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Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia.
Abstract Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A sample of 446 students (63 with dyslexia) completed a large test battery and a large questionnaire. Five factors were found in both the test battery and the questionnaire. These 10 factors loaded on 5 latent factors (spelling, phonology, short-term memory, rhyme/con...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Tamboer P, Vorst HC, Oort FJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students With Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?
We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process. In addition to test and instructional accommodations, many clinicians recommended that students with learning disabilities should have different educational expectations, standards, and methods of evaluation (i.e., grading) than their nondisabled classmates. Many of their recommendations for acco...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 13, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Weis R, Dean EL, Osborne KJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.
Abstract Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-se...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 27, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Little CW, Hart SA, Schatschneider C, Taylor J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

WISC-IV Intellectual Profiles in Italian Children With Specific Learning Disorder and Related Impairments in Reading, Written Expression, and Mathematics.
This study aimed at investigating the intellectual profile, assessed with the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), of 172 children with a diagnosis of SLD, compared to 74 clinical referral controls. WISC-IV intellectual functioning in children with SLD was characterized by a significant discrepancy between general ability and cognitive proficiency (General Ability Index [GAI] > Cognitive Proficiency Index [CPI]), and worse performances on the Similarities, Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests, supporting models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neuro...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 27, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Poletti M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties.
In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Catts HW, Nielsen DC, Bridges MS, Liu YS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences Among Children With Early-Emerging and Late-Emerging Word Reading Difficulty.
Abstract Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173) oversampled for children with RD using item-response crossed random-effects models. We distinguish between two subtypes of RD children with word recognition problems, those with early-emerging RD and late-emerging RD. An extensive set of predictors representing item-specif...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 20, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Kearns DM, Steacy LM, Compton DL, Gilbert JK, Goodwin AP, Cho E, Lindstrom ER, Collins AA Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Who Is At Risk for Persistent Mathematics Difficulties in the United States?
Abstract We analyzed two nationally representative, longitudinal data sets of U.S. children to identify risk factors for persistent mathematics difficulties (PMD). Results indicated that children from low socioeconomic households are at elevated risk of PMD at 48 and 60 months of age, as are children with cognitive delays, identified developmental delays or disabilities, and vocabulary difficulties. In contrast, children attending preschool either in Head Start or non-Head Start classrooms are at initially lower risk of PMD. Kindergarten-aged children experiencing either low socioeconomic status or mathematics diff...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 20, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Morgan PL, Farkas G, Hillemeier MM, Maczuga S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of Schema-Based Instruction on the Proportional Thinking of Students With Mathematics Difficulties With and Without Reading Difficulties.
This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on the proportional problem-solving performance of students with mathematics difficulties only (MD) and students with mathematics and reading difficulties (MDRD). Specifically, we examined the responsiveness of 260 seventh grade students identified as MD or MDRD to a 6-week treatment (SBI) on measures of proportional problem solving. Results indicated that students in the SBI condition significantly outperformed students in the control condition on a measure of proportional problem solving administered at posttest (g = 0.40) and again 6 weeks later (g = 0.42)...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 13, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Jitendra AK, Dupuis DN, Star JR, Rodriguez MC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Prevalence and Profile of Phonological and Surface Subgroups in College Students With a History of Reading Disability.
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize surface and phonological subgroups of readers among college students with a prior diagnosis of developmental reading disability (RD). Using a speeded naming task derived from Castles and Coltheart's subtyping study, we identified subgroups of readers from among college students with RD and then compared them on a number of component reading tasks. Most of our adults with RD showed a discrepancy in lexical versus sublexical reading skills. The majority of classified individuals were in the phonological dyslexia group, and this group's perform...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 8, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Birch SL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children With Dyslexia.
This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia, mean age 9 years, were compared to typically developing groups of children: the first matched by age, the second by spelling ability. Oral vocabulary was measured and children completed a written and verbal compositional task. Lexical diversity comparisons were made across written and verbal compositions to highlight the constraint of having to select and spell words. A digital writing tablet recorded the writing. Children with d...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 23, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Sumner E, Connelly V, Barnett AL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening With University Students With Dyslexia: Search for a Core Deficit.
Abstract Rapidly changing environments in day-to-day activities, enriched with stimuli competing for attention, require a cognitive control mechanism to select relevant stimuli, ignore irrelevant stimuli, and shift attention between alternative features of the environment. Such attentional orchestration is essential to the acquisition of reading skills. In the present forced attention dichotic listening study, adults with moderate and severe dyslexia and nondisabled adults were tested on their ability to switch attention between ears for immediate recall. Blocks of pairs of consonant-vowel syllables were counterbal...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 19, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Kershner JR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory.
Abstract High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD: processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Since attention problems frequently co-occur with learning disorders, the study examined whether these three factors, which are known to be associated with attention problems, account for the comorbidity between t...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Moll K, Göbel SM, Gooch D, Landerl K, Snowling MJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: Abstract Chirkina, G. V. and Grigorenko, E. L. (2014). Tracking citations: A science detective story. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(4), 366-373. (Original doi: 10.1177/0022219412471995) On page 371 of the original paper, there was an error in one of the grant numbers given. The correct funding statement is given as follows: FUNDING: The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work has been supported by DC007665 and HD070594 (to Elena L. Grigorenko). PMID: 25107885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (S...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 8, 2014 Category: Disability Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Reconsidering the Simple View of Reading in an Intriguing Case of Equivalent Models: Commentary on Tunmer and Chapman (2012).
Abstract Recently, Tunmer and Chapman provided an alternative model of how decoding and listening comprehension affect reading comprehension that challenges the simple view of reading. They questioned the simple view's fundamental assumption that oral language comprehension and decoding make independent contributions to reading comprehension by arguing that one component of oral language comprehension (vocabulary) affects decoding. They reported results from hierarchical regression analyses, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling to justify their conclusion. Their structural equation modeling...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 5, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Wagner RK, Herrera SK, Spencer M, Quinn JM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of a Tier 3 Intervention on the Mathematics Performance of Second Grade Students With Severe Mathematics Difficulties.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a systematic, explicit, intensive Tier 3 (tertiary) intervention on the mathematics performance of students in second grade with severe mathematics difficulties. A multiple-baseline design across groups of participants showed improved mathematics performance on number and operations concepts and procedures, which are the foundation for later mathematics success. In the previous year, 12 participants had experienced two doses (first and second semesters) of a Tier 2 intervention. In second grade, the participants continued to demonstrate low pe...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 26, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Bryant BR, Bryant DP, Porterfield J, Dennis MS, Falcomata T, Valentine C, Brewer C, Bell K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Synthesis of Research on Informational Text Reading Interventions for Elementary Students With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract This research synthesis was conducted to understand the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve learning from informational text for students with learning disabilities in elementary school (K-5). The authors identified 18 studies through a comprehensive search. The interventions were evaluated to determine treatment effects and to understand implementation and methodological variables that influenced outcomes. Moderate to large effect sizes on researcher-developed measures for cognitive strategy interventions were reported. Interventions that utilized graphic organizers as study guides to suppo...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 23, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Ciullo S, Lo YL, Wanzek J, Reed DK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Structural Validity of the WISC-IV for Students With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis for a clinical sample of 1,537 students diagnosed with specific learning disabilities (SLD) by school psychologists in two large southwestern school districts. Results indicated that a bifactor model consisting of four first-order domain specific factors and a general intelligence breadth factor fit the data best. Consequently, the structural validity of the WISC-IV for students with SLD was supported by the results of the present study. The general intelligence ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 23, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Styck KM, Watkins MW Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children With Mathematical Learning Difficulty.
This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by testing using a web-based curriculum learning system. A total of 142 children with MLD were recruited; half of the children were in the experimental group (using the system), and the other half were in the control group (not using the system). The children were encouraged to use the web-based learning system at home for at least a 15-min session, at least once a week, for one and a half months. The mean accumulated time of testing on the system for children in the experimental gr...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 19, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Zhang Y, Zhou X Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Predicting Reading Difficulty in First Grade Using Dynamic Assessment of Decoding in Early Kindergarten: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the classification accuracy of early static prereading measures and early dynamic assessment reading measures administered to 600 kindergarten students. At the beginning of kindergarten, all of the participants were administered two commonly used static prereading measures. The participants were then administered either a dynamic assessment featuring an onset-rime decoding strategy or a dynamic assessment featuring a sound-by-sound strategy. At the end of first grade, those same participants' reading ability was assessed using multiple reading measures. ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 18, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Petersen DB, Allen MM, Spencer TD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention.
This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were collected at pretest and posttest. Treatment and control students did not differ on mathematics assessments at pretest. Gain scores of at-risk intervention students were significantly greater than those of control peers, and the gains of at-risk treatment students were greater than...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 18, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Clarke B, Doabler CT, Smolkowski K, Baker SK, Fien H, Strand Cary M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Cognitive Profiles of Mathematical Problem Solving Learning Disability for Different Definitions of Disability.
Abstract Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results sugges...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 17, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Tolar TD, Fuchs L, Fletcher JM, Fuchs D, Hamlett CL Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children.
This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothe...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 16, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: van Viersen S, Kroesbergen EH, Slot EM, de Bree EH Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population.
In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID: 24935886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 16, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Fracasso LE, Bangs K, Binder KS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Using Spelling to Screen Bilingual Kindergarteners At Risk for Reading Difficulties.
Abstract For bilingual children, the results of language and literacy screening tools are often hard to interpret. This leads to late referral for specialized assessment or inappropriate interventions. To facilitate the early identification of reading difficulties in English, we developed a method of screening that is theory-driven yet suitable for first-language (L1) and second-language learners of English. We administered five conventional tests (phonological awareness, vocabulary, Wide Range Achievement Test-4 [WRAT-4] spelling, letter identification, rapid naming of digits) to 127 five-year-olds (60 English-L1,...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 16, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Chua SM, Rickard Liow SJ, Yeong SH Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

In Memory of Janette Klingner.
PMID: 24894152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 3, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Vaughn S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Numerical Magnitude Representation in Children With Mathematical Difficulties With or Without Reading Difficulties.
This study aimed to explore the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC), the flanker, and the numerical distance effects in children with mathematical difficulties. From a sample of 720 third, fourth, and fifth graders, 60 children were selected and divided into the following three groups: typically developing children (TD; n = 29), children with mathematical difficulties only (MD only; n = 21), and children with mathematical and reading difficulties (MD+RD; n = 10). Children were tested with a numerical Eriksen task that was built to assess SNARC, numerical distance, and flanker (first and second order con...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 15, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Tobia V, Fasola A, Lupieri A, Marzocchi GM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Anxiety and Depression in Children With Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development.
Abstract The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were tested. In all, 15 children with NLD, 15 with RD, and 15 with TD were administered self-report questionnaires to assess different types of anxiety and depression symptoms. Both NLD and RD children reported experiencing more generalized and social anxiety than TD, ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Mammarella IC, Ghisi M, Bomba M, Bottesi G, Caviola S, Broggi F, Nacinovich R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Study of the Relationships Among Chinese Multicharacter Words, Subtypes of Readers, and Instructional Methods.
This article reports the results of two studies examining the effectiveness of the whole-word and analytic instructional methods in teaching different subtypes of readers (students with normal reading performance, surface dyslexics, phonological dyslexics, and both dyslexic patterns) and four kinds of Chinese two-character words (two regular [RR], two irregular [II], one regular, one irregular [RI], and one irregular, one regular [IR]). The approaches employed were the analytic method, which focuses on highlighting the phonological components of words, and the whole-word method, which focuses on learning by sight. Two stud...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Ho FC, Siegel LS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Oral and Written Expression in Children With Reading Comprehension Difficulties.
Abstract Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in o...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 7, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Carretti B, Motta E, Re AM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis of the Long-Term Effects of Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, and Reading Comprehension Interventions.
Abstract Much is known about short-term-but very little about the long-term-effects of reading interventions. To rectify this, a detailed analysis of follow-up effects as a function of intervention, sample, and methodological variables was conducted. A total of 71 intervention-control groups were selected (N = 8,161 at posttest) from studies reporting posttest and follow-up data (M = 11.17 months) for previously established reading interventions. The posttest effect sizes indicated effects (dw = 0.37) that decreased to follow-up (dw = 0.22). Overall, comprehension and phonemic awareness interventions showed good ma...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 4, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Suggate SP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Magnitude Representation and Working Memory Updating in Children With Arithmetic and Reading Comprehension Disabilities.
Abstract It has been argued that children with learning disabilities (LD) encounter severe problems in working memory (WM) tasks, especially when they need to update information stored in their WM. It is not clear, however, to what extent this is due to a generally poor updating ability or to a difficulty specific to the domain to be processed. To examine this issue, two groups of children with arithmetic or reading comprehension LD and a group of typically developing children (9 to 10 years old) were assessed using two updating tasks requiring to select the smallest numbers or objects presented. The results showed...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 31, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Pelegrina S, Capodieci A, Carretti B, Cornoldi C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Evaluating the Predictive Impact of an Emergent Literacy Model on Dyslexia in Italian Children: A Four-Year Prospective Cohort Study.
Abstract The strong differences in manifestation, prevalence, and incidence in dyslexia across languages invite studies in specific writing systems. In particular, the question of the role played by emergent literacy in opaque and transparent writing systems remains a fraught one. This research project tested, through a 4-year prospective cohort study, an emergent literacy model for the analysis of the characteristics of future dyslexic children and normally reading peers in Italian, a transparent writing system. A cohort of 450 children was followed from the last year of kindergarten to the third grade in their re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 7, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Bigozzi L, Tarchi C, Pezzica S, Pinto G Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes With Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits.
This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with arithmetic fact dyscalculia (AFD) and a group with general dyscalculia (GD). Several different aspects of number magnitude processing were assessed in these two groups and compared with age-matched typically achieving children. The GD group displayed weaknesses with both symbolic and nonsy...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 5, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Skagerlund K, Träff U Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Pinyin Invented Spelling in Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Children With and Without Reading Difficulties.
This study examined analytical pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching pronunciation and lexical tones of Chinese characters) skills in 54 Mandarin-speaking fourth graders by using an invented spelling instrument that tapped into syllable awareness, phoneme awareness, lexical tones, and tone sandhi in Chinese. Pinyin invented spelling was significantly correlated with Chinese character recognition and Chinese phonological awareness (i.e., syllable deletion and phoneme deletion). In comparison to good and average readers, poor readers performed significantly worse on the invented spelling task, and a difference wa...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 4, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Ding Y, Liu RD, McBride C, Zhang D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Using a Multidimensional Measure of Resilience to Explain Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement of Adults With Reading Difficulties.
Abstract We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to an in-lab or online survey. Results indicated that intrapersonal resilience correlated positively with interpersonal resilience and persistence, and both resilience factors were negatively associated with number of difficulties. Using structural equation modeling...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 4, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Stack-Cutler HL, Parrila RK, Torppa M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Examination of the Persistence of Late Emerging Reading Disabilities.
Abstract There are some children who encounter unexpected reading difficulties in the fourth grade. This phenomenon has been described as late emerging reading disabilities (LERD). Using Grade 4 as a starting point, this study examined the reading development of 964 children between kindergarten and Grade 7. The results showed that 72.0% of children had typical reading performance in Grade 4, whereas there was 0.7% with poor word reading, 12.6% with poor reading comprehension, 2.5% with poor word reading and comprehension, and 12.2% with borderline performance. We also showed that there were similar proportions of ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 4, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Etmanskie JM, Partanen M, Siegel LS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children With Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference Between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?
Abstract Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis synthesized research on verbal WM and numerical WM among children with reading difficulties (RD), children with mathematics difficulties (MD), and children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD). A total of 29 studies subsuming 110 comparisons were included. Re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 18, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Peng P, Fuchs D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

An Examination of the Efficacy of a Multitiered Intervention on Early Reading Outcomes for First Grade Students at Risk for Reading Difficulties.
This article presents findings of an efficacy trial examining the effect of a multitiered instruction and intervention model on first grade at-risk students' reading outcomes. Schools (N = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition. In the fall of Grade 1, students were assigned to an instructional tier on the basis of Stanford Achievement Test-10th Edition scores (31st percentile and above = Tier 1; from the 10th to the 30th percentile = Tier 2). In both conditions, students identified as at risk (i.e., Tier 2; n = 267) received 90 min of whole group instruction (Tier 1) and an additional 30 min of d...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Fien H, Smith JL, Smolkowski K, Baker SK, Nelson NJ, Chaparro E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Working Memory in Children With Learning Disabilities in Reading Versus Spelling: Searching for Overlapping and Specific Cognitive Factors.
Abstract In transparent orthographies like German, isolated learning disabilities in either reading or spelling are common and occur as often as a combined reading and spelling disability. However, most issues surrounding the cognitive causes of these isolated or combined literacy difficulties are yet unresolved. Recently, working memory dysfunctions have been demonstrated to be promising in explaining the emergence of literacy difficulties. Thus, we applied a 2 (reading disability: yes vs. no) × 2 (spelling disability: yes vs. no) factorial design to examine distinct and overlapping working memory profiles associ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Brandenburg J, Klesczewski J, Fischbach A, Schuchardt K, Büttner G, Hasselhorn M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children With Mathematics Learning Disabilities.
Abstract The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were related to one of the operands via a shared multiplication row (e.g., 3 × 4 = 16). Distance was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were close in magnitude to the true result (e.g...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 7, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Rotem A, Henik A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Syntactic Awareness and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children With and Without Learning Disabilities.
This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in elementary education were formed: children with arithmetic learning disabilities (ALD), children with reading learning disabilities (RLD), and children with comorbid arithmetic and reading learning disabilities (ARLD). Mediation analysis confirmed that SA was a mediator variable for both groups of children with reading disabilities when solving AWPs, but not for children in the ALD group. All groups performed below the control group in the problem solv...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 7, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Peake C, Jiménez JE, Rodríguez C, Bisschop E, Villarroel R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth With Learning Disabilities and ADHD.
Abstract Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic status, we investigated the likelihood that youth with learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are obese, physically active, and sedentary using a nationally representative sample of 45,897 youth in the United States from 10 to 17 ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 21, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Cook BG, Li D, Heinrich KM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

University Student With Poor Reading Comprehension: The Hidden Cognitive Processing Deficit.
Abstract The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-matched controls with no comprehension difficulties participated in the study. The participants were assessed on three verbal working memory tasks that varied in terms of their processing demands and on the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, which was used to operationalize intelligence. The results indicat...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 6, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Georgiou GK, Das JP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

High School Students With Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention.
Abstract A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state accountability test and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and a business as usual (BAU) condition: reading without dropout prevention, reading with dropout prevention, dropout prevention without reading, or a BAU condition. Findings from th...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 6, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Vaughn S, Roberts G, Wexler J, Vaughn MG, Fall AM, Schnakenberg JB Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Morphological and syntactic awareness in poor comprehenders: another piece of the puzzle.
Abstract Poor comprehenders have intact word-reading skills but struggle specifically with understanding what they read. We investigated whether two metalinguistic skills, morphological and syntactic awareness, are specifically related to poor reading comprehension by including separate and combined measures of each. We identified poor comprehenders (n = 15) and average comprehenders (n = 15) in Grade 4 who were matched on word-reading accuracy and speed, vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and age. The two groups performed comparably on a morphological awareness task that involved both morphological and synta...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Tong X, Deacon SH, Cain K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergarteners with different ability levels.
Abstract Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( $${\hbox{ \eta }}_{p}^{2}$$ = .61 for morphological awareness and $${\hbox{ \eta }}_{p}^{2}$$ = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Ramirez G, Walton P, Roberts W Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The effects of a multilinguistic morphological awareness approach for improving language and literacy.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multilinguistic intervention to improve reading and spelling in primary grade students who struggle with literacy. Twenty second-grade students with spelling deficits were randomly assigned to receive a multilinguistic intervention with a phonological and orthographic awareness emphasis, or one with an additional morphological awareness focus. The morphological intervention group performed better on standardized measures of reading comprehension, and spelling, and on a nonstandardized spelling test of morphological patterns. Both groups improv...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Wolter JA, Dilworth V Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Putting Words to Work: Effects of Morphological Instruction on Children's Writing.
Abstract This quasi-experimental study examined effects of a 12-week, teacher-delivered, morphologically focused intervention on writing outcomes for fifth-grade U.S. students. In order to help students gain control over the morphologically complex words that typify academic writing, the intervention called students' attention to the morphological structure of words drawn from the district's science curriculum, taught morphologically related forms of those words, and provided opportunities for students to use morphologically related forms in reading and writing. Multilevel model results of posttests showed that, co...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 8, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: McCutchen D, Stull S, Herrera BL, Lotas S, Evans S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated With Learning Disability Subtypes.
This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent comprehensive evaluations for learning and/or behavior problems in two Pacific Northwest school districts. Using concordance-discordance model (C-DM) processing strengths and weaknesses SLD identification criteria, results revealed working memory SLD (n = 20), processing speed SLD (n = 30), executive SLD (n = 32), and no disability groups (n = 41). Of the SLD subtypes, repeated measures MANOVA results revealed the processing speed SLD subtype exhibited the greatest psychosocial and adaptive impairment according to teacher behavior rat...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 3, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Backenson EM, Holland SC, Kubas HA, Fitzer KR, Wilcox G, Carmichael JA, Fraccaro RL, Smith AD, Macoun SJ, Harrison GL, Hale JB Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effect of Tutoring With Nonstandard Equations for Students With Mathematics Difficulty.
Abstract Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equal-sign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, second-grade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and no-t...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 20, 2013 Category: Disability Authors: Powell SR, Driver MK, Julian TE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research