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Statins - Are they anticonvulsant?
Abstract Statins are the most popular and effective lipid-lowering medications beneficial in hypercholesterolemias and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Growing evidence supports theory that statins exhibit neuroprotective action in acute stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis or epilepsy. Hereby, we present available experimental data regarding action of this group of drugs on seizure activity and neuronal cell death. The most commonly examined statins, such as atorvastatin and simvastatin, display anticonvulsant action with only inconsiderable exceptions. However, the mechanism ...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Banach M, Czuczwar SJ, Borowicz KK Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Vitamin C: A new auxiliary treatment of epilepsy?
Abstract Although many approaches to the therapy of epilepsy exist, most of antiepileptic drugs, beside certain and unquestioned benefits, have convinced disadvantages. That is the reason for looking for new methods of treatment. Ascorbic acid, as an antioxidant and electron donor accumulated in central nervous system, seems to take part in diminishing reactions of oxidative stress in brain and cooperate with other antioxidants like alpha-tocoferol. Vitamin C, easily transported through the blood-brain barrier, is proved to reduce injury in the hippocampus during seizures. Depending on type of seizures, it has most...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sawicka-Glazer E, Czuczwar SJ Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Essential elements in depression and anxiety. Part I.
Abstract Essential elements are very important for the proper functioning of the human body. They are required for fundamental life processes such as cell division and differentiation and protein synthesis. Thus a deficiency of these essential elements is associated with an enormous health risk that can ultimately lead to death. In recent years, studies have provided valuable information on the involvement of essential elements in psychiatric disorders, in particular depression and anxiety. There is strong evidence indicating that deficiency of essential elements can lead to the development of depressive and/or anx...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Młyniec K, Davies CL, de Agüero Sánchez IG, Pytka K, Budziszewska B, Nowak G Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Antiarrhythmic drugs and epilepsy.
Abstract For a long time it has been suspected that epilepsy and cardiac arrhythmia may have common molecular background. Furthermore, seizures can affect function of the central autonomic control centers leading to short- and long-term alterations of cardiac rhythm. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) has most likely a cardiac mechanism. Common elements of pathogenesis create a basis for the assumption that antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) may affect seizure phenomena and interact with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Numerous studies have demonstrated anticonvulsant effects of AADs. Among class I AADs (sodium chann...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Borowicz KK, Banach M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The current approach into signaling pathways in pulmonary arterial hypertension and their implication in novel therapeutic strategies.
Abstract Many mediators and signaling pathways, with their downstream effectors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Currently approved drugs, representing an option of specific therapy, target NO, prostacyclin or ET-1 pathways and provide a significant improvement in the symptomatic status of patients and a slower rate of clinical deterioration. However, despite such improvements in the treatment, PAH remains a chronic disease without a cure, the mortality associated with PAH remains high and effective therapeutic regimens are still required. Knowledge about the role of the pathways...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jasińska-Stroschein M, Orszulak-Michalak D Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Evaluation of the clinical indications, adverse drug reactions, and finasteride use in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in Poland.
CONCLUSION: Finasteride was demonstrated to be effective, as evidenced by the significant decrease in TPV by 40% even after 12 months. It was also found to contribute to the attenuation of LUTSs, improvement in maximum flow rate, decrease in nocturia, and improvement in QoL. PMID: 24948055 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ząbkowski T Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Epicutaneous immunization with phosphorylcholine conjugated to bovine serum albumin (PC-BSA) and TLR9 ligand CpG alleviates pneumococcal pneumonia in mice.
CONCLUSION: This work shows that EC immunization with PC-BSA plus TLR9 ligand CpG may be a potential tool to boost immunity to S. pneumoniae. PMID: 24948056 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Majewska-Szczepanik M, Yamamoto N, Askenase PW, Szczepanik M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Protection of differentiated neuronal NG108-15 cells from P2X7 receptor-mediated toxicity by taurine.
CONCLUSIONS: The neuroprotective effect by taurine is attributed to the suppression of P2X7R-mediated ER stress and ROS formation. PMID: 24948057 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chao CC, Chan P, Kuo CS, Gong CL, Cheng TH, Liu ZM, Shen PC, Huang CC, Leung YM Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Development of an alternative non-obese non-genetic rat model of type 2 diabetes using caffeine and streptozotocin.
CONCLUSION: The data of food and fluid intake, body weight, blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR, HOMA-beta, serum insulin, fructosamine, lipid profile and organ specific enzymes, anti-diabetic drug response tests, and pancreatic histopathology suggest that CAF20 group can be a better alternative non-genetic model of non-obese T2D. PMID: 24948058 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Naidoo P, Islam MS Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of the combination of gallic acid and famotidine in protection of rat gastric mucosa.
CONCLUSION: Combination treatments confer synergistic protective effect against peptic ulcer in rats, which was related to the gastroprotective, antisecratory and antioxidant activity of combination treatment. Results proved that use of gallic acid with existing antiulcer drug will be more useful in the prevention/management of peptic ulcer. PMID: 24948059 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Asokkumar K, Sen S, Umamaheswari M, Sivashanmugam AT, Subhadradevi V Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Antinociceptive effect of d-Lys(2), Dab(4)N-(ureidoethyl)amide, a new cyclic 1-4 dermorphin/deltorphin analog.
CONCLUSIONS: Systemic application of cUP-1 elicited a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. The analgesic efficacy of cUP-1 on mechanical nociception, visceral and formalin-induced pain was comparable to that of MF. cUP-1 did not impair motor functions of mice. PMID: 24948060 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Antkowiak B, Paluch M, Ciechanowska M, Nawrocka M, Bańkowski K, Michalak O, Kocik J, Kowalczyk M, Izdebski J Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Effect of trimethylgallic acid esters against chronic stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that trimethylgallic acid esters could ameliorate chronic stress-induced various behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice, showing protective effects against chronic stress. PMID: 24948061 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dhingra MS, Dhingra S, Kumria R, Chadha R, Singh T, Kumar A, Karan M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenic patients discharged from psychiatric units in Poland.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of polypharmacy in Poland is similar to that reported in other countries. This may suggest that, in a substantial proportion of schizophrenic patients clinical response to the antipsychotic monotherapy is unsatisfactory. Further studies focusing on the efficacy and safety of strategies in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia not responding to antipsychotic monotherapy are necessary. PMID: 24948062 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jaracz J, Tetera-Rudnicka E, Kujath D, Raczyńska A, Stoszek S, Czernaś W, Wierzbiński P, Moniakowski A, Jaracz K, Rybakowski J Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Metrifonate, like acetylcholine, up-regulates neurotrophic activity of cultured rat astrocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: Metrifonate up-regulates astrocytic NGF and BDNF synthesis in the same manner as acetylcholine, their effect depends on different cholinergic pathways. These results suggest a trophic role of metrifonate, based on a well-known neurotrophic activity of NGF and BDNF in vivo. PMID: 24948063 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mele T, Jurič DM Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Interferon alpha and rapamycin inhibit the growth of carcinoid and medullary thyroid cancer in vitro.
Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are highly vascularized neoplasms characterized by rising incidence. Moreover, the neuroendocrine cells were shown to express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors. Therefore, angiomodulators could be potentially a new group of drugs enhancing still unsatisfactory effectiveness of NET therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the direct influence of angiomodulators: VEGF and five endogenous and exogenous antiangiogenic compounds (endostatin, interferon alpha [IFNα], rapamycin, JV1-36, semaxinib [SU5416]) on the growth of two NET cell lines: lung carci...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Motylewska E, Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Niedziela A, Melen-Mucha G, Stepien H Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The effect of active and passive intravenous cocaine administration on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in the rat brain.
Abstract According to a current hypothesis of learning processes, recent papers pointed out to an important role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in drug addiction. We employed the Western blotting techniques to examine the ERK activity immediately after cocaine iv self-administration and in different drug-free withdrawal periods in rats. To distinguish motivational vs. pharmacological effects of the psychostimulant intake, a "yoked" procedure was used. Animals were decapitated after 14 daily cocaine self-administration sessions or on the 1st, 3rd or 10th extinction days. At each time point the a...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Miszkiel J, Detka J, Cholewa J, Frankowska M, Nowak E, Budziszewska B, Przegaliński E, Filip M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

A comparison of mecamylamine and bupropion effects on memory-related responses induced by nicotine and scopolamine in the novel object recognition test in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our studies unveiling neuronal mechanisms for cholinergic system of memory processes, via both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, will be useful for development of more effective pharmacotherapies for memory impairment-like treatment of human disorders in which cholinergic pathways have been implicated. PMID: 24948066 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kruk-Słomka M, Michalak A, Budzyńska B, Biała G Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Protective effect of nimesulide against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: Effects on oxidant/antioxidants, DNA mutation and COX-1/COX-2 levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Nimesulide at 100mg/kg prevented oxidative liver damage induced with I/R significantly better than at a dose of 50mg/kg. These experimental findings indicate that nimesulide may be useful in the treatment of hepatic I/R damage. PMID: 24948067 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Demiryilmaz I, Turan MI, Kisaoglu A, Gulapoglu M, Yilmaz I, Suleyman H Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Involvement of PKA, PKC, CAMK-II and MEK1/2 in the acute antidepressant-like effect of creatine in mice.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of creatine is dependent on PKA, CaMK-II, PKC and MEK 1/2 activation. PMID: 24948068 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cunha MP, Budni J, Pazini FL, Oliveira A, Rosa JM, Lopes MW, Leal RB, Rodrigues AL Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The influence of AAV2-mediated gene transfer of human IL-10 on neurodegeneration and immune response in a murine model of Parkinson's disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the transfer of AAV2-hIL-10 into the striatum may play a neuroprotective role in the mouse MPTP model of PD and these effects are mediated by the anti-inflammatory action of IL-10. PMID: 24948069 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Joniec-Maciejak I, Ciesielska A, Wawer A, Sznejder-Pachołek A, Schwenkgrub J, Cudna A, Hadaczek P, Bankiewicz KS, Członkowska A, Członkowski A Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Investigation into the role of Cu/Zn-SOD delivery system on its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity in rat model of peritonitis.
CONCLUSION: SOD supplementation interferes both with inflammatory and oxidative pathways involved in LPS-induced acute inflammation, PEG-ylated liposomal formulation being of choice among the tested delivery systems. PMID: 24948070 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Porfire AS, Leucuţa SE, Kiss B, Loghin F, Pârvu AE Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Comparison of cardioprotective effects of labeled and unlabeled oleanoic acids with new BOPIM dye on primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes following hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.
CONCLUSION: BOPIM chromophore is a suitable probe for investigating the pharmacological mechanisms of natural products. PMID: 24948071 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang S, He HB, Xiao SZ, Wang JZ, Bai CH, Wei N, Zou K Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Significance of the genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6 and NAT2 in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphism of the gene encoding CYP2D6 does not affect the incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases. The carriers of the NAT2*7 allele which determines slow acetylation may be more predisposed to inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. PMID: 24948072 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dudarewicz M, Rychlik-Sych M, Barańska M, Wojtczak A, Trzciński R, Dziki A, Skrętkowicz J Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Nitroxyl inhibits overt pain-like behavior in mice: Role of cGMP/PKG/ATP-sensitive potassium channel signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates the efficacy of a nitroxyl donor and its analgesic mechanisms in overt pain-like behavior by activating the cGMP/PKG/ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(+)) signaling pathway. PMID: 24948073 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Staurengo-Ferrari L, Zarpelon AC, Longhi-Balbinot DT, Marchesi M, Cunha TM, Alves-Filho JC, Cunha FQ, Ferreira SH, Casagrande R, Miranda KM, Verri WA Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Involvement of leukotriene B4 in dermatophyte-related itch in mice.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest the involvement of LTB4 in dermatophyte-associated itch. LTB4 production might be due to PAR2 stimulation in the skin. PMID: 24948074 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Andoh T, Takayama Y, Kuraishi Y Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Catalase activity in blood fractions of patients with sporadic ALS.
CONCLUSIONS: CAT activity in erythrocytes, in contrast to other blood fractions is reduced in sALS cases as compared to controls, which may indirectly indicate that antioxidant defense system in erythrocytes is involved in pathogenesis of sALS. PMID: 24948075 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Golenia A, Leśkiewicz M, Regulska M, Budziszewska B, Szczęsny E, Jagiełła J, Wnuk M, Ostrowska M, Lasoń W, Basta-Kaim A, Słowik A Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of novel pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives.
CONCLUSION: The results may indicate that the decrease in the susceptibility to seizures induced by the new pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives is related to the significant affinity to serotonergic or α1-adrenergic receptors. Also putative mechanism of action of the test compounds can be linked with their GABA-ergic activity, because these novel derivatives are GABA analogs. PMID: 24948076 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sapa J, Zygmunt M, Kulig K, Malawska B, Dudek M, Filipek B, Bednarski M, Kusak A, Nowak G Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors pravastatin, lovastatin and simvastatin suppress delayed rectifier K(+)-channel currents in murine thymocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated for the first time that statins inhibit thymocyte Kv1.3-channels. The slow inactivation patterns induced by lovastatin and simvastatin may be associated with their accumulation in the plasma membranes. PMID: 24948077 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kazama I, Baba A, Maruyama Y Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The effect of caffeine on MDMA-induced hydroxyl radical production in the mouse striatum.
CONCLUSIONS: The data show that caffeine may have neuroprotective properties as it decreased oxidative stress induced by MDMA. PMID: 24948078 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Górska AM, Noworyta-Sokołowska K, Gołembiowska K Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Partial effects of the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine in a battery of tests for manic-like behavior in black Swiss mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The partial effects in the battery are not unique as previous studies showed that lithium, valproate and risperidone, all used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, have distinct profiles in the battery. It is therefore concluded that chelerythrine may have antimanic effects and additional dose and time response studies are warranted to further evaluate its range of activity. PMID: 24948079 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 22, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Einat H Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Modulation of adenosinergic system and its application for the treatment of epilepsy.
Abstract Adenosine is present in all cells and is implicated in the control of the function of every tissue and organ. The elevated adenosine levels seem to play a significant role in a protection against cellular damage in the regions with increased metabolic demand and prevent the subsequent dysfunction of the affected organs. Furthermore, adenosine has been shown to play an important role not only in the regulation of pathophysiological processes, but also in the modulation of normal physiological processes, for example, the regulation of sleep and arousal as well as by impact on pre- or postsynaptic receptors i...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Swiąder MJ, Kotowski J, Luszczki JJ Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Glutamate and modeling of schizophrenia symptoms: Review of our Findings: 1990-2014.
Abstract In the early 90s, we studied the role of perception disturbances in schizophrenia in our first clinical approaches, using the Bender test in schizophrenic patients. Results were clear, showing a shape discrimination failure. Following this initial results, we reproduced nuclear symptoms of schizophrenia in animal models, showing that perceptual disturbances, acquisition disturbances, decrease in affective levels and working memory disturbances can be induced by specific N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamatergic blockade within the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS). We studied also another glutamatergic and...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gargiulo PA, Landa De Gargiulo AI Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Pharmacological characterization of carrageenan induced heat muscle hyperalgesia in rats using non-selective, preferential and selective COX-2 inhibitors.
CONCLUSION: In the present carrageenan induced chronic pain model we have determined the role of analgesics in the reversal and inhibition of the state of chronic hyperalgesia. While considering the characterization of the present model our observations suggest the importance of a spinal COX-2 mechanism, a spinal action of systemically delivered drugs in the face of peripheral inflammation. PMID: 24905509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chopade AR, Sayyad FJ, Naikwade NS Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Mechanisms of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release induced by P2X receptor activation in mesenteric artery myocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: P2X receptor activation in mesenteric artery SMCs recruits IP3Rs-mediated Ca(2+) release from sub-PM SR, which is facilitated by activation of VGCCs. Sensitivity of IP3R-mediated release to VGCC antagonists in vascular SMCs makes this mechanism of special therapeutic significance. PMID: 24905510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sukhanova KY, Thugorka OM, Bouryi VA, Harhun MI, Gordienko DV Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Comparison of the effects of methanethiol and sodium sulphide on uterine contractile activity.
CONCLUSION: Our results imply that CH3SH may have a constructive role in the control of muscle function and metabolism. Observed differences between CH3SH and H2S/HS(-) could be attributed to a larger moiety that is present in CH3SH compared to H2S, but they are more likely to be a consequence of the specific actions of HS(-), in relation to its negative charge. PMID: 24905511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mijušković A, Oreščanin-Dušić Z, Nikolić-Kokić A, Slavić M, Spasić MB, Spasojević I, Blagojević D Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Tumor necrosis factor alpha abolished the suppressive effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis stimulated by cAMP.
CONCLUSION: TNFα acutely abolished the suppressive effect of physiological, but not supraphysiological, levels of insulin on HGP and glycogenolysis stimulated by cAMP, suggesting an important role of this mechanism to the increased HGP in several pathological states. PMID: 24905512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: da Rocha AF, Liboni TF, Kurauti MA, de Souza CO, Miksza DR, Moreira CC, Borba-Murad GR, Bazotte RB, de Souza HM Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Opioid modulation of prolactin secretion induced by stress during late pregnancy. Role of ovarian steroids.
CONCLUSIONS: Opioid system suppression of prolactin stress response during late pregnancy was observed only after progesterone withdrawal, involving a different opioid mechanism from its well-established stimulatory role. This mechanism acts through a mu opioid receptor and requires estrogen participation. The opioid system and progesterone may modulate stress-induced prolactin release, probably involving a putative prolactin-releasing factor. PMID: 24905513 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Valdez SR, Pennacchio GE, Gamboa DF, de Di Nasso EG, Bregonzio C, Soaje M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Role of glutamate and advantages of combining memantine with a 5HT6 ligand in a model of depression.
CONCLUSION: Loss of antidepressant like property seen at the highest tested dose of SB399885 could be due to increased glutamate levels which was reversed by memantine. Combining memantine and SB399885 offers the advantage of extending the therapeutic window of antidepressant like property of SB399885 as well as having procognitve effect. The combination therapy holds promise in treatment of dementia associated with depression. PMID: 24905514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Abraham R, Nirogi R, Shinde A Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Orphenadrine-induced convulsive status epilepticus in rats responds to the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above findings, one may speculate that NMDA activation is partly involved in the proconvulsant activity of orphenadrine but may not be the primary pathomechanism. ORPH-induced seizures may provide an interesting option for studying novel targets for pharmacological interventions in status epilepticus. PMID: 24905515 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rejdak K, Nieoczym D, Czuczwar M, Kiś J, Wlaź P, Turski WA Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The influence of aripiprazole, olanzapine and enriched environment on depressant-like behavior, spatial memory dysfunction and hippocampal level of BDNF in prenatally stressed rats.
CONCLUSION: It has been confirmed that enriched environment improves spatial memory of animals, removes symptoms of stress, has an antidepressant-like effect, and that new neuroleptics, such as ARI or OLA, modulate these functions (increased BDNF). PMID: 24905516 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nowakowska E, Kus K, Ratajczak P, Cichocki M, Woźniak A Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Effect of glimepiride on the skeletal system of ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Glimepiride, in the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women, may have a beneficial effect on bone remodeling and may reduce the risk of development of osteoporosis. PMID: 24905517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fronczek-Sokół J, Pytlik M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Metformin affects macrophages' phenotype and improves the activity of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and decreases malondialdehyde concentration in a partially AMPK-independent manner in LPS-stimulated human monocytes/macrophages.
CONCLUSIONS: Authors believe that metformin-based therapy, a cornerstone in diabetes therapy, not only improves the prognosis of diabetics by reducing blood glucose but also by reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production and the shift toward alternative activation of macrophages. PMID: 24905518 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bułdak L, Labuzek K, Bułdak RJ, Kozłowski M, Machnik G, Liber S, Suchy D, Duława-Bułdak A, Okopień B Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Reboxetine and its influence on the action of classical antiepileptic drugs in the mouse maximal electroshock model.
CONCLUSIONS: As far as the obtained data can be extrapolated into clinical conditions, it seems that reboxetine may be safely used in the treatment of depressive disorders in epileptic patients. PMID: 24905519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Borowicz KK, Zarczuk R, Latalski M, Borowicz KM Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Telmisartan attenuates cognitive impairment caused by chronic stress in rats.
CONCLUSION: It appears that telmisartan may constitute a new therapeutic option in a stress-related cognitive impairment. PMID: 24905520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wincewicz D, Braszko JJ Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The effect of ezetimibe on adipose tissue hormones in patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.
CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results indicate that the presence of isolated hypercholesterolemia is associated with abnormal hormonal function of the adipose tissue. They also show that ezetimibe induces relatively small changes in adipose tissue hormonal function and systemic inflammation in patients with elevated cholesterol levels. PMID: 24905521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Krysiak R, Zmuda W, Okopień B Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Mortality in hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease depends on chronopharmacotherapy and dipping status.
CONCLUSIONS: The non-dipping profile of CHD patients and increased mortality were related to a lack of antihypertensive drug administration at bedtime. PMID: 24905522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sobiczewski W, Wirtwein M, Gruchała M, Kocić I Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Essential difference between the pharmacological spectrum of (-)-deprenyl and rasagiline.
CONCLUSIONS: Since convincing experimental and clinical evidence speaks in favor for the conclusion that the catecholaminergic activity enhancer (CAE) effect of (-)-deprenyl is responsible for the significantly delayed need for levodopa therapy in untreated patients with PD (Knoll, 2012) and rasagiline is devoid of the CAE effect, this might explain why "…based on current evidence, rasagiline cannot be said to definitely have a disease-modifying effect" [Robottom, 2011]. PMID: 24905523 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Miklya I Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Analgesic effects of antidepressants alone and after their local co-administration with morphine in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the results suggest that when amitriptyline (but not doxepin or venlafaxine) is locally co-administered with morphine the effectiveness under neuropathic pain is enhanced, although additional studies are necessary to explain differential mechanisms of interaction of antidepressant drugs with morphine after local administration. PMID: 24905524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jagla G, Mika J, Makuch W, Obara I, Wordliczek J, Przewlocka B Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Modulation by kynurenine of extracellular kynurenate and glutamate in cerebral cortex of rats with acute liver failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Administration of exogenous KYN to stimulate KYNA synthesis may help correcting excessive extracellular accumulation of GLU in cerebral cortex caused by ALF. The therapeutic potential of KYN in ALF appears to be fostered by increased expression of KAT-II in astrocytes upon exposure to KYN or Trp. PMID: 24905525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hilgier W, Kocki T, Obara-Michlewska M, Turski WA, Oja SS, Saransaari P, Albrecht J Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

A novel synthetic HTB derivative, BECT inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory response by suppressing the p38 MAPK/JNK and NF-κB activation pathways.
Abstract Activated microglia cells are well recognized as mediators of neuroinflammation, as they release nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines in various neuroinflammatory diseases. Thus, suppressing microglial activation may alleviate neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. In the present study, we synthesized and investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of a novel HTB (2-hydroxy-4-trifuoromethylbenzoic acid) derivative in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells. Among the synthesized derivatives, the BECT [But-2-enedioic acid bis-(2-carboxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl) ester] sig...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kang SM, More SV, Park JY, Kim BW, In PJ, Yoon SH, Choi DK Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research