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Aberrant functioning of the putamen links delusions, antipsychotic drug dose, and compromised connectivity in first episode psychosis—preliminary fMRI findings
The dopamine theory proposes the relationship of delusions to aberrant signaling in striatal circuitries that can be normalized with dopamine D2 receptor-blocking drugs. Localization of such circuitries, as well as their upstream and downstream signaling, remains poorly known. We collected functional magnetic resonance images from first-episode psychosis patients and controls during an audiovisual movie. Final analyses included 20 patients and 20 controls; another sample of 10 patients and 10 controls was used to calculate a comparison signal-time course. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tuukka T. Raij, Teemu Mäntylä, Tuula Kieseppä, Jaana Suvisaari Source Type: research

Temporal profile of brain response to alprazolam in patients with generalized anxiety disorder
This study investigated the temporal pattern of brain response to emotional stimuli during 28 days of alprazolam treatment among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) randomized 2:1 to drug or placebo in a double-blind design. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained during an emotion face matching task (EFMT) and an affective stimulus expectancy task (STIMEX) were performed at baseline, one hour after initial drug administration and 28 days later. Alprazolam significantly reduced scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire after one week and 28 days of treatment. (Sou...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gregory G. Brown, Susanne Ostrowitzki, Murray B. Stein, Markus von Kienlin, Thomas T. Liu, Alan Simmons, Christina Wierenga, Orah Y. Stein, Andreas Bruns, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Martin Paulus Source Type: research

Investigation of white matter abnormalities in first episode psychosis patients with persistent negative symptoms
This study aimed to explore microstructure in the neurocircuitry proposed to be involved in PNS, by using a region-of-interest approach. Secondly, the relationship between individual negative symptoms and white matter were explored. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cindy L. Hovington, Michael Bodnar, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Ridha Joober, Ashok K. Malla, Martin Lepage Source Type: research

Changes in brain regions associated with food-intake regulation, body mass and metabolic profiles during acute antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia
Imaging studies have consistently demonstrated global and regional structural brain abnormalities in people with schizophrenia (Haijma et al., 2013). While some abnormalities are present at, and prior to the onset of first psychotic symptoms, longitudinal studies have established that progressive changes also occur (Olabi et al., 2011). These changes may represent illness progression (Lieberman et al., 2001), although some evidence suggests that they are related to antipsychotic treatment per se (Ho et al., 2011; Andreasen et al., 2013; Fusar-Poli et al., 2013). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robin Emsley, Laila Asmal, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Stefan du Plessis, Jonathan Carr, Martin Kidd, Anil K Malhotra, Matthijs Vink, Rene S. Kahn Source Type: research

Examining the neural correlates of emergent equivalence relations in fragile X syndrome
The neural mechanisms underlying the formation of stimulus equivalence relations are poorly understood, particularly in individuals with specific learning impairments. As part of a larger study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), and age- and IQ-matched controls with intellectual disability, were required to form new equivalence relations in the scanner. Following intensive training on matching fractions to pie charts (A=B relations) and pie charts to decimals (B=C relations) outside the scanner over a 2-day period, participants were tested on the trained ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Megan Klabunde, Manish Saggar, Kristin M. Hustyi, Ryan G. Kelley, Allan L. Reiss, Scott S. Hall Source Type: research

Neural correlates of malingering in mild traumatic brain injury: A positron emission tomography study
The detection of malingering in cognitive performance is a challenge in clinical and legal environments. Neuroimaging may provide an objective method to determine the source of failure on tests of symptom validity. Participants comprised 45 combat veterans, 31 with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), not seeking medical or legal compensation, who completed the Tombaugh Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Based on TOMM performance (i.e., less than 45 of 50 total correct, suggesting suboptimal effort or malingering), subjects were separated into poor TOMM score (PT; n=10) and good...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea D. Spadoni, Elena Kosheleva, Monte S. Buchsbaum, Alan N. Simmons Source Type: research

Serum vitamin D and hippocampal gray matter volume in schizophrenia
In this study, we examined for potential association between serum vitamin D level and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve or antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients (n=35). Serum vitamin D level was estimated using 25-OH vitamin D immunoassay. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V. Kalmady, Amaresha C. Anekal, Dania Jose, Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Boban Joseph, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Vasanthapuram Ravi, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Bangalore N. Gangadhar Source Type: research

Altered threat and safety neural processing linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia: a two-task fMRI study
Persecutory delusions are a clinically important symptom in schizophrenia associated with social avoidance and increased violence. Few studies have investigated the neurobiology of persecutory delusions, which is a prerequisite for developing novel treatments. The aim of this two-paradigm functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study is to characterize social “real world” and linguistic threat brain activations linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia (n=26) using instructed-fear/safety and emotional word paradigms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David L. Perez, Hong Pan, Daniel S. Weisholtz, James C. Root, Oliver Tuescher, David B. Fischer, Tracy Butler, David R. Vago, Nancy Isenberg, Jane Epstein, Yulia Landa, Thomas E. Smith, Adam J. Savitz, David A. Silbersweig, Emily Stern Source Type: research

Altered processing of visual emotional stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study
Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display abnormal emotional processing and bias towards emotional content. Most neurophysiological studies in PTSD found higher amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to trauma-related visual content. Here we aimed to characterize brain electrical activity in PTSD subjects in response to non-trauma-related emotion-laden pictures (positive, neutral and negative). A combined behavioral-ERP study was conducted in 14 severe PTSD patients and 14 controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rotem Saar Ashkenazy, Hadar Shalev, Magdalena K. Kanthak, Jonathan Guez, Alon Friedman, Jonathan E. Cohen Source Type: research

Functional network centrality in obesity: A resting-state and task fMRI study
Obesity is associated with structural and functional alterations in brain areas that are often functionally distinct and anatomically distant. This suggests that obesity is associated with differences in functional connectivity of regions distributed across the brain. However, studies addressing whole brain functional connectivity in obesity remain scarce. Here, we compared voxel-wise degree centrality and eigenvector centrality between participants with obesity (n=20) and normal-weight controls (n=21). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Isabel García-García, María Ángeles Jurado, Maite Garolera, Idoia Marqués-Iturria, Annette Horstmann, Bàrbara Segura, Roser Pueyo, María José Sender-Palacios, Maria Vernet-Vernet, Arno Villringer, Carme Junqué, Daniel S. Margulies, Jane Neumann Source Type: research

Glutamatergic metabolite correlations with neuropsychological tests in first episode schizophrenia
Increased glutamatergic metabolites have been found in first episode schizophrenia. Although abnormal neuropsychological functioning has been demonstrated to be a core feature of schizophrenia, no studies have examined glutamatergic metabolites and neuropsychological function in drug-naïve patients. The present study addressed whether higher levels of glutamatergic metabolites would be associated with poorer neuropsychological performance and social functioning in first episode patients. Glutamatergic concentration estimates were obtained from the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and thalamus at baseline and 10 months...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kara Dempster, Ross Norman, Jean Théberge, Maria Densmore, Betsy Schaefer, Peter Williamson Source Type: research

Gender moderates the association between dorsal medial prefrontal cortex volume and depressive symptoms in a subclinical sample
Major depressive disorder is associated with lower medial prefrontal cortex volumes. The roles that gender might play in moderating this relationship and what particular medial prefrontal cortex subregion(s) might be implicated is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess dorsal, ventral, and anterior cingulate regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in a normative sample of male and female adults. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to measure these three variables. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joshua M. Carlson, Emily Depetro, Joshua Maxwell, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Greg Hajcak Proudfit Source Type: research

Alterations in hippocampal connectivity across the psychosis dimension
Recent evidence demonstrates that hippocampal hyperactivity helps mediate psychosis. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we examined hippocampal connectivity alterations in individuals with psychosis (PS) versus healthy controls (HC). Because of its putative greater involvement in psychiatric disorders, we hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus network would show greater dysconnectivity in psychosis. We tested rsfMRI connectivity in 88 PS (including 21 with schizophrenia; 40 with schizoaffective disorder; 27 with psychotic bipolar I disorder) and 65 HC. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Niyatee Samudra, Elena I. Ivleva, Nicholas A. Hubbard, Bart Rypma, John A. Sweeney, Brett A. Clementz, Matcheri S Keshavan, Godfrey D. Pearlson, Carol A. Tamminga Source Type: research

Dissociation in borderline personality disorder: Disturbed cognitive and emotional inhibition and its neural correlates
Evidence is heterogeneous regarding whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display disturbed emotional inhibition in the emotional Stroop task. Previous findings suggest that state dissociation may influence cognitive inhibition of task-irrelevant material, particularly with negative content. Our aim was to examine performance in an emotional Stroop task including negative, neutral, and positive words in BPD patients and healthy controls during functional magnetic resonance imaging. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dorina Winter, Annegret Krause-Utz, Stefanie Lis, Chui-De Chiu, Ruth Lanius, Friederike Schriner, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl Source Type: research

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(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

In vivo effects of ketamine on glutamate-glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Proof of concept
This study examined the concurrent neurochemical effects of ketamine versus saline infusions using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) during the clinical proof-of-concept crossover trial. Levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the excitatory neurochemicals glutamate+glutamine (Glx) were acquired in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a region implicated in OCD pathology. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carolyn I. Rodriguez, Lawrence S. Kegeles, Amanda Levinson, R. Todd Ogden, Xiangling Mao, Matthew S. Milak, Donna Vermes, Shan Xie, Liane Hunter, Pamela Flood, Holly Moore, Dikoma C. Shungu, Helen B. Simpson Source Type: research

Reduced neural differentiation between self-referential cognitive and emotional processes in women with borderline personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with disturbed emotion regulation. Psychotherapeutic interventions using mindfulness elements have shown effectiveness in reducing clinical symptoms, yet little is known about their underlying neurobiology. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 19 female BPD patients and 19 healthy controls were compared during mindful introspection, cognitive self-reflection and a neutral condition. The activation pattern in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in BPD patients was different from that in healthy subject when directing attention onto their ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sigrid Scherpiet, Uwe Herwig, Sarah Opialla, Hanne Scheerer, Viola Habermeyer, Lutz Jäncke, Annette B. Brühl Source Type: research

Relationship between a BDNF gene polymorphism and the brain volume in treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder: A VBM analysis of brain MRI
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) relates to basic neuronal functions, such as cell survival, axonal outgrowth, and dendritic growth. The Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene may affect genetic susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD). We prospectively investigated the relationship between the Val66Met BDNF genotype and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) findings for first episode and drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy subjects (HS). Participants comprised 38 MDD patients and 42 age- and sex-matched HS were divided into groups based on their BDNF genotype. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Satoru Ide, Shingo Kakeda, Keita Watanabe, Reiji Yoshimura, Osamu Abe, Kenji Hayashi, Issei Ueda, Taro Kishi, Asuka Katsuki, Wakako Umene-Nakano, Nakao Iwata, Jun Nakamura, Yukunori Korogi Source Type: research

Combination of dynamic C-PIB PET and structural MRI improves diagnosis of Alzheimers disease
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is an established technique for measuring brain atrophy, and dynamic positron emission tomography with 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB PET) has the potential to provide both perfusion and amyloid deposition information. It remains unclear, however, how to better combine perfusion, amyloid deposition and morphological information extracted from dynamic 11C-PIB PET and sMRI with the goal of improving the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Linwen Liu, Liping Fu, Xi Zhang, Jinming Zhang, Xiaojun Zhang, Baixuan Xu, Jiahe Tian, Yong Fan Source Type: research

Combination of dynamic 11C-PIB PET and structural MRI improves diagnosis of Alzheimers disease1
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is an established technique for measuring brain atrophy, and dynamic positron emission tomography with 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB PET) has the potential to provide both perfusion and amyloid deposition information. It remains unclear, however, how to better combine perfusion, amyloid deposition and morphological information extracted from dynamic 11C-PIB PET and sMRI with the goal of improving the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Linwen Liu, Liping Fu, Xi Zhang, Jinming Zhang, Xiaojun Zhang, Baixuan Xu, Jiahe Tian, Yong Fan Source Type: research

Voume and shape analysis of subcortical brain structures and ventricles in euthymic bipolar I disorder
This study aimed to establish trait-related subcortical volumetric and shape abnormalities in a large, homogeneous sample of prospectively confirmed euthymic bipolar I disorder (BD-I) patients (n=60), compared with healthy volunteers (n=60). Participants were individually matched for age and gender. Volume and shape metrics were derived from manually segmented S-MR images for the hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, and lateral ventricles. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephen J. Quigley, Cathy Scanlon, Liam Kilmartin, Louise Emsell, Camilla Langan, Brian Hallahan, Michael Murray, Conor Waters, Mairead Waldron, Sarah Hehir, Helen Casey, Emma McDermott, Jason Ridge, Joanne Kenney, Stefani O’Donoghue, Rory Nannery, Srin Source Type: research

Neural correlates of anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study
Panic disorder has been associated with dysfunctional neuropsychological dimensions, including anxiety sensitivity. Brain-imaging studies of the neural correlates of emotional processing have identified a network of structures that constitute the neural circuitry for emotions. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and insula, which are part of this network, are also involved in the processing of threat-related stimuli. The aim of the study was to investigate if neural activity in response to emotional stimuli in the cortico-limbic network is associated to anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sara Poletti, Daniele Radaelli, Michele Cucchi, Liana Ricci, Benedetta Vai, Enrico Smeraldi, Francesco Benedetti Source Type: research

A voxel-based morphometry study of gray matter correlates of facial emotion recognition in bipolar disorder
Facial emotion recognition (FER) is one of the many cognitive deficits reported in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate neuroanatomical correlates of FER impairments in BD type I (BD-I). Participants comprised 21 euthymic BD-I patients without Axis I DSM IV-TR comorbidities and 21 healthy controls who were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and the Penn Emotion Recognition Test (ER40). Preprocessing of images used DARTEL (diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra) for optimized voxel-based morphometry in SPM8. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maila de Castro L. Neves, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, Leandro Malloy-Diniz, Rodrigo Nicolato, Fernando Silva Neves, Fábio Luis de Souza-Duran, Geraldo Busatto, Humberto Corrêa Source Type: research

Gender effect on pre-attentive change detection in major depressive disorder patients revealed by auditory MMN
Gender differences in rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are well established, but gender differences in cognitive function have been little studied. Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) was used to investigate gender differences in pre-attentive information processing in first episode MDD. In the deviant-standard reverse oddball paradigm, duration auditory MMN was obtained in 30 patients (15 males) and 30 age-/education-matched controls. Over frontal-central areas, mean amplitude of increment MMN (to a 150-ms deviant tone) was smaller in female than male patients; there was no sex difference in decrement MMN (to a 50-...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhengxue Qiao, Aiying Yang, Xiaohui Qiu, Xiuxian Yang, Congpei Zhang, Xiongzhao Zhu, Jincai He, Lin Wang, Bing Bai, Hailian Sun, Lun Zhao, Yanjie Yang Source Type: research

Alterations of cerebral glutamate in the euthymic state of patients with bipolar disorder
The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) mostly remains unclear. However, some findings argue for a dysfunction in glutamatergic neurotransmission in BD. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T was used to determine glutamate concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the hippocampus (HC) of euthymic outpatients with BP-I disorder and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In patients with BD, glutamate concentrations were significantly increased in the ACC and decreased in the HC compared with concentrations in controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: André Ehrlich, Florian Schubert, Corinna Pehrs, Jürgen Gallinat Source Type: research

Brain structural and clinical changes after first episode psychosis: Focus on cannabinoid receptor 1 polymorphisms
Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene polymorphisms have been associated with central and peripheral effects of cannabis and schizophrenia pathophysiology. Here, we have tested whether three CNR1 variants (rs1049353, rs1535255 and rs2023239) are associated with changes in brain volumes, body mass index (BMI) or psychopathological scores in a 3-year longitudinal study of 65 first-episode psychosis patients. The rs1049353 at-risk allele was significantly associated with a greater reduction of caudate volume, and the rs2023239 T/C polymorphism showed a significant decrease in thalamic volume after the 3-year period. (Source: Psy...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paula Suárez-Pinilla, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Paul C. Guest, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro Source Type: research

Decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus is related to stop-signal task performance in alcohol-dependent patients
Impairment in inhibitory control has been proposed to contribute to habitual alcohol use, abuse and eventually dependence. Moreover, alcohol-dependent (AD) patients have shown a loss of gray matter volume (GMV) in the brain, specifically in prefrontal regions associated with executive functions, including response inhibition. To date, no study has evaluated whether this prefrontal GMV reduction is related to response inhibition in alcohol dependence. To address this issue, we acquired high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance mages from recently detoxified AD patients (n=22) and healthy controls (HC; n=21). (Source: P...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Corinde E. Wiers, Christiane K. Gawron, Sonja Gröpper, Stephanie Spengler, Heiner Stuke, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Henrik Walter, Felix Bermpohl Source Type: research

Neural activation during risky decision-making in youth at High risk for substance use Disorders
Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10–14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. (Sour...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leslie A. Hulvershorn, Tom A. Hummer, Rena Fukunaga, Ellen Leibenluft, Peter Finn, Melissa A. Cyders, Amit Anand, Lauren Overhage, Allyson Dir, Joshua Brown Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of psychotherapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a systematic review
The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include intrusive thoughts, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility, which are associated with dysfunction in dorsal and ventral corticostriato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. Psychotherapy involving exposure and response prevention has been established as an effective treatment for the affective symptoms, but the impact on the underlying neural circuits is not clear. This systematic review used the Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO databases to investigate how successful therapy may affect neural substrates of OCD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anders Lillevik Thorsen, Odile A. van den Heuvel, Bjarne Hansen, Gerd Kvale Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor imaging reveals No white matter impairments among adults with autism spectrum disorder
Abnormalities within white matter (WM) have been identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there is some support for greater neurobiological deficits among females with ASD, there is little research investigating sex differences in WM in ASD. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate WM aberration in 25 adults with high-functioning ASD and 24 age-, sex- and IQ-matched controls. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to explore differences in WM in major tract bundles. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Melissa Kirkovski, Peter G. Enticott, Jerome J. Maller, Susan L. Rossell, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Hippocampal glutamatergic/NMDA receptor functioning in bipolar disorder: A study combining mismatch negativity and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Disturbances in the hippocampal glutamate (Glu)/N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Here we aim to provide a targeted integration of two measures of glutamatergic functioning in BD; the association between mismatch negativity (MMN) and in vivo hippocampal-Glu measured via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Participants comprised of 33 patients with BD and 23 matched controls who underwent a two-tone passive, duration deviant MMN paradigm and 1H MRS. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kate M. Chitty, Jim Lagopoulos, Ian B. Hickie, Daniel F. Hermens Source Type: research

Individual differences in subcortical microstructure organization reflect reaction time performances during a flanker task: a diffusion tensor imaging study in children with and without ADHD
The results of several previous magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that the fronto-striato-thalamic circuitry is involved in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have investigated the putative association between quantitative diffusion tensor imaging measurements of subcortical grey matter and subject task performances in children with ADHD. Here, we examined whether reaction time (RT) parameters during a flanker task were correlated with mean diffusivity (MD) measurements in the basal ganglia and thalamus in children with ADHD and in controls. (Source: Psychi...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sidy Fall, Laurent Querne, Anne-Gaëlle Le Moing, Patrick Berquin Source Type: research

Hippocampal glutamatergic/NMDA receptor functioning in bipolar disorder:A study combining mismatch negativity and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Disturbances in the hippocampal glutamate (Glu)/N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Here we aim to provide a targeted integration of two measures of glutamatergic functioning in BD; the association between mismatch negativity (MMN) measured over temporal lobes (temporal MMN) and frontal lobes (frontocentral MMN) and in vivo hippocampal-Glu measured via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS). Participants comprised 33 patients with BD and 23 matched controls who underwent a two-tone passive, duration deviant MMN paradigm and 1H-MRS. (Source: Psyc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kate M. Chitty, Jim Lagopoulos, Ian B. Hickie, Daniel F. Hermens Source Type: research

Grey matter morphological anomalies in the caudate head in first-episode psychosis patients with delusions of reference
Delusions of reference (DOR) are theoretically linked with aberrant salience and associative learning. Previous studies have shown that the caudate nucleus plays a critical role in the cognitive circuits of coding prediction errors and associative learning. The current study aimed at testing the hypothesis that abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be involved in the neuroanatomical substrate of DOR. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 44 first-episode psychosis patients (with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder) and 25 healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Haojuan Tao, Gloria H.Y. Wong, Huiran Zhang, Yuan Zhou, Zhimin Xue, Baoci Shan, Eric Y.H. Chen, Zhening Liu Source Type: research

Alteration of spontaneous neuronal activity in young Adults with non-clinical depressive Symptoms
Non-clinical depressive symptoms (nCDSs) are highly prevalent in young adults and may be associated with the risk of developing full-fledged depressive disorders. However, the neural basis underlying nCDSs remains unknown. To explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity in individuals with nCDSs compared with healthy controls (HCs), we investigated resting-state brain activity using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in subjects with nCDSs (n=17) and HCs (n=20). All subjects were drawn from a sample of 1105 college students participating in a survey assessing depressive symptoms. (Source: Psychiatry...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xinhua Wei, Huicong Shen, Jiliang Ren, Wenhua Liu, Ruimeng Yang, Jun Liu, Hongzhen Wu, Xiangdong Xu, Lisha Lai, Jiani Hu, Xiaoping Pan, Xinqing Jiang Source Type: research

The association of gray matter volumes in the frontoparietal attention network with temperamental effortful control in young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study
Structural MRI studies have identified a link between cortical maturation and temperamental effortful control (EC), which is a trait-like risk factor for psychopathology during adolescence. However, little research has explored the underlying neural basis of EC in adults. We aimed to examine the relationship between EC and brain structure in young adults. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 27 undergraduates who completed the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-short form. The data were analyzed with SPM8 using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wenhai Zhang, Hong Li, Jie Chen, Qiang Liu, Xia Liu, Dahua Wang, Jiliang Shen Source Type: research

Associations between regional brain physiology and trait impulsivity, motor inhibition, and impaired control over drinking
Trait impulsivity and poor inhibitory control are well-established risk factors for alcohol misuse, yet little is known about the associated neurobiological endophenotypes. Here we examined correlations among brain physiology and self-reported trait impulsive behavior, impaired control over drinking, and a behavioral measure of response inhibition. A sample of healthy drinkers (n=117) completed a pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) scan to quantify resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and measures of self-reported impulsivity (Eysenck I7 Impulsivity scale) and impaired control over drinking. (Source: Psychiatry Re...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessica Weafer, Mario Dzemidzic, William Eiler II, Brandon G. Oberlin, Yang Wang, David A. Kareken Source Type: research

Neuroticism and serotonin 5-HT receptors in healthy subjects
Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with vulnerability for mood and anxiety disorders. Serotonergic mechanisms likely contribute to neuroticism. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are altered in mood and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT1A receptors are associated with neuroticism in healthy subjects is unclear. We measured brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in 34 healthy subjects in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635. Binding potential (BPP) was determined using the golden standard of kinetic compartmental modeling using arterial blood samples and radiometabolite determination. (So...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jussi Hirvonen, Lauri Tuominen, Kjell Någren, Jarmo Hietala Source Type: research

Increased activity of frontal and limbic regions to emotional stimuli in children at-risk for anxiety disorders
The objective of this study was to examine the function of frontal and limbic brain regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children at risk for anxiety disorders. Study participants included high-risk children (n=20) who had at least one parent with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder and normal-risk control children (n=19). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rhandi Christensen, Michael Van Ameringen, Geoffrey Hall Source Type: research

Reduced prefrontal activation during performance of the Iowa Gambling Task in patients with bipolar disorder
The objective of this study was to evaluate hemodynamic responses of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during performance of the IGT using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants comprised 13 patients and 15 healthy control subjects who were matched for age, sex, handedness, and intelligence quotient. Relative changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb) levels in the frontal region were measured using a 46-channel NIRS system. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yasuki Ono, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Tetsu Hirosawa, Shoryoku Hino, Tatsuya Nagasawa, Takanori Hashimoto, Toshio Munesue, Yoshio Minabe Source Type: research

Affective context interferes with brain responses during cognitive processing in borderline personality disorder: FMRI evidence
Emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with loss of cognitive control in the face of intense negative emotion. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive processing through the dysmodulation of brain regions involved in regulation of emotion, impulse control, executive function and memory. Structural and metabolic brain abnormalities have been reported in these regions in BPD. Using novel fMRI protocols, we investigated the neural basis of negative affective interference with cognitive processing targeting these regions. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul H. Soloff, Richard White, Amro Omari, Karthik Ramaseshan, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar Source Type: research

Brain venular pattern by 7T MRI correlates with memory and haemoglobin in sickle cell anaemia
Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterised by extensive vascular dysfunction that stems from inflammation, thrombosis and occlusion of post-capillary venules. Cognitive impairment is a neurological complication of SCA whose pathogenesis is unknown. We hypothesised that cerebral venular abnormalities are linked to cognitive impairment in SCA. Thus, we employed 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the association between venular density and cognitive function in homozygous SCA. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Enrico M. Novelli, C. Elizabeth Sarles, Howard Jay Aizenstein, Tamer S. Ibrahim, Meryl A. Butters, Anne Connelly Ritter, Kirk I. Erickson, Caterina Rosano Source Type: research

Brain venular pattern by 7T MRI Correlates with memory and hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by extensive vascular dysfunction that stems from inflammation, thrombosis and occlusion of post-capillary venules. Cognitive impairment is a neurological complication of SCA whose pathogenesis is unknown. We hypothesized that cerebral venular abnormalities are linked to cognitive impairment in SCA. Thus, we employed 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the association between venular density and cognitive function in homozygous SCA. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Enrico M Novelli, C. Elizabeth Sarles, Howard Jay Aizenstein, Tamer S Ibrahim, Meryl A Butters, Anne Connelly Ritter, Kirk I Erickson, Caterina Rosano Source Type: research

Symptom severity and disgust-related traits in borderline personality disorder: The role of amygdala subdivisions
The majority of morphometric studies on borderline personality disorder (BPD) found that diagnosed patients have a reduced amygdala volume. We sought to extend this finding by focusing on amygdala subdivisions (centromedial, laterobasal, superficial) and their association with symptom severity and disgust-related traits. Additional disorder-/disgust-relevant regions (insula, somatosensory cortex) were also investigated. We compared structural imaging data from 25 female BPD patients and 25 healthy women via voxel-based morphometry. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne Schienle, Verena Leutgeb, Albert Wabnegger Source Type: research

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Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mapping brain volumetric abnormalities in never-treated pathological gamblers
Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies to date have investigated brain abnormalities in association with the diagnosis of pathological gambling (PG), but very few of these have specifically searched for brain volume differences between PG patients and healthy volunteers(HV). To investigate brain volume differences between PG patients and HV, 30 male never-treated PG patients (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and 30 closely matched HV without history of psychiatric disorders in the past 2 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging with a 1.5-Tesla insturment. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniel Fuentes, Patricia Rzezak, Fabricio R. Pereira, Leandro F. Malloy-Diniz, Luciana C. Santos, Fábio L.S. Duran, Maria A. Barreiros, Cláudio C. Castro, Geraldo F. Busatto, Hermano Tavares, Clarice Gorenstein Source Type: research

Reduced age-related degeneration of the hippocampal subiculum in long-term meditators
Normal aging is known to result in a reduction of gray matter within the hippocampal complex, particularly in the subiculum. The present study was designed to address the question whether the practice of meditation can amend this age-related subicular atrophy. For this purpose, we established the correlations between subicular volume and chronological age within 50 long-term meditators and 50 control subjects. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were automatically processed combining cytoarchitectonically defined probabilistic maps with advanced tissue segmentation and registration methods. (Source: Psychiatry...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Florian Kurth, Nicolas Cherbuin, Eileen Luders Source Type: research

Increased hippocampal Blood volume and normal Blood flow in schizophrenia
Neuroimaging studies have provided compelling evidence for abnormal hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. Most studies made inferences about baseline hippocampal activity using a single hemodynamic parameter (e.g., blood volume or blood flow). Here we studied several hemodynamic measures in the same cohort to test the hypothesis of increased hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. We used dynamic susceptibility contrast- (DSC-) magnetic resonance imaging to assess blood volume, blood flow, and mean transit time in the hippocampus of 15 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pratik Talati, Swati Rane, Jack Skinner, John Gore, Stephan Heckers Source Type: research

Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses
Psychosis involves dysregulation of response to stress, particularly to negative valence stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of psychosis have shown hyperactivity in hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices. Sex differences in these deficits may be associated with steroid hormone pathway abnormalities, i.e., dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal and -gondal axes. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in psychosis cases would be associated with hyperactivity in hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus, and hypo...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jill M. Goldstein, Katie Lancaster, Julia M. Longenecker, Brandon Abbs, Laura M. Holsen, Sara Cherkerzian, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Nicolas Makris, Ming T. Tsuang, Stephen L. Buka, Larry J. Seidman, Anne Klibanski Source Type: research