induced pulmonary injury. Fifty BALB/C mice were randomized into five groups: (1) control, (2) PQ, (3) PQ + dexamethasone (Dex, 2 mg/kg), (4) PQ + CH (10 mg/kg), and (5) PQ + CH (20 mg/kg). A single dose of PQ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was intraperitoneally given to induce acute lung injury. Then mice were treated with CH (10 and 20 mg/kg/day, orally) for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized and then bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected for histologica...
Source: Inflammation - February 26, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Increased TMEM16A Involved in Alveolar Fluid Clearance After Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation
In this study, we investigated the effects of LPS on the expression of TMEM16A in LA795 cells and mouse lung tissue and the potential mechanism. Result: We detected the expression of TMEM16A in LA795 cells and mouse lung tissue by RT-PCR, Western blot, and RNA interference techniques. TMEM16A expression was significantly increased by LPS stimulation in LA795 cells and in mouse lung tissue. Moreover, the LPS-induced TMEM16A expression enhancement in lung tissue was much more prominent in the alveolar epithelial region than in bigger airway epithelial cells. The typical TMEM16A current was recorded, and LPS treatment signifi...
Source: Inflammation - February 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nobiletin: A Citrus Isolate to Make Sepsis Less Sour
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oroxylin A Inhibits Allergic Airway Inflammation in Ovalbumin (OVA)-Induced Asthma Murine Model
In conclusion, these results suggested that oroxylin A inhibited airway inflammation in OVA-induced asthma murine model by inhibiting NF-κB activation. These results suggested that oroxylin A was a potential therapeutic drug for treating allergic asthma. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Morphine Suppresses T helper Lymphocyte Differentiation to Th1 Type Through PI3K/AKT Pathway
Abstract To investigate the effect of morphine on T helper lymphocyte differentiation and PI3K/AKT pathway mechanism, CD4+ lymphocytes were treated by phorbol-myristate-acetate (25 ng/ml) (PMA) plus ionomycin (1 μg/ml) in the presence of various concentrations of morphine (25, 50, 100, 200 ng/ml) for 4 h. Th1 and Th2 subsets, supernatant cytokines, and PI3K, AKT, and protein kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) levels were detected. The Th1 cell percentage, Th1-derived cytokines, and ratio of Th1/Th2 decreased in the presence of morphine in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Th2 cell percentage kept stable after m...
Source: Inflammation - February 16, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Resveratrol Protects against Titanium Particle-Induced Aseptic Loosening Through Reduction of Oxidative Stress and Inactivation of NF-κB
In this study, we evaluated resveratrol’s protective effects against wear particle-induced oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 macrophages. At non-toxic concentrations, resveratrol showed dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production, ROS generation, and lipid peroxidation. It also downregulated the gene expression of oxidative enzymes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX)-1 and NOX-2, and promoted the gene expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR...
Source: Inflammation - February 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Novel BLyS Peptibody Down-Regulates B Cell and T Helper Cell Subsets In Vivo and Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis
Abstract B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), a member of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, contributes to the development of autoimmune disease, and BLyS antagonists have been developed for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Recently, we constructed a novel BLyS antagonist, TC-Fc peptibody. The study was performed to investigate the efficiency of TC-Fc peptibody on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA mice were randomly divided into three groups, treated with TC-Fc, Fc, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), respectively. Clinical scores associated with the severity of arthritis were assessed on alternate day fro...
Source: Inflammation - February 10, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research