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Numerical Magnitude Representation in Children With Mathematical Difficulties With or Without Reading Difficulties.
This study aimed to explore the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC), the flanker, and the numerical distance effects in children with mathematical difficulties. From a sample of 720 third, fourth, and fifth graders, 60 children were selected and divided into the following three groups: typically developing children (TD; n = 29), children with mathematical difficulties only (MD only; n = 21), and children with mathematical and reading difficulties (MD+RD; n = 10). Children were tested with a numerical Eriksen task that was built to assess SNARC, numerical distance, and flanker (first and second order con...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 15, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Tobia V, Fasola A, Lupieri A, Marzocchi GM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Anxiety and Depression in Children With Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development.
Abstract The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were tested. In all, 15 children with NLD, 15 with RD, and 15 with TD were administered self-report questionnaires to assess different types of anxiety and depression symptoms. Both NLD and RD children reported experiencing more generalized and social anxiety than TD, ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Mammarella IC, Ghisi M, Bomba M, Bottesi G, Caviola S, Broggi F, Nacinovich R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Study of the Relationships Among Chinese Multicharacter Words, Subtypes of Readers, and Instructional Methods.
This article reports the results of two studies examining the effectiveness of the whole-word and analytic instructional methods in teaching different subtypes of readers (students with normal reading performance, surface dyslexics, phonological dyslexics, and both dyslexic patterns) and four kinds of Chinese two-character words (two regular [RR], two irregular [II], one regular, one irregular [RI], and one irregular, one regular [IR]). The approaches employed were the analytic method, which focuses on highlighting the phonological components of words, and the whole-word method, which focuses on learning by sight. Two stud...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Ho FC, Siegel LS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Oral and Written Expression in Children With Reading Comprehension Difficulties.
Abstract Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in o...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 7, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Carretti B, Motta E, Re AM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis of the Long-Term Effects of Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, and Reading Comprehension Interventions.
Abstract Much is known about short-term-but very little about the long-term-effects of reading interventions. To rectify this, a detailed analysis of follow-up effects as a function of intervention, sample, and methodological variables was conducted. A total of 71 intervention-control groups were selected (N = 8,161 at posttest) from studies reporting posttest and follow-up data (M = 11.17 months) for previously established reading interventions. The posttest effect sizes indicated effects (dw = 0.37) that decreased to follow-up (dw = 0.22). Overall, comprehension and phonemic awareness interventions showed good ma...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 4, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Suggate SP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Magnitude Representation and Working Memory Updating in Children With Arithmetic and Reading Comprehension Disabilities.
Abstract It has been argued that children with learning disabilities (LD) encounter severe problems in working memory (WM) tasks, especially when they need to update information stored in their WM. It is not clear, however, to what extent this is due to a generally poor updating ability or to a difficulty specific to the domain to be processed. To examine this issue, two groups of children with arithmetic or reading comprehension LD and a group of typically developing children (9 to 10 years old) were assessed using two updating tasks requiring to select the smallest numbers or objects presented. The results showed...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 31, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Pelegrina S, Capodieci A, Carretti B, Cornoldi C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Evaluating the Predictive Impact of an Emergent Literacy Model on Dyslexia in Italian Children: A Four-Year Prospective Cohort Study.
Abstract The strong differences in manifestation, prevalence, and incidence in dyslexia across languages invite studies in specific writing systems. In particular, the question of the role played by emergent literacy in opaque and transparent writing systems remains a fraught one. This research project tested, through a 4-year prospective cohort study, an emergent literacy model for the analysis of the characteristics of future dyslexic children and normally reading peers in Italian, a transparent writing system. A cohort of 450 children was followed from the last year of kindergarten to the third grade in their re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 7, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Bigozzi L, Tarchi C, Pezzica S, Pinto G Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes With Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits.
This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with arithmetic fact dyscalculia (AFD) and a group with general dyscalculia (GD). Several different aspects of number magnitude processing were assessed in these two groups and compared with age-matched typically achieving children. The GD group displayed weaknesses with both symbolic and nonsy...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 5, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Skagerlund K, Träff U Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Pinyin Invented Spelling in Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Children With and Without Reading Difficulties.
This study examined analytical pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching pronunciation and lexical tones of Chinese characters) skills in 54 Mandarin-speaking fourth graders by using an invented spelling instrument that tapped into syllable awareness, phoneme awareness, lexical tones, and tone sandhi in Chinese. Pinyin invented spelling was significantly correlated with Chinese character recognition and Chinese phonological awareness (i.e., syllable deletion and phoneme deletion). In comparison to good and average readers, poor readers performed significantly worse on the invented spelling task, and a difference wa...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 4, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Ding Y, Liu RD, McBride C, Zhang D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Using a Multidimensional Measure of Resilience to Explain Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement of Adults With Reading Difficulties.
Abstract We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to an in-lab or online survey. Results indicated that intrapersonal resilience correlated positively with interpersonal resilience and persistence, and both resilience factors were negatively associated with number of difficulties. Using structural equation modeling...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 4, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Stack-Cutler HL, Parrila RK, Torppa M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Examination of the Persistence of Late Emerging Reading Disabilities.
Abstract There are some children who encounter unexpected reading difficulties in the fourth grade. This phenomenon has been described as late emerging reading disabilities (LERD). Using Grade 4 as a starting point, this study examined the reading development of 964 children between kindergarten and Grade 7. The results showed that 72.0% of children had typical reading performance in Grade 4, whereas there was 0.7% with poor word reading, 12.6% with poor reading comprehension, 2.5% with poor word reading and comprehension, and 12.2% with borderline performance. We also showed that there were similar proportions of ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 4, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Etmanskie JM, Partanen M, Siegel LS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children With Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference Between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?
Abstract Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis synthesized research on verbal WM and numerical WM among children with reading difficulties (RD), children with mathematics difficulties (MD), and children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD). A total of 29 studies subsuming 110 comparisons were included. Re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 18, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Peng P, Fuchs D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

An Examination of the Efficacy of a Multitiered Intervention on Early Reading Outcomes for First Grade Students at Risk for Reading Difficulties.
This article presents findings of an efficacy trial examining the effect of a multitiered instruction and intervention model on first grade at-risk students' reading outcomes. Schools (N = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition. In the fall of Grade 1, students were assigned to an instructional tier on the basis of Stanford Achievement Test-10th Edition scores (31st percentile and above = Tier 1; from the 10th to the 30th percentile = Tier 2). In both conditions, students identified as at risk (i.e., Tier 2; n = 267) received 90 min of whole group instruction (Tier 1) and an additional 30 min of d...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Fien H, Smith JL, Smolkowski K, Baker SK, Nelson NJ, Chaparro E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Working Memory in Children With Learning Disabilities in Reading Versus Spelling: Searching for Overlapping and Specific Cognitive Factors.
Abstract In transparent orthographies like German, isolated learning disabilities in either reading or spelling are common and occur as often as a combined reading and spelling disability. However, most issues surrounding the cognitive causes of these isolated or combined literacy difficulties are yet unresolved. Recently, working memory dysfunctions have been demonstrated to be promising in explaining the emergence of literacy difficulties. Thus, we applied a 2 (reading disability: yes vs. no) × 2 (spelling disability: yes vs. no) factorial design to examine distinct and overlapping working memory profiles associ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Brandenburg J, Klesczewski J, Fischbach A, Schuchardt K, Büttner G, Hasselhorn M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children With Mathematics Learning Disabilities.
Abstract The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were related to one of the operands via a shared multiplication row (e.g., 3 × 4 = 16). Distance was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were close in magnitude to the true result (e.g...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 7, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Rotem A, Henik A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Syntactic Awareness and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children With and Without Learning Disabilities.
This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in elementary education were formed: children with arithmetic learning disabilities (ALD), children with reading learning disabilities (RLD), and children with comorbid arithmetic and reading learning disabilities (ARLD). Mediation analysis confirmed that SA was a mediator variable for both groups of children with reading disabilities when solving AWPs, but not for children in the ALD group. All groups performed below the control group in the problem solv...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 7, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Peake C, Jiménez JE, Rodríguez C, Bisschop E, Villarroel R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth With Learning Disabilities and ADHD.
Abstract Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic status, we investigated the likelihood that youth with learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are obese, physically active, and sedentary using a nationally representative sample of 45,897 youth in the United States from 10 to 17 ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 21, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Cook BG, Li D, Heinrich KM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

University Student With Poor Reading Comprehension: The Hidden Cognitive Processing Deficit.
Abstract The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-matched controls with no comprehension difficulties participated in the study. The participants were assessed on three verbal working memory tasks that varied in terms of their processing demands and on the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, which was used to operationalize intelligence. The results indicat...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 6, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Georgiou GK, Das JP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

High School Students With Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention.
Abstract A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state accountability test and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and a business as usual (BAU) condition: reading without dropout prevention, reading with dropout prevention, dropout prevention without reading, or a BAU condition. Findings from th...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 6, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Vaughn S, Roberts G, Wexler J, Vaughn MG, Fall AM, Schnakenberg JB Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Morphological and syntactic awareness in poor comprehenders: another piece of the puzzle.
Abstract Poor comprehenders have intact word-reading skills but struggle specifically with understanding what they read. We investigated whether two metalinguistic skills, morphological and syntactic awareness, are specifically related to poor reading comprehension by including separate and combined measures of each. We identified poor comprehenders (n = 15) and average comprehenders (n = 15) in Grade 4 who were matched on word-reading accuracy and speed, vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and age. The two groups performed comparably on a morphological awareness task that involved both morphological and synta...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Tong X, Deacon SH, Cain K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergarteners with different ability levels.
Abstract Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( $${\hbox{ \eta }}_{p}^{2}$$ = .61 for morphological awareness and $${\hbox{ \eta }}_{p}^{2}$$ = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Ramirez G, Walton P, Roberts W Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The effects of a multilinguistic morphological awareness approach for improving language and literacy.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multilinguistic intervention to improve reading and spelling in primary grade students who struggle with literacy. Twenty second-grade students with spelling deficits were randomly assigned to receive a multilinguistic intervention with a phonological and orthographic awareness emphasis, or one with an additional morphological awareness focus. The morphological intervention group performed better on standardized measures of reading comprehension, and spelling, and on a nonstandardized spelling test of morphological patterns. Both groups improv...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Wolter JA, Dilworth V Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Putting Words to Work: Effects of Morphological Instruction on Children's Writing.
Abstract This quasi-experimental study examined effects of a 12-week, teacher-delivered, morphologically focused intervention on writing outcomes for fifth-grade U.S. students. In order to help students gain control over the morphologically complex words that typify academic writing, the intervention called students' attention to the morphological structure of words drawn from the district's science curriculum, taught morphologically related forms of those words, and provided opportunities for students to use morphologically related forms in reading and writing. Multilevel model results of posttests showed that, co...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: McCutchen D, Stull S, Herrera BL, Lotas S, Evans S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated With Learning Disability Subtypes.
This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent comprehensive evaluations for learning and/or behavior problems in two Pacific Northwest school districts. Using concordance-discordance model (C-DM) processing strengths and weaknesses SLD identification criteria, results revealed working memory SLD (n = 20), processing speed SLD (n = 30), executive SLD (n = 32), and no disability groups (n = 41). Of the SLD subtypes, repeated measures MANOVA results revealed the processing speed SLD subtype exhibited the greatest psychosocial and adaptive impairment according to teacher behavior rat...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 3, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Backenson EM, Holland SC, Kubas HA, Fitzer KR, Wilcox G, Carmichael JA, Fraccaro RL, Smith AD, Macoun SJ, Harrison GL, Hale JB Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effect of Tutoring With Nonstandard Equations for Students With Mathematics Difficulty.
Abstract Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equal-sign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, second-grade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and no-t...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 20, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Powell SR, Driver MK, Julian TE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Empirically Based Profiles of the Early Literacy Skills of Children With Language Impairment in Early Childhood Special Education.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to empirically determine whether specific profiles characterize preschool-aged children with language impairment (LI) with respect to their early literacy skills (print awareness, name-writing ability, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge); the primary interest was to determine if one or more profiles suggested vulnerability for future reading problems. Participants were 218 children enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms, 95% of whom received speech-language services. Children were administered an assessment of early literacy skills in the fall of the ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 14, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Justice L, Logan J, Kaderavek J, Schmitt MB, Tompkins V, Bartlett C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Phonological Awareness.
Abstract Learning to read is one of the most important indicators of academic achievement. The development of early literacy skills during the preschool years is associated with improved reading outcomes in later grades. One of these skill areas, phonological awareness, shows particular importance because of its strong link to later reading success. Presented here are two studies that describe the development and revision of four measures of phonological awareness skills: Individual Growth and Development Indicators Sound Blending, Syllable Sameness, Rhyming, and Alliteration 2.0. The authors discuss the measure de...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 14, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Wackerle-Hollman AK, Schmitt BA, Bradfield TA, Rodriguez MC, McConnell SR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Multisyllabic Word Reading as a Moderator of Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth-grade students (N = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for general knowledge and vocabulary. Based on the lexical quality hypothesis, it was expected that morphological awareness would have a stronger effect on comprehension for children with poor word reading skills, suggesting possible use of morphological awareness for word identif...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 12, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Gilbert JK, Goodwin AP, Compton DL, Kearns DM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Morphological Awareness and Reading Difficulties in Adolescent Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners and Their Classmates.
This study investigated the role of morphological awareness weaknesses in the reading difficulties encountered by Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their native English-speaking peers in sixth grade. One hundred and thirty-eight students (82 language minority learners; 56 native English speakers) were assessed on English measures of reading comprehension, silent word reading fluency, and derivational morphological awareness. Students with specific reading comprehension difficulties, specific word reading difficulties, and combined difficulties were identified using categorical cut-scores. Findings indicated t...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 12, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Kieffer MJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Representation of Roots in the Spelling of Children With Specific Language Impairment.
Abstract Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have demonstrated general spelling and writing difficulties. We investigated the sensitivity of children with SLI to the consistent spelling of root morphemes, a feature to which young typically developing children demonstrate sensitivity. We asked children with SLI and two groups of typically developing children (n = 17 in each group) to spell the same letter-sound sequence (e.g., win) as a root, and as a component of inflected, derived, and control words (e.g., win, wins, winner, wink). Children with SLI and spelling-age-matched children (mean age of 9 and...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 12, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Deacon SH, Cleave PL, Baylis J, Fraser J, Ingram E, Perlmutter S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Morphological Knowledge and Literacy Acquisition.
Abstract The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by cur...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 12, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Nagy WE, Carlisle JF, Goodwin AP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Morphological Awareness Intervention With Kindergarteners and First and Second Grade Students From Low SES Homes: A Small Efficacy Study.
Abstract We investigated the efficacy of a morphological awareness intervention on the morphological awareness and reading skills of students from low-socioeconomic-status homes; we also examined whether the intervention was similarly effective for intervention students who differed in their initial morphological awareness abilities. The 8-week intervention was designed to increase awareness of affixes and the relations between base words and their inflected and derived forms for kindergarteners (n = 27) and first- (n = 22) and second-grade (n = 26) students. Students randomly assigned to the small group interventi...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 5, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Apel K, Diehm E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

At the Intersection of Math and Reading Disabilities: Introduction to the Special Issue.
Abstract Individuals with comorbid disabilities in mathematics and reading face significant challenges in acquiring the componential skills related to each domain. Persons with these comorbid conditions are significantly understudied and this paucity of work limits how effective practitioners can be at addressing the needs of this population. In the United States, roughly 7% of all children suffer from math disability; of these, an estimated 17% to 66% also has a comorbid reading disability. Underspecification of current conceptualizations of math and reading disabilities, including how to best identify and classif...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 13, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Mann Koepke K, Miller B Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Reviewer Acknowledgments.
Authors: PMID: 24108689 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 13, 2013 Category: Disability Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis of Interventions for Struggling Readers in Grades 4-12: 1980-2011.
Abstract This meta-analysis synthesizes the literature on interventions for struggling readers in Grades 4 through 12 published between 1980 and 2011. It updates Scammacca et al.'s analysis of studies published between 1980 and 2004. The combined corpus of 82 study-wise effect sizes was meta-analyzed to determine (a) the overall effectiveness of reading interventions studied over the past 30 years, (b) how the magnitude of the effect varies based on student, intervention, and research design characteristics, and (c) what differences in effectiveness exist between more recent interventions and older ones. The analys...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 3, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Scammacca NK, Roberts G, Vaughn S, Stuebing KK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Sight Word and Phonics Training in Children With Dyslexia.
Abstract The aims of this study were to (a) compare sight word training and phonics training in children with dyslexia, and (b) determine if different orders of sight word and phonics training have different effects on the reading skills of children with dyslexia. One group of children (n = 36) did 8 weeks of phonics training (reading via grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules) and then 8 weeks of sight word training (reading irregular words as a whole), one group did the reverse (n = 36), and one group did phonics and sight word training simultaneously for two 8-week periods (n = 32). We measured the effects of pho...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 1, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: McArthur G, Castles A, Kohnen S, Larsen L, Jones K, Anandakumar T, Banales E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.
Abstract The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A su...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 24, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Grigorenko EL, Macomber D, Hart L, Naples A, Chapman J, Geib CF, Chart H, Tan M, Wolhendler B, Wagner R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Cognitive Strategies, Working Memory, and Growth in Word Problem Solving in Children With Math Difficulties.
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on word problem solving accuracy in children with (n = 100) and without (n = 92) math difficulties (MD). Within classrooms, children in Grades 2 and 3 were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: verbal-only strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), verbal + visual strategies, visual-only strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), or untreated control. Strategy interventions included 20 sessions in both Year 1 and Year 2. The intent-to-treat as well as the "as-treated" analyses showed that treatm...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 20, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Swanson HL, Lussier CM, Orosco MJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Underlying Reading-Related Skills and Abilities Among Adult Learners.
Abstract This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in the research literature to identify a smaller set of generally uncorrelated constructs. The four underlying factors of the 18 measures explained 62.7% of the variance. We labeled these factors Encode/Decode (44.5%), Vocabulary (9.5%), Processing Speed (5.2%), and...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 20, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Mellard DF, Woods KL, Md Desa ZD, Vuyk MA Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Early Identification of Reading Disabilities Within an RTI Framework.
In this study, we investigated the use of universal screening and progress monitoring for the early identification of RD in kindergarten children. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress-monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children who showed initial risk for RD also received a 26-week Tier 2 intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading accuracy and/or fluency was assessed at the end of first grade. Results indicated that a screening battery containing measures of letter naming fluency, phonological awareness, rapid...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 14, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Catts HW, Nielsen DC, Bridges MS, Liu YS, Bontempo DE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining the Effects of Linking Student Performance and Progression in a Tier 2 Kindergarten Reading Intervention.
In this study, we analyzed extant data from a series of randomized experimental studies of a kindergarten supplemental reading intervention to determine whether linking performance on formative assessments to curriculum progression improved kindergarten reading outcomes over standard implementation. We were interested in whether specific progression adjustments would enhance the effects of supplemental reading intervention. Growth-mixture modeling using data from kindergarteners (n = 136) whose intervention progression (e.g. repeat lessons, skip lessons) was adjusted every 4 weeks based on mastery data identified four late...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 1, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Simmons DC, Kim M, Kwok OM, Coyne MD, Simmons LE, Oslund E, Fogarty M, Hagan-Burke S, Little ME, Rawlinson D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Identifying Learning Disabilities Through a Cognitive Deficit Framework: Can Verbal Memory Deficits Explain Similarities Between Learning Disabled and Low Achieving Students?
Abstract Traditionally, students with learning disabilities (LD) have been identified using an aptitude-achievement discrepancy or response to intervention approach. As profiles of the cognitive deficits of discrepancy-defined students with LD have already been developed using these approaches, these deficits can in turn be used to identify LD using the discrepancy approach as a benchmark for convergent validity. Australian Grade 3 (N = 172) students were administered cognitive processing tests to ascertain whether scores in these tests could accurately allocate students into discrepancy-defined groups using discri...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 25, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Callinan S, Theiler S, Cunningham E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Prediction and Stability of Reading Problems in Middle Childhood.
Abstract The longitudinal prediction of reading problems from fourth grade to sixth grade was investigated with a sample of 173 students. Reading problems at the end of sixth grade were defined by significantly below average performance (≤ 15th percentile) on reading factors defining word reading, fluency, and reading comprehension. Sixth grade poor reader status was predicted by fall of fourth grade passage reading fluency, spelling fluency, and the number of reading problems identified by teachers. Reading fluency and spelling fluency were significant predictors in logistic regression equation that combined to ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 25, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Ritchey KD, Silverman RD, Schatschneider C, Speece DL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Bullying and Middle School Students With and Without Specific Learning Disabilities: An Examination of Social-Ecological Predictors.
Abstract The current study investigated demographic variables, sense of belonging, and social supports as predictors for involvement in bullying for students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) and students without disabilities. Although these student groups are characteristically different, results suggested involvement in bullying was invariant. However, gender, race, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities emerged as significant predictors for involvement in the bullying dynamic. In addition, increased peer social support was found to be the most significant predictor of decrea...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 25, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Rose CA, Espelage DL, Monda-Amaya LE, Shogren KA, Aragon SR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Assessing Decoding Ability: The Role of Speed and Accuracy and a New Composite Indicator to Measure Decoding Skill in Elementary Grades.
This article presents results obtained by administering existing standardized tests of reading and a new screening procedure to about 1,500 students in the elementary grades in Italy. It is found that variables measuring speed and accuracy in all administered reading tests are not Gaussian, and therefore the threshold values used for classifying a student as a normal decoder or as an impaired decoder must be estimated on the basis of the empirical distribution of these variables rather than by using the percentiles of the normal distribution. It is also found that the decoding speed and the decoding accuracy can be measure...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 22, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Morlini I, Stella G, Scorza M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining the Measurement Precision and Invariance of the Revised Get Ready to Read!
In this study, 1,351 children were administered the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R), and an item response theory analysis was used to evaluate the item-level reliability of the measure. Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were conducted to examine whether items function similarly between subpopulations of children. The GRTR-R had acceptable reliability for children whose ability level was just below the mean. DIF for a small number of items was present for only two comparisons-children who were older versus younger and children who were White versus African American. These results demonstrate that the GRTR-R h...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 12, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Farrington AL, Lonigan CJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Cognitive and Mathematical Profiles for Different Forms of Learning Difficulties.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare subgroups of students with various forms of learning difficulties (< 25th percentile) on cognitive and mathematics characteristics. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD, n = 105), reading difficulty (RD, n = 65), both (MDRD, n = 87), or neither (NoLD, n = 403) were evaluated on an array of cognitive measures (e.g., working memory and language) and on mathematics measures of foundational numerical competencies, computation, and problem solving. Results revealed expected level differences among groups in both domains: NoLD outperformed RD, and MD outperformed M...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 12, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Cirino PT, Fuchs LS, Elias JT, Powell SR, Schumacher RF Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Early Response-to-Intervention Measures and Criteria as Predictors of Reading Disability in the Beginning of Third Grade.
Abstract We explored the usefulness of first and second grade reading measures and responsiveness criteria collected within a response-to-intervention (RtI) framework for predicting reading disability (RD) in third grade. We used existing data from 387 linguistically diverse students who had participated in a longitudinal RtI study. Model-based predictors of RD were analyzed using logistic regression; isolated measure/criteria combinations for predicting RD were analyzed using classification analysis. Models yielded superior classification rates compared to single measure approaches and did not systematically miscl...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 12, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Beach KD, O'Connor RE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Trend in SLD Enrollments and the Role of RTI.
Abstract Based on the latest U.S. Department of Education data, this article presents the enrollment figures for students identified with specific learning disabilities (SLD) under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for the school years from 1995-1996 to 2011-2012. The figures for each year are (a) the number of students with SLD ages 6 to 21, (b) the percentage in relation to students classified under all of the IDEA classifications, and (c) the percentage in relation to total K-12 school enrollments. The discussion examines these trends and explores the possible reasons for them. PMID: 238...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 1, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Zirkel PA Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Cyberbullying Experience and Gender Differences Among Adolescents in Different Educational Settings.
This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and the relationships among being cyberbullied, their responses, and their coping strategies. The sample consisted of 149 students with learning disabilities (LD) attending general education classes, 116 students with comorbid LD attending special education classes, and 242 typically achieving students. All the students, studying in middle and high schools, completed a self-report cyberbullying questionnaire. Fin...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 19, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Heiman T, Olenik-Shemesh D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research