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Natural Killer Cell Functional Activity After 4-1BB Costimulation
Abstract Reports show enhancement of CD8 T cells’ activity through CD137 (4-1BB) signal; however, not all data proved similar effect in natural killer (NK) cells. Here, the impact of 4-1BB signal on NK cells’ function was assessed during short term cultures. To that end, cytokine-activated NK cells were cocultured with adenovirally transduced MCF-7 stimulator cells expressing 4-1BB ligand. Cellular cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and expression of cytotoxicity related genes were assessed after overnight cultures. Sharp decrease of CD56+ and CD56bright NK cells was demonstrated. 4-1BB neither enhanced cellul...
Source: Inflammation - December 18, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

In Vitro Neutrophil Migration Requires Protein Kinase C-Delta (δ-PKC)-Mediated Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C-Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) Phosphorylation
We report that treatment of human neutrophils with the δ-PKC inhibitor rottlerin significantly attenuates f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-induced MARCKS phosphorylation (IC50 = 5.709 μM), adhesion (IC50 = 8.4 μM), and migration (IC50 = 6.7 μM), while α-, β-, and ζ-PKC inhibitors had no significant effect. We conclude that δ-PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation is essential for human neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. These results implicate δ-PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation as a key step in the inflammatory response of neutrophils. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 17, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-22 Up-Regulates β-Defensin-2 Expression in Human Alveolar Epithelium via STAT3 but Not NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Abstract Human β-defensin-2(HBD-2) is one of the two major vertebrate antimicrobial peptide families (α and β), which is highly expressed by proinflammatory induction in the lung and exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. We observed that IL-22 receptors high expressed on the membrane of A549 cells; HBD-2 mRNA was expressed in a time- and concentration-dependent manners in A549 cells when treated with IL-22; further studies demonstrated that HBD-2 expression was attenuated by AG490, but to JSH-23, inhibitors of p-STAT3 DNA binding and NF-κB/ p65 subunit nuclear translocation, respectively. These result...
Source: Inflammation - December 16, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective and Therapeutic Effect of Apocynin on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Rats
In this study, both protective and therapeutic effects of APO against BLC-induced lung fibrosis were demonstrated for the first time. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 14, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

In Vitro Oxidation of Fibrinogen Promotes Functional Alterations and Formation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products, an Inflammation Mediator
Abstract Fibrinogen (FB) is a soluble blood plasma protein and is a key molecule involved in coagulation. Oxidative modification of proteins, such as the formation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a heterogeneous family of protein compounds structurally modified and derived from oxidative stress, may be associated with the pathophysiology of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the formation of this mediator of inflammation occurs from FB and whether its generation is associated with structural changes. Results of the present study sugge...
Source: Inflammation - December 14, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NOD1 and NOD2 Interact with the Phagosome Cargo in Mast Cells: A Detailed Morphological Evidence
ABSTRACT Mast cells (MC) play a key role in triggering the inflammatory process and share some functions with professional phagocytes. It is not clear whether or not the phagocytic process in MC follows the same route and has the same meaning of that of professional phagocytes. Herein we analyze in detail the structure of the phagosome in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). The ultrastructural analysis of the phagosome, containing either model particles or bacteria, reveals that these vacuoles are very tight, and in several areas, their membrane seems to have dissolved. RPMC express NOD1 and NOD2 proteins whose role...
Source: Inflammation - December 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phenyl-β- d -Glucopyranoside Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Activity in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated RAW 264.7 Cells
Abstract Phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside is a component of Phellodendron amurense with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the role of phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside in inflammation using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine Raw 264.7 macrophages. Phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside not only inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production but also significantly inhibited the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) without inducing cytotoxicity. Phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside also attenuated proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF...
Source: Inflammation - December 11, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Potential Effects of Calcium Binding Protein S100A12 on Severity Evaluation and Curative Effect of Severe Acute Pancreatitis
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 9, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bergenin Plays an Anti-Inflammatory Role via the Modulation of MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in a Mouse Model of LPS-Induced Mastitis
In conclusion, bergenin reduced the expression of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways, and it may represent a novel treatment strategy for mastitis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 7, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Piperine Suppresses the Expression of CXCL8 in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated SW480 and HT-29 Cells via Downregulating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways
Abstract The anti-inflammatory effect of piperine has been largely investigated in macrophages, but its activity on epithelial cells in inflammatory settings is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of piperine on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human epithelial-like SW480 and HT-29 cells. Our data showed that although piperine inhibited the proliferation of SW480 and HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner, it had low cytotoxicity on these cell lines with 50 % inhibiting concentration (IC50) values greater than 100 μM. As epithelial-like cells, ...
Source: Inflammation - December 4, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Upregulation of HO-1 Attenuates LPS-Stimulated Proinflammatory Responses Through Downregulation of p38 Signaling Pathways in Rat Ovary
Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. However, the specific mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory role of HO-1 in the reproductive system is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the mechanism of HO-1 in the regulation of the inflammatory response stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat ovary. LPS-stimulated inflammatory models were established. Rats were pretreated with HO-1 activator (hemin) or inhibitor (ZnPP) before LPS stimulation, and we evaluated the expression of HO-1 by real-time PCR and Western blot. The messenger...
Source: Inflammation - December 2, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Systemic and Flap Inflammatory Response Associates with Thrombosis in Flap Venous Crisis
ABSTRACT Venous crisis represents the most common complication in flap surgery and often results in flap failure. The gold standard for free flap monitoring is frequent clinical examination. The current study examined the systemic inflammatory response during the immediate post-operative period following flap venous crisis. Superficial epigastric artery perforator flap transplantation was performed in a total of 30 rabbits. Fifteen animals received venous obstruction by vein ligation (venous crisis group, n = 15) and others were sham treated (control group, n = 15). Venous thrombosis was examined by immuno...
Source: Inflammation - December 2, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Decreased Flow-Mediated Dilatation in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Meta-analysis
In this study, to derive a more precise comparison of FMD% difference between SLE patients and healthy controls, a meta-analysis was performed. Databases were searched to identify all available studies comparing FMD% between SLE patients and healthy controls. The study eligibility criteria were cohort or case–control studies with data on both patients diagnosed with SLE and healthy controls, and use of high-resolution ultrasonography to detect FMD. Random effect meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the overall mean FMD% difference between the two groups. Publication bias was detected by funnel plot and Egger’s test....
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Treatment of MSCs Attenuates Inflammation and Cardiac Dysfunction Following MI
In this study, we demonstrated that IGF-1-treated MSCs’ transplantation attenuate cardiac dysfunction, increase the survival of engrafted cells in the ischemic heart, decrease myocardium cells apoptosis, and inhibit protein production and gene expression of inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. IGF-1 pretreatment of MSCs may play anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation roles in post-myocardial infarction. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The Differential Roles of mTOR, ERK, and JNK Pathways in Invariant Natural Killer T-cell Function and Survival
ABSTRACT Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a critical element for both innate and adaptive immunity. The quick responses of mature iNKT cells to TCR stimulation require activation of several different signaling pathways. However, the roles of these signaling pathways in mature iNKT cell biology remain incompletely understood. To address this issue, single signaling pathway was blocked with inhibitor in iNKT cells, and the roles of these signaling pathways were estimated. Results showed that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an essential role for cytokine production and survival in iNKT cells. In ...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Preventive Effect of Chrysin on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Rats
In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that CRS significantly prevents BLC-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in rats. Further studies are needed to assess the role of CRS in the treatment of lung inflammation and fibrosis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Development of Asthmatic Response upon Bronchial Allergen Challenge Is Associated with Dynamic Changes of Interleukin-10-Producing and Interleukin-10-Responding CD4+ T Cells
Abstract The role of adaptive immune system in regulation of asthmatic responses remains elusive. Here, we performed a comprehensive time-course analysis of mutual relationships between development of asthmatic response following allergen challenge and changes in several CD4+ T cell subsets which we characterized as either releasing interleukin-10 (CD4+CD25−CD127− and CD4+CD25+CD127+ T cells) or responding to IL-10 (CD4+ T cell subsets expressing CD210). Patients that developed asthmatic reaction were described as responders (R) whereas the others were named non-responders (NR). In R, in contrast to NR, at 6...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

IL-22 Enhances CCL20 Production in IL-1β-Stimulated Human Gingival Fibroblasts
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of IL-1β- and/or IL-22-induced CCL20 production in HGFs. A single stimulation of IL-22 could not induce CCL20 production. On the other hand, IL-22 could increase CCL20 production from IL-1β-stimulated HGFs in a dose-dependent manner. C-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (IκB)-α phosphorylation were increased in IL-1β- and IL-22-stimulated HGFs. An inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB decreased IL-1β- and IL-22-induced CCL20 production, though an inhibitor of JNK did not modulate CCL20 production. These data suggest that IL-1β in cooperation w...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Apigenin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory in Acute Lung Injury by Suppressing COX-2 and NF-kB Pathway
This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and the possible mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated. Pretreatment with apigenin prior to the administration of intratracheal LPS significantly induced a decrease in lung wet weight/dry weight ratio in total leukocyte number and neutrophil percent in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in IL-6 and...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Thalidomide on H1N1 Influenza Virus-Induced Pulmonary Injury in Mice
Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide (Thd) on H1N1-induced acute lung injury in mice. BALB/C mice were infected intranasally with influenza A virus (H1N1) and then treated with Thd at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Weight loss and survival of mice were monitored for 14 days after virus challenge, and the serum and lung tissues were collected at 4 days for histological and biochemical analysis. The results showed that Thd significantly improved the survival rate, reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and cytokine (e.g., IL-6, TNF-...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Lack of Association Between TESPA1 Gene Polymorphisms (rs1801876, rs2171497, rs4758994, and rs997173) and Ankylosing Spondylitis in a Chinese Population
Abstract We investigated whether TESPA1 gene polymorphisms were associated with increased risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We also studied whether TESPA1 gene interacts with environmental factors. A total of 494 patients with AS and 478 matched healthy controls were genotyped for four SNPs (rs1801876, rs2171497, rs4758994, and rs997173) in the TESPA1 gene. We found no evidence of association between these SNPs and AS susceptibility, and between their haplotypes and the disease. But, patients with rs1801876 GA, GG, and AA genotypes had significantly different Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional I...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The Effects of Morin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Suppressing the Lung NLRP3 Inflammasome
In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of morin on acute lung injury using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The cell counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The animal lung edema degree was evaluated by wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pathological ch...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Chelerythrine Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Endotoxic Shock in Mice
Abstract Chelerythrine (CHE), a quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects. Although CHE has been used to treat various diseases, the protective effects of CHE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock have not been explored. The aims of the study were to investigate the protective effects of CHE on LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice and clarify the mechanism of the effects. We found that pretreatment with CHE (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, po) at 1 and 12 h before injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg/kg LPS markedly decreased the production of interleukin-...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expression and Role of BAG-1 in Eosinophilic and Non-eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps
In conclusion, eosinophils triggered a more severe form of inflammation in CRSwNP compared with non-eosinophilic inflammatory cells. The expressions of BAG-1 and Hsp70 were upregulated in CRSwNP, especially in ECRSwNP. IL-4, IL-17A, and IL-1β may be critical for BAG-1 gene expression. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Wogonoside Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
In conclusion, our results indicate that wogonoside exhibits a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI via suppression of TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Tetrahydrocoptisine Protects Rats from LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that tetrahydrocoptisine possesses a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI through inhibiting of NF-κB signaling pathways, which may involve the inhibition of pulmonary inflammatory process. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dietary Selenium Deficiency Exacerbates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in Mouse Mastitis Models
In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that selenium deficiency resulted in more severe inflammatory response in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Higher Percentage of CD3 + CD154 + T Lymphocytes Predicts Efficacy of TNF-α Inhibitors in Active Axial SpA Patients
The objective of this study was to evaluate which subtypes of T lymphocytes (CD3+CD28+ and CD3+CD154+) could predict clinical efficacy after TNF-α inhibitor treatment in active axial SpA patients. Patients who fulfilled Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria for axial SpA had a BASDAI of ≥40 mm. All patients received TNF-α inhibitor treatment for 12 weeks. ASAS20 was used to evaluate the effect of the treatment at week 12. We detected the percentage of CD3+CD28+ and CD3+CD154+ T lymphocytes on lymphocyte cells in the peripheral blood in patients and healthy controls. We evaluated whethe...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Macrophages Regulate Renal Fibrosis Through Modulating TGFβ Superfamily Signaling
Abstract Renal fibrosis is the fundamental pathway leading to end-stage renal disease, while its exact molecular basis remains incompletely elucidated. Previous studies have demonstrated that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is an inducer of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells, while bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) counteracts TGFβ1-induced EMT and reverses chronic renal injury. Although macrophage recruitment is believed to play an important role during the whole pathogenesis, the mechanism underlying their activate involvement in the formation of renal f...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Inhibition of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reduces Diabetic Nephropathy in Type II Diabetes Mice
Abstract Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a critical role in inflammation and is elevated in diabetic kidney. However, whether MIF plays a causative role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unclear. In the present study, we have demonstrated that after treatment of 8-week-old diabetic db/db and nondiabetic db/m mice with the MIF inhibitor ISO-1 (20 mg/kg) for 8 weeks, there was a significant decrease in blood glucose, albuminuria, extracellular matrix accumulation, epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and macrophage activation in the kidney of db/db mice. Incubation of macrophages with ...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Interleukin-21 Polymorphism Affects Gene Expression and is Associated with Risk of Ischemic Stroke
Abstract There has been more and more evidence to confirm the essential role of inflammatory processes in the development of ischemic stroke. Interleukin-21 (IL-21), the most recently discovered CD132-dependent cytokine, plays a key role in regulating inflammation. The aim of the study was to understand the association between IL-21 polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, and the effects of these polymorphisms on gene expression. Two polymorphisms in IL-21, rs907715G/A and rs4833837A/G, were identified in 278 ischemic stroke patients and 282 healthy controls. Results showed that frequencies of rs907715GA and AA genoty...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Magnolol Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced ICAM-1 Expression via Suppressing NF-κB And MAPK Signaling Pathways in Human Lung Epithelial Cells
Abstract Magnolol is a traditional Chinese medicine from the root and bark of Magnolia officinalis. It has long been used to treat anxiety, cough, headache and allergies, as well as a variety of inflammations. Lung inflammation is a key event in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present study sought to examine the effects of magnolol on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in cultured human pulmonary epithelial...
Source: Inflammation - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Cavidine In Vitro and In Vivo , a Selective COX-2 Inhibitor in LPS-Induced Peritoneal Macrophages of Mouse
ABSTRACT Cavidine is an isoquinoline alkaloid which is isolated from Corydalis impatiens. In traditional Tibetan herb, C. impatiens has been widely used for treatment of skin injuries, hepatitis, cholecystitis, and scabies. The present study aimed to evaluate its anti-inflammatory effect and investigate the mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory action. We used different inflammation model animals and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine peritoneal macrophages to examine the anti-inflammatory function of cavidine. Results indicated pretreatment with cavidine (i.p.) decreased xylene-induced ear edema, form...
Source: Inflammation - November 6, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Acanthoic Acid Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Gingival Fibroblasts
In conclusion, AA inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response in HGFs through inhibition TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 6, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histamine H 3 and H 4 Receptor Ligands Modify Vascular Histamine Levels in Normal and Arthritic Large Blood Vessels In Vivo
This study explored the involvement of vascular histamine in the extra-articular responses in peripheral large blood vessels using a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Histamine levels were increased in the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava of arthritic animals. Contrary to the H1 receptor antagonist dimetindene, histamine induction was observed following administration of the H3 and H4 receptor ligands GSK334429 and JNJ7777120, respectively. In arthritis, prophylactic treatment with GSK334429 partially attenuated the clinical signs and restored basal histamine levels only in the abdominal aorta. This study ...
Source: Inflammation - October 31, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Increased Expression of T Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Domain 4 Is Positively Associated with the Disease Severity of Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis
Abstract Monocytes and associated cytokines have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 4 (Tim-4) was identified on monocytes/macrophages and dentritic cells (DCs) and plays important roles in regulating the activities of macrophages and DCs. The current study investigated the association between Tim-4 expression and AS. Our results showed that Tim-4 expression on monocytes and Tim-4 level in plasma were highly increased in AS patients than in controls. Furthermore, TNF-α production and bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index...
Source: Inflammation - October 31, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Association of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 Promoter Variant -509 C/T with Bronchial Asthma in South Indian Population
Abstract Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a pivotal role in airway remodeling observed in the asthmatic airways. C to T base substitution at -509 promoter position in the TGF-β1 gene leads to its increased expression which contributes to airway remodeling in bronchial asthma. We sought to evaluate the association of TGF-β1 -509 C/T promoter variant with clinical asthma and varying degrees of disease severity. Three hundred and eighty-two clinically diagnosed asthma patients and 410 healthy controls were enrolled for the study. Patients were classified into seve...
Source: Inflammation - October 31, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Intestinal Ischemic Preconditioning on Ischemia Reperfusion-Caused Lung Injury in Rats
Abstract Intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes injury of distant critical organs. Remote intestinal ischemic preconditioning (IP) may confer the cytoprotection in critical organs including lung. The authors hypothesized that intestinal IP would be a prophylactic factor in the prevention of distant lung injury induced by IR. Rats were randomly divided into IR, IP, and Sham (S) group. Compared with IR group in the serum and lung tissue, MPO, MDA, TNF-α, and IL-1 levels were significantly decreased in the IP group. Following the same pattern, NO level in the serum and lung tissue was significantly increased in...
Source: Inflammation - October 31, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Trans-Resveratrol Attenuates High Fatty Acid-Induced P2X7 Receptor Expression and IL-6 Release in PC12 Cells: Possible Role of P38 MAPK Pathway
ABSTRACT Diabetic neuropathy (DNP) is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) have been recently recognized as major causes of inflammation and are relevant to the functional changes of nerve system in diabetes. Trans-resveratrol (RESV), a polyphenolic natural compound, has long been acknowledged to have anti-inflammation properties and may exert a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage in diabetes, while the mechanisms underlying are largely unknown. Our previous study on differential PC12 cells cultured with high FFAs has shown chronic FFAs overload increased PC12 in...
Source: Inflammation - October 28, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Lipoxin A 4 Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hela Cell Proliferation and Migration via NF-κB Pathway
We presented evidence for a novel role of LXA4 on the proliferation and migration in LPS-stimulated Hela cells, and FPR2/ALX was involved in the procedures. These results showed that LXA4 could be a possible candidate for UCC therapy, and blocking the activation of NF-κB would be an effective drug target. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 28, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Protective Effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junction Injury in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers
Abstract Lipopolysaccharide was found to be elevated in the plasma of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and may play an important role in the pathogenesis and propagation of these intestinal diseases. To illustrate the destructive effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to test the protective effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on LPS-induced barrier injury, an in vitro intestinal epithelia barrier model was established with Caco-2 monolayers and treated with clinically relevant concentrations (1–10 ng/ml) of LPS with or without 1,25(OH)2D3. Transepithelial...
Source: Inflammation - October 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Propofol Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Production Through Activation of Nrf2/GSH and Suppression of NADPH Oxidase in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells
In conclusion, propofol reduced LPS-induced ROS production via inhibition of inflammatory factors and enhancement of Nrf2-related antioxidant defense, providing its cytoprotective evidence under inflammatory conditions. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Elevated Expression of NLRP1 and IPAF Are Related to Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris Pathogenesis
This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. We studied mRNA levels of three types of inflammasomes including NLRP1, NLRP3, and IPAF in 43 oral PV patients and 40 healthy controls by real-time PCR technique. Results were analyzed by SPSS software package version 18. Here, we showed that the mRNA levels of NLRP1 and IPAF in patients with active PV remarkably increased compared to those in healthy controls. However, the mRNA level of NLRP3 in PBMC of PV patients was similar to that of the control group. We showed important and emerging relationship of NLRP1 and IPAF mRNAs with PV disease progression. We hypothesize th...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Regulates LPS-Induced TLR4/MD-2 Pathway Activation and Inflammation in Alveolar Macrophages
In conclusion, PAI-1 contributes to the regulation of LPS-induced inflammatory response in NR8383 cells, likely by affecting the TLR4-MD-2/NF-κB signaling transduction pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Downregulation of T Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Protein 3 in the Pathogenesis of Intracranial Aneurysm
Abstract Evidence has shown that inflammation acts as a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm (IA), a potentially devastating clinical problem. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein 3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulatory molecule and plays important roles in the inflammation process. In the current study, we investigated the expression of Tim-3 and its correlation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in IA patients. Data showed that both messenger RNA (mRNA) level and protein level of Tim-3 were significantly decreased in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells from IA patients than from healt...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Essential for Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury
In conclusion, paraquat can induce IL-1β/IL-18 secretion via NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 pathway, and the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for paraquat-induced acute lung injury. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Aspalathin and Nothofagin from Rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ) Inhibits High Glucose-Induced Inflammation In Vitro and In Vivo
In this study, we assessed whether Asp or Not can suppress vascular inflammation induced by high glucose (HG) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. We monitored the effects of Asp or Not on HG-induced vascular hyperpermeability, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in vitro and in vivo. Our data indicate that HG markedly increased vascular permeability, monocyte adhesion, expression of CAMs, formation of ROS, and activation of NF-κB. Remarkably, treatment of Asp or Not inhibited HG-mediated vascular hyperp...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Noninvasive Allograft Imaging of Acute Rejection: Evaluation of 131 I-anti-CXCL10 mAb
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of iodine-131-labeled anti-CXCL10 mAb as tracer targeted at CXCL10 to detect acute rejection (AR) with mice model. Expression of CXCL10 was proved by RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunochemistry staining. All groups were submitted to whole-body autoradioimaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies after tail vein injection of 131I-anti-CXCL10 mAb. The highest concentration/expression of CXCL10 was detected in allograft tissue compared with allograft treated with tacrolimus and isograft control. Tacrolimus could obviously inhibit the rejection of allograft. Allogra...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Early Diagnosis of Sepsis Using Serum Hemoglobin Subunit Beta
Abstract The development of new sepsis-specific biomarkers is mandatory to improve the detection and monitoring of the disease. Hemoglobin is the main oxygen and carbon dioxide carrier in cells of the erythroid lineage and is responsible for oxygen delivery to the respiring tissues of the body. Hemoglobin subunit beta (HBβ) is a component of a larger protein called hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to evaluate blood levels of HBβ in septic patients. A prospective study of 82 patients with sepsis was conducted. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery. Alternativel...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Activity and Mechanism of Surfactin in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Macrophages
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of surfactin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Surfactin exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect without cytotoxicity at certain concentrations, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells appeared normal after surfactin treatment. Surfactin significantly inhibited the increased expression of IFN-γ, IL-6, iNOS and nitric oxide (NO). TLR4 is the critical receptor for LPS; therefore, the TLR4 signal transduction pathway is the primary pathway that mediates LPS-induced inflammation. The results show that surfactin downregulated the LPS-induc...
Source: Inflammation - October 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research