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Trans-Resveratrol Attenuates High Fatty Acid-Induced P2X7 Receptor Expression and IL-6 Release in PC12 Cells: Possible Role of P38 MAPK Pathway
ABSTRACT Diabetic neuropathy (DNP) is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) have been recently recognized as major causes of inflammation and are relevant to the functional changes of nerve system in diabetes. Trans-resveratrol (RESV), a polyphenolic natural compound, has long been acknowledged to have anti-inflammation properties and may exert a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage in diabetes, while the mechanisms underlying are largely unknown. Our previous study on differential PC12 cells cultured with high FFAs has shown chronic FFAs overload increased PC12 in...
Source: Inflammation - October 28, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Lipoxin A 4 Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hela Cell Proliferation and Migration via NF-κB Pathway
We presented evidence for a novel role of LXA4 on the proliferation and migration in LPS-stimulated Hela cells, and FPR2/ALX was involved in the procedures. These results showed that LXA4 could be a possible candidate for UCC therapy, and blocking the activation of NF-κB would be an effective drug target. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 28, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Protective Effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junction Injury in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers
Abstract Lipopolysaccharide was found to be elevated in the plasma of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and may play an important role in the pathogenesis and propagation of these intestinal diseases. To illustrate the destructive effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to test the protective effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on LPS-induced barrier injury, an in vitro intestinal epithelia barrier model was established with Caco-2 monolayers and treated with clinically relevant concentrations (1–10 ng/ml) of LPS with or without 1,25(OH)2D3. Transepithelial...
Source: Inflammation - October 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Propofol Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Production Through Activation of Nrf2/GSH and Suppression of NADPH Oxidase in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells
In conclusion, propofol reduced LPS-induced ROS production via inhibition of inflammatory factors and enhancement of Nrf2-related antioxidant defense, providing its cytoprotective evidence under inflammatory conditions. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Elevated Expression of NLRP1 and IPAF Are Related to Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris Pathogenesis
This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. We studied mRNA levels of three types of inflammasomes including NLRP1, NLRP3, and IPAF in 43 oral PV patients and 40 healthy controls by real-time PCR technique. Results were analyzed by SPSS software package version 18. Here, we showed that the mRNA levels of NLRP1 and IPAF in patients with active PV remarkably increased compared to those in healthy controls. However, the mRNA level of NLRP3 in PBMC of PV patients was similar to that of the control group. We showed important and emerging relationship of NLRP1 and IPAF mRNAs with PV disease progression. We hypothesize th...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Regulates LPS-Induced TLR4/MD-2 Pathway Activation and Inflammation in Alveolar Macrophages
In conclusion, PAI-1 contributes to the regulation of LPS-induced inflammatory response in NR8383 cells, likely by affecting the TLR4-MD-2/NF-κB signaling transduction pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Downregulation of T Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Protein 3 in the Pathogenesis of Intracranial Aneurysm
Abstract Evidence has shown that inflammation acts as a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm (IA), a potentially devastating clinical problem. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein 3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulatory molecule and plays important roles in the inflammation process. In the current study, we investigated the expression of Tim-3 and its correlation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in IA patients. Data showed that both messenger RNA (mRNA) level and protein level of Tim-3 were significantly decreased in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells from IA patients than from healt...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Essential for Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury
In conclusion, paraquat can induce IL-1β/IL-18 secretion via NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 pathway, and the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for paraquat-induced acute lung injury. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Aspalathin and Nothofagin from Rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ) Inhibits High Glucose-Induced Inflammation In Vitro and In Vivo
In this study, we assessed whether Asp or Not can suppress vascular inflammation induced by high glucose (HG) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. We monitored the effects of Asp or Not on HG-induced vascular hyperpermeability, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in vitro and in vivo. Our data indicate that HG markedly increased vascular permeability, monocyte adhesion, expression of CAMs, formation of ROS, and activation of NF-κB. Remarkably, treatment of Asp or Not inhibited HG-mediated vascular hyperp...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Noninvasive Allograft Imaging of Acute Rejection: Evaluation of 131 I-anti-CXCL10 mAb
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of iodine-131-labeled anti-CXCL10 mAb as tracer targeted at CXCL10 to detect acute rejection (AR) with mice model. Expression of CXCL10 was proved by RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunochemistry staining. All groups were submitted to whole-body autoradioimaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies after tail vein injection of 131I-anti-CXCL10 mAb. The highest concentration/expression of CXCL10 was detected in allograft tissue compared with allograft treated with tacrolimus and isograft control. Tacrolimus could obviously inhibit the rejection of allograft. Allogra...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Early Diagnosis of Sepsis Using Serum Hemoglobin Subunit Beta
Abstract The development of new sepsis-specific biomarkers is mandatory to improve the detection and monitoring of the disease. Hemoglobin is the main oxygen and carbon dioxide carrier in cells of the erythroid lineage and is responsible for oxygen delivery to the respiring tissues of the body. Hemoglobin subunit beta (HBβ) is a component of a larger protein called hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to evaluate blood levels of HBβ in septic patients. A prospective study of 82 patients with sepsis was conducted. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery. Alternativel...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Activity and Mechanism of Surfactin in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Macrophages
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of surfactin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Surfactin exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect without cytotoxicity at certain concentrations, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells appeared normal after surfactin treatment. Surfactin significantly inhibited the increased expression of IFN-γ, IL-6, iNOS and nitric oxide (NO). TLR4 is the critical receptor for LPS; therefore, the TLR4 signal transduction pathway is the primary pathway that mediates LPS-induced inflammation. The results show that surfactin downregulated the LPS-induc...
Source: Inflammation - October 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Aberrant Expression of Regulatory Cytokine IL-35 and Pattern Recognition Receptor NOD2 in Patients with Allergic Asthma
Abstract We investigated the plasma concentration of the novel regulatory cytokine IL-35 and intracytosolic pattern recognition receptors nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors in granulocytes and explored their potential implication in disease severity monitoring of allergic asthma. The expression of circulating IL-35 and other pro-inflammatory mediators in asthmatic patients or control subjects were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The intracellular expressions of NOD1 and NOD2 in CCR3+ granulocytes were assessed using flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of IL-...
Source: Inflammation - October 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Melanocortin Peptides: Potential Targets in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease resulting in loss of self-tolerance with multiple organs, such as the kidney, skin, joints, and the central nervous system (CNS), being targeted. Numerous immunosuppressant therapies are currently being used for the treatment of SLE, but their clinical utility is somewhat variable because of the clinical heterogeneity. Melanocortins are a family of peptides derived from the common precursor protein pro-opiomelanocortin. These multifunctional peptides activate five subtypes of melanocortin receptors expressed on immune, skin, muscle, bone,...
Source: Inflammation - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Relationship of Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels with the Development of Sepsis: a Meta-analysis
Abstract Many studies have evaluated the association between serum levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and sepsis; however, the findings are inconclusive and conflicting. For a better understanding of MBL in sepsis, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis. Potential relevant studies were identified covering Science Citation Index, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Current Contents Index databases. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed studies independently. Statistical analyses were conducted with the version 12.0 STATA statistical software. Ten papers were collected for meta-analysis. Re...
Source: Inflammation - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Role of Pre-procedural C-reactive Protein Level in the Prediction of Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: a Meta-analysisof Longitudinal Studies
Abstract Numerous studies have reported the relation between pre-procedural C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the results across the studies were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive effect of pre-procedural CRP levels and the risk of MACEs in patients undergoing PCI. Longitudinal studies on the association between pre-procedural CRP levels and MACEs were identified by electronic and manual searches. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) w...
Source: Inflammation - October 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Naringenin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Injury in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelium via Suppression of MAPK Signaling
Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of naringenin on protection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) and to provide insights into the possible underlying mechanisms. NHBE were stimulated by LPS in the presence or absence of the narigenin. In vitro treatment with naringenin led to a significant attenuation in the LPS-induced NHBE secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), nitricoxide synthase (NOS), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO). RT-qPCR demonstrated that naringenin signif...
Source: Inflammation - October 11, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Pentraxin 3 as a Novel Biomarker of Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs in which inflammatory markers are involved with significant extrapulmonary effects that may contribute to its severity and complications. Moreover, some of the inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with COPD. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is the member of long pentraxins. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of PTX3 in patients with COPD. Fifty-four COPD patients and 31 controls were enrolled in this study. Demographical data such as age, sex, cigarette smoking statu...
Source: Inflammation - October 11, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

NS5ATP9 Suppresses Activation of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells, Possibly via Inhibition of Smad3/Phosphorylated-Smad3 Expression
Abstract Activation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is the central event in liver fibrosis. NS5ATP9 is related to many malignant tumors, but little is known about its function in HSC activation. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of NS5ATP9 in HSC activation in vitro. Genes related to liver fibrosis were detected after NS5ATP9 overexpression or silencing with or without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 stimulation in the human HSCs by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis were tested, and the mechanisms underlying the effect of NS5AT...
Source: Inflammation - October 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Lapatinib Ameliorates Experimental Arthritis in Rats
In conclusion, EGFR may have prominent pathogenic role and lapatinib may be an effective therapeutic option for arthritis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 5, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Impact of a Lung-Protective Ventilatory Strategy on Systemic and Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses During Laparoscopic Surgery: Is It Really Helpful?
Abstract Laparoscopic surgery is performed by carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation, but this may induce stress responses. The aim of this study is to compare the level of inflammatory mediators in patients receiving low tidal volume (VT) versus traditional VT during gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 1 and 2 subjects older than 18 years old undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery were included. Systemic inflammatory response was assessed with serum IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-8, and IL-1β in patients receiving intraoperative low VT and traditional VT ...
Source: Inflammation - October 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Circulating Muramyl Dipeptide Is Negatively Associated with Interleukin-10 in the Frail Elderly
Abstract Elevated levels of serum cytokines, a marker of immune activation and chronic inflammation, are commonly associated with age and are a significant risk factor for all-cause mortality in the elderly. This phenomenon is very similar to that exhibited by individuals with diseases of inflammatory etiology and chronic viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although the origin of chronically elevated cytokines with age is unknown, for chronic diseases and viral infections, a role for circulating bacterial products and other pattern recognition receptor (PRR) ligands has been suggested. Giv...
Source: Inflammation - October 3, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The Effect of Taurine on the Relationship Between NO, ADMA and Homocysteine in Endotoxin-Mediated Inflammation in HUVEC Cultures
Abstract The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of taurine on the relationship between nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine (Hcy) in endotoxin-induced human umblical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures. For this reason, four groups were formed (n = 12). Control group consists of HUVEC cultures without any treatment. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS + taurine groups were treated with 10 μg/mL endotoxin, 5 μg/mL taurine and endotoxin + taurine (same doses), respectively. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx), ADMA and Hcy levels were measured. There was a significant...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Increased Serum GP88 (Progranulin) Concentrations in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Abstract GP88 (Progranulin; PGRN) is a secreted glycosylated protein with important functions in several processes, including immune response and cancer growth. Recent reports have shown that PGRN is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because of its capability to bind with tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR). However, the serum PGRN level in RA patients has not been investigated. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the serum levels of PGRN in 417 healthy subjects, 56 patients with RA and 31 patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In RA patients, we also measured the serum TN...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Serum Ficolin-2 in Hospitalised Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia
In this study, serum levels of ficolin-2 and MBL were determined in 276 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). MBL deficiency and ficolin-2 insufficiency were defined using previously validated cut-offs. No differences were observed in MBL or ficolin-2 between patients and controls. MBL-deficient patients (<500 ng/ml) were not at higher risk of 30-day mortality odds ratio (OR) 0.97 (0.38–2.48,p = 0.9) or a composite outcome of mortality, mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support (MV/VS) or complications OR 0.89 (0.44–1.77, p = 0.9). Although no significant relationship between ficolin-2 insuffi...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Berberine Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Rats Associated with Anti-inflammatory and Anti-angiogenic Effects
In this study, we explored the effect of berberine on rats with bovine type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model for RA. Following treatment, berberine attenuates arthritic scores and suppresses collagen–specific immune responses in CIA rats. Compared with the un-treated CIA group, berberine reversed pathological changes, which showed a significant improvement in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltration. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were obviously reduced in the sera of berberine-treated r...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Paeoniflorin Upregulates β-Defensin-2 Expression in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Through the p38 MAPK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways
This study aims to determine whether or not PF can regulate the expression of hBD-2 and its possible molecular mechanism in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that PF can enhance the mRNA expression level of hBD-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in HBECs. Further studies demonstrated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of hBD-2 were attenuated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor SB203580, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor (pyrrol...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

RAGE/NF-κB Pathway Mediates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Alveolar Type I Epithelial Cells Isolated from Neonate Rats
In this study, we established lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in AECIs isolated from neonate rats as the experimental model and investigated the role of RAGE/NF-κB signaling in mediating inflammatory response in AECIs. We found that LPS increased RAGE expression and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in AECIs in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of RAGE significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-1β levels in conditioned medium of AECIs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that NF-κB activation was increased in AECIs treated by LPS. However, knoc...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

High Serum Trypsin Levels and the −409 T/T Genotype of PRSS1 Gene Are Susceptible to Neonatal Sepsis
This study suggested that serum trypsin and rs10273639 C/T of PRSS1 were revealed to be novel markers for predicting neonatal sepsis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Hypoxia Augments Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytokine Expression in Periodontal Ligament Cells
Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Hypoxia, the mainly changes of the plateau environment, can induce severe periodontitis by animal experiments. There is, however, very little information on hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cytokine expression in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. In this article, we characterized hypoxia or P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 expression by human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. We found that hypoxia a...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase is an Inappropriate Housekeeping Gene for Normalising Gene Expression in Sepsis
Abstract Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has long been used as a default reference gene in quantitative mRNA profiling experiments. However, its expression reportedly varies in response to a range of pathophysiological variables (inflammation, oxidative stress, hyperinsulinaemia, hypoxia) which feature prominently in sepsis. We therefore assessed the applicability of using GAPDH as a reference gene for expression studies in sepsis compared to other housekeeping genes (succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-1). Severe sepsis resulted in a 42...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effects of Strains of Lactococcus lactis on the Production of Nitric Oxide and Cytokines in Murine Macrophages
ABSTRACT Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional mediator that is involved in a variety of pathologic and physiologic processes. Few studies have addressed the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially Lactococcus lactis strains used in dairy products, on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction as a component of the host’s gastrointestinal immune response. We investigated the ability of L. lactis strains to induce NO synthesis in the murine macrophage-like cell line J774.1 and in peritoneal macrophages from mice. The degree of NO induction was specific to the L. lactis strain used. Compared with ...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Curcumin Inhibits TLR2/4-NF-κB Signaling Pathway and Attenuates Brain Damage in Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats
In this study, we investigated whether curcumin inhibits the activation of TLR2/4-NF-κB signaling pathway in rats of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Curcumin was administered by intraperitoneal injection twice at 2 and 12 h after the onset of ischemia. Neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct size, morphological characteristic, and cerebral water content were measured after 24 h of pMCAO. The enzymatic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was assessed after 24 h of pMCAO. Expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in ischemic brain was d...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

5′-Methylthioadenosine Attenuates Ischemia Reperfusion Injury After Liver Transplantation in Rats
The objective of this study was to determine whether MTA possessed anti-inflammatory properties during rat liver transplantation. Sprague Dawley (SD) to SD rat orthotropic liver transplantation was performed according to the Kamada’s technique. Donors in MTA group were given a single dose of MTA (96 μmol/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before surgery (n = 36), and the control group were given the same volume of normal saline (n = 36) intraperitoneally. The histopathologic change in the liver was analyzed. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor alpha (T...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Gabapentin, a Synthetic Analogue of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid, Reverses Systemic Acute Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Mice
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of gabapentin (GBP) in mice. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects were evaluated using various mediators that induce paw edema, peritonitis model, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, proinflammatory cytokine levels, glutathione (GSH) consumption, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Pretreatment of mice with GBP (1 mg/kg) significantly reduced carrageenan or dextran-induced paw edema (P < 0.05) when compared to vehicle group. Adding to this, GBP (1 mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw e...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Remifentanil Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Downregulating the NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Abstract Remifentanil significantly represses cell immune responses and influences neutrophil migration through endothelial cell monolayers. The present study determines the beneficial effects of remifentanil and the mechanisms by which it attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Rats were intratracheally instilled with 2 mg/kg LPS to induce ALI. Results showed that remifentanil could resolve lung injury, as evidenced by remarkable decreases in lung edema (wet-to-dry weight ratio), neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity), and pulmonary permeability [total number of cells an...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

IL-1β Upregulates IL-8 Production in Human Müller Cells Through Activation of the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways
In conclusion, IL-1β potently stimulates IL-8 expression in Müller cells mainly through the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine Controls Systemic Cytokine Levels through the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway
This study intends to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of dexmedetomidine through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To investigate this therapeutic potential of dexmedetomidine, a murine model of endotoxemia was established induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Animals were assigned to one of four protocols. Protocol one: animals were randomly assigned to control group, dexmedetomidine group, and sterile saline group (n = 20 each), and these animals were used for survival analysis. The survival rate was assessed up to 120 h after endotoxin injection. Protocol two: animals were randomly assigned to one...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum NDC 75017 Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice
This study investigated the protective effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NDC 75017 (L. plantarum NDC 75017) against acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thirty male mice were randomly divided into the control, LPS, and LPS + L. plantarum NDC 75017 groups. In the LPS + L. plantarum group, the mice were orally pretreated with L. plantarum NDC 75017 for 15 days. At 16 days, the mice in the LPS and LPS + L. plantarum NDC 75017 groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS at 4 mg/kg body weight, whereas the control mice were treated with an equal amount of saline. After 8 h, the serum alanine transamin...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The Link Between Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Model for Depression and Vascular Inflammation?
In this study, we investigated the effects of infliximab (a TNF-α inhibitor) on endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity, systemic blood pressure, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity in the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model of depression in rats. There was no significant change between all groups in the systemic blood pressure. In UCMS, endothelium-dependent relaxation of the smooth muscle in response to carbachol was significantly decreased with 50 % maximal response (E max) and pD2 values compared with the controls. Infliximab was able to reverse this UCMS effect. Rela...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Human Renal Transplantation with Acute T Cell-Mediated Rejection
In conclusion, we demonstrated a potential role for MDSCs in prolonging allograft survival after ATCMR, and this was associated with higher CD4+Foxp3+/CD4+IL-17+ ratio in PBMC. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Serum-Soluble HLA-G Is Associated with Specific IgE in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma
Abstract Allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma (AA) are characterized by T helper (Th)2-polarized immune response. Soluble human leukocyte antigen G (sHLA-G) molecule plays an immunomodulatory activity. Previously, it has been reported that children with AR or AA had higher sHLA-G levels in comparison with normal subjects. Thus, the present study aimed at confirming these data in adults and investigating whether there was a relationship between serum sHLA-G levels and serum IgE levels, in patients with AR or AA. One hundred twenty symptomatic patients, suffering from respiratory symptoms, were enrolled: 45 n...
Source: Inflammation - September 29, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Growth of HepG2 Cells was Suppressed Through Modulation of STAT6/IL-4 and IL-10 in RAW 264.7 Cells Treated by Phytoglycoprotein (38 kDa)
Abstract  Macrophage type 2 (M2) is closely associated with tumor progression and metastasis. Thus, in this study, the antitumor effect of Styrax japonica Siebold et al. Zuccarini (SJSZ) glycoprotein on HepG2 cell proliferation through modulating M2 was investigated by measuring [3H]-thymidine incorporation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitogen-activated protein kinases, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6, cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-γ], and CD163-positive cells using biochemical ana...
Source: Inflammation - November 27, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Inflammation Source Type: research

Modulation of B Cell Regulatory Molecules CD22 and CD72 in Myasthenia Gravis and Multiple Sclerosis
In this study, we detected the expression of CD22 and CD72 on B cells of MG, compared to multiple sclerosis (MS) patient controls and healthy controls by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time polymerase transcription chain reaction. Our data demonstrated that aberrant expression of CD72 exists on B cells of MG and MS patients and expression level of CD72 molecule has a significantly negative correlation with anti-AchR antibody levels in MG, which suggests that CD72 may be involved in the pathogenesis of MG and MS. There were no significant differences between study patients (MG, ocular MG, generalized MG, and MS) ...
Source: Inflammation - November 27, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Inflammation Source Type: research

Antiapoptotic and Proapoptotic Signaling of Cyclophilin A in Endothelial Cells
This study shows that CyPA may initiate antiapoptotic and proapoptotic signaling in ECs, especially in response to reactive oxygen species stimulation. It serves as a potential target for atherosclerosis therapy. Content Type Journal ArticlePages 1-6DOI 10.1007/s10753-012-9578-7Authors Yuan Wei, Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, No. 438 Jie Fang Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of ChinaYan Jinchuan, Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, No. 438 Jie Fang Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of ChinaLiang Yi, Dep...
Source: Inflammation - November 25, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Inflammation Source Type: research

Expression of Septin4 in Human Hepatic Stellate Cells LX-2 Stimulated by LPS
Abstract  Septin4, a member of polymerizing GTP-binding proteins family, is reported to be involved in cytoskeletal organization in mitosis, apoptosis, fibrosis, and other cellular processes. Since various Septin4 expression patterns were reported in different diseases, this study aimed to investigate Septin4 expression in human LX-2 cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and attempted to clarify the relationship between Septin4 and hepatic inflammatory injury and fibrosis. In this subject, human stellate cell line LX-2 was stimulated by LPS. The expression of Septin4 was analyzed by Western blot a...
Source: Inflammation - November 25, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Inflammation Source Type: research

Suppression of MAPK and NF-κB Pathways by Limonene Contributes to Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Acute Lung Injury
Abstract  The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of limonene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS (0.5 mg/kg), and limonene (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1 h prior to LPS administration. After 12 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. Limonene pretreatment at doses of 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg decreased LPS-induced evident lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and lung myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, ...
Source: Inflammation - November 25, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Inflammation Source Type: research

Serum Levels of the CC Chemokines CCL2, CCL5, and CCL11 in Food Allergic Children with Different Clinical Manifestations
Abstract  Food allergies (FA) are frequent in 8 % of children under 3 years old and approximately 2 % of adults. Chemokine are involved in various allergies such as FA. The present study was aimed to determine CCL2, CCL5, and CCL11 levels in FA. The study population of this cross-sectional study contained 63 patients suffering from FA and 100 healthy controls. Concentrations of CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, and IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eosinophils were counted using Casy Ι cell counter + analyzer system model SCAREF system GmbH. Differences were considered significa...
Source: Inflammation - November 25, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Inflammation Source Type: research

Evaluation of CHI3L-1 and CHIT-1 Expression in Differentiated and Polarized Macrophages
In this study, we compared CHI3L-1 and CHIT-1 modulation during monocyte to macrophage transition and polarization. Gene expression analysis was investigated by real-time PCR. We found that during the maturation of monocytes into macrophages, the expression of both CHI3L-1 and CHIT-1 increased exponentially over time. Additionally, we observed a different regulation of CHI3L-1 and CHIT-1 in undifferentiated monocytes under stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, interferon-γ, and interleukin-4, at the same concentration used to polarize macrophages. Our finding suggests that in the immune response, the role of CHI3L-1 a...
Source: Inflammation - November 13, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Inflammation Source Type: research

Proliferation and Apoptosis of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus
Abstract  Oral lichen planus (OLP) is generally accepted to be a T cell-mediated chronic inflammatory disease with an unclear pathogenesis. There have been numerous studies on the proliferation and apoptosis of T cells in situ. In contrast, research on the proliferation and apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with OLP is rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the proliferation and apoptosis of PBMCs in patients with OLP. PBMCs were isolated from 20 patients with reticular OLP, 20 patients with atrophic-erosive OLP, and 20 healthy volunteers. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazo...
Source: Inflammation - November 7, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Inflammation Source Type: research