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Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychomotor symptoms of schizophrenia map on the cerebral motor circuit
Schizophrenia is a devastating disorder thought to result mainly from cerebral pathology. Neuroimaging studies have provided a wealth of findings of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, we are still far from understanding how particular symptoms can result from aberrant brain function. In this context, the high prevalence of motor symptoms in schizophrenia such as catatonia, neurological soft signs, parkinsonism, and abnormal involuntary movements is of particular interest. Here, the neuroimaging correlates of these motor symptoms are reviewed. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sebastian Walther Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Regarding brain structure characteristics in intellectually superior schizophrenia
To the Editors: (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anna R. Docherty Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

To the editors
In her comment on our recent article (Vaskinn et al., 2015), Dr. A.R. Docherty (2015) asks for more information and a commentary before conclusions can be drawn regarding our study on brain structure characteristics of people with schizophrenia (SZ) in relationship to superior intellectual abilities (superior IQ SZ). We welcome this opportunity to clarify our aim with this study and the interpretation of results. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anja Vaskinn, Cecilie B. Hartberg, Kjetil Sundet, Lars T. Westlye, Ole A. Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortical thickness are differently related in patients with schizophrenia and controls
This study aims to investigate the relationship of peripheral serum BDNF levels to cortical thickness and volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy controls were included in this study. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andre Zugman, Mariana Pedrini, Ary Gadelha, Matthew J Kempton, Cristiano S. Noto, Rodrigo B. Mansur, Marcos L. Santoro, Clarissa S. Gama, Rodrigo A. Bressan, Philip McGuire, Andrea P. Jackowski, Elisa Brietzke Source Type: research

Reduced cortical thickness and its assocation with social reactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder
Symptomatology and behavioral characteristics in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have increasingly been linked to abnormalities in early brain growth patterns of affected children. Studies investigating specific components of gray matter structure, such as cortical thickness (CT), have produced conflicting results, and have rarely included additional measures of social impairment. In the present study, we applied a surface-based whole brain analysis to investigate CT in a sample of 36 pre-adolescent children [18 subjects with ASD (IQ mean: 111) and 18 healthy controls (IQ mean: 112.8), age range 6-12 years]. (Source: Psych...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julia Richter, Romy Henze, Kilian Vomstein, Bram Stieltjes, Peter Parzer, Johann Haffner, Daniel Brandeis, Luise Poustka Source Type: research

How pain empathy depends on ingroup/outgroup decisions: A functional magnet resonance imaging study
Showing empathy is crucial for social functioning and empathy is related to group membership. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of experimentally generated groups on empathy for pain in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. Thirty healthy participants underwent a minimal group paradigm to create two groups. While BOLD contrast was measured using fMRI, subjects were instructed to empathize with ingroup and outgroup members, who were depicted in a picture paradigm of painful and neutral situations. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Judith Ruckmann, Maren Bodden, Andreas Jansen, Tilo Kircher, Richard Dodel, Winfried Rief Source Type: research

Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder
Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its endophenotypic potential. Magnetic resonance diffusion images for 19 BP type I patients in remission, 21 of their first degree unaffected relatives, and 18 unrelated healthy controls underwent tractography. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Natalie J. Forde, Stefani O Donoghue, Cathy Scanlon, Louise Emsell, Chris Chaddock, Alexander Leemans, Ben Jeurissen, Gareth J. Barker, Dara M. Cannon, Robin M. Murray, Colm McDonald Source Type: research

Successful smoking cessation Is associated with prefrontal cortical function during a Stroop task: A preliminary study
Although many smokers try to quit, relatively few are successful in their attempts. Here we investigated whether the ability to quit smoking is related to behavioral and neural measures of cognitive control. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a counting Stroop task was used to measure cognitive control in ex-smokers (N=10) who had successfully quit smoking and smokers (N=10) who continuously failed to quit smoking. Behavioral results showed a significant Stroop effect in ex-smokers and smokers. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Klaus-Martin Krönke, Max Wolff, Annika Benz, Thomas Goschke Source Type: research

Brain structure and function correlates of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia
Stable neuropsychological deficits may provide a reliable basis for identifying etiological subtypes of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of individuals with schizophrenia based on dimensions of neuropsychological performance, and to characterize their neural correlates. We acquired neuropsychological data as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging from 129 patients with schizophrenia and 165 healthy controls. We derived eight cognitive dimensions and subsequently applied a cluster analysis to identify possible schizophrenia subtypes. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniel Geisler, Esther Walton, Melissa Naylor, Veit Roessner, Kelvin O Lim, S Charles Schulz, Randy L Gollub, Vince Calhoun, Scott R Sponheim, Stefan Ehrlich Source Type: research

The neural basis of a deficit in abstract thinking in patients with schizophrenia
In this study, we aimed to determine the characteristic abstract thinking-related brain responses in patients using a task reflecting social situations. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while 16 patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls performed a theme-identification task, in which various emotional pictures depicting social situations were presented. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jooyoung Oh, Ji-Won Chun, Hang Joon Jo, Eunseong Kim, Hae-Jeong Park, Boreom Lee, Jae-Jin Kim Source Type: research

Adverse childhood experiences influence white matter microstructure in patients with schizophrenia
Integrity of brain white matter (WM) tracts in adulthood could be detrimentally affected by exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE). Changes of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures suggesting WM disruption have been reported in patients with schizophrenia together with a history of childhood maltreatment. We therefore hypothesized that ACE could be associated with altered DTI measures of WM integrity in patients with schizophrenia. We tested this hypothesis in 83 schizophrenia patients using whole brain tract-based spatial statistics in the WM skeleton with threshold-free cluster enhancement of DTI measures of W...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sara Poletti, Elena Mazza, Irene Bollettini, Clara Locatelli, Roberto Cavallaro, Enrico Smeraldi, Francesco Benedetti Source Type: research

Increased hippocampal volumes in adults with High functioning autism spectrum disorder and an IQ>100: A manual morphometric study
Previous studies concerning the volumes of the amygdala and the hippocampus in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show inconsistent results. We acquired magnetic resonance images of 30 individuals with ASD and individually matched controls. All participants had an IQ>100 to increase the likelihood of including non-syndromal forms of ASD. Manually defined amygdala volumes showed no significant group difference, while hippocampi were significantly enlarged in ASD. This finding is discussed with regard to the ‘intense world hypothesis. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simon Maier, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Daniel Beier, Dieter Ebert, Thomas Fangmeier, Martina Radtke, Evgeniy Perlov, Andreas Riedel Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Motor overflow in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is associated with decreased extent of neural activation in the motor cortex
This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a finger-sequencing task to examine whether excessive motor overflow in children with ADHD is associated with decreased extent of motor circuit activation. Thirty-four right-handed children (18 typically developing controls, 16 ADHD) completed fMRI while performing a finger-sequencing task. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrew Gaddis, Keri S. Rosch, Benjamin Dirlikov, Deana Crocetti, Lindsey MacNeil, Anita D. Barber, John Muschelli, Brian Caffo, James J. Pekar, Stewart H. Mostofsky Source Type: research

Relationship between the catechol--methyl transferase Val108/158Met genotype and brain volume in treatment-naive major depressive disorder: Voxel-based morphometry analysis
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme engaged in the degradation of dopamine and noradrenaline by catalyzing the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine. An association was found between the Valine (Val) 108/158Methionine (Met) COMT polymorphism (rs4680) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The authors prospectively investigated the relationship between the Val108/158Met COMT genotype and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) findings for patients with first-episode and treatment-naïve MDD and healthy subjects (HS). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keita Watanabe, Shingo Kakeda, Reiji Yoshimura, Osamu Abe, Satoru Ide, Kenji Hayashi, Asuka Katsuki, Wakako Umene-Nakano, Rieko Watanabe, Jun Nakamura, Yukunori Korogi Source Type: research

Familial risk and ADHD-specific neural activity revealed by case-control, discordant twin pair design
Individuals with ADHD, as well as their family members who do not meet clinical criteria, have shown deficits in executive function. However, it remains unclear whether underlying neural alterations are familial or ADHD-specific. To investigate this issue, neural activation underlying executive function was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of a Stroop task in three groups of individuals: 20 young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, their 20 dizygotic co-twins without ADHD in childhood, and 20 unrelated controls selected from dizygotic twin pairs in which neither twin had...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Detre A. Godinez, Erik G. Willcutt, Gregory C. Burgess, Brendan E. Depue, Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, Marie T. Banich Source Type: research

Psychopathic traits in adolescents are associated with Higher structural connectivity
Altered structural connectivity has been reported in antisocial juveniles, but findings have been inconsistent. Given the phenotypical heterogeneity among individuals showing antisocial behavior, specification of the association between structural connectivity and the dimensions of psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible traits) may aid in more reliably elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying antisocial behavior during adolescence. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Louise E. Pape, Moran D. Cohn, Matthan W.A. Caan, Guido van Wingen, Wim van den Brink, Dick J. Veltman, Arne Popma Source Type: research

Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa
The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [11C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [11C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Allegra Broft, Mark Slifstein, Joseph Osborne, Paresh Kothari, Simon Morim, Rebecca Shingleton, Lindsay Kenney, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Evelyn Attia, Diana Martinez, B. Timothy Walsh Source Type: research

Comparison of automated brain segmentation using a brain phantom and patients with early Alzheimer's dementia or mild cognitive impairment
This study evaluates the reliability of frequently used segmentation programs (SPM, FreeSurfer, FSL) using a realistic digital brain phantom and MRI brain acquisitions from patients with manifest Alzheimer´s disease (AD, n=34), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=60), and healthy subjects (n=32) matched for age and sex. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Iven Fellhauer, Frank G. Zöllner, Johannes Schröder, Christina Degen, Li Kong, Marco Essig, Philipp A. Thomann, Lothar R. Schad Source Type: research

Meta-cognition is associated with cortical thickness in youth at clinical High risk of psychosis
Meta-cognition is compromised in people with schizophrenia and people at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. In the current work in a CHR sample, we hypothesized that meta-cognitive functions would correlate with cortical thickness in five brain regions implicated in the pathogenesis of psychosis: inferior and middle frontal cortices, anterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal cortex and insula. Secondly, we hypothesized that similar neural systems would underlie different meta-cognitive functions. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lisa Buchy, Jacque Stowkowy, Frank P. MacMaster, Karissa Nyman, Jean Addington Source Type: research

Evidence for smaller right amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood trauma
Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood trauma are relatively understudied, albeit the potential importance to the disorder. Whereas some studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes, no evidence was found for abnormal amygdala volumes. Here we investigated hippocampus and amygdala volumes and shapes in an adult sample of PTSD patients related to childhood trauma. T1-weighted MR images were acquired from 12 female PTSD patients with trauma related to physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse before age 18, and from 12 matched controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ilya M. Veer, Nicole Y.L. Oei, Mark A. van Buchem, Philip Spinhoven, Bernet M. Elzinga, Serge A.R.B. Rombouts Source Type: research

Effect of a socıal defeat experıence on prefrontal actıvıty ın schızophrenıa
The social defeat (SD) hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that repeated experiences of SD may lead to sensitization of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and to precipitation of psychosis. Based on previous definitions adapted to a human experimental paradigm, we prepared a computer simulation of SD to mimic this subjective experience. We measured prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls during exposure to a single SD experience with functional near infrared spectroscopy. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bora Baskak, Zeynel Baran, Halise Devrimci-Özgüven, Kerim Münir, Özgür Öner, Tuğba Özel-Kızıl Source Type: research

Neural Correlates associated with symptom provocation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder after a single session of sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
This study examined neural correlates of a provocation task in youth with OCD, before and after sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We hypothesized that rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would inhibit activity in cortico-striato-thalamic (CST) circuits associated with OCD to a greater extent than sham rTMS. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ernest Pedapati, Mark DiFrancesco, Steve Wu, Cathy Giovanetti, Tiffany Nash, Antonio Mantovani, Robert Ammerman, Elana Harris Source Type: research

Facilitation of emotion regulation with a single dose of escitalopram: A randomized fMRI study
Acute antidepressant administration modulates neural activity consistent with decreases in negative emotion processing bias. However, studies are yet to examine whether treatment facilitates neural activity during reappraisal, an adaptive emotion regulation strategy associated with behavioral treatment response. Here we examine the impact of acute administration on reappraisal of negative stimuli using pharmaco-fMRI. Thirty-six healthy female participants completed two sessions of fMRI scanning, separated by a one-week washout period. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Kim L. Felmingham, Richard A. Bryant, Pradeep J. Nathan, Gin S. Malhi, Andrew H. Kemp Source Type: research

Female but not male young heavy drinkers display Altered performance monitoring
Difficulties in monitoring ongoing behaviour may be linked to real-life problematic drinking behaviours. Prior research suggests female heavy drinkers in particular display greater cognitive control deficits. Here, we examine trial-to-trial behavioural adaptations in a conflict monitoring task, relative to drinking behaviour and sex. Heavy Drinkers (n=31, 16 male) and Controls (n=35, 18 male) completed an Eriksen flanker task while brain electrical activity was recorded. For reaction time, error rates, and N2 and P3 amplitude of the event-related potential, trial-to-trial conflict adaptation was evidenced by a differential...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janette L Smith, Richard P Mattick, Christopher Sufani Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled Version of the Stop-Signal Task
The stop-signal task has been used extensively to investigate the neural correlates of inhibition deficits in children with ADHD. However, previous findings of atypical brain activation during the stop-signal task in children with ADHD may be confounded with attentional processes, precluding strong conclusions on the nature of these deficits. In addition, there are recent concerns on the construct validity of the SSRT metric. The aim of this study was to control for confounding factors and improve the specificity of the stop-signal task to investigate inhibition mechanisms in children with ADHD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tieme W.P. Janssen, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Rosa van Mourik, Gordon D. Logan, Jaap Oosterlaan Source Type: research

Assessing Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Using Group-wise Sparse Representation of FMRI Data
Task-based fMRI activation mapping has been widely used in clinical neuroscience in order to assess different functional activity patterns in conditions such as prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) affected brains and healthy controls. In this paper, we propose a novel, alternative approach of group-wise sparse representation of the fMRI data of multiple groups of subjects (healthy control, exposed non-dysmorphic PAE and exposed dysmorphic PAE) and assess the systematic functional activity differences among these three populations. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jinglei Lv, Xi Jiang, Xiang Li, Dajiang Zhu, Shijie Zha, Tuo Zhang, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Zhihao Li, Claire Coles, Xiaoping Hu, Tianming Liu Source Type: research

Cortical thickness differences in the prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with adhd in relation to dopamine transporter (dat1) genotype
This study aimed to investigate the influence of 10R DAT1 on thickness of the prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with ADHD. To this end, brain magnetic resonance images were acquired from 33 patients with homozygosity for the 10R allele and 30 patients with a single copy or no copy of the allele. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alberto Fernández-Jaén, Sara López-Martín, Jacobo Albert, Daniel Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, ana Laura Fernández-Perrone, Mar Jiménez de la Peña, Beatriz Calleja-Pérez, Manuel Recio Rodríguez, Sonia López Arribas, Nuria Muñoz Jareño Source Type: research

Aberrant Functional Connectivity of Resting State Networks associated with trait anxiety
Trait anxiety, a personality dimension, has been characterized by functional consequences such as increased distractibility, attentional bias in favor of threat-related information and hyper-responsive amygdala. However, literature on the association between resting state brain functional connectivity, as studied using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and reported anxiety levels in the sub-clinical population is limited. In the present study, we employed rs-fMRI to investigate the possible alterations in the functional integrity of Resting State Networks (RSNs) associated with trait anxiety of...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shilpi Modi, Mukesh Kumar, Pawan Kumar, Subash Khushu Source Type: research

Self-reported impulsivity is negatively correlated with amygdalar volumes in cocaine dependence
This study aimed to examine relationships between impulsivity and volumes of the amygdala and hippocampus in cocaine-dependent and healthy comparison individuals. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. FreeSurfer was used to assess amygdalar and hippocampal volumes from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Songli Mei, Jiansong Xu, Kathleen M. Carroll, Marc N. Potenza Source Type: research

Sex differences in abnormal white matter development associated with conduct disorder in children
In this study, white matter maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was examined in 110 children aged 10.0±0.8 years selected to vary widely in their numbers of CD symptoms. The results replicated age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) found in previous studies. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: jean Decety, Keith J. Yoder, Benjamin B. Lahey Source Type: research

Successful antidepressant chronotherapeutics enhance fronto-limbic neural responses and connectivity in Bipolar Depression
This study aims at investigating the effect of TSD+LT on effective connectivity and neural response in cortico-limbic circuitries during implicit processing of fearful and angry faces in patients with BD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benedetta Vai, Sara Poletti, Daniele Radaelli, Sara Dallaspezia, Chiara Bulgarelli, Clara Locatelli, Irene Bollettini, Andrea Falini, Cristina Colombo, Enrico Smeraldi, Francesco Benedetti Source Type: research

Morphological abnormalities in prefrontal surface area and thalamic volume in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Although previous morphological studies have demonstrated abnormalities in prefrontal cortical thickness in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), studies investigating cortical surface area are lacking. As the development of cortical surface is closely linked to the establishment of thalam-ocortical connections, any abnormalities in the structure of the thalamus are likely to relate to altered cortical surface area. Using a clinically well-defined sample of children with ADHD (n=25, 1 female) and typically developing controls (n=24, 1 female), we studied surface area across the cortex to determine ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martin J. Batty, Lena Palaniyappan, Gaia Scerif, Madeleine J. Groom, Elizabeth B. Liddle, Peter F. Liddle, Chris Hollis Source Type: research

Machine learning algorithm accurately detects fMRI signature of vulnerability to major depression
Standard functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses cannot assess the potential of a neuroimaging signature as a biomarker to predict individual vulnerability to major depression (MD). Here, we use machine learning for the first time to address this question. Using a recently identified neural signature of guilt-selective functional disconnection, the classification algorithm was able to distinguish remitted MD from control participants with 78.3% accuracy. This demonstrates the high potential of our fMRI signature as a biomarker of MD vulnerability. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: João R. Sato, Jorge Moll, Sophie Green, John F.W. Deakin, Carlos E. Thomaz, Roland Zahn Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Machine learning algorithm detects fMRI signature of to major depression
Standard functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses cannot assess the potential of a neuroimaging signature as a biomarker to predict individual vulnerability to major depression (MD). Here, we use machine learning for the first time to address this question. Using a recently identified neural signature of guilt-selective functional disconnection, the classification algorithm was able to distinguish remitted MD from control participants with 78.3% accuracy. This demonstrates the high potential of our fMRI signature as a biomarker of MD vulnerability. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: João R. Sato, Jorge Moll, Sophie Green, John F.W. Deakin, Carlos E. Thomaz, Roland Zahn Source Type: research

Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls
Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in VSWM-related brain abnormalities in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 109 individuals with ADHD (60% male) and 103 controls (53% male), aged 8–25 years, during a spatial span working memory task. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hanneke van Ewijk, Wouter D. Weeda, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Marjolein Luman, Catharina A. Hartman, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Stephen V. Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K. Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan Source Type: research

Methadone maintenance dose modulates anterior cingulate glutamate levels in heroin-dependent individuals: A preliminary H MRS study
Mu-opioid receptor agonists alter brain glutamate (GLU) levels in laboratory animals. This clinical study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to examine regional brain GLU levels during experimental manipulation of methadone (MTD) maintenance dose under double-blind, within-subject conditions in seven heroin-dependent volunteers. Subjects were scanned first at a high MTD dose (100mg/day), underwent a 3-week outpatient MTD dose taper, and then were scanned again at a low MTD dose (10–25mg/day; modified for participant comfort). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mark K. Greenwald, Eric A. Woodcock, Dalal Khatib, Jeffrey A. Stanley Source Type: research

Neural correlatesy of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls
Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in VSWM-related brain abnormalities in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 109 individuals with ADHD (60% male) and 103 controls (53% male), aged 8-25 years, during a spatial span working memory task. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hanneke van Ewijk, Wouter D. Weeda, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Marjolein Luman, Catharina A. Hartman, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Stephen V. Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K. Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan Source Type: research

Decreased somatosensory activity to non-threatening touch in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disorder prevalent in combat veterans. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with PTSD exhibit abnormal responses to non-threatening visual and auditory stimuli, but have not examined somatosensory processing. Thirty male combat veterans, 16 with PTSD and 14 without, completed a tactile stimulation task during a 306-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording. Significant oscillatory neural responses were imaged using a beamforming approach. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amy S. Badura-Brack, Katherine M. Becker, Timothy J. McDermott, Tara J. Ryan, Madelyn M. Becker, Allison R. Hearley, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W. Wilson Source Type: research

White matter structure in young adults with familial risk for psychosis – the Oulu brain and mind study
According to the disconnectivity model, disruptions in neural connectivity play an essential role in the pathology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine whether these abnormalities are present in young adults with familial risk (FR) for psychosis in the general population. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics to compare whole brain fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and axial and radial diffusion in 47 (17 males) FR subjects to 51 controls (17 males). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jenni Koivukangas, Lassi Björnholm, Osmo Tervonen, Jouko Miettunen, Tanja Nordström, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Erika Jääskeläinen, Sari Mukkala, Irma Moilanen, Jennifer H. Barnett, Peter B. Jones, Juha Nikkinen, Juha Veijola Source Type: research

Aberrant functioning of the putamen links delusions, antipsychotic drug dose, and compromised connectivity in first episode psychosis—preliminary fMRI findings
The dopamine theory proposes the relationship of delusions to aberrant signaling in striatal circuitries that can be normalized with dopamine D2 receptor-blocking drugs. Localization of such circuitries, as well as their upstream and downstream signaling, remains poorly known. We collected functional magnetic resonance images from first-episode psychosis patients and controls during an audiovisual movie. Final analyses included 20 patients and 20 controls; another sample of 10 patients and 10 controls was used to calculate a comparison signal-time course. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tuukka T. Raij, Teemu Mäntylä, Tuula Kieseppä, Jaana Suvisaari Source Type: research

Temporal profile of brain response to alprazolam in patients with generalized anxiety disorder
This study investigated the temporal pattern of brain response to emotional stimuli during 28 days of alprazolam treatment among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) randomized 2:1 to drug or placebo in a double-blind design. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained during an emotion face matching task (EFMT) and an affective stimulus expectancy task (STIMEX) were performed at baseline, one hour after initial drug administration and 28 days later. Alprazolam significantly reduced scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire after one week and 28 days of treatment. (Sou...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gregory G. Brown, Susanne Ostrowitzki, Murray B. Stein, Markus von Kienlin, Thomas T. Liu, Alan Simmons, Christina Wierenga, Orah Y. Stein, Andreas Bruns, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Martin Paulus Source Type: research

Investigation of white matter abnormalities in first episode psychosis patients with persistent negative symptoms
This study aimed to explore microstructure in the neurocircuitry proposed to be involved in PNS, by using a region-of-interest approach. Secondly, the relationship between individual negative symptoms and white matter were explored. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cindy L. Hovington, Michael Bodnar, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Ridha Joober, Ashok K. Malla, Martin Lepage Source Type: research

Changes in brain regions associated with food-intake regulation, body mass and metabolic profiles during acute antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia
Imaging studies have consistently demonstrated global and regional structural brain abnormalities in people with schizophrenia (Haijma et al., 2013). While some abnormalities are present at, and prior to the onset of first psychotic symptoms, longitudinal studies have established that progressive changes also occur (Olabi et al., 2011). These changes may represent illness progression (Lieberman et al., 2001), although some evidence suggests that they are related to antipsychotic treatment per se (Ho et al., 2011; Andreasen et al., 2013; Fusar-Poli et al., 2013). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robin Emsley, Laila Asmal, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Stefan du Plessis, Jonathan Carr, Martin Kidd, Anil K Malhotra, Matthijs Vink, Rene S. Kahn Source Type: research

Examining the neural correlates of emergent equivalence relations in fragile X syndrome
The neural mechanisms underlying the formation of stimulus equivalence relations are poorly understood, particularly in individuals with specific learning impairments. As part of a larger study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), and age- and IQ-matched controls with intellectual disability, were required to form new equivalence relations in the scanner. Following intensive training on matching fractions to pie charts (A=B relations) and pie charts to decimals (B=C relations) outside the scanner over a 2-day period, participants were tested on the trained ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Megan Klabunde, Manish Saggar, Kristin M. Hustyi, Ryan G. Kelley, Allan L. Reiss, Scott S. Hall Source Type: research

Neural correlates of malingering in mild traumatic brain injury: A positron emission tomography study
The detection of malingering in cognitive performance is a challenge in clinical and legal environments. Neuroimaging may provide an objective method to determine the source of failure on tests of symptom validity. Participants comprised 45 combat veterans, 31 with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), not seeking medical or legal compensation, who completed the Tombaugh Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Based on TOMM performance (i.e., less than 45 of 50 total correct, suggesting suboptimal effort or malingering), subjects were separated into poor TOMM score (PT; n=10) and good...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea D. Spadoni, Elena Kosheleva, Monte S. Buchsbaum, Alan N. Simmons Source Type: research

Serum vitamin D and hippocampal gray matter volume in schizophrenia
In this study, we examined for potential association between serum vitamin D level and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve or antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients (n=35). Serum vitamin D level was estimated using 25-OH vitamin D immunoassay. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V. Kalmady, Amaresha C. Anekal, Dania Jose, Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Boban Joseph, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Vasanthapuram Ravi, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Bangalore N. Gangadhar Source Type: research

Altered threat and safety neural processing linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia: a two-task fMRI study
Persecutory delusions are a clinically important symptom in schizophrenia associated with social avoidance and increased violence. Few studies have investigated the neurobiology of persecutory delusions, which is a prerequisite for developing novel treatments. The aim of this two-paradigm functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study is to characterize social “real world” and linguistic threat brain activations linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia (n=26) using instructed-fear/safety and emotional word paradigms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David L. Perez, Hong Pan, Daniel S. Weisholtz, James C. Root, Oliver Tuescher, David B. Fischer, Tracy Butler, David R. Vago, Nancy Isenberg, Jane Epstein, Yulia Landa, Thomas E. Smith, Adam J. Savitz, David A. Silbersweig, Emily Stern Source Type: research

Altered processing of visual emotional stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study
Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display abnormal emotional processing and bias towards emotional content. Most neurophysiological studies in PTSD found higher amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to trauma-related visual content. Here we aimed to characterize brain electrical activity in PTSD subjects in response to non-trauma-related emotion-laden pictures (positive, neutral and negative). A combined behavioral-ERP study was conducted in 14 severe PTSD patients and 14 controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rotem Saar Ashkenazy, Hadar Shalev, Magdalena K. Kanthak, Jonathan Guez, Alon Friedman, Jonathan E. Cohen Source Type: research