Medicine RSS Search Engine

Inflammation Inflammation RSS feedThis is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.

This page shows you the latest items in this publication.

Retraction Note to: Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammatory Responses by Selenium in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in Primary Culture
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 26, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Association Between TSLP Polymorphisms and Eczema in Japanese Women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study
We examined the association between thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases were 188 women who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Controls were 565 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria, who had not been diagnosed with asthma, atopic eczema, and/or allergic rhinitis by a doctor and who had no asthma as defined by the European Community Respiratory Health Survey criteria and no rhinoconjunctivitis according to the ISAAC criteria. Compared with women with the TT g...
Source: Inflammation - February 21, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Tannic Acid on the Ischemic Brain Tissue of Rats
Abstract Many studies of brain ischemia have shown the role played by massive ischemia-induced production of reactive oxygen species, the main mechanism of neuronal death. However, currently, there is no treatment choice to prevent cell death triggered by reactive oxygen species. In our study, we researched the effects of tannic acid, an antioxidant, on the ischemic tissue of rats with induced middle cerebral artery occlusion. The animals were divided into three groups of eight animals. The sham group were only administered 10 % ethanol intraperitoneally, the second group had middle cerebral artery occlusion indu...
Source: Inflammation - February 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate Through Inhibition of Phospholipase A2/Arachidonic Acid Pathway
Abstract Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) has been known to possess various pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antiviral, and hepatoprotective activities. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG), a magnesium salt of 18-α glycyrrhizic acid stereoisomer, is clinically used for the treatment of inflammatory liver diseases. However, the mechanism by which MgIG exerts its anti-inflammatory effects remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory potential of MgIG in phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway and release of the pathway-generated inf...
Source: Inflammation - February 19, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Celecoxib Combined with Diacerein Effectively Alleviates Osteoarthritis in Rats via Regulating JNK and p38MAPK Signaling Pathways
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) has long been a difficult to overcome joint disease for medical workers. However, there is still a lack of effective treatments for OA. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the treatment effect of celecoxib (CLX) combined with diacerein (DC) on OA and delineate the underlying molecular mechanism. The OA model was established by using rats, and OA rats were treated with either CLX alone, DC alone, and CLX combined with DC. The results showed that, as compared with a single treatment of CLX or DC, CLX combined with DC markedly attenuated OA and inhibited the levels of inflammatory ...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Slows Down the Progression of Osteoarthritis by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Production and Metalloproteinase Synthesis
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common arthritis and also one of the major causes of joint pain in elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on degenerated-related changes in osteoarthritis (OA). SW1353 cells were stimulated with IL-1β to establish the chondrocyte injury model in vitro. PQQ was administrated into SW1353 cultures 1 h before IL-1β treatment. Amounts of MMP-1, MMP-13, P65, IκBα, ERK, p-ERK, P38, and p-P38 were measured via western blot. The production of NO was determined by Griess reaction assay and reflected by the iNOS leve...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Extracellular Kynurenine Levels, as Detected by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
In this study, we investigated the influence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on KYN production by cultured endothelial cells. KYN and tryptophan (TRP) concentrations in cell supernatants were simultaneously measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a fluorescence detector (FLD) and an ultraviolet detector (UVD). Our results revealed that lipopolysaccharide-stimulated endothelial cells produced more KYN, which was accompanied by a parallel decrease in TRP. When co-cultured with BMSCs, KYN and TRP production were significantly decreased compared to lipopolysaccharide (LP...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Macrophage-Microglia Networks Drive M1 Microglia Polarization After Mycobacterium Infection
In this study, we found that BV2 treated with conditioned media from cultures of macrophages infected with Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) induced the expression of M1 phenotypic genes including iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL10 but reduced that of M2 phenotypic genes such as Arginase 1, Ym1, and CD163. These results suggest that polarization of microglia is partly mediated through macrophage-microglia interactions as a priming signal. Overall, these results provide new insights into the modulatory mechanisms of microglial polarization, thereby possibly facilitating the development of new therapies for CNS-TB infect...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effect of Orientin on Secretory Group IIA Phospholipase A 2
Abstract It is well known that the expression level of secretory group IIA phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is elevated in inflammatory diseases and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) upregulates the expression of sPLA2-IIA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Orientin, a C-glycosyl flavonoid, is known to have anxiolytic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory activity. Here, orientin was examined for its effects on the expression and activity of sPLA2-IIA in HUVECs and mouse. Prior treatment of cells or mouse with orientin inhibited LPS-induced expression and activity of sPLA2-IIA. And orientin suppressed the act...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Effect of Glycyrrhizic Acid on an Experimental Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats
Abstract Cerebral ischemia is still one of the most important topics in neurosciences. Our study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective and anti-oxidant effects of glycyrrhizic acid on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided equally into three groups. A middle cerebral artery occlusion model was performed in this study where sham and glycyrrhizic acid were administered intraperitoneally following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Group I was evaluated as control. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) levels were analyzed biochemically on...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Triptolide Protects Against Ischemic Stroke in Rats
In this study, we investigated the effects of triptolide on cultured neuronal cell line in vitro and experimental ischemic stroke in vivo. Oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulated SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with triptolide. In vivo, rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 23 h. Results of this study showed that triptolide treatment reduced the OGD-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis and blocked TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and p38MAPK in SH-SY5Y cells. Intraperitoneal injection of triptolide showed significant n...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Embelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation and Ameliorates Organ Injuries in Septic Rats Through Downregulating STAT3 and NF-κB Pathways
Abstract Current evidence shows that the majority of the damage induced during sepsis is pursuant to induction and overproduction of endogenous cytokines. Embelin has been reported to suppress cytokine expressions in inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of embelin on cecal and ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced rat sepsis. Single-dose administration of embelin 1 h after surgery significantly improved survival of rats with CLP-induced sepsis. In addition, embelin treatment reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, ...
Source: Inflammation - February 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Salidroside on Myocardial Injury In Vivo In Vitro via Regulation of Nox/NF-κB/AP1 Pathway
Abstract Salidroside (Sal), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from a popular traditional Chinese medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea L., possesses multiple pharmacological actions. This aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Sal against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia. Fifty male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized equally to five groups: control group, ISO group, Sal (20 mg/kg; 40 mg/kg) treatments groups, and propranolol (Pro, 15 mg/kg) group. Rats were treated for 14 days and then given ISO (80 mg/kg) for 2 consecutive days by subcutaneous injection. In vitro, we used H9C2 cells...
Source: Inflammation - February 14, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Specific Roles of JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway in Sepsis
Abstract The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is a principal signaling pathway for the signal transduction of many pivotal cytokines involved in sepsis. Binding of cytokines to corresponding receptors can activate associated JAK kinases, which selectively phosphorylate STATs. Activated STATs then translocate to the nucleus and play a critical role in the transcription of target genes. During the past several years, significant progress has been made in the understanding of the roles of JAK/STAT pathway in sepsis. The aims of this review are to describe the present kn...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Simvastatin Does Not Reduce Chemokine Production in Obesity Without Comorbidities
ABSTRACT Obesity is considered a subchronic inflammatory disease with high risk of comorbidity development. Obesity-associated inflammation originates from adipose tissue itself, which secretes a panel of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Therefore, we enrolled 23 obese women without comorbidity and evaluated if simvastatin 20 mg/day dose therapy for 6 weeks (n = 15) may modulate plasma levels of inflammatory CXCL-10, CCL-2, CXCL-9, CXCL-8, and CCL-5. A significant decrease of cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) after simvastatin treatment was ob...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Anti-inflammatory Effect of the CXCR4 Antagonist-N15P Peptide and Its Modulation on Inflammation-Associated Mediators in LPS-Induced PBMC
This study aims to clarify the anti-inflammatory potency of N15P polypeptide on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of N15P polypeptide by the LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) model and measured the level of inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MyD88, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of inflammatory factors were analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) microarra...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Esculin Inhibits the Inflammation of LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice Via Regulation of TLR/NF-κB Pathways
In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of esculin (ESC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS, and ESC (20 and 40 mg/kg) was given orally 1 h prior to LPS administration. After 6 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. ESC pretreatment decreased LPS-induced evident lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and lung myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, pretreatment with ESC inhibited inflammatory cells and proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (T...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidative Activities of Safranal in the Reduction of Renal Dysfunction and Damage that Occur in Diabetic Nephropathy
In this study, safranal was found to reduce dysfunction (lowered BUN and CREA levels) and tissue damage (histopathological data) that occur in renal tissue, by means of its both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the light of these results, we suggest that safranal contributes to the development of new treatment protocols in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and its complication diabetic nephropathy. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Analysis of Programmed Death-1 in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis
Abstract Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory co-receptor that is highly expressed in T lymphocytes that has been shown to downregulate inflammatory responses in several inflammatory diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Yet, the role of PD-1 in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has not been studied. In order to fill this gap, we measured the expression levels of PD-1 in peripheral T cells from patients with active disease. Twenty patients and fifteen age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited. The percentage of CD3+PD-1+ T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Despite no...
Source: Inflammation - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CD4 + , CD25 + , FOXP3 + T Regulatory Cell Levels in Obese, Asthmatic, Asthmatic Obese, and Healthy Children
Abstract The aim of this prospective case control study is to determine CD4+, CD25+, and FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) and T helper cells (Ths) in obese, asthmatic, asthmatic obese, and healthy children. Obese (n = 40), asthmatic (n = 40), asthmatic obese (n = 40), and healthy children (n = 40) were included in this study. Blood samples collected from children were marked with CD4, CD25, ve Foxp3 in order to detect Tregs and Ths by flow cytometric method. Statistical analyses were performed. p ≤ 0.05 was chosen as meaningful threshold. Tregs exhibiting anti-inflammatory nature were signif...
Source: Inflammation - February 6, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Aspalathin and Nothofagin from Rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ) In Vitro and In Vivo
Abstract Aspalathin (Asp) and nothofagin (Not) are two major active dihydrochalcones found in green rooibos, which have been reported for their anti-oxidant activity. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of Asp and Not against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated vascular inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory activities of Asp and Not were determined by measuring permeability, monocytes adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in LPS-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. We found that each compound inhibited LPS-...
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

FIZZ1 Promotes Airway Remodeling in Asthma Through the PTEN Signaling Pathway
This study indicates that targeting FIZZ1 and/or PTEN may be a new therapeutic strategy for asthma. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Local Inflammation Alters MMP-2 and MMP-9 Gelatinase Expression Associated with the Severity of Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: a Rat Model Study
In this study, we verified that Nif treatment could lead to gingival overgrowth in rats and that gingival inflammation played a pro-proliferative role in NIGO development. Additionally, we examined the temporal expression of gelatinases on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 40 during NIGO development. The aim was to investigate whether MMP-2 and MMP-9 played significant roles in regulating NIGO development and progression. MMP-2 gene expression was not altered by Nif treatment alone but was significantly inhibited by Nif treatment for 30 days in the presence of local inflammation. However, no significant alterations in MMP-2 prot...
Source: Inflammation - February 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The NR3C1 Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms May Modulate the TGF-beta mRNA Expression in Asthma Patients
Abstract Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) are basic drugs in therapy of a number of diseases, including chronic diseases of the respiratory system. They are the most important anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of asthma. GCs after binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) form the complex (transcription factor), which acts on promoter and regulatory parts of genes enhancing the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins and decreasing the proinflammatory protein synthesis, including numerous cytokines mediating inflammation in the course of asthma. Non-sensitivity or resistance to GCs favours an increase in the T...
Source: Inflammation - February 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Increased Plasma IL-17F Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Are Responsive to Methotrexate, Anti-TNF, and T Cell Costimulatory Modulation
Abstract The aims of this study are to compare plasma levels of IL17A, A/F, and F biomarkers in RA patients versus controls, and to determine responsiveness to methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNFs, and abatacept. We selected plasma samples from RA cohorts consisting of a cross-sectional RA cohort (N = 78) not receiving DMARDs at the time of sampling, as well as from longitudinal drug start cohorts (N = 71 patients) with pre/post samples including anti-TNF, abatacept, and MTX-treated patients. We assayed IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL17-A/F using a highly sensitive immunoassay system. Plasma levels of IL-17A, IL-17A/F, a...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Relevance of the Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 (MyD88) on RANKL, OPG, and Nod Expressions Induced by TLR and IL-1R Signaling in Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
We examined the role of MyD88 on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) activation and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod) induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-1 beta, and their effect on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) production in bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC). RANKL, Nod1, Nod2, NF-κB, and p38 protein levels were determined by Western blot. Nod2 was stimulated with muramyl dipeptide (MDP) prior to TLR4 stimulation with LPS. MyD88 deficiency markedly inhibited RANKL expression afte...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oral Administration of Saccharomyces boulardii Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats via Reducing Intestinal Permeability and Modulating Gut Microbial Composition
Abstract To investigate the effects of orally administrated Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on the progress of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis, 34 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including the control group (n = 8), the cirrhotic group (n = 10), the preventive group (n = 8), and the treatment group (n = 8). Results showed that the liver expression levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (Col1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine ami...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Attenuation of Morphine Analgesic Tolerance by Rosuvastatin in Naïve and Morphine Tolerance Rats
Abstract Recent studies suggested that statins have anti-inflammatory effects beyond their lipid-lowering properties. Since inflammation in the central nervous system was highly related to morphine tolerance, we sought to investigate whether statins could affect morphine tolerance by mediating glia-derived proinflammatory cytokines secretion. We have undertaken two separate studies: Firstly, we determined the effect of rosuvastatin on naïve rats during induction of morphine tolerance. Secondly, we investigated whether rosuvastation could attenuate the morphine analgesic tolerance in rats that the morphine tolera...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Recombinant Human PDCD5 (rhPDCD5) in a Rat Collagen-Induced Model of Arthritis
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant human PDCD5 (rhPDCD5) in a rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. We find that vaccination of collagen II (CII) induced CIA rats with rhPDCD5 significantly delayed the occurrence and reduced the severity of CIA rats. rhPDCD5 also restored the loss of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and decreased the population of Th1 and Th17 in CIA rats. Simultaneously, rhPDCD5 treatment suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ)) and increased the secr...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Leonurine Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect by Regulating Inflammatory Signaling Pathways and Cytokines in LPS-Induced Mouse Mastitis
Abstract Bovine mastitis is defined as the inflammation of mammary gland and is the most multiple diseases in dairy cattle. There is still no effective treatment now. Leonurine, extracted from Leonurus cardiaca, has been proved to have anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study, we utilized a mouse mastitis model to study the effect of leonurine on LPS-induced mastitis. Leonurine was administered three times during the 24 h after inducing infection in the mammary gland. The results showed that leonurine significantly alleviated LPS-induced histopathological changes, downregulated the levels of pro-inflammator...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Magnolol Inhibits the Inflammatory Response in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells and a Mouse Mastitis Model
Abstract Mastitis comprises an inflammation of the mammary gland, which is almost always linked with bacterial infection. The treatment of mastitis concerns antimicrobial substances, but not very successful. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory therapy with Chinese traditional medicine becomes an effective way for treating mastitis. Magnolol is a polyphenolic binaphthalene compound extracted from the stem bark of Magnolia sp., which has been shown to exert a potential for anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of magnolol on inflammation in lipopolysacchari...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Downhill Exercise-Induced Changes in Gene Expression Related with Macrophage Polarization and Myogenic Cells in the Triceps Long Head of Rats
Abstract Macrophages are one of the most heterogenic immune cells involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. After skeletal muscle damage, M1 phenotypes exhibit pro-inflammatory reaction. In a later stage, they are converted to M2 phenotypes with anti-inflammatory properties. To study when gene expressions of macrophage polarization are changed after damage induced by downhill exercise to exhaustion is the objective of this paper. Before (CTRL) and 0 h (G0), 24 h (G24), 48 h (G48) and 72 h (G72) after 18 bouts of downhill exercise, the animals were euthanised, and the triceps were dissected. We measured gene expre...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Association Between Systemic Sclerosis, Arginine and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine
Abstract Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a kind of autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), as an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, can cause or contribute to the inflammatory syndrome and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, increased ADMA levels have been demonstrated in SSc, revealing that ADMA might play an important role for the associated manifestations of SSc. Besides, ADMA may play a significant role in the level of NO, which is produced by arginine. In the review, we discuss the role of arginine and ADMA in patients with SSc. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Proapoptotic Activity of a Monomeric Smac Mimetic on Human Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
ABSTRACT Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) block cell death in response to diverse stimuli. The mitochondrial protein, second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac), negatively regulates IAP inhibition of caspase activity. We investigated the proapoptotic activity of a synthetic Smac (Smac 066) on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) derived from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that Smac 066 induced significant apoptosis in all RA-FLS samples. Furthermore, IAPs, which are upregulated in RA-FLS, were downregulated by Smac 066. This suggested that IAPs upregulation was respons...
Source: Inflammation - January 31, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Baicalin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation Through Signaling NF-κB Pathway in HBE16 Airway Epithelial Cells
Abstract Baicalin, a flavonoid monomer derived from Scutellaria baicalensis called Huangqin in mandarin, is the main active ingredient contributing to S. baicalensis’ efficacy. It is known in China that baicalin has potential therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases. However, its anti-inflammatory mechanism has still not been fully interpreted. We aim to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of baicalin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HBE16 airway epithelial cells and also to explore the underlying signaling mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory action of baicalin was evaluated in human ai...
Source: Inflammation - January 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Activated Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Aggravates Liver Inflammation and Hepatotoxicity in Mice with Acute Liver Failure
This study aimed to examine how ER stress orchestrates glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and inflammation to affect ALF. In a murine ALF model induced by d-galactosamine (d-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is to be administered to relieve ER stress. The lethality rate, liver damage, cytokine expression, and the activity of GSK3β were evaluated. How to regulate LPS-induced inflammation and TNF-α-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by ER stress was investigated in vitro. In vivo, ER stress was triggered in the liver with the progression of mice ALF model. ER stress was essential for the develop...
Source: Inflammation - January 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibiting Interleukin-18 Production Through the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway, A Potential Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis
Abstract Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH receptors (CRH-Rs) are expressed in the skin; CRH-R1 is the predominant receptor. Whether the CRH/CRH-R1 system plays a role in psoriasis has not yet been assessed. Immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, ELISA assay, and Western blot analysis were used to investigate the expression of CRH/CRH-R1 in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and that of IL-18 in CRH-treated HaCaT cells. CRH and CRH-R1 were downregulated in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. In vitro, CRH attenuated the expression of IL-18 by a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathwa...
Source: Inflammation - January 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Mast Cells and C-Sensory Fibers in Concanavalin A-Induced Paw Edema in Two Rat Strains
This study investigated a putative contribution of mast cells and C-sensory fibers to differences in the development of inflammatory edema following the injection of concanavalin A (Con A) into the hind paws of Dark Agouti (DA) and Albino Oxford (AO) rats. The treatment of adult rats with mast cell-depletor compound 48/80 and neonatal depletion of C-sensory fibers independently revealed that leukocyte composition of the inflamed paws and lymph nodes during local inflammatory response to Con A was generally regulated in a similar way in DA and AO rat strains. However, in DA and AO rats, the decrease and the increase of Con ...
Source: Inflammation - January 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ebselen Attenuates Lung Injury in Experimental Model of Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy in Rats
This study suggests that Eb plays an important role against the oxidative damage associated with anti-inflammatory activity in animal model of acute lung injury, proving to be similar or potentially more effective than Dx. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 25, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Activation of Nicotinic Receptors Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Production of Pro-inflammatory Mediators Through the JAK2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes
In conclusion, nicotine has an anti-inflammatory effect on RA by downregulating production of IL-6 and MCP-1 in FLSs, and this is mediated through activation of the JAK2–STAT3 signal pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 23, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Arctigenin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Suppression of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS Signaling
Abstract Arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa (Nubang), has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS + DMSO, and LPS + Arctigenin. Mice in the LPS + Arctigenin group were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of arctigenin 1 h before an intratracheal administration of LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected. Histological changes of the lung were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Arctigen...
Source: Inflammation - January 23, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intensive Atorvastatin Therapy Attenuates the Inflammatory Responses in Monocytes of Patients with Unstable Angina Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Activation
In conclusion, a single high (80 mg) loading dose of atorvastatin reduced the inflammatory response in Chinese patients with unstable angina following PCI. The anti-inflammatory role of intensive atorvastatin was possibly due to attenuation of inflammatory response in monocytes via PPARγ activation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Trichostatin A Protects Against Experimental Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure in Rats Through Regulating the Acetylation of Nuclear Factor-κB
In this study, the protective effects of Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDACi, on experimental acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in rat were explored. An ACLF model was established in rats, and animals were randomly divided into control, model, and TSA-treated groups. The rats in TSA-treated group received TSA (2 mg/kg) at 2 h before induction of ACLF. Samples were obtained at 24 h after ACLF induction. We found that the rats in model group showed severe damage to liver tissue at 24 h after ACLF induction. TSA improved liver injury effectively. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (...
Source: Inflammation - January 22, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Antiasthmatic Effects of Eugenol in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma by Regulation of Vitamin D3 Upregulated Protein 1/NF-κB Pathway
Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the antiasthmatic effects of eugenol (EUG) and the possible mechanisms. Asthma model was established by ovalbumin induction. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, OVA, OVA + dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), OVA + EUG (10 mg/kg), and OVA + EUG (20 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) were measured, histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1 (VDUP1), IκBα, P-IκB...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

GlycA is a Novel Marker of Inflammation Among Non-Critically Ill Hospitalized Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
This study evaluated traditional and novel (GlycA) inflammatory markers among 121 patients who were stratified by admission diagnoses: congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac non-CHF (CARD), infection (INF), and other (OTH). HbA1c was similar across groups (8.0–9.2 %, p = 0.20). Inflammatory markers were elevated but varied significantly across disease categories, with the highest values of interleukin-6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (CRP), and GlycA in the INF group and the highest tumor necrosis factor-α and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in CHF group. GlycA was associated with higher IL-6 and CRP, lower he...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Blockade of Notch Signalling by γ-Secretase Inhibitor in Lung T Cells of Asthmatic Mice Affects T Cell Differentiation and Pulmonary Inflammation
Abstract Notch is a single-pass transmembrane receptor protein expressed by T cells, which contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma through regulation of the development and differentiation of T cells. γ-Secretase inhibitor (GSI) acts as an effective blocker of Notch signalling. The present study aimed to investigate the role of GSI MW167 in T cell differentiation and antigen-induced airway inflammation. An OVA-induced airway inflammation mouse model was established. Blockade of Notch signalling was achieved using MW167. The expression of IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, Notch1 signalling and pro-inflammatory transcription f...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Propofol Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Production Through Enhancing apoM and foxa2 Expression in HepG2 Cells
Abstract Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a cytokine that mediates the influx of cells to sites of inflammation. Our group recently reported that propofol exerted an anti-inflammatory effect and could inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the effect and possible mechanisms of propofol on MCP-1 expression remain unclear. LPS-stimulated HepG2 cells were treated with 50 μM propofol for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The transcript and protein levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. We found that ...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Resveratrol on the Treatment of Inflammatory Response Induced by Severe Burn
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to preliminarily investigate the effects of resveratrol on the treatment of systemic inflammatory response induced by severe burn wounding. Through the simulation experiment in vivo on burned mice and simulative experiment in vitro on mice macrophage respectively, differences of the related pro-inflammatory cytokines and SIRT1 expression levels between the resveratrol-treated group and the untreated control group were detected and analyzed. The results of the simulation experiment in vivo on burned mice manifested that the survival rate of the mice in the resveratrol-treated grou...
Source: Inflammation - January 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Platycodin D Attenuates Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma by Regulation NF-κB Pathway
Abstract In this work, the anti-asthma potential of platycodin D (PLD) was studied by investigation of its effect to suppress airway inflammation, a murine model of asthma and the possible mechanisms. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, ovalbumin (OVA), OVA+ dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) and OVA + PLD (40, 80 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) were measured; airway histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5(IL-5), and interleukin-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated by enzyme-linked...
Source: Inflammation - January 12, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Wear Particles Impair Antimicrobial Activity Via Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and ERK1/2 Phosphorylation in Activated Macrophages
Abstract Implant-related infection (IRI) is closely related to the local immunity of peri-implant tissues. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in activated macrophages plays a prominent role in the innate immune response. In previous studies, we indicated that implant wear particles promote endotoxin tolerance by decreasing the release of proinflammatory cytokines. However, it is unclear whether ROS are involved in the damage of the local immunity of peri-implant tissues. In the present study, we assessed the mechanism of local immunosuppression using titanium (Ti) particles and/or lipopolysaccharide (...
Source: Inflammation - January 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research