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Mechanistic Role of MicroRNA in Cancer Chemoprevention by Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs.
Abstract Over the past several decades, studies have documented the significance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on cancer chemoprevention by lowering incidence and slowing down progression of malignant disease, which consequently lead to decline of cancer-related mortality and improvement of disease progression free survival (PFS). Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) has been primarily believed to be the key mechanism responsible for anticancer activity of NSAIDs, while the serious toxicity caused by COX inhibitory effect reduces the enthusiasm to use NSAIDs as chemoprevention agents in the clinic....
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ma R, Yi B, Piazza GA, Xi Y Tags: Curr Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

One-Carbon Metabolism and Colorectal Cancer: Potential Mechanisms of Chemoprevention.
Abstract For many years folic acid has been evaluated for its utility as a chemopreventive agent due to its position at the center of the one-carbon metabolic network. This network is responsible for generating precursors to nucleotide synthesis as well as the one-carbon moieties used in DNA methylation reactions, two mechanisms which are frequently disrupted during carcinogenesis. While the use of folic acid for the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer is still controversial, there is evidence that folic acid intake has significant influence on these fundamental cellular mechanisms. Folic acid has a dual role with...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hanley MP, Rosenberg DW Tags: Curr Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

An Overview of Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Skin Cancer Chemoprevention by Silibinin.
Abstract Skin cancer incidences are rising worldwide, and one of the major causative factors is excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Annually, ~5 million skin cancer patients are treated in United States, mostly with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), which is also frequent in other Western countries. As sunscreens do not provide adequate protection against deleterious effects of UVR, additional and alternative chemoprevention strategies are urgently needed to reduce skin cancer burden. Over the last couple of decades, extensive research has been conducted to understand the molecular basis of skin ...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kumar R, Deep G, Agarwal R Tags: Curr Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Epigenetic Regulation of miRNAs and Breast Cancer Stem Cells.
Abstract MicroRNAs have emerged as important targets of chemopreventive strategies in breast cancer. We have found that miRNAs are dysregulated at an early stage in breast cancer, in non-malignant Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. Many dietary chemoprevention agents can act by epigenetically activating miRNA-signaling pathways involved in tumor cell proliferation and invasive progression. In addition, many miRNAs activated via chemopreventive strategies target cancer stem cell signaling and prevent tumor progression or relapse. Specifically, we have found that miRNAs regulate DCIS stem cells, which may play important roles...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Duru N, Gernapudi R, Eades G, Eckert R, Zhou Q Tags: Curr Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The influence of the route of administration of gold nanoparticles on their tissue distribution and basic biochemical parameters: In vivo studies.
CONCLUSION: Accumulation of those nanoparticles effect in increases of FRAP and glucose level up to 27% and 73%, respectively. This in turn suggests that iv administration of AuNPs may effect in serious medical complications. On the other site, the accumulation in the liver of about 50% of introduced particles to the rats body is promising for phototherapy and it opens "door" for drug transport to this organ. PMID: 25933945 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bednarski M, Dudek M, Knutelska J, Nowiński L, Sapa J, Zygmunt M, Nowak G, Luty-Błocho M, Wojnicki M, Fitzner K, Tęsiorowski M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The protective effect of curcumin administration on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
CONCLUSION: The finding of our study indicates that CUR may have an important role to play in protecting the kidney from oxidative insult. PMID: 25933946 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hismiogullari AA, Hismiogullari SE, Karaca O, Sunay FB, Paksoy S, Can M, Kus I, Seyrek K, Yavuz O Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Seizure susceptibility to electroconvulsions or pentylenetetrazol after complete cerebral ischemia in rats due to cardiac arrest.
CONCLUSIONS: It is evident that global brain ischemia is associated with a transient reduction in the convulsive threshold for pentylenetetrazol whilst the threshold for electroconvulsions remains unchanged. PMID: 25933947 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dudra-Jastrzębska M, Ułamek-Kozioł M, Andres-Mach M, Łuszczki JJ, Januszewski S, Czuczwar SJ, Pluta R Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Cocaine exposure alters H2S tissue concentrations in peripheral mouse organs.
CONCLUSION: A reduction in the peripheral tissue H2S level in the heart, liver and kidney homogenates after repeated injections of cocaine may be the result of a strong toxic effect of the drug. PMID: 25933948 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Frankowska M, Wiliński B, Somogyi E, Piotrowska J, Filip M, Opoka W Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Antiepileptic drugs and adverse skin reactions: An update.
Abstract This paper summarizes current views on clinical manifestation, pathogenesis, prognosis and management of antiepileptic drug (AED)-induced adverse skin reactions. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed) and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched. The recent classification, among drug-induced skin injuries, points to Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS), which may be also recognized as a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity syn...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Błaszczyk B, Lasoń W, Czuczwar SJ Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Apomorphine enhances harmaline-induced tremor in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that the dopamine agonist apomorphine enhances the tremor induced by harmaline, and this effect is at least partly independent of hyperactivity. PMID: 25933950 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ossowska K, Głowacka U, Kosmowska B, Wardas J Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Functional polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) gene is not associated with schizophrenia and with its deficit subtype.
CONCLUSION: We found no evidence for the association between the functional MMP-9 -1562C/T gene polymorphism and deficit/non-deficit subtypes of schizophrenia. PMID: 25933951 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bienkowski P, Samochowiec J, Pelka-Wysiecka J, Grzywacz A, Skibinska M, Jasiewicz A, Tybura P, Wroński M, Jarema M, Samochowiec A Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.
CONCLUSION: Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. PMID: 25933952 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Musik I, Kocot J, Kiełczykowska M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Context-controlled nicotine-induced changes in the labeling of serotonin (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the rat brain.
CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that chronic nicotine administration in home cages induces bi-directional neuroplastic changes within 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Pairing the nicotine with environmental context potentiates the neuroplastic response in the latter region and evokes opposite changes in 5-HT2A receptor binding in striatal and tegmental regions compared with nicotine administered in the absence of the context, indicating a modulatory role of environmental context in the expression of nicotine-induced sensitization. PMID: 25933953 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zaniewska M, McCreary AC, Wydra K, Faron-Górecka A, Filip M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Increased prevalence of functional minor allele variants of drug metabolizing CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 genes in Roma population samples.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate an increased minor allele frequency for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in Roma samples that implies clinical significance in this ethnic group. PMID: 25933954 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Weber A, Szalai R, Sipeky C, Magyari L, Melegh M, Jaromi L, Matyas P, Duga B, Kovesdi E, Hadzsiev K, Melegh B Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Anticonvulsant active inhibitor of GABA transporter subtype 1, tiagabine, with activity in mouse models of anxiety, pain and depression.
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in the present study suggest that tiagabine, apart its anticonvulsant effect, has anxiolytic-like, sedative and antidepressant-like properties. In view of this, it can be potentially used in the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. PMID: 25933955 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sałat K, Podkowa A, Kowalczyk P, Kulig K, Dziubina A, Filipek B, Librowski T Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Ellagic acid enhances the antinociceptive action of venlafaxine in mouse acetic acid-induced pain: An isobolographic analysis.
CONCLUSION: The synergistic action of EA and VLF provides valuable tool referring to the management of visceral pain. PMID: 25933956 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mansouri MT, Naghizadeh B, Ghorbanzadeh B Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like effect of modafinil in mice: Evidence for the involvement of the dopaminergic neurotransmission.
CONCLUSION: Results show that modafinil induced an antidepressant property in TST and this effect apparently was mediated through interaction with the dopaminergic (D2 receptors) system. PMID: 25933957 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mahmoudi J, Farhoudi M, Talebi M, Sabermarouf B, Sadigh-Eteghad S Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Clonidine intensifies memantine cutaneous analgesia in response to local skin noxious pinprick in the rat.
CONCLUSIONS: Our resulting data showed that memantine displayed more potent cutaneous analgesia than lidocaine. Co-administration of memantine or lidocaine with clonidine increased the potency and duration of the cutaneous analgesia. Clonidine intensified the effects of lidocaine promoting cutaneous analgesia than added to memantine. PMID: 25933958 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wu BT, Chen KT, Liu KS, Chen YW, Hung CH, Wang JJ Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Evaluation of the role of NMDA receptor function in antidepressant-like activity. A new study with citalopram and fluoxetine in the forced swim test in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The present literature data indicate that the antidepressant-like activity of conventional antidepressants is generally affected by the NMDA receptor, although by modulation from different sites of the complex. Thus, it supports the issue of the ability of NMDA receptor antagonists to enhance the antidepressant action in human depression. PMID: 25933959 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wolak M, Siwek A, Szewczyk B, Poleszak E, Bystrowska B, Moniczewski A, Rutkowska A, Młyniec K, Nowak G Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of cotinine in rats: A potential therapeutic agent for disorders of cognitive function.
CONCLUSIONS: Several important facts about the PK properties in rats suggested COT could be a potential pro-cognitive agent. Information about the pharmacokinetics of COT in rats revealed in this study is of great importance for the future studies on COT or potential COT analogs as agents for improving cognition. PMID: 25933960 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li P, Beck WD, Callahan PM, Terry AV, Bartlett MG Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Long-term disease-modifying effect of the endocannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 in a rat model of audiogenic epilepsy.
CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that short-term potentiation of the eCB system might modify the epileptogenic disease process in patients with a progressive course of epilepsy. PMID: 25933961 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vinogradova LV, van Rijn CM Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Binge eating in pre-clinical models.
Abstract Obesity is a globally widespread disease. Approximately 35% of world population has the problem of inappropriate body weight due to sedentary lifestyle, excessive food consumption and the lack of physical activity. In the course of many years, several pharmacological anti-obesity drugs have been discovered. Most of them, however, possess severe side effects. Recent findings suggest that disturbed functioning of the reward system can be involved in the development of obesity. The data coming from clinical and animal studies provide new evidence that links excessive food consumption with compulsive behavior ...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rospond B, Szpigiel J, Sadakierska-Chudy A, Filip M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Effect of atorvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic pain: Implication for osteoarthritis therapy.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that atorvastatin attenuates MIA-induced osteoarthritic pain and protect cartilage degradation through inhibition of oxidative stress suggesting its importance in osteoarthritic pain management. PMID: 25933963 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pathak NN, Balaganur V, Lingaraju MC, Kant V, Kumar D, Kumar D, Sharma AK, Tandan SK Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Telmisartan decreases inflammation by modulating TNF-α, IL-10, and RANK/RANKL in a rat model of ulcerative colitis.
CONCLUSION: Telmisartan exerts beneficial effects in an acetic acid model of colitis in rats. These effects may be due to accelerated termination of the acute inflammatory phase, indicated by decreased TNF-α and increased production of IL-10 and low expression of RANKL and RANK. PMID: 25933964 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Guerra GC, Araújo AA, Lira GA, Melo MN, Souto KK, Fernandes D, Silva AL, Júnior RF Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Anti-tumor potential of nitroxyl derivative Pirolin in the DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma model: A comparison with quercetin.
CONCLUSION: The attenuation of tumor progression by Pirolin was comparable with the action of quercetin. No negative changes were observed in the heart of animals after Pirolin treatment. Thus, its use in targeting deregulated redox pathways should be further studied. PMID: 25933965 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tabaczar S, Domeradzka K, Czepas J, Piasecka-Zelga J, Stetkiewicz J, Gwoździński K, Koceva-Chyła A Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Subacute poisoning of mice with deltamethrin produces memory impairment, reduced locomotor activity, liver damage and changes in blood morphology in the mechanism of oxidative stress.
CONCLUSION: The results obtained indicate that liver and bone marrow, apart from the central nervous system (CNS) are damaged in the course of subacute poisoning with DEL. The possible common mechanism of the damage is oxidative stress. PMID: 25933966 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nieradko-Iwanicka B, Borzęcki A Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

The pharmacokinetic interaction between levofloxacin and sunitinib.
CONCLUSIONS: The study proved that there is a potential pharmacokinetic interaction between sunitinib and levofloxacin. The statistical analysis proved that the limited sample strategy can be applied for levofloxacin. PMID: 25933967 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Czyrski A, Kondys K, Szałek E, Karbownik A, Grześkowiak E Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Celecoxib reduces hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia in diabetic rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that celecoxib produces an antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effect in diabetic rats. These effects seem to result from activation of μ, δ and κ opioid receptors for antinociception and μ and δ for antiallodynia. Celecoxib could be useful to treat neuropathic pain in diabetic patients. PMID: 25933968 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Juárez-Rojop IE, Morales-Hernández PE, Tovilla-Zárate CA, Bermúdez-Ocaña DY, Torres-Lopez JE, Ble-Castillo JL, Díaz-Zagoya JC, Granados-Soto V Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Hypocholesterolemic and choleretic effects of three dimethoxycinnamic acids in relation to 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid in rats fed with a high-cholesterol/cholate diet.
CONCLUSIONS: 2,4,5-TMC (which has three methoxyls) had the highest hypocholesterolemic activity, while 3,4-DMC, which lacks the methoxyl in carbon 2 but conserves the two other methoxyls in an adjacent position, had the highest choleretic activity and a probable cholelitholytic activity. In methoxycinnamic acids with two methoxyls in non-adjacent positions (2,4-DMC and 3,5-DMC), the hypocholesterolemic and choleretic activities were not as evident. 2,4,5-TMC and 3,4-DMC, which did not cause liver damage during the treatment period, should be further explored as a hypocholesterolemic and choleretic compounds in humans. ...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Serna M, Wong-Baeza C, Santiago-Hernández JC, Baeza I, Wong C Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Oxidative stress as an etiological factor and a potential treatment target of psychiatric disorders. Part 1. Chemical aspects and biological sources of oxidative stress in the brain.
Abstract Oxidative stress is a dysfunctional state of living cells, caused by the disturbance of the pro-/antioxidative equilibrium. This dynamic equilibrium, constitutive for all aerobic organisms, is an inevitable necessity of maintaining the level of oxidative factors on non-destructive value to the cell. Among these factors reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are the best known molecules. This review article shows the current state of knowledge on the chemical specificity, relative reactivity and main sources of ROS and RNS in biological systems. As a Part 1 to the report about the...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Moniczewski A, Gawlik M, Smaga I, Niedzielska E, Krzek J, Przegaliński E, Pera J, Filip M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Oxidative stress as an etiological factor and a potential treatment target of psychiatric disorders. Part 2. Depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and autism.
Abstract The pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and autism, is far from being fully elucidated. In recent years, a potential role of the oxidative stress has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. A body of clinical and preclinical evidence indicates that psychiatric diseases are characterized by higher levels of oxidative biomarkers and with lower levels of antioxidant defense biomarkers in the brain and peripheral tissues. In this article, we review current knowledge on the role of the oxidative stress in psychiatric diseases, based o...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Smaga I, Niedzielska E, Gawlik M, Moniczewski A, Krzek J, Przegaliński E, Pera J, Filip M Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Luteolin 8-C-β-fucopyranoside downregulates IL-6 expression by inhibiting MAPKs and the NF-κB signaling pathway in human monocytic cells.
Abstract Numerous studies have been suggested that derivatives can improve the effects of original substances. Therefore, we made luteolin derivative luteolin 8-C-β-fucopyranoside (LU8C-FP) for better anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In a previous study, we demonstrated that LU8C-FP inhibits invasion of human breast cancer cells via suppression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and IL-8, which play major roles in tumor progression and cancer cell invasion. Various stimuli trigger inflammatory responses by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in THP-1 cells. IL-6 induces inflammation via inducin...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee YS, Kim MS, Lee DH, Kwon TH, Song HH, Oh SR, Yoon do Y Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Characterization and preliminary anticonvulsant assessment of some 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives.
CONCLUSIONS: 5-Butyl-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole and 5-heptyl-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole could become potentially favorable antiepileptic drugs, if the results from this study were to be extrapolated into clinical settings. PMID: 25933973 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Luszczki JJ, Karpińska M, Matysiak J, Niewiadomy A Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Effects of microinjection of histamine into the anterior cingulate cortex on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats.
CONCLUSION: The results of the present study showed pain suppressing effects for histamine. Histamine H2 and H3, and to a lesser extent, H1 receptors might be involved in histamine-induced antinociception. Opioid receptors might be involved in suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide. PMID: 25933974 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hamzeh-Gooshchi N, Tamaddonfard E, Farshid AA Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Dawn of antioxidants and immune modulators to stop HIV-progression and boost the immune system in HIV/AIDS patients: An updated comprehensive and critical review.
Abstract In the last two decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the retrovirus responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Providing the optimum management of HIV/AIDS is a major challenge in the 21st century. Since, HIV-infected persons have an extended lifespan due to the development of effective antiretroviral therapies, malnutrition is becoming central factors of long-term survivors. The nutrition status of AIDS patients has a significant influence on the maintenance and optimal effectiveness of the immune system. Micro...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Singh G, Pai RS Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Zinc sulphate: A reasonable choice for depression management in patients with multiple sclerosis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
CONCLUSION: Therefore, the zinc supplementation is an appropriate choice for the depression management in patients with MS. PMID: 25933976 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Salari S, Khomand P, Arasteh M, Yousefzamani B, Hassanzadeh K Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

n-3 Fatty acids as resolvents of inflammation in the A549 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study have revealed the pro-inflammatory properties of AA, while the EPA and DHA had the opposite, resolving effect. Interestingly, FP-receptor inhibition by EPA and DHA demonstrated the unique role of the FP-receptor as a potential target for antagonists, in the diseases of inflammatory character. This study provides new information about n-3 fatty acids and their pro-resolving mediators, which can be used in the process of developing new anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID: 25933977 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gdula-Argasińska J, Czepiel J, Woźniakiewicz A, Wojtoń K, Grzywacz A, Woźniakiewicz M, Jurczyszyn A, Perucki W, Librowski T Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid and sodium hydrogen sulfide in dinitro benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) - Induced ulcerative colitis in rats.
CONCLUSION: The observed beneficial effects following CDCA may be due to its action through activation of CSE enzyme which leads to hydrogen sulfide generation. PMID: 25933978 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Goyal N, Rana A, Bijjem KR, Kumar P Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Brain concentrations of mGluR5 negative allosteric modulator MTEP in relation to receptor occupancy - Comparison to MPEP.
CONCLUSIONS: At behaviourally active dose MTEP produced complete mGluR5 receptor occupancy but over 50 times higher ECF concentrations than affinity for mGluR5 receptor in vitro. This difference is seems lower for other mGluR5 NAM compounds such as MPEP. A possibly explanation could be different distribution in body compartments of both agents leading to errors of estimation with the microdialysis technique or different pharmacological activity at the receptor. PMID: 25933979 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nagel J, Greco S, Parsons CG, Flik G, Tober C, Klein KU, Danysz W Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

β-Resorcylidene aminoguanidine (RAG) dilates coronary arteries in an endothelium-independent manner.
CONCLUSIONS: RAG is a strong vasodilator that exerts its effect via endothelium-independent mechanisms. PMID: 25933980 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kazmierczak PA, Dobaczewski MP, Przygodzki T, Carsky J, Watala C Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Role of mTOR inhibitors in epilepsy treatment.
Abstract In spite of the fact, that subsequent new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are being introduced into clinical practice, the percentage of drug-resistant epilepsy cases remains stable. Although a substantial progress has been made in safety profile of antiepileptic drugs, currently available substances have not been unambiguously proven to display disease-modifying effect in epilepsy and their mechanisms of action influence mainly on the end-stage phase of epileptogenesis, namely seizures. Prevention of epileptogenesis requires new generation of drugs modulating molecular pathways engaged in epileptogenesis proce...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sadowski K, Kotulska-Jóźwiak K, Jóźwiak S Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulfide in pharmacology and medicine - An update.
Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the endogenously produced gasotransmitter involved in the regulation of nervous system, cardiovascular functions, inflammatory response, gastrointestinal system and renal function. Together with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, H2S belongs to a family of gasotransmitters. H2S is synthesized from l-cysteine and/or l-homocysteine by cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase and cysteine aminotransferase together with 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Significant progress has been made in recent years in our understanding of H2S biochemistry, signaling mechanisms and phy...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bełtowski J Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Zinc, future mono/adjunctive therapy for depression: Mechanisms of antidepressant action.
Abstract Affective disorders (depression) are considered as chronic illnesses leading to substantial disability, morbidity and mortality. While the etiology and pathophysiology of these diseases are still poorly recognized, the most important problems concerning them are low treatment response, treatment resistance and/or tolerance and risk of relapse. Recently published review articles have already demonstrated the important role of zinc in the pathophysiology and treatment of affective disorders, plus discussed the potential value of zinc as a marker of these diseases. This present concise review will update the ...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nowak G Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Prospects of epileptogenesis prevention.
Abstract Epilepsy is a common neurologic disease, affecting about 1-2% of the population. In around 30% of patients with epilepsy, their seizures are not satisfactorily controlled and drug-resistant epilepsy constitutes a real therapeutic challenge. Consequently, there are efforts aimed at the inhibition of epileptogenesis, a process of converting a normal into an epileptic brain. Data on this problem have been mainly obtained in post-status epilepticus rodent models in which spontaneous seizure activity and behavioral disturbances develop over time. Among antiepileptic drugs, diazepam at high dose of 20mg/kg given...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Radzik I, Miziak B, Dudka J, Chrościńska-Krawczyk M, Czuczwar SJ Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

MicroRNA Regulating Glutathione S-Transferase P1 in Prostate Cancer.
Abstract Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), an enzyme involved in detoxification process, is frequently inactivated in prostate cancer due to epigenetic modifications. Through in silico analysis we identified a subset of miRNAs that are putative targets in regulating GSTP1. miRNAs are small endogenous non-coding RNA that are critical regulators of various physiologic and pathologic processes and their level of expression may play a precise role in early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. These small molecules have been detected in a wide variety of human biological specimens including blood, serum, urine, ejacul...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - March 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Singh S, Shukla GC, Gupta S Tags: Curr Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Impact of aliskiren on some hemostatic parameters in experimental arterial thrombosis in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The presented results indicate that aliskiren inhibits hemostasis in the arterial thrombosis in rats. The antithrombotic effect is related with improvement of the fibrinolytic balance, and also depends on antiplatelet action. PMID: 25712636 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - February 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hermanowicz JM, Buczko P, Tankiewicz-Kwedlo A, Hermanowicz A, Buczko W Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Differentiation of adult rat mesenchymal stem cells to GABAergic, dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons.
CONCLUSIONS: These new differentiation cocktails should be further investigated and in the next experiment only a part of MSCs that expressed the Cxcr4 receptor will be differentiated. We suppose that the Cxcr4(+) cells may differentiate more easily and as a result, we may achieve a homogenous population of one phenotype of neurons. PMID: 25712637 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - February 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Borkowska P, Fila-Danilow A, Paul-Samojedny M, Kowalczyk M, Hart J, Ryszawy J, Kowalski J Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Essential elements in depression and anxiety. Part II.
Abstract In this paper we continue to discuss the involvement of essential elements in depression and anxiety, and the possible mechanisms that link elements to the neurobiology underlying depression/anxiety. The present paper is focused on copper, selenium, manganese, iodine and vanadium. Different aspects of relationship between elements and depression or anxiety are reviewed, e.g. the association of the amount of an element in a diet or the serum level of an element and depressive or anxiety-like symptoms. Moreover, the relation of selected elements to the pathophysiology of depression or anxiety is discussed in...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - February 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Młyniec K, Gaweł M, Doboszewska U, Starowicz G, Pytka K, Davies CL, Budziszewska B Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

A review on Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology and its management: an update.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease acknowledged as progressive multifarious neurodegenerative disorder, is the leading cause of dementia in late adult life. Pathologically it is characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloidal protein deposits contributing to senile plaques. Over the last two decades, advances in the field of pathogenesis have inspired the researchers for the investigation of novel pharmacological therapeutics centered more towards the pathophysiological events of the disease. Currently available treatments i.e. acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, galantamine,...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - February 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kumar A, Singh A, Ekavali Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of CCN genes in failing heart.
CONCLUSION: CCN genes are activated in heart failure. Their regulation is multidimensional both transcriptional and posttranscriptional. The involved pathways include angiotensin II and IL-6. PMID: 25712640 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - February 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bonda TA, Kożuch M, Litvinovich S, Bialuk I, Taranta A, Lipiec P, Szymczyk E, Musiał WJ, Winnicka MM, Kamiński KA Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research