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Cognitive Prediction of Reading, Math, and Attention: Shared and Unique Influences.
The objective was to identify cognitive predictors unique to each skill domain as well as cognitive predictors shared among skills that could help explain their overlap and thus help illuminate the basis for comorbidity of related disorders (reading disability, math disability, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Results indicated that processing speed contributes to the overlap between reading and attention as well as math and attention, whereas verbal comprehension contributes to the overlap between reading and math. There was no evidence that executive functioning skills help account for covariation among the...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 29, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Peterson RL, Boada R, McGrath LM, Willcutt EG, Olson RK, Pennington BF Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Comorbidity of Arithmetic and Reading Disorder: Basic Number Processing and Calculation in Children With Learning Impairments.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive profiles of primary school children (age 82-133 months) on a battery of basic number processing and calculation tasks. The sample consisted of four groups matched for age and IQ: arithmetic disorder only (AD; n = 20), reading disorder only (RD; n = 40), a comorbid group (n = 27), and an unimpaired control group (n = 40). Multiple 2 (RD vs. No RD) × 2 (AD vs. No AD) factorial ANCOVAs showed that children with RD had selective impairments in counting and number transcoding efficiency. In contrast, children with AD performed poorly in most tasks, ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 15, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Raddatz J, Kuhn JT, Holling H, Moll K, Dobel C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Perceived Close Relationships With Parents, Teachers, and Peers: Predictors of Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Features in Adolescents With LD or Comorbid LD and ADHD.
This study examined the role of adolescents' perceived close relationships with significant others (attachment relationships with mothers/fathers, appraisal of homeroom teacher as secure base, and quality of peer friendship) in explaining differences in their socioemotional and behavioral functioning (peer-network/peer-dyadic loneliness, positive/negative affect, and externalizing/internalizing problems), among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), with comorbid LD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or with typical development (TD). Participants were 280 adolescents in Grades 10 through 11 in three...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 13, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Al-Yagon M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Eye Movements and Articulations During a Letter Naming Speed Task: Children With and Without Dyslexia.
Abstract Naming speed (NS) refers to how quickly and accurately participants name a set of familiar stimuli (e.g., letters). NS is an established predictor of reading ability, but controversy remains over why it is related to reading. We used three techniques (stimulus manipulations to emphasize phonological and/or visual aspects, decomposition of NS times into pause and articulation components, and analysis of eye movements during task performance) with three groups of participants (children with dyslexia, ages 9-10; chronological-age [CA] controls, ages 9-10; reading-level [RL] controls, ages 6-7) to examine NS a...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 13, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Al Dahhan NZ, Kirby JR, Brien DC, Munoz DP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth.
This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be espec...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jacobson LA, Koriakin T, Lipkin P, Boada R, Frijters JC, Lovett MW, Hill D, Willcutt E, Gottwald S, Wolf M, Bosson-Heenan J, Gruen JR, Mahone EM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Developmental Delays in Executive Function from 3 to 5 Years of Age Predict Kindergarten Academic Readiness.
Abstract Substantial evidence has established that individual differences in executive function (EF) in early childhood are uniquely predictive of children's academic readiness at school entry. The current study tested whether growth trajectories of EF across the early childhood period could be used to identify a subset of children who were at pronounced risk for academic impairment in kindergarten. Using data that were collected at the age 3, 4, and 5 home assessments in the Family Life Project (N = 1,120), growth mixture models were used to identify 9% of children who exhibited impaired EF performance (i.e., pers...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Willoughby MT, Magnus B, Vernon-Feagans L, Blair CB, Family Life Project Investigators Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Interaction of Learning Disability Status and Student Demographic Characteristics on Mathematics Growth.
This study examined mathematics achievement growth of students without disabilities (SWoD) and students with learning disabilities (LD) and tested whether growth and LD status interacted with student demographic characteristics. Growth was estimated in a statewide sample of 79,554 students over Grades 3 to 7. The LD group was significantly lower in achievement in each grade and had less growth than the SWoD group. We also found that student demographic characteristics were significantly related to mathematics growth, but only three demographic characteristics were statistically significant as interactions. We found that LD...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Stevens JJ, Schulte AC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Executive Function, Self-Regulated Learning, and Reading Comprehension: A Training Study.
We report an experiment (N = 75 fourth graders) that contrasted two researcher-implemented conditions (text-based reading [TB] and text-based reading plus executive function [TB+EF]) to a control. We also evaluated relationships among measures of SRL, EF, and reading. Both the TB and TB+EF groups outperformed the control group for proximal text comprehension (where the topic was similar to that covered in training) and background knowledge related to it, but the two researcher-led groups performed similarly. There were no significant differences for less proximal text, and again similar performance for both TB and TB+EF. C...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Cirino PT, Miciak J, Gerst E, Barnes MA, Vaughn S, Child A, Huston-Warren E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.
Abstract Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis was correlated only with impaired handwriting. Parental ratings of inattention, but not hyperactivity, correlated with measures of written language but not oral language. Sustaining switching attention correlated with writing ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Berninger V, Abbott R, Cook CR, Nagy W Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Synthesis of Reading and Spelling Interventions and Their Effects on Spelling Outcomes for Students With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract Spelling is one of the most challenging areas for students with learning disabilities (LD), and improving spelling outcomes for these students is of high importance. In this synthesis, we examined the effects of spelling and reading interventions on spelling outcomes for students with LD in Grades K through 12. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature published between 2004 and 2014 was conducted using electronic databases and hand searches of relevant journals. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to meet the following criteria: (a) Participants were identified with LD and were in Grades K thr...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 5, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Williams KJ, Walker MA, Vaughn S, Wanzek J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Empirical Implications of Matching Children With Specific Language Impairment to Children With Typical Development on Nonverbal IQ.
This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized into those that matched and did not match children with SLI and TD on nonverbal IQ. We then compared the nonverbal IQ scores across matching criterions within each diagnostic category. In studies that matched children on nonverbal IQ, children with SLI scored significantly higher o...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Earle FS, Gallinat EL, Grela BG, Lehto A, Spaulding TJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of a Comprehensive Reading Program on Reading Outcomes for Middle School Students With Disabilities.
Abstract Reading achievement scores for adolescents with disabilities are markedly lower than the scores of adolescents without disabilities. For example, 62% of students with disabilities read below the basic level on the NAEP Reading assessment, compared to 19% of their nondisabled peers. This achievement gap has been a continuing challenge for more than 35 years. In this article, we report on the promise of a comprehensive 2-year reading program called Fusion Reading. Fusion Reading is designed to significantly narrow the reading achievement gap of middle school students with reading disabilities. Using a quasi-...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Hock MF, Brasseur-Hock IF, Hock AJ, Duvel B Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

First-Year College Students With ADHD and/or LD: Differences in Engagement, Positive Core Self-Evaluation, School Preparation, and College Expectations.
This study examined the ways first-year college students with ADHD, LD, ADHD+LD, and comparison peers differ in engagement, core self-evaluation, high school preparation behaviors, and goals/expectations. Participants were from the 2010 Cooperative Institutional Research Program Freshman Survey, including students with ADHD (n = 5,511), LD (n = 2,626), ADHD+LD (n = 1,399), or neither disability (n = 5,737). Controlling for SAT/ACT scores, family income, and parent education, students with ADHD, LD, or ADHD+LD differed from peers on self-ratings of academic and creative abilities and psychosocial functioning; school disenga...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: DuPaul GJ, Pinho TD, Pollack BL, Gormley MJ, Laracy SD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does Growth in the Executive System of Working Memory Underlie Growth in Literacy for Bilingual Children With and Without Reading Disabilities?
Abstract This cohort-sequential study explored the components of working memory (WM) that underlie second language (L2) reading growth in 450 children at risk and not at risk for reading disabilities (RD) whose first language is Spanish. English language learners designated as balanced and nonbalanced bilinguals with and without risk for RD in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory, WM, naming speed, and inhibition), vocabulary, and reading measures in Spanish and English. These same measures were administered 1 and 2 years later. Two important findings occurred: Fi...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Swanson HL, Orosco MJ, Kudo M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Impact of Intensive Summer Reading Intervention for Children With Reading Disabilities and Difficulties in Early Elementary School.
Abstract Efficacy of an intensive reading intervention implemented during the nonacademic summer was evaluated in children with reading disabilities or difficulties (RD). Students (ages 6-9) were randomly assigned to receive Lindamood-Bell's Seeing Stars program (n = 23) as an intervention or to a waiting-list control group (n = 24). Analysis of pre- and posttesting revealed significant interactions in favor of the intervention group for untimed word and pseudoword reading, timed pseudoword reading, oral reading fluency, and symbol imagery. The interactions mostly reflected (a) significant declines in the noninterv...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Christodoulou JA, Cyr A, Murtagh J, Chang P, Lin J, Guarino AJ, Hook P, Gabrieli JD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Inhibitory Control of Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Preschool Children: Measurement and Association With Language, Literacy, and Math Skills.
We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores o...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 2, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Lonigan CJ, Allan DM, Goodrich JM, Farrington AL, Phillips BM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Linguistic and Cognitive Profiles of 8- to 15-Year-Old Children With Specific Reading Comprehension Difficulties: The Role of Executive Functions.
This article presents two studies investigating the role of executive functioning in written text comprehension in children and adolescents. In a first study, the involvement of executive functions in reading comprehension performance was examined in normally developing children in fifth grade. Two aspects of text comprehension were differentiated: literal and inferential processes. The results demonstrated that while three aspects of executive functioning (working memory, planning, and inhibition processes) were significantly predictive of the performance on the inferential questions of the comprehension test, these facto...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Potocki A, Sanchez M, Ecalle J, Magnan A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Readers in Adult Basic Education: Component Skills, Eye Movements, and Fluency.
In this study, reading component skills including decoding, language comprehension, and reading fluency are reported, as are eye movement variables for connected-text oral reading. Eye movement comparisons between individuals with higher and lower oral reading fluency revealed within- and between-subject effects for word frequency and word length as well as group and word frequency interactions. Bivariate correlations indicated strong relations between component skills of reading, eye movement measures, and both the Test of Adult Basic Education (Reading subtest) and the Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Reading Battery Pass...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 27, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Barnes AE, Kim YS, Tighe EL, Vorstius C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children With or Without Reading Disabilities and/or ADHD.
Abstract Employing a large sample of children from Dutch regular elementary schools, this study assessed the contributing and discriminating values of reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to two types of phonological processing skills, phonemic awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). A second objective was to investigate whether comorbidity of RD and ADHD should be considered as an additive phenomenon as to RAN and PA. A total of 1,262 children, aged 8 to 13 years, were classified as RD (n = 121), ADHD (n = 17), comorbid (RD+ADHD; n = 16), or control (n = 1,108). Ph...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 16, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: De Groot BJ, Van den Bos KP, Van der Meulen BF, Minnaert AE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does a Dynamic Test of Phonological Awareness Predict Early Reading Difficulties? A Longitudinal Study From Kindergarten Through Grade 1.
Abstract A few studies have indicated that dynamic measures of phonological awareness may contribute uniquely to the prediction of early reading development. However, standard control measures have been few and limited by floor effects, thus limiting their predictive value. The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive value of a dynamic test of phonological awareness while controlling for both letter knowledge and standard phonological awareness using measures with no floor effect. We administered a dynamic test of phonological awareness along with traditional tests of phonological awareness and l...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 14, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Gellert AS, Elbro C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of Repeated Reading on Reading Fluency for Students With Reading Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis.
Abstract The purpose of this research was to systematically review the effects of repeated reading (RR) interventions on reading fluency to provide instructional strategies for students with reading disabilities (RD). Correct words per minute were coded as an outcome variable in a search that yielded 34 RR intervention studies from 1990 to 2014 for students with RD in K-12. The estimated overall Hedges' g of the 39 independent effect sizes indicated the positive effects of RR on gains in reading fluency for students with RD, especially at the elementary grade level. The current findings also suggested that a combin...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 25, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Lee J, Yoon SY Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Development of First-Graders' Word Reading Skills: For Whom Can Dynamic Assessment Tell Us More?
We examined the additive value of DA for predicting first-grade decoding and word recognition development while controlling for autoregressive effects. Additionally, we examined whether predictive validity of DA would be higher for students who have poor phonological awareness skills. First-grade students (n = 105) were assessed on measures of word reading, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and DA in the fall and again assessed on word reading measures in the spring. A series of planned, moderated multiple regression analyses indicated that DA made a significant and unique contribution in predicting word re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Cho E, Compton DL, Gilbert JK, Steacy LM, Collins AA, Lindström ER Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Old/New Effect of Digital Memory Retrieval in Chinese Dyscalculia: Evidence from ERP.
This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of digital memory retrieval features in Chinese individuals with and without dyscalculia. A total of 18 children with dyscalculia (ages 11.5-13.5) and 18 controls were tested, and their event-related potentials were digitally recorded simultaneously with behavior measurement. Behavioral data showed that the dyscalculia group had lower hit rates and higher false rates than the control group. The electroencephalography results showed that both groups had a significant old/new effect and that this effect was greater in the control group. In the 300 to 400 ms ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 12, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Wang E, Du C, Ma Y Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Metacognitive Reading and Study Strategies and Academic Achievement of University Students With and Without a History of Reading Difficulties.
This study provides a comprehensive investigation of first-year academic achievement for students with a history of reading difficulties (n = 244) compared to students with no such history (n = 603). We also examine reported use of metacognitive reading and study strategies and their relations with GPA. Results indicate that students with a history of reading difficulties earn lower GPA and successfully complete fewer credits compared to students with no history of reading difficulty. These patterns varied somewhat by faculty of study. Students with a history of reading difficulties also reported lower scores across multip...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 30, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Bergey BW, Deacon SH, Parrila RK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Randomized Control Trial of Working Memory Training With and Without Strategy Instruction: Effects on Young Children's Working Memory and Comprehension.
Abstract Researchers are increasingly interested in working memory (WM) training. However, it is unclear whether it strengthens comprehension in young children who are at risk for learning difficulties. We conducted a modest study of whether the training of verbal WM would improve verbal WM and passage listening comprehension and whether training effects differed between two approaches: training with and without strategy instruction. A total of 58 first-grade children were randomly assigned to three groups: WM training with a rehearsal strategy, WM training without strategy instruction, and controls. Each member of...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 8, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Peng P, Fuchs D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Defective Number Sense or Impaired Access? Differential Impairments in Different Subgroups of Children With Mathematics Difficulties.
Abstract Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a specific learning disability in mathematics that affects around 6% of the population. Currently, the core deficit of DD remains unknown. While the number sense deficit hypothesis suggests that the core deficit of DD lies in the inability to represent nonsymbolic numerosity, the access deficit hypothesis suggests that the origin of this disability lies in the inability to associate numbers with the underlying magnitude representation. The present study compared the performance of DDs with their low-achieving (LA) and normally achieving peers in nonsymbolic numerosity proc...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 8, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Wong TT, Ho CS, Tang J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Metacognitive Strategies: A Foundation for Early Word Spelling and Reading in Kindergartners With SLI.
This study assessed the effect of metacognitive instruction on the spelling and word reading of Hebrew-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 67 kindergarteners with SLI in a supported learning context. Children were classified into three spelling instruction groups: (a) metalinguistic instruction (ML), (b) ML that integrates metacognitive strategies (MCML), and (c) a control group. Letter naming, letter sounding, word spelling, and word recognition were assessed at pretest and posttest. Findings from spelling and reading tests as well as interviews indicated that both the ML and MCML ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - June 8, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Schiff R, Nuri Ben-Shushan Y, Ben-Artzi E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Role of Metacognitive Reading Strategies, Metacognitive Study and Learning Strategies, and Behavioral Study and Learning Strategies in Predicting Academic Success in Students With and Without a History of Reading Difficulties.
We examined the self-reported use of reading, study, and learning strategies in university students with a history of reading difficulties (HRD; n = 77) and with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n = 295). We examined both between-groups differences in strategy use and strategy use as a predictive measure of academic success. Participants completed online questionnaires regarding reading history and strategy use. GPA and frequency of use of academic support services were also obtained for all students. University students with HRD reported a different profile of strategy use than their NRD peers, and self-reported s...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 29, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Chevalier TM, Parrila R, Ritchie KC, Deacon SH Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Can Dyscalculics Estimate the Results of Arithmetic Problems?
Abstract The present study is the first to examine the computation estimation skills of dyscalculics versus controls using the estimation comparison task. In this task, participants judged whether an estimated answer to a multidigit multiplication problem was larger or smaller than a given reference number. While dyscalculics were less accurate than controls, their performance was well above chance level. The performance of controls but not of those with developmental dyscalculia (DD) improved consistently for smaller problem sizes. The performance of both groups was superior when the reference number was smaller (...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 26, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Ganor-Stern D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Attention Functioning Among Adolescents With Multiple Learning, Attentional, Behavioral, and Emotional Difficulties.
Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; however, these symptoms can result from a variety of reasons. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various difficulties of individuals with ADHD, especially when co-occurrence difficulties are present, it is essential to combine neuropsychological and subjective assessment tools. In the present field study the authors investigated a group of adolescents with multiple deficits (MD) using neuropsychological and subjective measures. Teachers' ratings verified extremely high...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 17, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Shalev L, Kolodny T, Shalev N, Mevorach C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Preliminary Investigation of the Empirical Validity of Study Quality Appraisal.
Abstract When classifying the evidence base of practices, special education scholars typically appraise study quality to identify and exclude from consideration in their reviews unacceptable-quality studies that are likely biased and might bias review findings if included. However, study quality appraisals used in the process of identifying evidence-based practices for students with learning and other disabilities have not been empirically validated (e.g., studies classified as unacceptable quality shown to have different, and presumably more biased, effects than high-quality studies). Using Gersten et al.'s (2005)...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 17, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Cook BG, Dupuis DN, Jitendra AK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

School Experiences of Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured interviews addressing major aspects of school life. Using a modified grounded theory framework, researchers coded these interviews. Three themes emerged: (a) support for a performance deficit, (b) academic and social engagement, and (c) moving from dependence to independence. What...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 20, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Wiener J, Daniels L Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Reading Achievement, Mastery, and Performance Goal Structures Among Students With Learning Disabilities: A Nonlinear Perspective.
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was assessed using the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Styles. Achievement in reading was assessed using a normative reading assessment. Data were analyzed by means of catastrophe theory in which the behavior is predicted as a function of two control variables, the asymm...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 19, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Sideridis GD, Stamovlasis D, Antoniou F Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Symptom Manifestation and Impairments in College Students With ADHD.
Abstract To better understand the nature of impairment resulting from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for students in a post-secondary education (PSE) setting, the authors analyzed the symptoms and associated impairment of 135 students with a diagnosis of ADHD who were recruited via Student Disability Services in Canadian post-secondary institutions. The authors (a) developed a novel semistructured telephone interview based on the 6-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener-Telephone Interview With Probes (ASRS-TIPS) to elicit students' descriptions of their behavior for each symptom they endorsed,...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 16, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Gray SA, Fettes P, Woltering S, Mawjee K, Tannock R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Benefits of High School Career and Technical Education (CTE) for Youth With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), this study examines the career and technical education (CTE) course taking of high school students with learning disabilities (LD) in the context of the national movement toward higher standards for determining whether students leave high school "college and career ready." Descriptive analyses document the extent of general education CTE course taking overall by students with LD and their engagement in a concentrated program of occupationally specific general education CTE, a level of course taking early research has linked to improved p...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 16, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Wagner MM, Newman LA, Javitz HS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Special Series Introduction: Adolescents and Young Adults With LD and/or ADHD-Theoretical, Empirical, and Practical Perspectives.
Abstract The series of articles presented in this special issue focus on investigating two highly relevant objectives for adolescents and young adults with learning disabilities and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: (a) examination of neuropsychological, educational, familial, and socioemotional features among individuals with these disabilities, in the adolescence and young adulthood developmental phases, and (b) exploration of specific dimensions of interventional programs and contextual (e.g., class) environments aiming to enhance these youngsters' academic achievements. Corresponding with these objec...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 16, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Al-Yagon M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Double-Deficit Hypothesis in a Clinical Sample: Extension Beyond Reading.
This study explored the double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) in a transparent orthography (Finnish) and extended the view from reading disabilities to comorbidity of learning-related problems in math and attention. Children referred for evaluation of learning disabilities in second through sixth grade (N = 205) were divided into four groups based on rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological awareness (PA) according to the DDH: the double-deficit group, the naming speed deficit-only group, the phonological deficit-only group, and the no-deficit group. The results supported the DDH in that the prevalence and severity of rea...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 25, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Heikkilä R, Torppa M, Aro M, Närhi V, Ahonen T Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining Postsecondary Education Predictors and Participation for Students With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract Given the history of poor postschool outcomes for students with disabilities, researchers repeatedly sought to demonstrate the links between predictor variables and postschool outcomes for students with disabilities. This secondary data analysis used the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine the relationship between postsecondary education-related transition services and postsecondary education participation for students with learning disabilities. Logistic regression analyses indicated receiving core content area instruction in the general education classroom was positively related to postse...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 19, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Joshi GS, Bouck EC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Specific Learning Disorders: A Look Inside Children's and Parents' Psychological Well-Being and Relationships.
Abstract Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires as...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 21, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Bonifacci P, Storti M, Tobia V, Suardi A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Teaching Algebra to Students With Learning Disabilities: Where Have We Come and Where Should We Go?
Abstract This review investigates effective interventions for teaching algebra to students with learning disabilities and evaluates the complexity and alignment of skills with the Common Core State Standards in math. The review includes the results of 10 experimental and 5 single-subject designs (N = 15) producing a moderate overall effect size (g = 0.48). A total of five interventions were identified and analyzed across the studies using effect size data. PMID: 25548199 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 29, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Watt SJ, Watkins JR, Abbitt J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Strategic Development for Middle School Students Struggling With Fractions: Assessment and Intervention.
This study (a) utilized latent profile modeling to classify students into three different strategic developmental levels in solving fraction comparison problems and (b) accordingly provided differentiated strategic training for students starting from two different strategic developmental levels. In Study 1 we assessed 49 middle school students' performance on fraction comparison problems and categorized students into three clusters of strategic developmental clusters: a cross-multiplication cluster with the highest accuracy, a representation strategy cluster with medium accuracy, and a whole-number strategy cluster with th...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 15, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Zhang D, Stecker P, Huckabee S, Miller R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

In Search of Matthew Effects in Reading.
Abstract The concept of Matthew effects in reading development refers to a longitudinally widening gap between high achievers and low achievers. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to examine this idea. However, little attention has been paid to psychometric issues of scaling. Specifically, interval-level data are required to compare performance differences across performance ranges, but only ordinal-level data are available with current literacy measures. To demonstrate the interpretability problems of contrasting growth slopes, we use data from a longitudinal study of literacy development. We explor...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 26, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Protopapas A, Parrila R, Simos PG Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia.
Abstract Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A sample of 446 students (63 with dyslexia) completed a large test battery and a large questionnaire. Five factors were found in both the test battery and the questionnaire. These 10 factors loaded on 5 latent factors (spelling, phonology, short-term memory, rhyme/con...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 14, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Tamboer P, Vorst HC, Oort FJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students With Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?
We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process. In addition to test and instructional accommodations, many clinicians recommended that students with learning disabilities should have different educational expectations, standards, and methods of evaluation (i.e., grading) than their nondisabled classmates. Many of their recommendations for acco...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - November 13, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Weis R, Dean EL, Osborne KJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.
Abstract Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-se...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 27, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Little CW, Hart SA, Schatschneider C, Taylor J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

WISC-IV Intellectual Profiles in Italian Children With Specific Learning Disorder and Related Impairments in Reading, Written Expression, and Mathematics.
This study aimed at investigating the intellectual profile, assessed with the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), of 172 children with a diagnosis of SLD, compared to 74 clinical referral controls. WISC-IV intellectual functioning in children with SLD was characterized by a significant discrepancy between general ability and cognitive proficiency (General Ability Index [GAI] > Cognitive Proficiency Index [CPI]), and worse performances on the Similarities, Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests, supporting models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neuro...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 27, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Poletti M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties.
In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Catts HW, Nielsen DC, Bridges MS, Liu YS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences Among Children With Early-Emerging and Late-Emerging Word Reading Difficulty.
Abstract Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173) oversampled for children with RD using item-response crossed random-effects models. We distinguish between two subtypes of RD children with word recognition problems, those with early-emerging RD and late-emerging RD. An extensive set of predictors representing item-specif...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 20, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Kearns DM, Steacy LM, Compton DL, Gilbert JK, Goodwin AP, Cho E, Lindstrom ER, Collins AA Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Who Is At Risk for Persistent Mathematics Difficulties in the United States?
Abstract We analyzed two nationally representative, longitudinal data sets of U.S. children to identify risk factors for persistent mathematics difficulties (PMD). Results indicated that children from low socioeconomic households are at elevated risk of PMD at 48 and 60 months of age, as are children with cognitive delays, identified developmental delays or disabilities, and vocabulary difficulties. In contrast, children attending preschool either in Head Start or non-Head Start classrooms are at initially lower risk of PMD. Kindergarten-aged children experiencing either low socioeconomic status or mathematics diff...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 20, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Morgan PL, Farkas G, Hillemeier MM, Maczuga S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of Schema-Based Instruction on the Proportional Thinking of Students With Mathematics Difficulties With and Without Reading Difficulties.
This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on the proportional problem-solving performance of students with mathematics difficulties only (MD) and students with mathematics and reading difficulties (MDRD). Specifically, we examined the responsiveness of 260 seventh grade students identified as MD or MDRD to a 6-week treatment (SBI) on measures of proportional problem solving. Results indicated that students in the SBI condition significantly outperformed students in the control condition on a measure of proportional problem solving administered at posttest (g = 0.40) and again 6 weeks later (g = 0.42)...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 13, 2014 Category: Disability Authors: Jitendra AK, Dupuis DN, Star JR, Rodriguez MC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research