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Lifetime Use of Cannabis from Longitudinal Assessments, Cannabinoid Receptor (CNR1) Variation, and Reduced Volume of the Right Anterior Cingulate
Lifetime measures of cannabis use and co-occurring exposures were obtained from a longitudinal cohort followed an average of 13 years at the time they received a structural MRI scan. MRI scans were analyzed for 88 participants (mean age = 25.9 years), 34 of whom were regular users of cannabis. Whole brain voxel based morphometry analyses (SPM8) were conducted using 50 voxel clusters at p=0.005. Controlling for age, familial risk, and gender, we found reduced volume in Regular Users compared to Non-Users, in the lingual gyrus, anterior cingulum (right and left), and the rolandic operculum (right). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shirley Y. Hill, Vinod Sharma, Bobby L. Jones Source Type: research

Comparison of Brain Activation Patterns during Executive Function Tasks in Hoarding Disorder and Non-Hoarding OCD
We examined differences in regional brain activation during tests of executive function in individuals with Hoarding Disorder (HD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop and Go/No-Go task. We found that during the conflict monitoring and response inhibition condition in the Go/No-Go task, individuals with HD had significantly greater activity than controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christina M. Hough, Tracy L. Luks, Karen Lai, Ofilio Vigil, Sylvia Guillory, Shiva M. Fekri, Eve Kupferman, Daniel H. Mathalon, Carol A. Mathews Source Type: research

Voxel-based morphometry to detect effect of ApoE on brain gray matter changes in Parkinson's Disease
The goal of the study was to determine association between APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter changes in PD patients, with or without dementia. Twenty-five PD patients with the APOE Ɛ4 (13 with dementia), 24 without Ɛ4 (12 with dementia), and 26 controls were selected. We found no significant differences between PD patients and controls, or between PD patients with and without the APOE Ɛ4 allele, with regard to VBM analysis. Our results provide no evidence of an association of the APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter degenerative changes in patients with PD, either with or without dementia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Giuseppe Nicoletti, David Neil Manners, Fabiana Novellino, Claudia Testa, Monica Gagliardi, Caterina Tonon, Raffaele Lodi, Aldo Quattrone Source Type: research

Cerebellar Volume deficits in Medication-na ïve Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
In this study, we examined the cerebellar regional volume in a large sample of medication-na ïve OCD patients compared to matched healthy controls (HC). In 49 medication naïve right handed OCD patients and 39 age and sex matched HC, sub-region wise volume of cerebellum was extracted from the T1 weighted images using Spatially Unbiased Infra tentorial Template (SUIT) toolbox and compared u sing hypothesis driven, region of interest approach after clinical assessment with standard scales. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Dania Jose, Sunil V. Kalmady, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy Source Type: research

Cerebellar Volume deficits in Medication-naïve Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
In this study, we examined the cerebellar regional volume in a large sample of medication-naïve OCD patients compared to matched healthy controls (HC). In 49 medication naïve right handed OCD patients and 39 age and sex matched HC, sub-region wise volume of cerebellum was extracted from the T1 weighted images using Spatially Unbiased Infra tentorial Template (SUIT) toolbox and compared using hypothesis driven, region of interest approach after clinical assessment with standard scales. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Dania Jose, Sunil V. Kalmady, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy Source Type: research

Associations between neural correlates of visual stimulus processing and set-shifting in ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa
In this study, we investigated whether brain activation in frontal and parietal regions during visual stimulus processing correlates with SS ability. Women currently ill with AN (AN; N=14), recovered women (REC; N=14) and healthy controls (HC; N=15), viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food pictures during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The Berg's Card Sorting Task was completed outside the scanner to measure SS. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hedvig Sultson, Floor van Meer, Nicole Sanders, Annemarie A. van Elburg, Unna N. Danner, Hans W. Hoek, Roger A.H. Adan, Paul A.M. Smeets Source Type: research

Regional grey matter volume and concentration in at-risk adolescents: Untangling associations with callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial features, or to co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The present study employed voxel-based morphometry to assess both grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter concentration (GMC) in a large representative at-risk sample of adolescents (n=134; mean age 17.7y), characterised by a broad range of CU trait and conduct disorder (...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Moran D. Cohn, Essi Viding, Eamon McCrory, Louise Pape, Wim van den Brink, Theo A.H. Doreleijers, Dick J. Veltman, Arne Popma Source Type: research

Body mass index and brain white matter structure in young individuals at risk for psychosis – The Oulu Brain and Mind Study
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Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jenni Koivukangas, Lassi Björnholm, Osmo Tervonen, Jouko Miettunen, Tanja Nordström, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Sari Mukkala, Irma Moilanen, Jennifer H. Barnett, Peter B. Jones, Juha Nikkinen, Juha Veijola Source Type: research

White matter correlates of episodic memory encoding and retrieval in schizophrenia
Episodic memory (EM) impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are predictive of functional outcome and are a potential endophenotype of the disorder. The current study investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of EM encoding and retrieval in SZ with structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in 22 patients with SZ and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to investigate microstructural alterations in white matter (WM), while FreeSurfer surface-based analysis was used to determine abnormalities in grey matter (GM) and WM volumetrics and cortical...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amity E. Green, Rodney J. Croft, Jerome J. Maller, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Altered brain functional networks in people with Internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting-state fMRI
In this study, we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the intrinsic topological properties of brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). 37 IGD subjects and 35 matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lingxiao Wang, Lingdan Wu, Xiao Lin, Yifen Zhang, Hongli Zhou, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong Source Type: research

The neurobiology of self-knowledge in depressed and self-injurious youth
There is limited information regarding the neurobiology underlying non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in clinically-referred youth. However, the salience of disturbed interpersonal relationships and disrupted self-processing associated with NSSI suggests the neural basis of social processes as a key area for additional study. Adolescent participants (N=123; M=14.75 years, SD=1.64) were divided into three groups: NSSI plus depression diagnosis (NSSI), depression only (DEP), healthy controls (HC). In the scanner, participants completed an Interpersonal Self-Processing task by taking direct (own) and indirect (mothers', best fri...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karina Quevedo, Jodi Martin, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H. Pfeifer Source Type: research

The Neurobiology of Self-knowledge in Depressed and Self-injuriousYouth
There is limited information regarding the neurobiology underlying non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in clinically-referred youth. However, the salience of disturbed interpersonal relationships and disrupted self-processing associated with NSSI suggests the neural basis of social processes as a key area for additional study. Adolescent participants (N=123; M=14.75 years, SD=1.64) were divided into three groups: NSSI plus depression diagnosis (NSSI), depression only (DEP), healthy controls (HC). In the scanner, participants completed an Interpersonal Self-Processing task by taking direct (own) and indirect (mothers’, best f...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karina Quevedo, Jodi Martin, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H. Pfeifer Source Type: research

Working memory dysfunction associated with brain functional deficits and cellular metabolic changes in patients with generalized anxiety disorder
This study dealt with the neural functional deficits and metabolic abnormalities in working memory (WM) task with emotion-inducing distractors in patients with GAD. Fourteen patients with GAD and 14 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 3 T. In response to the emotional distractors in WM tasks, the patients concurrently showed higher activity in the hippocampus and lower activities in the superior occipital gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and precentral gyrus compared to the controls. (Source: Psy...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chung-Man Moon, Thirunavukkarasu Sundaram, Nam-Gil Choi, Gwang-Woo Jeong Source Type: research

Differential mesolimbic and prefrontal alterations during reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy
Schizotypy is associated with anhedonia. However, previous findings on the neural substrates of anhedonia in schizotypy are mixed. In the present study, we measured the neural substrates associated with reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy using functional MRI. The Monetary Incentive Delay task was administered to 33 individuals with schizotypy (18 positive schizotypy (PS),15 negative schizotypy (NS)) and 22 healthy controls. Comparison between schizotypy individuals and controls were performed using two-sample T tests for contrast images involving gain versus non-gain anticipation condi...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chao Yan, Yi Wang, Li Su, Ting Xu, Da-zhi Yin, Ming-xia Fan, Ci-ping Deng, Zhao-xin Wang, Simon S.Y. Lui, Eric F.C. Cheung, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

Sex differences in the relationship between heavy alcohol use, inhibition and performance monitoring: disconnect between behavioural and brain functional measures
Previous research has reported mixed evidence of sex differences in the relationship between heavy alcohol use and deficits in behavioural control. Here, we examine sex differences in behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) markers of deficient inhibition. Participants were 71 young adults aged 18-21, who either drank heavily regularly (i.e., four standard drinks on one occasion, at least once a month, n = 33, 20 male) or drank heavily less often than this (including never, n = 38, 21 male). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janette L. Smith, Jaimi M. Iredale, Richard P. Mattick Source Type: research

The relationship between self-referential processing-related brain activity and anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia
This study investigated an abnormality in brain activation associated with self-referential processing and its relationship with anhedonia in schizophrenia, specifically in self-related brain regions of interest. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and 25 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while rating the degree of relevance between faces (self, familiar other, or unfamiliar other) and words (positive, negative, or neutral). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jung Suk Lee, Eun Seong Kim, Eun Joo Kim, Joohan Kim, Eosu Kim, Seung-Koo Lee, Jae-Jin Kim Source Type: research

Preliminary Differences in Resting State MEG Functional Connectivity Pre- and Post-Ketamine in Major Depressive Disorder
Functional neuroimaging techniques including magnetoencephalography (MEG) have demonstrated that the brain is organized into networks displaying correlated activity. Group connectivity differences between healthy controls and participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) can be detected using temporal independent components analysis (ICA) on beta-bandpass filtered Hilbert envelope MEG data. However, the response of these networks to treatment is unknown. Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Allison C. Nugent, Stephen E. Robinson, Richard Coppola, Carlos A. Zarate Source Type: research

Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Veronika Vilgis, Li Sun, Jian Chen, Timothy J. Silk, Alasdair Vance Source Type: research

Amygdala Response to Explicit Sad Face Stimuli at Baseline Predicts Antidepressant Treatment Response to Scopolamine in Major Depressive Disorder
This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joanna Szczepanik, Allison Nugent, Wayne C. Drevets, Ashish Khanna, Carlos A. Zarate, Maura Furey Source Type: research

Affective lability and difficulties with regulation are differentially associated with amygdala and prefrontal response in women with Borderline Personality Disorder
The present neuroimaging study investigated two aspects of difficulties with emotion associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD1): affective lability and difficulty regulating emotion. While these two characteristics have been previously linked to BPD symptomology, it remains unknown whether individual differences in affective lability and emotion regulation difficulties are subserved by distinct neural substrates within a BPD sample. To address this issue, sixty women diagnosed with BPD were scanned while completing a task that assessed baseline emotional reactivity as well as top-down emotion regulation. (Sou...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer A. Silvers, Alexa D. Hubbard, Emily Biggs, Jocelyn Shu, Eric Fertuck, Sadia Chaudhury, Michael F. Grunebaum, Jochen Weber, Hedy Kober, Megan Chesin, Beth S. Brodsky, Harold Koenigsberg, Kevin N. Ochsner, Barbara Stanley Source Type: research

Schizotypy and auditory mismatch negativity in a non-clinical sample of young adults
Schizophrenia may be conceptualised using a dimensional approach to examine trait-like expression such as schizotypy within non-clinical populations to better understand pathophysiology. A candidate psychosis-risk marker, the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is thought to index the functionality of glutamatergic NMDA receptor mediated neurotransmission. Although the MMN is robustly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, the association between MMN and schizotypy in the general population is under-investigated. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Samantha J. Broyd, Patricia T. Michie, Jason Bruggemann, Hendrika H. van Hell, Lisa-marie Greenwood, Rodney J. Croft, Juanita Todd, Rhoshel Lenroot, Nadia Solowij Source Type: research

Cumulative Trauma, Adversity and Grief Symptoms associated with Fronto-temporal Regions in Life-course Persistent Delinquent Boys
Delinquent youth have substantial trauma exposure, with life-course persistent delinquents [LCPD] also demonstrating elevated cross-diagnostic psychopathology and cognitive deficits. Because adolescents remain in the midst of brain and neurocognitive development, tailored interventions are key to improving functional outcomes. This structural magnetic resonance imaging study compared neuroanatomical profiles of 23 LCPD and 20 matched control adolescent boys. LCPD youth had smaller overall gray matter, and left hippocampal, volumes alongside less cortical surface area and folding within the left pars opercularis and suprama...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amy E. Lansing, Agam Virk, Randy Notestine, Wendy Y. Plante, Christine Fennema-Notestine Source Type: research

Brain abnormalities in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly affects children, although the symptoms persist into adulthood in approximately 50% of cases. Structural imaging studies in children have documented both cortical and subcortical changes in the brain. However, there have been only a few studies in adults and the results are inconclusive. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Josep A. Ramos-Quiroga, Joaquim Radua, José Salavert, Gloria Palomar, Rosa Bosch, Raymond Salvador, Josep Blanch, Miquel Casas, Peter J. McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet Source Type: research

Left nucleus accumbens atrophy in deficit schizophrenia: a preliminary study
A question that remains to be answered is whether schizophrenia can be characterized by a single etiopathophysiology or whether separate sub-syndromes should be differentiated to define specific mechanisms for each sub-type. Individuals affected by the deficit subtype of schizophrenia (DSZ) display avolitional/amotivational features that respond poorly to conventional treatments. Characterizing DSZ from a neuroanatomical point of view may help clarify this issue and develop new treatment strategies. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pietro De Rossi, Claudia Dacquino, Fabrizio Piras, Carlo Caltagirone, Gianfranco Spalletta Source Type: research

Information processing speed mediates the relationship between white matter and general intelligence in schizophrenia
Several authors have proposed that schizophrenia is the result of impaired connectivity between specific brain regions rather than differences in local brain activity. White matter abnormalities have been suggested as the anatomical substrate for this dysconnectivity hypothesis. Information processing speed may act as a key cognitive resource facilitating higher order cognition by allowing multiple cognitive processes to be simultaneously available. However, there is a lack of established associations between these variables in schizophrenia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Clara Alloza, Simon R. Cox, Barbara Duff, Scott I. Semple, Mark E. Bastin, Heather C. Whalley, Stephen M. Lawrie Source Type: research

Divergent Relationship of Depression Severity to Social Reward Responses Among Patients with Bipolar Versus Unipolar Depression
Neuroimaging studies of mood disorders demonstrate abnormalities in brain regions implicated in reward processing. However, there is a paucity of research investigating how social rewards affect reward circuit activity in these disorders. Here, we evaluated the relationship of both diagnostic category and dimensional depression severity to reward system function in bipolar and unipolar depression. In total, 86 adults were included, including 24 patients with bipolar depression, 24 patients with unipolar depression, and 38 healthy comparison subjects. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anup Sharma, Theodore D. Satterthwaite, Lillie Vandekar, Natalie Katchmar, Aylin Daldal, Kosha Ruparel, Mark A. Elliott, Claudia Baldassano, Michael E. Thase, Raquel E. Gur, Joseph W. Kable, Daniel H. Wolf Source Type: research

Neurochemical correlates of internet game play in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study
Previous studies have examined the relationship of brain metabolic changes in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, these studies have been limited by a small number of subjects, a large variance in subject age, and different brain regions of interest. The present study assessed the effects of chronic internet game play in ADHD children. Twenty eight ADHD adolescents with IGD (IGD+ADHD), 27 ADHD adolescents without problematic internet game playing (ADHD only) and 42 healthy comparison adolescents (HC) were included in the study. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sujin Bae, Doug Hyun Han, Sun Mi Kim, Xianfeng Shi, Perry F. Renshaw Source Type: research

Relation between cannabis use and subcortical volumes in people at clinical high risk of psychosis
Among people at genetic risk of schizophrenia, those who use cannabis show smaller thalamic and hippocampal volumes. We evaluated this relationship in people at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. The Alcohol and Drug Use Scale was used to identify 132 CHR cannabis users, the majority of whom were non-dependent cannabis users, 387 CHR non-users, and 204 healthy control non-users, and all participants completed magnetic resonance imaging scans. Volumes of the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala were extracted with FreeSurfer, and compared across groups. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lisa Buchy, Daniel H. Mathalon, Tyrone D. Cannon, Kristin S. Cadenhead, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Thomas H. McGlashan, Diana O. Perkins, Larry J. Seidman, Ming T. Tsuang, Elaine F. Walker, Scott W. Woods, Carrie E. Bearden, Jean Addington Source Type: research

Chromosome aberration associated with hippocampal impairment
Dear editors, we report a 22-year-old man who presented with subjective memory impairment and orientation deficits. After an unsuccessful attempt of job training he recently started working as an assistant facility manager in his father's business. The father reported the patient's inability to remember instructions as well as impaired wayfinding skills. He also mentioned delayed motor and speech development during infancy. Childhood pediatric assessments revealed a medical history of postnatal incubator care and bronchopulmonary dysplasia after cesarian section delivery in the 39th gestational week, low body weight and bo...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 1, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert Haussmann, Gisa Meissner, Jennifer Linn, Karl Hackmann, Elitza Betcheva-Krajcir, Andreas Tzschach, Markus Donix Source Type: research

Cingulate and thalamic metabolites in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Focal brain metabolic effects detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represent prospective indices of clinical status and guides to treatment design. Sampling bilateral pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), anterior middle cingulate cortex (aMCC), and thalamus in 40 adult patients and 16 healthy controls, we examined relationships of the neurometabolites glutamate+glutamine (Glx), creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr), and choline-compounds (Cho) with OCD diagnosis and multiple symptom types. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joseph O’Neill, Tsz M. Lai, Courtney Sheen, Giulia C. Salgari, Ronald Ly, Casey Armstrong, Susanna Chang, Jennifer G. Levitt, Noriko Salamon, Jeffry R. Alger, Jamie D. Feusner Source Type: research

Antenatal Depression, Treatment with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, and Neonatal Brain Structure: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study
The aim of this propensity-matched cohort study was to evaluate the impact of prenatal SSRI exposure and a history of maternal depression on neonatal brain volumes and white matter microstructure. SSRI-exposed neonates (n = 27) were matched to children of mothers with no history of depression or SSRI use (n=54). Additionally, neonates of mothers with a history of depression, but no prenatal SSRI exposure (n=41), were matched to children of mothers with no history of depression or SSRI use (n=82). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shaili C. Jha, Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Rachel J. Steiner, Emil Cornea, Sandra Woolson, Mihye Ahn, Audrey R. Verde, Robert M. Hamer, Hongtu Zhu, Martin Styner, John H. Gilmore, Rebecca C. Knickmeyer Source Type: research

The effects of white matter disease on the accuracy of automated segmentation
Automated segmentation of the brain is challenging in the presence of brain pathologies such as white matter hyperintensities (WMH). A late-life depression population was used to demonstrate the effect of WMH on brain segmentation and normalization. We used an automated algorithm to detect WMH, and either filled them with normal-appearing white-matter (NAWM) intensities or performed a multi-spectral segmentation, and finally compared the standard approach to the WMH filling or multi-spectral segmentation approach using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Helmet T. Karim, Carmen Andreescu, Rebecca L. MacCloud, Meryl A. Butters, Charles F. Reynolds, Howard J. Aizenstein, Dana L. Tudorascu Source Type: research

Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Severity of Depression in the General Population
The vascular depression hypothesis postulates that cerebral small vessel disease can cause or exacerbate depression in elderly persons. Numerous studies explored the association of imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease including white matter lesions (WMLs) and lacunar infarcts with depressive symptoms or disorders. However, cerebral microbleeds have not been tested in depression. In the current study, we aimed to explore the association of WMLs, lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds with depression continuum in a large population-based sample, the Rotterdam Study. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nese Direk, Heidi Saavedra Perez, Saloua Akoudad, Benjamin F.J. Verhaaren, Wiro J. Niessen, Albert Hofman, Meike W. Vernooij, M. Arfan Ikram, Henning Tiemeier Source Type: research

Greater Hippocampal Volume is Associated with PTSD Treatment Response
Previous research associates smaller hippocampal volume with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear, however, whether treatment affects hippocampal volume or vice versa. Seventy-six subjects, 40 PTSD patients and 36 matched trauma-exposed healthy resilient controls, underwent clinical assessments and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, and 10 weeks later, during which PTSD patients completed ten weeks of Prolonged Exposure (PE) treatment. The resilient controls and treatment responders (n=23) had greater baseline hippocampal volume than treatment non-responders (n=17) (p=0.012 and p=0.050, respective...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mikael Rubin, Erel Shvil, Santiago Papini, Binod T. Chhetry, Liat Helpman, John C. Markowitz, J. John Mann, Yuval Neria Source Type: research

Amphetamine Alters Neural Response To Sucrose In Healthy Women
Amphetamine, likely via action on the brain's dopaminergic systems, induces anorectic eating behavior and blunts dopaminergic midbrain activation to rewards. Past work has hypothesized that this blunted reward responsivity is a result of increasing tonic over phasic DA activity. We sought to extend past findings to sweet taste during fMRI following single-blind administration of dextroamphetamine and placebo in 11 healthy women. We hypothesized that neural response in both limbic and cognitive sweet taste circuits would mirror past work with monetary rewards by effectively blunting sweet taste reward, and ‘equalizing’ ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A James Melrose, Ursula Bailer, Christina E Wierenga, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Martin P Paulus, Walter H Kaye Source Type: research

Pallidum and lateral ventricle volume enlargement in autism spectrum disorder
Studies on structural brain abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been of limited size and many findings have not been replicated. In the largest ASD brain morphology study to date, we compared subcortical, total brain (TBV), and intracranial (ICV) volumes between 472 subjects with DSM-IV ASD diagnoses and 538 healthy volunteers (age range: 6 to 64 years), obtained from high-resolution structural brain scans provided by the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andia H. Turner, Kiefer S. Greenspan, Theo G.M. van Erp Source Type: research

Reproducibility of hippocampal atrophy rates measured with manual, FreeSurfer, AdaBoost, FSL/FIRST and the MAPS-HBSI methods in Alzheimer's disease
The purpose of this study is to assess the reproducibility of hippocampal atrophy rate measurements of commonly used fully-automated algorithms in Alzheimer disease (AD). The reproducibility of hippocampal atrophy rate for FSL/FIRST, AdaBoost, FreeSurfer, MAPS independently and MAPS combined with the boundary shift integral (MAPS-HBSI) were calculated. Back-to-back (BTB) 3D T1-weighted MPRAGE MRI from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1) study at baseline and year one were used. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keith S. Cover, Ronald A. van Schijndel, Adriaan Versteeg, Kelvin K. Leung, Emma R. Mulder, Remko A. Jong, Peter J. Visser, Alberto Redolfi, Jerome Revillard, Baptiste Grenier, David Manset, Soheil Damangir, Paolo Bosco, Hugo Vrenken, Bob W. van Dijk, Gio Source Type: research

Relationship between prefrontal hemodynamic responses and quality of life differs between melancholia and non-melancholic depression
This study aimed to determine whether quality of life (QOL) reflects specific functional abnormalities of frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in melancholia. We recruited 30 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with melancholic features (MDD-MF), 52 with non-melancholic features (MDD-NMF), and 68 healthy control subjects who were matched for age, sex ratio, and years of education. QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task were monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Noa Tsujii, Wakako Mikawa, Emi Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Akashi, Toru Adachi, Eiji Kirime, Osamu Shirakawa Source Type: research

White Matter Integrity in Major Depressive Disorder: Implications of Childhood Trauma, 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Polymorphisms
This study examined the impact of childhood neglect, serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphisms on white matter (WM) integrity in major depressive disorder (MDD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fifty-five medication-free MDD patients and 18 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging scanning, genotyping and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) findings revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the MDD group in the anterior internal capsule. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Erica L. Tatham, Rajamannar Ramasubbu, Ismael Gaxiola-Valdez, Filomeno Cortese, Darren Clark, Bradley Goodyear, Jane Foster, Geoffrey B. Hall Source Type: research

Low serotonin1B receptor binding potential in the anterior cingulate cortex in drug-free patients with recurrent major depressive disorder
The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not fully understood and the diagnosis is largely based on history and clinical examination. So far, several lines of preclinical data and a single imaging study implicate a role for the serotonin1B (5-HT1B) receptor subtype. We sought to study 5-HT1B receptor binding in brain regions of reported relevance in patients with MDD. Subjects were examined at the Karolinska Institutet PET centre using positron emission tomography (PET) and the 5-HT1B receptor selective radioligand [11C]AZ10419369. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mikael Tiger, Lars Farde, Christian Rück, Andrea Varrone, Anton Forsberg, Nils Lindefors, Christer Halldin, Johan Lundberg Source Type: research

Pharmacological modulation of pulvinar resting-state regional oscillations and network dynamics in major depression
In this study we explored the alterations in the baseline regional and network activities of the pulvinar in MDD by applying spectral analysis of resting-state oscillatory activity, functional connectivity and directed (effective) connectivity on resting-state fMRI data acquired from 20 healthy controls and 19 participants with MDD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Reza Tadayonnejad, Olusola Ajilore, Brian J. Mickey, Natania A. Crane, David T. Hsu, Anand Kumar, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A. Langenecker Source Type: research

Cortical thickness and vbm in young women at risk for familial depression and their depressed mothers with positive family history
In this study, we recruited 24 women with the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with recurrent episodes and their healthy daughters (the high-risk for familial depression group; HRFD). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ozgun Ozalay, Burcu Aksoy, Sebnem Tunay, Fatma Simsek, Swati Chandhoki, Omer Kitis, Cagdas Eker, Ali Saffet Gonul Source Type: research

Resting state functional connectivity in anorexia nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness characterised by a disturbance in body image, a fear of weight gain and significantly low body weight. The factors involved in the genesis and maintenance of AN are unclear, though the potential neurobiological underpinnings of the condition are of increasing interest. Through the investigation of functional connectivity of the brain at rest, information relating to neuronal communication and integration of information that may relate to behaviours and cognitive symptoms can be explored. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea Phillipou, Larry Allen Abel, David Jonathan Castle, Matthew Edward Hughes, Richard Grant Nibbs, Caroline Gurvich, Susan Lee Rossell Source Type: research

Impaired Picture Arrangement subscores (WAIS-III) associated with decreased place orientation and frontal/occipital blood flow in Alzheimer's disease: Implications for social judgment dysfunction. The Osaki-Tajiri Project
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing “judgment”: the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yuka Kato, Kenichi Meguro, Masahiro Nakatsuka, Kei Nakamura, Masahiro Tsuboi, Satoshi Yamaguchi Source Type: research

Short-term group cognitive behavior therapy contributes to recovery from mild depression: evidence from functional and structural MRI
We used the functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to explore the neural correlates of response to group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in mild depression. College students with mild depressive symptoms participated in our 4-week group CBT training. The behavioral results showed that depression symptoms decreased after participation in group CBT. After the training, the gray matter volume (GMV) in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) increased and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) decreased. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xue Du, Yu Mao, Qinglin Zhang, Qing Hua Luo, Jiang Qiu Source Type: research

Duration of the depressive episode is correlated with ganglion cell inner plexifrom layer and nasal retinal fiber layer thicknesses: Optical coherence tomography findings in major depression
Major depression (MD) is a common mood disorder that is increasingly recognized as a chronic or recurrent illness (Simon, 2000). Neuroimaging studies have shown that depression is associated with cellular loss in key brain regions (Frodl et al., 2008). Imaging and postmortem studies have reported a decrease in the size, synapse number and density of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder (Drevets, 2000; Kang et al., 2012). Animal studies support the role of neurodegeneration in MD too (Tizabi et al., 2010). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mesut Yıldız, Sait Alim, Sedat Batmaz, Selim Demir, Emrah Songur, Hüseyin Ortak, Kadir Demirci Source Type: research

Resting functional connectivity in social anxiety disorder and the effect of pharmacotherapy
Neuroimaging research has reported differences in resting-state functional connectivity (RFC) between social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Limited research has examined the effect of treatment on RFC in SAD. We performed a study to identify differences in RFC between SAD and HC groups, and to investigate the effect of pharmacotherapy on RFC in SAD. Seed-based RFC analysis was performed on technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) SPECT scans using a cross-subject approach in SPM-12. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alexander Doruyter, Christine Lochner, Gerhard P. Jordaan, Dan J. Stein, Patrick Dupont, James M. Warwick Source Type: research

Altered structural connectivity is related to attention deficit/hyperactivity subtypes: A DTI study
This study aimed to provide novel insights into the white matter (WM) microstructural properties of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes by recruiting a relatively large sample of stimulant-naïve children and adolescents who had no comorbidity other than Oppositional Defiant Disorder and were homogenous according to the DAT1 gene polymorphism. A sample of 72 ADHD subjects and 24 controls aged 8 to15 years were enrolled in the study. We applied tract-based spatial statistics to the DTI measures for obtaining fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial diffusivity (AD, RD) measures to explore ADHD type-...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eyup Sabri Ercan, Serkan Suren, Ali Bacanlı, Kemal Utku Yazıcı, Cem Callı, Ulku Akyol Ardic, Duygu Aygunes, Buket Kosova, Onur Ozyurt, Cahide Aydın, Luis Augusto Rohde Source Type: research

Cortical Thickness in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Bipolar Offspring
Children of parents diagnosed with bipolar disorder are at greater risk for developing a variety of psychiatric disorders, however, the reasons remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate gray matter integrity in high-risk bipolar offspring (HRO) and healthy offspring (HCO) using cortical thickness techniques. Here we examined healthy control offspring (HCO; n=20) and HRO with (n=17) or without (n=13) psychiatric symptoms. T1-weighted images were collected from all offspring, and cortical thickness and age-cortical thickness correlations were compared. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lindsay C. Hanford, Roberto B. Sassi, Luciano Minuzzi, Geoffrey B. Hall Source Type: research

Age-Related Parieto-occipital and other Gray Matter Changes in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-analysis of Cortical and Subcortical Structures
Previous research suggests that core borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms increase or decrease in severity with advancing age. While structural neuroimaging studies show smaller limbic and prefrontal gray matter volumes (GMV) in primarily adult and adolescent BPD patients, respectively, findings are inconsistent. Using the effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) meta-analytic method, we investigated the relationship between advancing age and GMV abnormalities in BPD patients. A total of nine voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies comparing regional GMV of 256 BPD patients and 272 healthy control subjects ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christine L. Kimmel, Omar M. Alhassoon, Scott C. Wollman, Mark J. Stern, Adlyn Perez-Figueroa, Matthew G. Hall, Joscelyn Rompogren, Joaquim Radua Tags: Review article Source Type: research