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The Roles of Egr-2 in Autoimmune Diseases
Abstract Being a member of the early growth response (Egr) family of transcription factors, Egr-2 is expressed in a variety of cell types of the immune system. Recent findings imply that Egr-2 is important in the development and function of T helper (Th) 17 cell, regulatory T (Treg) cell, as well as dendritic cell (DC). Although these cells perform significantly in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis, the roles of Egr-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases can not be neglected. In this article, we will discuss recent findi...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Preventive Effects of Protocatechuic Acid on LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Gingival Fibroblasts via Activating PPAR-γ
In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of PCA is associated with activating PPAR-γ, thereby inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Supplemental Carvacrol Can Reduce the Severity of Inflammation by Influencing the Production of Mediators of Inflammation
ABSTRACT Carvacrol (CVC) is a monoterpenic phenol, which is present in the essential oil of various plants. It has been widely used both as antibacterial feed additive and food preservative. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the prophylactic effects of carvacrol on inflammatory mediators of sepsis. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 levels as proinflammatory markers were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined in the sample by using thiobarbituric acid test. Nitric oxide (NO) levels and arginase activity and also all measurements...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Cordycepin on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Inflammation by Strengthening Treg Response and Suppressing Th17 Responses in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice
Abstract The aim of the current study was to use a mouse model of allergic asthma to investigate whether cordycepin has antiasthmatic effects, and if so, to determine the mechanism of these effects. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (Dex, 2 mg/kg), and cordycepin (20–40 mg/kg). Histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin staining, OVA-specific serum and BALF IgE levels and Treg/Th17 cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and RORγt and Foxp3 were evaluated by western blot. Our study demonstrated tha...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alterations of T Helper Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Sepsis, Severe Sepsis, and Septic Shock: A Prospective Observational Study
In this study, the Th1, Th2, Treg transcription factors, and related cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 levels of sepsis and severe sepsis patients in peripheral blood were significantly higher than those of the normal controls. Except for IL-17, the T-bet, GATA-3, and IFN-γ levels of septic shock patients were lower than those of sepsis patients. We also observed that the proportions of Th17/Treg in the sepsis and septic shock groups were inversed. From the above, the inflammatory response especially the adaptive immune response is still activated in sepsis and severe sepsis, but significant immunosuppression was develope...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of JEUD-38, a New Sesquiterpene Lactone from Inula japonica Thunb, on LPS-Induced iNOS Expression in RAW264.7 Cells
ABSTRACT We isolated JEUD-38, a new sesquiterpene lactone from Inula japonica Thunb. JEUD-38 dramatically attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Consistent with this finding, the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was blocked by JEUD-38 in a concentration-dependent manner. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined the effect of JEUD-38 on LPS-stimulated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation, inhibitory factor-κB (IκB) phosphorylation, and degradation. JEUD-38 reduced the translocation of p65, via abrogating IκB-α phosphorylation and degrad...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Overexpression and Potential Regulatory Role of IL-17F in Pathogenesis of Chronic Periodontitis
This study indicates that IL-17F may be involved in pathogenesis of periodontitis like IL-17A. The role of IL-17F in disease pathogenesis needs to be further investigated. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Ergosterol, Isolated from Scleroderma Polyrhizum Pers., on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Acute Lung Injury
Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of ergosterol, isolated from Scleroderma polyrhizum Pers., in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by LPS (0.5 mg/kg), and ergosterol (25 and 50 mg/kg) was administrated orally 1 h prior to LPS administration. Ergosterol pretreatment at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg decreased LPS-induced lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio. In addition, pretreatment with ergosterol inhibited inflammatory cells and proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleuk...
Source: Inflammation - April 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Systemic Lipopolysaccharide Administration-Induced Cognitive Impairments are Reversed by Erythropoietin Treatment in Mice
In conclusion, our data suggested that treatment with EPO reduced the mortality rate and ameliorated cognitive impairments in an animal model of SAE. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Efficacy of Sodium Aescinate on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats
This study is aimed to evaluate the potential effects of sodium aescinate (SA, the sodium salt of aescin) on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. An excision skin wound was created in diabetic rats, and the wounded rats were divided into three groups: I) control group, II) gel-treated group, and III) SA-treated group. The control group wounds received topically normal saline once daily for 19 days. The gel-treated and SA-treated wounds received topically 400 μl of pluronic F-127 gel (25 %) and 400 μl of SA (0.3 %) in pluronic gel, respectively, once daily for 19 days. SA application in diabetic ra...
Source: Inflammation - April 24, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice
Abstract The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 106 SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative ...
Source: Inflammation - April 24, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Effect of Syringic Acid on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats
Abstract Acute arterial occlusions via different vascular pathologies are the main causes of spinal cord ischemia. We investigated neuroprotective effects of syringic acid on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: (I) sham-operated control rats, (II) spinal cord ischemia group, (III) spinal cord ischemia group performed syringic acid, and (IV) spinal cord ischemia group performed methylprednisolone intraperitoneally. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathologica...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NLRP3, a Double-edged Sword in Lung Injury Diseases
Abstract Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) plays a key role in lung injury diseases regulation, and its expression is increased in lung injury diseases. NLRP3 may be a good therapeutic target for lung injury diseases. The molecular mechanisms of NLRP3 in lung injury diseases remain unclear. It is a key to study the potential mechanism of NLRP3 during lung injury diseases, so that to exploit it as a good target for lung injury diseases therapy. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lysozyme Against HMGB1 in Human Endothelial Cells and in Mice
Abstract High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was recently shown to be an important extracellular mediator of severe vascular inflammatory disease, sepsis. Lysozyme protects us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection and binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with a high affinity. Here, we show, for the first time, the anti-septic effects of lysozyme in HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. The data showed that lysozyme posttreatment suppressed LPS-mediated release of HMGB1 and HMGB1-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement. Lysozyme also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability an...
Source: Inflammation - April 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intrathecal Injection of JWH-015 Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain Via Time-Dependent Modification of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Expression and Astrocytes Activity in Spinal Cord
Abstract Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) agonists display potential analgesic effects in acute and neuropathic pain. However, its complex cellular and molecular mechanisms in bone cancer pain remain unclear. And less relevant reports concerned its time-dependent effects on the long-lasting modifications of behavior, spinal inflammatory cytokines levels, astrocytes activity induced by bone cancer pain. A rat model of bone cancer pain induced by intra-tibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells was utilized. Pain behaviors at different time points were assessed by ambulatory pain scores and paw w...
Source: Inflammation - April 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Potential Role of Hepatitis C Virus Alternate Reading Frame Protein in Negative Regulation of T-Bet Gene Expression
Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and has led to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in a majority of infected individuals. We have previously demonstrated that the HCV alternate reading frame protein (F protein) is related to Th1/Th2 bias in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, and we aimed to explore the relative molecular mechanisms here. A total of 104 cases including CHC patients and healthy donors were enrolled. T-bet and GATA-3 expression levels were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The levels of signal transducer and activator of transcriptio...
Source: Inflammation - April 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Upregulation of PTP1B After Rat Spinal Cord Injury
Abstract Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, attaches to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via its C-terminal tail. Previous studies have reported that PTP1B participates in various signal transduction pathways in many human diseases, including diabetes, cancers, osteoporosis, and obesity. It also plays an important role in the ER stress. ER stress induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) was reported to result in cell apoptosis. Till now, the role of PTP1B in the injury of the central nervous system remains unknown. In the present study, we built an adult rat SCI ...
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Phosphorylated Cx43 on PKC Mediated Ser368 in Lung Injury Induced by Seawater Inhalation
In conclusion, seawater aspiration causes p-Cx43 expression by PKC pathway, which is involved in the on come and development of pulmonary inflammation and lung edema. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Decreased UBASH3A mRNA Expression Levels in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Abstract Increasing evidence has demonstrated the association between UBASH3A gene and multiple autoimmune diseases (ADs). The aim of our study was to explore the potential effect of UBASH3A messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and its role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). UBASH3A mRNA levels were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in total RNA, isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 32 SLE patients and 30 healthy donors with TRIzol Reagent. The expression level of UBASH3A mRNA was significantly reduced in PBMCs...
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Identification of Novel Inflammatory Cytokines and Contribution of Keratinocyte-Derived Chemokine to Inflammation in Response to Vibrio vulnificus Infection in Mice
Abstract Currently, only tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin family cytokines have been found to be elicited in Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus)-infected animal models and humans. However, multiple other cytokines are also involved in the immune and inflammatory responses to foreign microorganism infection. Antibody array technology, unlike traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is able to detect multiple cytokines at one time. Therefore, in this study, we examined the proinflammatory cytokine profile in the serum and liver homogenate samples of bacterial-infected mice using antib...
Source: Inflammation - April 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Analysis of Programmed Death-1 in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 6, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Reduced Expression of miR-23a Suppresses A20 in TLR-stimulated Macrophages
Abstract High levels of miR-23a expression in human primary macrophages suggested that miR-23a might have an important role in innate immune cells. Therefore, we investigated whether miR-23a regulates the secretion of cytokines by immune cells. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of miR-23a was reduced in toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated macrophages. By targeting A20, miR-23a could affect NF-κB activity and the expression of downstream NF-κB-target genes that encode proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. In summary, our study describes a novel role for miR-23a in the regulation of inflamma...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Asthmatic Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma Through Relegating Th1/Th2
Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-asthma effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) and its possible mechanisms. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and Rb1 (10 and 20 mg/kg). Airway resistance (RI) was measured; histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; Th1/Th2, ovalbumin (OVA)-specific serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgE levels were evaluated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and T-bet/GATA3 proteins were evaluated by Western blot. Our study demonstrated that R...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Punicalagin Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice
In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that punicalagin protects against LPS-induced ARDS in mice. The underlying mechanisms may include inhibition of TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Vitamin E on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats
Abstract Vitamin E (vit-E) is a lipophilic antioxidant, and its anti-inflammatory activity is still not full characterized. Thus, our goal was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of repeated vit-E treatment in the arthritis induced by the intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). We observed an increase in arthritis scores, interleukin-1β and H2O2 levels, neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and loss of function induced by intraplantar CFA injection. These effects were unaltered after 1 day, partially reversed after 3 days, and inhibited ...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Silymarin Attenuates Airway Inflammation Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Mice
In this study, we investigated the effects of silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the seeds and fruits of milk thistle, on CS-induced airway inflammation and oxidative stress in mice and the possible mechanisms. BALB/c mice were exposed to CS for 2 h twice daily, 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Silymarin (25, 50 mg/kg · day) was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before CS exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was acquired for cell counting and the detection of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Lung tissue was collected for histological examination, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay, superoxide d...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Aurora Kinase A Regulates M1 Macrophage Polarization and Plays a Role in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Abstract Macrophage polarization is a dynamic and integral process of tissue inflammation and remodeling. Here we demonstrate an important role of Aurora kinase A in the regulation of inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization. We found that there was an elevated expression of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages and inhibition of Aurora-A by small molecules or specific siRNA selectively led to the suppression of M1 polarization, sparing over the M2 macrophage differentiation. At the molecular level, we found that the effects of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages were mediated through the down-regulation of NF-κB pathway and subsequ...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MAPK and NF-κB Pathways Are Involved in Bisphenol A-Induced TNF-α and IL-6 Production in BV2 Microglial Cells
Abstract Microglial activation has been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane), known as a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is reported to perform both mimic- and anti-estrogen properties; however, whether it affects cytokine production or immune response in central nervous system remains unclear. The present study was aimed to explore whether BPA was involved in inflammatory action and to investigate the potential mechanisms in microglial cells. BV2, the murine microglial cell line, wa...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Recruitment of Gr1 + CD11b + F4/80 + Population in the Bone Marrow and Spleen by Irradiation-Induced Pulmonary Damage
Abstract Radiation-induced lung injury is a kind of sterile inflammation, which may lead to morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation activate the immune system is not well understood. In the present study, we have investigated the immunological responses induced by local irradiation-induced damage in mouse lung. The left lungs of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated at a high dose of 100 Gy. The histology of the lungs and spleen showed evidences of alveolar inflammation and congestion at 2 weeks after X-ray treatment. Also, prominent increase in cells expressing the cell surface markers, Gr+CD...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Arctigenin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats
Abstract Arctigenin (ATG) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of ATG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. In the present study, our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of ATG on LPS-induced ALI in rats. We found that ATG pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interl...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Association of Interleukin-6-572C/G Gene Polymorphism and Serum or Cerebrospinal Fluid Interleukin-6 Level with Enterovirus 71 Encephalitis in Chinese Han Patients with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
This study was carried out in 59 Chinese Han patients with EV71 encephalitis, 128 EV71-related HFMD without complications, and 232 controls. The IL-6-572C/G polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism gene analysis. Serum or CSF IL-6 levels were determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patients with EV71 encephalitis had a higher frequency of IL-6-572GG/GC genotype compared to the patients with EV71-related HFMD without encephalitis complications (40.7 vs. 15.6 %, odds ratio (OR) = 3.70, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.83–7.50, p...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ox-LDL Upregulates CRP Expression Through the IGF2 Pathway in THP-1 Macrophages
Abstract C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant protein that not only plays a predictive role in determining atherogenesis risk but also represents an active participant in atherogenesis onset and progression. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have reported that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) plays a significant role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of Ox-LDL on CRP expression remains unclear. THP-1 macrophages were treated with 0, 25, 50, or 100 μg/mL of Ox-LDL for 48 h, or 50 μg/mL of Ox-LDL for 0, 12, 24, and...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protease Inhibitor Reduces Airway Response and Underlying Inflammation in Cockroach Allergen-Induced Murine Model
Abstract Protease(s) enhances airway inflammation and allergic cascade. In the present study, effect of a serine protease inhibitor was evaluated in mouse model of airway disease. Mice were sensitized with cockroach extract (CE) or Per a 10 and treated with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) 1 h before or after challenge to measure airway response. Mice were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, and lung to evaluate inflammation. AEBSF treatment significantly reduced the AHR in allergen-challenged mice in dose-dependent manner (p ≤ 0.01). IgE (p ...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chloroquine Differentially Modulates Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells in Response to Inactivated Staphylococcus aureus
This study aimed to investigate the effect of CQ on proinflammatory cytokine expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with heat-inactivated Staphylococcus aureus cells (SAC). The results showed that CQ treatment reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in culture medium but increased intracellular protein expression of TNF-α and CCL2 in SAC-activated cells. However, CQ showed differential effects on their messenger RNA (mRNA) levels: it reduced IL-6 mRNA expression, increased CCL2 mRNA levels, but had no effect on TNF-α mRNA. The SAC-activated i...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rat Mesangial Cells via Inhibition of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) Signaling Pathway
This study was conducted to investigate effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on septic AKI in vitro. ALA of 200 or 400 μM was used to pretreat rat HBZY-1 mesangial cells before commencement of 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data indicated that ALA pretreatment reduced LPS-stimulated release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1 beta (IL-1β), as well as IL-6, in HBZY-1 cell supernatant. Moreover, LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was inhibited by ALA pretreatment, and consequently, the secretion levels...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Alteration and Clinical Significance of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg Cells in Patients with Multiple Myeloma
Abstract Immunological T cells and associated cytokines have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). However, the abnormal immune imbalance of T lymphocyte subsets on MM remains unknown. We investigate the proportions of T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2/Th17/T regulatory (Treg) cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by flow cytometry (FCM), and serum levels of relevant cytokines in MM patients and controls were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of T-bet, STAT6, RORgammat, and Foxp3 was measured by real-time quantitative poly...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-155 Deficiency Promotes Nephrin Acetylation and Attenuates Renal Damage in Hyperglycemia-Induced Nephropathy
In conclusion, miR-155 deficiency promotes nephrin acetylation and attenuates renal damage in hyperglycemia-induced nephropathy. This was associated with inhibited IL-17 production through enhancement of SOCS1 expression. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Inflammatory Marker Levels and Pulmonary Tuberculosis Severity
Abstract We aimed to investigate the correlation between red cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and other inflammatory markers with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) severity. Seventy patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were compared with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls. The mean age of PTB patients was 50.4 ± 21.8 years. There were no differences in terms of age, gender, and smoking history between PTB patients and controls. Patients with advanced PTB had a significantly higher white blood cell count, neutrophil cou...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Secretoglobin 3A2 Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation Through Inhibition of ERK and JNK Pathways in Bronchial Epithelial Cells
Abstract Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, previously known as uteroglobin-related protein 1, is a secreted protein highly expressed in the epithelial cells of the airways. It has been demonstrated that SCGB3A2 is involved in allergic airway inflammation such as bronchial asthma. However, the role of SCGB3A2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation has yet to be reported. The goal of this study was therefore to clarify the role of SCGB3A2 in LPS-induced airway inflammation. We stimulated BEAS-2B, human bronchial epithelial cells, with LPS and analyzed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tumor necrosis facto...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Genetic Variants of Interleukin 17A Are Functionally Associated with Increased Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in elderly populations worldwide. Inflammation, among many factors, has been suggested to play an important role in AMD pathogenesis. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we examined two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2275913G/A and rs3748067C/T, in the IL-17A gene between AMD patients and healthy controls. Results showed that rs2275913AA genotype and rs3748067TT genotype were associated with inc...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Experimental Asthma by Inducing Polarization of Alveolar Macrophages
Abstract The reparative and immunoregulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have made them attractive candidates for cellular therapy. However, the underlying mechanism of the effects of transplanted MSCs on allergic asthma remains elusive. Here, we show that administration of MSCs isolated from human bone marrow provoked a pronounced polarization in alveolar macrophages to M2 subtypes, rather than induced an increase in the total macrophage number, and efficiently inhibited hallmark features of asthma, including airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic accumulation. Moreover, transforming grow...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Estrogenic Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Modulate the Production of Inflammatory Mediators and Cell Viability of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages
Abstract Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that act as competitive inhibitors of estrogen in the endocrine system. By disrupting the endocrine system, EDCs can cause severe disabilities and diseases, including cancers and altered sexual development. Although the influence of these molecules in the endocrine system is evident, the effects of EDCs on the immune system as well as their cytotoxicity have been poorly examined. Therefore, we selected 21 EDCs that are commonly found in Korean ecosystems, such as surface waters and effluents, and studied their immunologic effects b...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammatory Responses by Selenium in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in Primary Culture
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Association Between TSLP Polymorphisms and Eczema in Japanese Women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study
We examined the association between thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases were 188 women who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Controls were 565 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria, who had not been diagnosed with asthma, atopic eczema, and/or allergic rhinitis by a doctor and who had no asthma as defined by the European Community Respiratory Health Survey criteria and no rhinoconjunctivitis according to the ISAAC criteria. Compared with women with the TT g...
Source: Inflammation - February 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Tannic Acid on the Ischemic Brain Tissue of Rats
Abstract Many studies of brain ischemia have shown the role played by massive ischemia-induced production of reactive oxygen species, the main mechanism of neuronal death. However, currently, there is no treatment choice to prevent cell death triggered by reactive oxygen species. In our study, we researched the effects of tannic acid, an antioxidant, on the ischemic tissue of rats with induced middle cerebral artery occlusion. The animals were divided into three groups of eight animals. The sham group were only administered 10 % ethanol intraperitoneally, the second group had middle cerebral artery occlusion indu...
Source: Inflammation - February 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate Through Inhibition of Phospholipase A2/Arachidonic Acid Pathway
Abstract Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) has been known to possess various pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antiviral, and hepatoprotective activities. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG), a magnesium salt of 18-α glycyrrhizic acid stereoisomer, is clinically used for the treatment of inflammatory liver diseases. However, the mechanism by which MgIG exerts its anti-inflammatory effects remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory potential of MgIG in phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway and release of the pathway-generated inf...
Source: Inflammation - February 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Celecoxib Combined with Diacerein Effectively Alleviates Osteoarthritis in Rats via Regulating JNK and p38MAPK Signaling Pathways
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) has long been a difficult to overcome joint disease for medical workers. However, there is still a lack of effective treatments for OA. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the treatment effect of celecoxib (CLX) combined with diacerein (DC) on OA and delineate the underlying molecular mechanism. The OA model was established by using rats, and OA rats were treated with either CLX alone, DC alone, and CLX combined with DC. The results showed that, as compared with a single treatment of CLX or DC, CLX combined with DC markedly attenuated OA and inhibited the levels of inflammatory ...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Slows Down the Progression of Osteoarthritis by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Production and Metalloproteinase Synthesis
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common arthritis and also one of the major causes of joint pain in elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on degenerated-related changes in osteoarthritis (OA). SW1353 cells were stimulated with IL-1β to establish the chondrocyte injury model in vitro. PQQ was administrated into SW1353 cultures 1 h before IL-1β treatment. Amounts of MMP-1, MMP-13, P65, IκBα, ERK, p-ERK, P38, and p-P38 were measured via western blot. The production of NO was determined by Griess reaction assay and reflected by the iNOS leve...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Extracellular Kynurenine Levels, as Detected by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
In this study, we investigated the influence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on KYN production by cultured endothelial cells. KYN and tryptophan (TRP) concentrations in cell supernatants were simultaneously measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a fluorescence detector (FLD) and an ultraviolet detector (UVD). Our results revealed that lipopolysaccharide-stimulated endothelial cells produced more KYN, which was accompanied by a parallel decrease in TRP. When co-cultured with BMSCs, KYN and TRP production were significantly decreased compared to lipopolysaccharide (LP...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Macrophage-Microglia Networks Drive M1 Microglia Polarization After Mycobacterium Infection
In this study, we found that BV2 treated with conditioned media from cultures of macrophages infected with Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) induced the expression of M1 phenotypic genes including iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL10 but reduced that of M2 phenotypic genes such as Arginase 1, Ym1, and CD163. These results suggest that polarization of microglia is partly mediated through macrophage-microglia interactions as a priming signal. Overall, these results provide new insights into the modulatory mechanisms of microglial polarization, thereby possibly facilitating the development of new therapies for CNS-TB infect...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research