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Spelling Errors of Dyslexic Children in Bosnian Language With Transparent Orthography.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of spelling errors made by children with dyslexia in Bosnian language with transparent orthography. Three main error categories were distinguished: phonological, orthographic, and grammatical errors. An analysis of error type showed 86% of phonological errors,10% of orthographic errors, and 4% of grammatical errors. Furthermore, the majority errors were the omissions and substitutions, followed by the insertions, omission of rules of assimilation by voicing, and errors with utilization of suffix. We can conclude that phonological errors were dominant in c...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 22, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Duranović M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Instructional Practices for Spelling by Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Learning Disabilities in Early Grades.
Abstract The main objectives of this study were to examine the type of adaptations made by Grades 1 through 3 primary school teachers working with children who are poor spellers of a transparent language such as Spanish and to analyze whether these adaptations were determined by the grade taught by these teachers. Using the total population of primary school classroom teachers in the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands as a base, the authors took a random sample that was stratified by level, resulting in a representative sample of 300 teachers. For data collection, the authors employed an online questionnair...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 20, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Guzmán R, O'Shanahan I, Camacho J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Relationship Between Implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading and Student Outcomes for Adolescents With Disabilities.
This study examines the interaction between the fidelity of implementation of a set of research-based strategies-Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)-and outcomes for students with mild to moderate disabilities using data from two nonoverlapping studies in middle school language arts and reading classrooms (Study 1) and middle school social studies and science classrooms (Study 2). The authors use a definition of fidelity that includes both the amount of CSR instruction delivered by teachers and the quality of implementation. Although there were no main effects for quality or amount of CSR instruction, in both studies the...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 19, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Boardman AG, Buckley P, Vaughn S, Roberts G, Scornavacco K, Klingner JK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Alphabet Writing and Allograph Selection as Predictors of Spelling in Sentences Written by Spanish-Speaking Children Who Are Poor or Good Keyboarders.
This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. TheTest Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado("Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test"; Jiménez, 2012) was used as the assessment tool. A sample of 986 children from Grades 1 through 3 were classified according to transcription skills measured by keyboard ability (poor vs. good) across the grades. Results demonstrated that fluency in writing the alphabet ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 19, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Peake C, Diaz A, Artiles C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Handwriting Development in Spanish Children With and Without Learning Disabilities: A Graphonomic Approach.
Abstract The central purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of handwriting movements in real time for Spanish students in early grades with and without learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 120 children from Grades 1 through 3 (primary education), classified into two groups: with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities. The Early Grade Writing Assessment tasks selected for this purpose were writing the alphabet in order from memory, alphabet copying in cursive and manuscript, and allograph selection. The dynamics of these four handwriting tasks were recorded using graphonomic tab...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 18, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Barrientos P Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of Reading Fluency Interventions on the Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension Performance of Elementary Students With Learning Disabilities: A Synthesis of the Research from 2001 to 2014.
Abstract Fluent word reading is hypothesized to facilitate reading comprehension by improving automatic word reading, thus releasing a reader's cognitive resources to focus on meaning. Many students with learning disabilities (LD) struggle to develop reading fluency, which affects reading comprehension. This synthesis extends Chard, Vaughn, and Tyler's (2002) review, synthesizing fluency intervention research from 2001 to 2014. The search yielded 19 studies examining reading fluency and comprehension outcomes of reading fluency interventions for students with LD in kindergarten through 5th grade. Results showed rep...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Stevens EA, Walker MA, Vaughn S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Fluency and Accuracy in Alphabet Writing by Keyboarding: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Learning Disabilities.
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze whether children with and without difficulties in handwriting, spelling, or both differed in alphabet writing when using a keyboard. The total sample consisted of 1,333 children from Grades 1 through 3. Scores on the spelling and handwriting factors from theEarly Grade Writing Assessment(Jiménez, in press) were used to assign the participants to one of four groups with different ability patterns: poor handwriters, poor spellers, a mixed group, and typically achieving students. Groups were equalized by a matching strategy, resulting in a final sample of 352 children. A ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Bisschop E, Morales C, Gil V, Jiménez-Suárez E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Internal Structure and Development of Keyboard Skills in Spanish-Speaking Primary-School Children With and Without LD in Writing.
This study had two purposes: examining the internal structure of theTest Estandarizado para la Evaluación Inicial de la Escritura con Teclado(TEVET; Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test), and analyzing the development of keyboarding skills in Spanish elementary school children with and without learning disabilities (LD) in writing. A group of 1,168 elementary school children carried out the following writing tasks: writing the alphabet in order from memory, allograph selection, word copying, writing dictated words with inconsistent spelling, writing pseudowords from dictation, and independent composition of sentence. For this...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 7, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jiménez JE, Marco I, Suárez N, González D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access From Symbolic Numbers?
Abstract Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a physical number line. However, it remains unclear whether they have a deficit with the mental number line per se or a deficit with accessing it from nonsymbolic and/or symbolic numbers. Quebec French-speaking 8- to 9-year-old children with (24) and without (37) dyscal...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 25, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Lafay A, St-Pierre MC, Macoir J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Early Grade Writing Assessment: An Instrument Model.
Abstract The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization promoted the creation of a model instrument for individual assessment of students' foundational writing skills in the Spanish language that was based on a literature review and existing writing tools and assessments. The purpose of the Early Grade Writing Assessment (EGWA) is to document learners' basic writing skills, mapped in composing units of increasing complexity to communicate meaning. Validation and standardization of EGWA was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain) in 12 schools using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 1,...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 17, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jiménez JE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Predicting Handwriting Difficulties Through Spelling Processes.
This study examined whether spelling tasks contribute to the prediction of the handwriting status of children with poor and good handwriting skills in a cross-sectional study with 276 Spanish children from Grades 1 and 3. The main hypothesis was that the spelling tasks would predict the handwriting status of the children, although this influence would decrease with age due to a gradual automatization of handwriting skills. The results confirmed this hypothesis. Another interesting result was that the pattern of pseudoword and irregular word spellings as predictors of handwriting status changed from Grade 1 to Grade 3. In G...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 14, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Rodríguez C, Villarroel R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of the Effects of Schema-Based Instruction on Proportional Problem-Solving for Students With Mathematics Problem-Solving Difficulties.
This article reports results from a study investigating the efficacy of a proportional problem-solving intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), in seventh grade. Participants included 806 students with mathematical difficulties in problem solving (MD-PS) from an initial pool of 1,999 seventh grade students in a larger study. Teachers and their students in the larger study were randomly assigned to an SBI or control condition and teachers in both conditions then provided instruction on the topics of ratio, proportion, and percent. We found that students with MD-PS in SBI classrooms scored on average higher than their c...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jitendra AK, Harwell MR, Dupuis DN, Karl SR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Writing an Independently Composed Sentence by Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Poor Transcription Skills: A Writing-Level Match Design.
Abstract The main objective of this research was to analyze the impact of transcription skills of Spanish writers when writing an independently composed sentence within a writing-level design. The free-writing sentence task from the Early Grade Writing Assessment (Jiménez, in press) was used to examine the production, accuracy, speed, syntactic complexity, quality, and fluency of children with poor transcription skills (PTS). The results showed that there were significant differences between children with PTS and peers who had good transcription skills. The PTS group members were less accurate, slower, and less fl...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: García E, Crespo P, Bermúdez I Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Error Patterns in Ordering Fractions Among At-Risk Fourth-Grade Students.
Abstract The three purposes of this study were to (a) describe fraction ordering errors among at-risk fourth grade students, (b) assess the effect of part-whole understanding and accuracy of fraction magnitude estimation on the probability of committing errors, and (c) examine the effect of students' ability to explain comparing problems on the probability of committing errors. Students (N = 227) completed a nine-item ordering test. A high proportion (81%) of problems were completed incorrectly. Most (65%) errors were due to students misapplying whole number logic to fractions. Fraction-magnitude estimation skill, ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Malone AS, Fuchs LS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Role of Trait Anxiety and Preoccupation With Reading Disabilities of Children and Their Mothers in Predicting Children's Reading Comprehension.
This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension (RC), trait anxiety, and preoccupation with reading disability (RD) in 88 school children in Grades 3 through 5 and in their mothers. Children's trait anxiety had a significant direct negative relationship with RC and also mediated the association between preoccupation with RD and RC. Mothers' preoccupation with their children's RDs had a direct negative association with their children's RC. This association was also mediated through children's trait anxiety. No association was found between mothers' trait anxiety and children's RC. In a final model, RC...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Blicher S, Feingold L, Shany M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Cognitive Prediction of Reading, Math, and Attention: Shared and Unique Influences.
The objective was to identify cognitive predictors unique to each skill domain as well as cognitive predictors shared among skills that could help explain their overlap and thus help illuminate the basis for comorbidity of related disorders (reading disability, math disability, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Results indicated that processing speed contributes to the overlap between reading and attention as well as math and attention, whereas verbal comprehension contributes to the overlap between reading and math. There was no evidence that executive functioning skills help account for covariation among the...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 29, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Peterson RL, Boada R, McGrath LM, Willcutt EG, Olson RK, Pennington BF Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Comorbidity of Arithmetic and Reading Disorder: Basic Number Processing and Calculation in Children With Learning Impairments.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive profiles of primary school children (age 82-133 months) on a battery of basic number processing and calculation tasks. The sample consisted of four groups matched for age and IQ: arithmetic disorder only (AD; n = 20), reading disorder only (RD; n = 40), a comorbid group (n = 27), and an unimpaired control group (n = 40). Multiple 2 (RD vs. No RD) × 2 (AD vs. No AD) factorial ANCOVAs showed that children with RD had selective impairments in counting and number transcoding efficiency. In contrast, children with AD performed poorly in most tasks, ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 15, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Raddatz J, Kuhn JT, Holling H, Moll K, Dobel C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Perceived Close Relationships With Parents, Teachers, and Peers: Predictors of Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Features in Adolescents With LD or Comorbid LD and ADHD.
This study examined the role of adolescents' perceived close relationships with significant others (attachment relationships with mothers/fathers, appraisal of homeroom teacher as secure base, and quality of peer friendship) in explaining differences in their socioemotional and behavioral functioning (peer-network/peer-dyadic loneliness, positive/negative affect, and externalizing/internalizing problems), among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), with comorbid LD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or with typical development (TD). Participants were 280 adolescents in Grades 10 through 11 in three...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 13, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Al-Yagon M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Eye Movements and Articulations During a Letter Naming Speed Task: Children With and Without Dyslexia.
Abstract Naming speed (NS) refers to how quickly and accurately participants name a set of familiar stimuli (e.g., letters). NS is an established predictor of reading ability, but controversy remains over why it is related to reading. We used three techniques (stimulus manipulations to emphasize phonological and/or visual aspects, decomposition of NS times into pause and articulation components, and analysis of eye movements during task performance) with three groups of participants (children with dyslexia, ages 9-10; chronological-age [CA] controls, ages 9-10; reading-level [RL] controls, ages 6-7) to examine NS a...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 13, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Al Dahhan NZ, Kirby JR, Brien DC, Munoz DP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth.
This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be espec...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jacobson LA, Koriakin T, Lipkin P, Boada R, Frijters JC, Lovett MW, Hill D, Willcutt E, Gottwald S, Wolf M, Bosson-Heenan J, Gruen JR, Mahone EM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Developmental Delays in Executive Function from 3 to 5 Years of Age Predict Kindergarten Academic Readiness.
Abstract Substantial evidence has established that individual differences in executive function (EF) in early childhood are uniquely predictive of children's academic readiness at school entry. The current study tested whether growth trajectories of EF across the early childhood period could be used to identify a subset of children who were at pronounced risk for academic impairment in kindergarten. Using data that were collected at the age 3, 4, and 5 home assessments in the Family Life Project (N = 1,120), growth mixture models were used to identify 9% of children who exhibited impaired EF performance (i.e., pers...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Willoughby MT, Magnus B, Vernon-Feagans L, Blair CB, Family Life Project Investigators Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Interaction of Learning Disability Status and Student Demographic Characteristics on Mathematics Growth.
This study examined mathematics achievement growth of students without disabilities (SWoD) and students with learning disabilities (LD) and tested whether growth and LD status interacted with student demographic characteristics. Growth was estimated in a statewide sample of 79,554 students over Grades 3 to 7. The LD group was significantly lower in achievement in each grade and had less growth than the SWoD group. We also found that student demographic characteristics were significantly related to mathematics growth, but only three demographic characteristics were statistically significant as interactions. We found that LD...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Stevens JJ, Schulte AC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Executive Function, Self-Regulated Learning, and Reading Comprehension: A Training Study.
We report an experiment (N = 75 fourth graders) that contrasted two researcher-implemented conditions (text-based reading [TB] and text-based reading plus executive function [TB+EF]) to a control. We also evaluated relationships among measures of SRL, EF, and reading. Both the TB and TB+EF groups outperformed the control group for proximal text comprehension (where the topic was similar to that covered in training) and background knowledge related to it, but the two researcher-led groups performed similarly. There were no significant differences for less proximal text, and again similar performance for both TB and TB+EF. C...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Cirino PT, Miciak J, Gerst E, Barnes MA, Vaughn S, Child A, Huston-Warren E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.
Abstract Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis was correlated only with impaired handwriting. Parental ratings of inattention, but not hyperactivity, correlated with measures of written language but not oral language. Sustaining switching attention correlated with writing ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Berninger V, Abbott R, Cook CR, Nagy W Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Synthesis of Reading and Spelling Interventions and Their Effects on Spelling Outcomes for Students With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract Spelling is one of the most challenging areas for students with learning disabilities (LD), and improving spelling outcomes for these students is of high importance. In this synthesis, we examined the effects of spelling and reading interventions on spelling outcomes for students with LD in Grades K through 12. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature published between 2004 and 2014 was conducted using electronic databases and hand searches of relevant journals. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to meet the following criteria: (a) Participants were identified with LD and were in Grades K thr...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 5, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Williams KJ, Walker MA, Vaughn S, Wanzek J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Empirical Implications of Matching Children With Specific Language Impairment to Children With Typical Development on Nonverbal IQ.
This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized into those that matched and did not match children with SLI and TD on nonverbal IQ. We then compared the nonverbal IQ scores across matching criterions within each diagnostic category. In studies that matched children on nonverbal IQ, children with SLI scored significantly higher o...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Earle FS, Gallinat EL, Grela BG, Lehto A, Spaulding TJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of a Comprehensive Reading Program on Reading Outcomes for Middle School Students With Disabilities.
Abstract Reading achievement scores for adolescents with disabilities are markedly lower than the scores of adolescents without disabilities. For example, 62% of students with disabilities read below the basic level on the NAEP Reading assessment, compared to 19% of their nondisabled peers. This achievement gap has been a continuing challenge for more than 35 years. In this article, we report on the promise of a comprehensive 2-year reading program called Fusion Reading. Fusion Reading is designed to significantly narrow the reading achievement gap of middle school students with reading disabilities. Using a quasi-...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Hock MF, Brasseur-Hock IF, Hock AJ, Duvel B Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

First-Year College Students With ADHD and/or LD: Differences in Engagement, Positive Core Self-Evaluation, School Preparation, and College Expectations.
This study examined the ways first-year college students with ADHD, LD, ADHD+LD, and comparison peers differ in engagement, core self-evaluation, high school preparation behaviors, and goals/expectations. Participants were from the 2010 Cooperative Institutional Research Program Freshman Survey, including students with ADHD (n = 5,511), LD (n = 2,626), ADHD+LD (n = 1,399), or neither disability (n = 5,737). Controlling for SAT/ACT scores, family income, and parent education, students with ADHD, LD, or ADHD+LD differed from peers on self-ratings of academic and creative abilities and psychosocial functioning; school disenga...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: DuPaul GJ, Pinho TD, Pollack BL, Gormley MJ, Laracy SD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does Growth in the Executive System of Working Memory Underlie Growth in Literacy for Bilingual Children With and Without Reading Disabilities?
Abstract This cohort-sequential study explored the components of working memory (WM) that underlie second language (L2) reading growth in 450 children at risk and not at risk for reading disabilities (RD) whose first language is Spanish. English language learners designated as balanced and nonbalanced bilinguals with and without risk for RD in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory, WM, naming speed, and inhibition), vocabulary, and reading measures in Spanish and English. These same measures were administered 1 and 2 years later. Two important findings occurred: Fi...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Swanson HL, Orosco MJ, Kudo M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Impact of Intensive Summer Reading Intervention for Children With Reading Disabilities and Difficulties in Early Elementary School.
Abstract Efficacy of an intensive reading intervention implemented during the nonacademic summer was evaluated in children with reading disabilities or difficulties (RD). Students (ages 6-9) were randomly assigned to receive Lindamood-Bell's Seeing Stars program (n = 23) as an intervention or to a waiting-list control group (n = 24). Analysis of pre- and posttesting revealed significant interactions in favor of the intervention group for untimed word and pseudoword reading, timed pseudoword reading, oral reading fluency, and symbol imagery. The interactions mostly reflected (a) significant declines in the noninterv...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Christodoulou JA, Cyr A, Murtagh J, Chang P, Lin J, Guarino AJ, Hook P, Gabrieli JD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Inhibitory Control of Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Preschool Children: Measurement and Association With Language, Literacy, and Math Skills.
We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores o...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 2, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Lonigan CJ, Allan DM, Goodrich JM, Farrington AL, Phillips BM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Linguistic and Cognitive Profiles of 8- to 15-Year-Old Children With Specific Reading Comprehension Difficulties: The Role of Executive Functions.
This article presents two studies investigating the role of executive functioning in written text comprehension in children and adolescents. In a first study, the involvement of executive functions in reading comprehension performance was examined in normally developing children in fifth grade. Two aspects of text comprehension were differentiated: literal and inferential processes. The results demonstrated that while three aspects of executive functioning (working memory, planning, and inhibition processes) were significantly predictive of the performance on the inferential questions of the comprehension test, these facto...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Potocki A, Sanchez M, Ecalle J, Magnan A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Readers in Adult Basic Education: Component Skills, Eye Movements, and Fluency.
In this study, reading component skills including decoding, language comprehension, and reading fluency are reported, as are eye movement variables for connected-text oral reading. Eye movement comparisons between individuals with higher and lower oral reading fluency revealed within- and between-subject effects for word frequency and word length as well as group and word frequency interactions. Bivariate correlations indicated strong relations between component skills of reading, eye movement measures, and both the Test of Adult Basic Education (Reading subtest) and the Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Reading Battery Pass...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 27, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Barnes AE, Kim YS, Tighe EL, Vorstius C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children With or Without Reading Disabilities and/or ADHD.
Abstract Employing a large sample of children from Dutch regular elementary schools, this study assessed the contributing and discriminating values of reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to two types of phonological processing skills, phonemic awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). A second objective was to investigate whether comorbidity of RD and ADHD should be considered as an additive phenomenon as to RAN and PA. A total of 1,262 children, aged 8 to 13 years, were classified as RD (n = 121), ADHD (n = 17), comorbid (RD+ADHD; n = 16), or control (n = 1,108). Ph...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 16, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: De Groot BJ, Van den Bos KP, Van der Meulen BF, Minnaert AE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does a Dynamic Test of Phonological Awareness Predict Early Reading Difficulties? A Longitudinal Study From Kindergarten Through Grade 1.
Abstract A few studies have indicated that dynamic measures of phonological awareness may contribute uniquely to the prediction of early reading development. However, standard control measures have been few and limited by floor effects, thus limiting their predictive value. The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive value of a dynamic test of phonological awareness while controlling for both letter knowledge and standard phonological awareness using measures with no floor effect. We administered a dynamic test of phonological awareness along with traditional tests of phonological awareness and l...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 14, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Gellert AS, Elbro C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of Repeated Reading on Reading Fluency for Students With Reading Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis.
Abstract The purpose of this research was to systematically review the effects of repeated reading (RR) interventions on reading fluency to provide instructional strategies for students with reading disabilities (RD). Correct words per minute were coded as an outcome variable in a search that yielded 34 RR intervention studies from 1990 to 2014 for students with RD in K-12. The estimated overall Hedges' g of the 39 independent effect sizes indicated the positive effects of RR on gains in reading fluency for students with RD, especially at the elementary grade level. The current findings also suggested that a combin...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 25, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Lee J, Yoon SY Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Development of First-Graders' Word Reading Skills: For Whom Can Dynamic Assessment Tell Us More?
We examined the additive value of DA for predicting first-grade decoding and word recognition development while controlling for autoregressive effects. Additionally, we examined whether predictive validity of DA would be higher for students who have poor phonological awareness skills. First-grade students (n = 105) were assessed on measures of word reading, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and DA in the fall and again assessed on word reading measures in the spring. A series of planned, moderated multiple regression analyses indicated that DA made a significant and unique contribution in predicting word re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Cho E, Compton DL, Gilbert JK, Steacy LM, Collins AA, Lindström ER Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Old/New Effect of Digital Memory Retrieval in Chinese Dyscalculia: Evidence from ERP.
This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of digital memory retrieval features in Chinese individuals with and without dyscalculia. A total of 18 children with dyscalculia (ages 11.5-13.5) and 18 controls were tested, and their event-related potentials were digitally recorded simultaneously with behavior measurement. Behavioral data showed that the dyscalculia group had lower hit rates and higher false rates than the control group. The electroencephalography results showed that both groups had a significant old/new effect and that this effect was greater in the control group. In the 300 to 400 ms ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 12, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Wang E, Du C, Ma Y Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Metacognitive Reading and Study Strategies and Academic Achievement of University Students With and Without a History of Reading Difficulties.
This study provides a comprehensive investigation of first-year academic achievement for students with a history of reading difficulties (n = 244) compared to students with no such history (n = 603). We also examine reported use of metacognitive reading and study strategies and their relations with GPA. Results indicate that students with a history of reading difficulties earn lower GPA and successfully complete fewer credits compared to students with no history of reading difficulty. These patterns varied somewhat by faculty of study. Students with a history of reading difficulties also reported lower scores across multip...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 30, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Bergey BW, Deacon SH, Parrila RK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Randomized Control Trial of Working Memory Training With and Without Strategy Instruction: Effects on Young Children's Working Memory and Comprehension.
Abstract Researchers are increasingly interested in working memory (WM) training. However, it is unclear whether it strengthens comprehension in young children who are at risk for learning difficulties. We conducted a modest study of whether the training of verbal WM would improve verbal WM and passage listening comprehension and whether training effects differed between two approaches: training with and without strategy instruction. A total of 58 first-grade children were randomly assigned to three groups: WM training with a rehearsal strategy, WM training without strategy instruction, and controls. Each member of...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 8, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Peng P, Fuchs D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Defective Number Sense or Impaired Access? Differential Impairments in Different Subgroups of Children With Mathematics Difficulties.
Abstract Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a specific learning disability in mathematics that affects around 6% of the population. Currently, the core deficit of DD remains unknown. While the number sense deficit hypothesis suggests that the core deficit of DD lies in the inability to represent nonsymbolic numerosity, the access deficit hypothesis suggests that the origin of this disability lies in the inability to associate numbers with the underlying magnitude representation. The present study compared the performance of DDs with their low-achieving (LA) and normally achieving peers in nonsymbolic numerosity proc...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 8, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Wong TT, Ho CS, Tang J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Metacognitive Strategies: A Foundation for Early Word Spelling and Reading in Kindergartners With SLI.
This study assessed the effect of metacognitive instruction on the spelling and word reading of Hebrew-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 67 kindergarteners with SLI in a supported learning context. Children were classified into three spelling instruction groups: (a) metalinguistic instruction (ML), (b) ML that integrates metacognitive strategies (MCML), and (c) a control group. Letter naming, letter sounding, word spelling, and word recognition were assessed at pretest and posttest. Findings from spelling and reading tests as well as interviews indicated that both the ML and MCML ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 8, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Schiff R, Nuri Ben-Shushan Y, Ben-Artzi E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Role of Metacognitive Reading Strategies, Metacognitive Study and Learning Strategies, and Behavioral Study and Learning Strategies in Predicting Academic Success in Students With and Without a History of Reading Difficulties.
We examined the self-reported use of reading, study, and learning strategies in university students with a history of reading difficulties (HRD; n = 77) and with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n = 295). We examined both between-groups differences in strategy use and strategy use as a predictive measure of academic success. Participants completed online questionnaires regarding reading history and strategy use. GPA and frequency of use of academic support services were also obtained for all students. University students with HRD reported a different profile of strategy use than their NRD peers, and self-reported s...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 29, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Chevalier TM, Parrila R, Ritchie KC, Deacon SH Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Can Dyscalculics Estimate the Results of Arithmetic Problems?
Abstract The present study is the first to examine the computation estimation skills of dyscalculics versus controls using the estimation comparison task. In this task, participants judged whether an estimated answer to a multidigit multiplication problem was larger or smaller than a given reference number. While dyscalculics were less accurate than controls, their performance was well above chance level. The performance of controls but not of those with developmental dyscalculia (DD) improved consistently for smaller problem sizes. The performance of both groups was superior when the reference number was smaller (...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 26, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Ganor-Stern D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Attention Functioning Among Adolescents With Multiple Learning, Attentional, Behavioral, and Emotional Difficulties.
Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; however, these symptoms can result from a variety of reasons. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various difficulties of individuals with ADHD, especially when co-occurrence difficulties are present, it is essential to combine neuropsychological and subjective assessment tools. In the present field study the authors investigated a group of adolescents with multiple deficits (MD) using neuropsychological and subjective measures. Teachers' ratings verified extremely high...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 17, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Shalev L, Kolodny T, Shalev N, Mevorach C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Preliminary Investigation of the Empirical Validity of Study Quality Appraisal.
Abstract When classifying the evidence base of practices, special education scholars typically appraise study quality to identify and exclude from consideration in their reviews unacceptable-quality studies that are likely biased and might bias review findings if included. However, study quality appraisals used in the process of identifying evidence-based practices for students with learning and other disabilities have not been empirically validated (e.g., studies classified as unacceptable quality shown to have different, and presumably more biased, effects than high-quality studies). Using Gersten et al.'s (2005)...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 17, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Cook BG, Dupuis DN, Jitendra AK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

School Experiences of Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured interviews addressing major aspects of school life. Using a modified grounded theory framework, researchers coded these interviews. Three themes emerged: (a) support for a performance deficit, (b) academic and social engagement, and (c) moving from dependence to independence. What...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 20, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Wiener J, Daniels L Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Reading Achievement, Mastery, and Performance Goal Structures Among Students With Learning Disabilities: A Nonlinear Perspective.
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was assessed using the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Styles. Achievement in reading was assessed using a normative reading assessment. Data were analyzed by means of catastrophe theory in which the behavior is predicted as a function of two control variables, the asymm...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 19, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Sideridis GD, Stamovlasis D, Antoniou F Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Symptom Manifestation and Impairments in College Students With ADHD.
Abstract To better understand the nature of impairment resulting from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for students in a post-secondary education (PSE) setting, the authors analyzed the symptoms and associated impairment of 135 students with a diagnosis of ADHD who were recruited via Student Disability Services in Canadian post-secondary institutions. The authors (a) developed a novel semistructured telephone interview based on the 6-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener-Telephone Interview With Probes (ASRS-TIPS) to elicit students' descriptions of their behavior for each symptom they endorsed,...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 16, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Gray SA, Fettes P, Woltering S, Mawjee K, Tannock R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Benefits of High School Career and Technical Education (CTE) for Youth With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), this study examines the career and technical education (CTE) course taking of high school students with learning disabilities (LD) in the context of the national movement toward higher standards for determining whether students leave high school "college and career ready." Descriptive analyses document the extent of general education CTE course taking overall by students with LD and their engagement in a concentrated program of occupationally specific general education CTE, a level of course taking early research has linked to improved p...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 16, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Wagner MM, Newman LA, Javitz HS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research