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Relationship between prefrontal hemodynamic responses and quality of life differs between melancholia and non-melancholic depression
This study aimed to determine whether quality of life (QOL) reflects specific functional abnormalities of frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in melancholia. We recruited 30 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with melancholic features (MDD-MF), 52 with non-melancholic features (MDD-NMF), and 68 healthy control subjects who were matched for age, sex ratio, and years of education. QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task were monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Noa Tsujii, Wakako Mikawa, Emi Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Akashi, Toru Adachi, Eiji Kirime, Osamu Shirakawa Source Type: research

White Matter Integrity in Major Depressive Disorder: Implications of Childhood Trauma, 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Polymorphisms
This study examined the impact of childhood neglect, serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphisms on white matter (WM) integrity in major depressive disorder (MDD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fifty-five medication-free MDD patients and 18 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging scanning, genotyping and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) findings revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the MDD group in the anterior internal capsule. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Erica L. Tatham, Rajamannar Ramasubbu, Ismael Gaxiola-Valdez, Filomeno Cortese, Darren Clark, Bradley Goodyear, Jane Foster, Geoffrey B. Hall Source Type: research

Low serotonin1B receptor binding potential in the anterior cingulate cortex in drug-free patients with recurrent major depressive disorder
The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not fully understood and the diagnosis is largely based on history and clinical examination. So far, several lines of preclinical data and a single imaging study implicate a role for the serotonin1B (5-HT1B) receptor subtype. We sought to study 5-HT1B receptor binding in brain regions of reported relevance in patients with MDD. Subjects were examined at the Karolinska Institutet PET centre using positron emission tomography (PET) and the 5-HT1B receptor selective radioligand [11C]AZ10419369. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mikael Tiger, Lars Farde, Christian Rück, Andrea Varrone, Anton Forsberg, Nils Lindefors, Christer Halldin, Johan Lundberg Source Type: research

Pharmacological modulation of pulvinar resting-state regional oscillations and network dynamics in major depression
In this study we explored the alterations in the baseline regional and network activities of the pulvinar in MDD by applying spectral analysis of resting-state oscillatory activity, functional connectivity and directed (effective) connectivity on resting-state fMRI data acquired from 20 healthy controls and 19 participants with MDD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Reza Tadayonnejad, Olusola Ajilore, Brian J. Mickey, Natania A. Crane, David T. Hsu, Anand Kumar, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A. Langenecker Source Type: research

Cortical thickness and vbm in young women at risk for familial depression and their depressed mothers with positive family history
In this study, we recruited 24 women with the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with recurrent episodes and their healthy daughters (the high-risk for familial depression group; HRFD). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ozgun Ozalay, Burcu Aksoy, Sebnem Tunay, Fatma Simsek, Swati Chandhoki, Omer Kitis, Cagdas Eker, Ali Saffet Gonul Source Type: research

Resting state functional connectivity in anorexia nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness characterised by a disturbance in body image, a fear of weight gain and significantly low body weight. The factors involved in the genesis and maintenance of AN are unclear, though the potential neurobiological underpinnings of the condition are of increasing interest. Through the investigation of functional connectivity of the brain at rest, information relating to neuronal communication and integration of information that may relate to behaviours and cognitive symptoms can be explored. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea Phillipou, Larry Allen Abel, David Jonathan Castle, Matthew Edward Hughes, Richard Grant Nibbs, Caroline Gurvich, Susan Lee Rossell Source Type: research

Impaired Picture Arrangement subscores (WAIS-III) associated with decreased place orientation and frontal/occipital blood flow in Alzheimer's disease: Implications for social judgment dysfunction. The Osaki-Tajiri Project
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing “judgment”: the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yuka Kato, Kenichi Meguro, Masahiro Nakatsuka, Kei Nakamura, Masahiro Tsuboi, Satoshi Yamaguchi Source Type: research

Short-term group cognitive behavior therapy contributes to recovery from mild depression: evidence from functional and structural MRI
We used the functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to explore the neural correlates of response to group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in mild depression. College students with mild depressive symptoms participated in our 4-week group CBT training. The behavioral results showed that depression symptoms decreased after participation in group CBT. After the training, the gray matter volume (GMV) in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) increased and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) decreased. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xue Du, Yu Mao, Qinglin Zhang, Qing Hua Luo, Jiang Qiu Source Type: research

Duration of the depressive episode is correlated with ganglion cell inner plexifrom layer and nasal retinal fiber layer thicknesses: Optical coherence tomography findings in major depression
Major depression (MD) is a common mood disorder that is increasingly recognized as a chronic or recurrent illness (Simon, 2000). Neuroimaging studies have shown that depression is associated with cellular loss in key brain regions (Frodl et al., 2008). Imaging and postmortem studies have reported a decrease in the size, synapse number and density of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder (Drevets, 2000; Kang et al., 2012). Animal studies support the role of neurodegeneration in MD too (Tizabi et al., 2010). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mesut Yıldız, Sait Alim, Sedat Batmaz, Selim Demir, Emrah Songur, Hüseyin Ortak, Kadir Demirci Source Type: research

Resting functional connectivity in social anxiety disorder and the effect of pharmacotherapy
Neuroimaging research has reported differences in resting-state functional connectivity (RFC) between social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Limited research has examined the effect of treatment on RFC in SAD. We performed a study to identify differences in RFC between SAD and HC groups, and to investigate the effect of pharmacotherapy on RFC in SAD. Seed-based RFC analysis was performed on technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) SPECT scans using a cross-subject approach in SPM-12. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alexander Doruyter, Christine Lochner, Gerhard P. Jordaan, Dan J. Stein, Patrick Dupont, James M. Warwick Source Type: research

Altered structural connectivity is related to attention deficit/hyperactivity subtypes: A DTI study
This study aimed to provide novel insights into the white matter (WM) microstructural properties of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes by recruiting a relatively large sample of stimulant-naïve children and adolescents who had no comorbidity other than Oppositional Defiant Disorder and were homogenous according to the DAT1 gene polymorphism. A sample of 72 ADHD subjects and 24 controls aged 8 to15 years were enrolled in the study. We applied tract-based spatial statistics to the DTI measures for obtaining fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial diffusivity (AD, RD) measures to explore ADHD type-...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eyup Sabri Ercan, Serkan Suren, Ali Bacanlı, Kemal Utku Yazıcı, Cem Callı, Ulku Akyol Ardic, Duygu Aygunes, Buket Kosova, Onur Ozyurt, Cahide Aydın, Luis Augusto Rohde Source Type: research

Cortical Thickness in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Bipolar Offspring
Children of parents diagnosed with bipolar disorder are at greater risk for developing a variety of psychiatric disorders, however, the reasons remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate gray matter integrity in high-risk bipolar offspring (HRO) and healthy offspring (HCO) using cortical thickness techniques. Here we examined healthy control offspring (HCO; n=20) and HRO with (n=17) or without (n=13) psychiatric symptoms. T1-weighted images were collected from all offspring, and cortical thickness and age-cortical thickness correlations were compared. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lindsay C. Hanford, Roberto B. Sassi, Luciano Minuzzi, Geoffrey B. Hall Source Type: research

Age-Related Parieto-occipital and other Gray Matter Changes in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-analysis of Cortical and Subcortical Structures
Previous research suggests that core borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms increase or decrease in severity with advancing age. While structural neuroimaging studies show smaller limbic and prefrontal gray matter volumes (GMV) in primarily adult and adolescent BPD patients, respectively, findings are inconsistent. Using the effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) meta-analytic method, we investigated the relationship between advancing age and GMV abnormalities in BPD patients. A total of nine voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies comparing regional GMV of 256 BPD patients and 272 healthy control subjects ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christine L. Kimmel, Omar M. Alhassoon, Scott C. Wollman, Mark J. Stern, Adlyn Perez-Figueroa, Matthew G. Hall, Joscelyn Rompogren, Joaquim Radua Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Dopamine Efflux in Response to Ultraviolet Radiation in Addicted Sunbed Users
Compulsive tanning despite awareness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) carcinogenicity may represent an “addictive” behavior. Many addictive disorders are associated with alterations in dopamine (D2/D3) receptor binding and dopamine reactivity in the brain's reward pathway. To determine if compulsive tanners exhibited neurobiologic responses similar to other addictive disorders, this study assessed basal striatal D2/D3 binding and UVR-induced striatal dopamine efflux in ten addicted and ten infrequent tanners. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pamela M. Aubert, John P. Seibyl, Julianne L. Price, Thomas S. Harris, Francesca M. Filbey, Heidi Jacobe, Michael D. Devous, Bryon Adinoff Source Type: research

Time-course of serotonin transporter occupancy by single dose of three SSRIs in human brain: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]DASB
Sixteen healthy volunteers were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the single administration of 10mg or 20mg escitalopram, 50mg sertraline, or 20mg paroxetine. Four positron emission tomography scans with [11C]DASB were performed on each subject, the first prior to taking the drug, followed by the others at 4, 24, and 48hours after. Serotonin transporter occupancies of the drugs at each time point were calculated. All drugs showed maximum occupancy at 4hours after dosing and then decreasing occupancies with time. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ryosuke Arakawa, Amane Tateno, WooChan Kim, Takeshi Sakayori, Kohei Ogawa, Yoshiro Okubo Source Type: research

Decreased number of orbital sulci in schizophrenia spectrum disorders
An altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral pattern has been reported in the schizophrenia-spectrum, but it remains unknown whether they also have differences in the number of intermediate and posterior orbital sulci compared with healthy subjects. This magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the number of these sulci in 102 schizophrenia patients, 47 schizotypal disorder patients, and 84 controls. Both patient groups had a significantly lower number of both sulci bilaterally compared with controls, which was weakly associated with the severity of negative symptoms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tsutomu Takahashi, Mihoko Nakamura, Yumiko Nishikawa, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Daiki Sasabayashi, Kyo Noguchi, Michio Suzuki Source Type: research

Memory and Functional Brain Differences in a National Sample of U.S. Veterans with Gulf War Illness
This study investigated episodic memory and brain function in a nationally representative sample of GWV, using a face-name memory task and functional magnetic resonance imaging during encoding. A syndrome classification system was used to subdivide ill GWV into the three major Gulf War Illness syndrome types, “impaired cognition” (GWV-1), “confusion ataxia” (GWV-2), and “central pain” (GWV-3). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 17, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Crystal M. Cooper, Richard W. Briggs, Emily A. Farris, James Bartlett, Robert W. Haley, Timothy N. Odegard Source Type: research

Disrupted topological organization in the whole-brain functional network of trauma-exposed firefighters: A preliminary study
Given that partial posttraumatic stress disorder (pPTSD) may be a specific risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is important to understand the neurobiology of pPTSD. However, there are few extant studies in this domain. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and a graph theoretical approach, we compared the topological organization of the whole-brain functional network in trauma-exposed firefighters with pPTSD (pPTSD group, n=9) with those without pPTSD (PC group, n=8) and non-traumatized healthy controls (HC group, n=11). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wi Hoon Jung, Ki Jung Chang, Nam Hee Kim Source Type: research

Neurophysiological mechanisms in Acceptance and commitment therapy in opioid-addicted patients with chronic pain
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been effectively utilized to treat both chronic pain and substance use disorder independently. Given these results and the vital need to treat the comorbidity of the two disorders, a pilot ACT treatment was implemented in individuals with comorbid chronic pain and opioid addiction. This pilot study supported using neurophysiology to characterize treatment effects and revealed that, following ACT, participants with this comorbidity exhibited reductions in brain activation due to painful stimulus and in connectivity at rest. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rachel F. Smallwood, Jennifer S. Potter, Donald A. Robin Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Cortical abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease patients and relationship to depression: A surface-based morphometry study
Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Brain deficits may be the underlying cause of depression in PD. In the present study, we investigated whether morphometric alterations contribute to depression in PD. Seventeen depressed PD patients, 17 non-depressed PD patients and 45 normal controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects went through neurological and psychiatric clinical assessments. T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging and surface-based morphometric analyses were performed to examine morphometric abnormalities in PD patients and their relationship to depression. (Source: ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peiyu Huang, Yuting Lou, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Xiaojun Guan, Xiaojun Xu, Zhe Song, Wei Luo, Minming Zhang Source Type: research

Functional Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression
Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Charlotte Hentze, Henrik Walter, Elisabeth Schramm, Sarah Drost, Dieter Schoepf, Thomas Fangmeier, Margarete Mattern, Claus Normann, Ingo Zobel, Knut Schnell Source Type: research

Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression
Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Charlotte Hentze, Henrik Walter, Elisabeth Schramm, Sarah Drost, Dieter Schoepf, Thomas Fangmeier, Margarete Mattern, Claus Normann, Ingo Zobel, Knut Schnell Source Type: research

Microstructural changes to the brain of mice after methamphetamine exposure as identified with diffusion tensor imaging
Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant inducing neurotoxicity. Human magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of METH-dependent participants find various structural abnormities. Animal studies demonstrate immunohistochemical changes in multiple cellular pathways after METH exposure. Here, we characterized the long-term effects of METH on brain microstructure in mice exposed to an escalating METH binge regimen using in vivo DTI, a methodology directly translatable across species. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benjamin S. McKenna, Gregory G. Brown, Sarah Archibald, Miriam Scadeng, Robert Bussell, James P. Kesby, Athina Markou, Virawudh Soontornniyomkij, Cristian Achim, Svetlana Semenova, The Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC) Group Source Type: research

Altered Response-Preparation in Patients with Adult ADHD: A High-Density ERP study
We examined response-preceding negative potential shifts (RPNS) as a probe of response-preparation in adult ADHD patients by obtaining high-density event-related potentials from 33 ADHD and 29 matched healthy subjects during a Go/Nogo task using a 128-channel BioSemi recording-system. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brigitta Kakuszi, László Tombor, Szilvia Papp, István Bitter, Pál Czobor Source Type: research

Brain effects of computer-assisted cognitive remediation therapy in anorexia nervosa: A pilot fMRI study
Poor cognitive-behavioral flexibility is considered a trait marker in anorexia nervosa (AN) that can be improved by Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT). The present pilot study aimed at identifying changes in brain function potentially associated with CRT in AN. Data was obtained from a randomized, controlled trial. Twenty-four patients were assessed before and after 30 sessions of either CRT or a non-specific neurocognitive therapy. Voxel-wise analysis of whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Timo Brockmeyer, Stephan Walther, Katrin Ingenerf, Beate Wild, Mechthild Hartmann, Matthias Weisbrod, Marc-André Weber, Annegret Eckhardt-Henn, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich Source Type: research

Brain metabolite levels in recently sober individuals with alcohol use disorder: Relation to drinking variables and relapse
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in alcohol use disorder (AUD) typically report lower levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing compounds (Cho) in several brain regions. Metabolite levels, however, are labile and can be affected by several competing factors, some related to drinking variables.. This in vivo MRS study included 20 recently sober (19.6±12.6 days) individuals with AUD and 15 controls. MRS was performed in single voxels placed in frontal white matter and thalamic regions using Constant-Time Point Resolved Spectroscopy (CT-PRESS) for absolute quantification of NAA, Cho, total creatin...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 17, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Natalie M. Zahr, Rebecca A. Carr, Torsten Rohlfing, Dirk Mayer, Edith V. Sullivan, Ian M. Colrain, Adolf Pfefferbaum Source Type: research

Brain parcellation choice affects disease-related topology differences increasingly from global to local network levels
Network-based analyses of deviant brain function have become extremely popular in psychiatric neuroimaging. Underpinning brain network analyses is the selection of appropriate regions of interest (ROIs). Although ROI selection is fundamental in network analysis, its impact on detecting disease effects remains unclear. We investigated the impact of parcellation choice when comparing results from different studies. We investigated the effects of anatomical (AAL) and literature-based (Dosenbach) parcellation schemes on comparability of group differences in 35 female patients with anorexia nervosa and 35 age- and sex-matched h...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anton Lord, Stefan Ehrlich, Viola Borchardt, Daniel Geisler, Maria Seidel, Stefanie Huber, Julia Murr, Martin Walter Source Type: research

Combat exposure is associated with cortical thickness in Veterans with a history of chronic pain
Chronic Pain (CP) has been associated with changes in gray matter integrity in the cingulate and insular cortex. However, these changes have not been studied in Veterans, despite high prevalence rates of CP and interactions with combat-derived disorders. In the current study, 54 Veterans with a history of CP and 103 Veterans without CP were recruited from the Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders (TRACTS). Cortical thickness from structural MRI scans was determined using the FreeSurfer software package. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vincent Corbo, David H. Salat, Margaret A. Powell, William P. Milberg, Regina E. McGlinchey Source Type: research

Functional brain substrate of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: A brain SPECT multidimensional analysis
The aim of this study was to investigate the functional brain substrate of quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia. Participants comprised 130 right-handed patients with schizophrenia who underwent whole-brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-labeled ethylcysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) for exploring correlations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with the eight dimensions score of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life questionnaire (S-QoL 18). A significant positive correlation was found between the global index of the S-QoL 18 and rCBF in the right superior temporal sulcus and betwe...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Catherine Faget-Agius, Laurent Boyer, Raphaëlle Richieri, Pascal Auquier, Christophe Lançon, Eric Guedj Source Type: research

Amygdala volume is reduced in early course schizophrenia
Subcortical structural alterations have been implicated in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Yet, the extent of anatomical alterations for subcortical structures across illness phases remains unknown. To assess this, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to examine volume differences of major subcortical structures: thalamus, nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, amygdala and hippocampus. These differences were examined across four groups: i) healthy comparison subjects (HCS, n=96); ii) individuals at high risk (HR, n=21) for schizophrenia; iii) early-course schizophrenia patients (EC-SCZ, n=28); and...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alyson M. Rich, Youngsun T. Cho, Yanqing Tang, Aleksandar Savic, John H. Krystal, Fei Wang, Ke Xu, Alan Anticevic Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Unique insula subregion resting-state functional connectivity with amygdala complexes in posttraumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype
We examined insula subregion (anterior, mid, and posterior) functional connectivity with the bilateral amygdala using a region-of-interest seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM8. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrew A. Nicholson, Iman Sapru, Maria Densmore, Paul A. Frewen, Richard W.J. Neufeld, Jean Théberge, Margaret C. McKinnon, Ruth A. Lanius Source Type: research

Putamen volume correlates with obsessive compulsive characteristics in healthy population
Obsessions and compulsions (OCs) are frequent in healthy subjects; however neural backgrounds of the subclinical OCs were largely unknown. Results from recent studies suggested involvement of the putamen in the OC traits. To investigate this issue, 49 healthy subjects were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Anatomical delineation on MRI yielded the global volume and local shape of the putamen. Other striatal structures (the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) were also examined for exploratory purpose. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yasutaka Kubota, Wataru Sato, Takanori Kochiyama, Shota Uono, Sayaka Yoshimura, Reiko Sawada, Morimitsu Sakihama, Motomi Toichi Source Type: research

Mothers with depressive symptoms display differential brain activations when empathizing with infant faces
Maternal care during the first year of life provides the foundation for the infant’s emotional and cognitive development. Depressive symptoms in mothers can undermine their early dyadic interaction, which may lead to various psychopathological disorders with long-term consequences. During this period, the mother-child interaction is exclusively preverbal and is based on the mother’s ability to understand her infant’s needs and feelings (i.e., empathy) and on reciprocal imitation of facial expressions that promote a social dialogue that influences the development of the infant self. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Delia Lenzi, Cristina Trentini, Emiliano Macaluso, Sonia Graziano, Anna Maria Speranza, Patrizia Pantano, Massimo Ammaniti Source Type: research

Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder
Neural models of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit that over-response of components of the brain’s salience network (SN) to negative stimuli plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of MDD. In the present proof-of-concept study, we tested this formulation directly by examining the affective consequences of training depressed persons to down-regulate response of SN nodes to negative material. Ten participants in the real neurofeedback group saw, and attempted to learn to down-regulate, activity from an empirically identified node of the SN. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: J. Paul Hamilton, Gary H. Glover, Epifanio Bagarinao, Catie Chang, Sean Mackey, Matthew Sacchet, Ian H. Gotlib Source Type: research

Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in insula and angular gyrus/supramarginal gyrus: Significant findings in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder
In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) were applied to examine the changes of interhemispheric FC of the whole brain in patients with SD. A total of 25 first-episode, medication-naive SD patients and 28 age-, sex-, education-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state fMRI, and the data were analyzed by VMHC. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Qinji Su, Dapeng Yao, Muliang Jiang, Feng Liu, Liling Long, Yi Dai, Miaoyu Yu, Zhikun Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jianrong Liu, Changqing Xiao, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo Source Type: research

Amygdala activity during autobiographical memory recall as a biomarker for residual symptoms in patients remitted from depression
We performed a linear regression analysis on demographic, memory performance, and amygdala activity during memory recall on 23 unmedicated participants remitted from major depressive disorder. Amygdala activity during positive memory recall, and the percent of specific positive memories recalled were the variables that explained the most variance in residual depressive symptoms. This model was not significant in control or currently depressed participants. Longitudinal follow up is necessary to assess whether these variables predict relapse. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kymberly D. Young, Wayne C. Drevets, Jerzy Bodurka, Sheldon S. Preskorn Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Effects of rivastigmine on visual attention in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A serial functional MRI activation pilot-study
A pilot study to investigate the effects of rivastigmine on the brain activation pattern due to visual attention tasks in a group of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired patients (aMCI). The design was an initial three-month double blind period with a rivastigmine and placebo arms, followed by a nine-month open-label period. All patients underwent serial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline, and after three and six months of follow-up. Primary endpoint was the effect of rivastigmine on functional brain changes during visual attention (face and location matching) tasks. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Arun L.W. Bokde, Enrica Cavedo, Patricia Lopez-Bayo, Simone Lista, Thomas Meindl, Christine Born, Samantha Galluzzi, Frank Faltraco, Bruno Dubois, Stefan J. Teipel, Maximilian Reiser, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Harald Hampel Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of hippocampal atrophy in early recognition of Alzheimer´s disease – a critical appraisal after two decades of research
As a characteristic feature of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) hippocampal atrophy (HA) can be demonstrated in the majority of patients by using neuroimaging techniques in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hippocampal atrophy is associated with declarative memory deficits and can also be associated with changes of adjacent medial temporal substructures such as the parahippocampal gyrus or the the entorhinal cortex. Similar findings are present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) albeit to a lesser extent. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Johannes Schröder, Johannes Pantel Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Multiprobe molecular imaging of an NMDA receptor hypofunction rat model for glutamatergic dysfunction
There are many indications of a connection between abnormal glutamate transmission through N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction and the occurrence of schizophrenia. The importance of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) became generally recognized due to its physical link through anchor proteins with NMDAR. Neuroinflammation as well as the kynurenine (tryptophan catabolite; TRYCAT) pathway are equally considered as major contributors to the pathology.We aimed to investigate this interplay between glutamate release, neuronal activation and inflammatory markers, by using small-animal positron emiss...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lauren Kosten, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Robert Verkerk, David Thomae, Livia De Picker, Leonie wyffels, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Sigrid Stroobants, Steven Staelens Source Type: research

Different roads to the same destination – The impact of impulsivity on decision-making processes under risk within a rewarding context in a healthy male sample
In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of decision-making under risk in 12 impulsive, as defined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and 13 normal men. Although both groups showed similar decision-making behavior, neural activation regarding decision-making processes differed significantly. Impulsive persons revealed stronger activation in the (ventro-) medial prefrontal cortex and less deactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex while playing for potential gains. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ramona Dinu-Biringer, Frauke Nees, Rosalux Falquez, Moritz Berger, Sven Barnow Source Type: research

Converging effects of cocaine addiction and sex on neural responses to monetary rewards
There is some evidence that cocaine addiction manifests as more severe in women than men. Here, we examined whether these sex-specific differences in the clinical setting parallel differential neurobehavioral sensitivity to rewards in the laboratory setting. Twenty-eight (14 females/14 males) cocaine-dependent and 25 (11 females/14 males) healthy individuals completed a monetary reward task during fMRI. Results showed that the effects of cocaine dependence and sex overlapped in regions traditionally considered part of the mesocorticolimbic brain circuits including the hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as we...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anna B. Konova, Scott J. Moeller, Muhammad A. Parvaz, Monja I. Froböse, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z. Goldstein Source Type: research

Disentangling introspective and exteroceptive attentional control from emotional appraisal in depression using fMRI: A preliminary study
We examined BOLD activity in ten healthy and ten depressed subjects while they viewed emotional picture sets and categorized their experience in the moment as pleasant, unpleasant or neutral (introspective attention), as well as when they viewed matched pictures and judged whether they depicted indoor or outdoor scenes (exteroceptive attention). Contrasts permitted investigation of differences in neural activity between groups associated with (1) attentional control, and (2) appraisal of valence. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ryan Smith, Leslie C. Baxter, Julian F. Thayer, Richard D. Lane Source Type: research

Different roads to the same destination-the impact of impulsivity on decision-making processes under risk within a rewarding context in a healthy male sample
In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of decision-making under risk in 12 impulsive, as defined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and 13 normal men. Although both groups showed similar decision-making behavior, neural activation regarding decision-making processes differed significantly. Impulsive persons revealed stronger activation in the (ventro-) medial prefrontal cortex and less deactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex while playing for potential gains. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ramona Dinu-Biringer, Frauke Nees, Rosalux Falquez, Moritz Berger, Sven Barnow Source Type: research

Serotonin Signaling Modulates the Effects of Familial Risk for Depression on Cortical Thickness
In this study, we assessed whether the effects of familial risk were modulated by the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ravi Bansal, Bradley S. Peterson, Jay Gingrich, Xuejun Hao, Zagaa Odgerel, Virginia Warner, Priya J. Wickramaratne, Ardesheer Talati, Mark Ansorge, Alan S. Brown, Andre Sourander, Myrna M. Weissman Source Type: research

Fronto-temporal alterations and affect regulation in methamphetamine dependence with and without a history of psychosis
Methamphetamine (MA) has been shown to have neurotoxic effects associated with brain structure changes and schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Although these abnormalities may in turn be related to cognitive impairment and increased aggression, their association with affect dysregulation is less well studied. We investigated cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in 21 participants with MA dependence, 19 patients with MA-associated psychosis (MAP), and 19 healthy controls. Participants' affect regulation abilities were assessed through self-report scales on emotion reactivity (ERS) and difficulties in emotion regula...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne Uhlmann, Jean-Paul Fouche, Nastassja Koen, Ernesta M. Meintjes, Don Wilson, Dan J. Stein Source Type: research

Efficacy of identifying neural components in the face and emotion processing system in schizophrenia using a dynamic functional localizer
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in face perception and emotion recognition. Despite consistent behavioural results, the neural mechanisms underlying these cognitive abilities have been difficult to isolate, in part due to differences in neuroimaging methods used between studies for identifying regions in the face processing system. Given this problem, we aimed to validate a recently developed fMRI-based dynamic functional localizer task for use in studies of psychiatric populations and specifically schizophrenia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Aiden E.G.F. Arnold, Giuseppe Iaria, Vina M. Goghari Source Type: research

Altered Balance of Functional Brain Networks in Schizophrenia
Activity in dorsal attention (DAN) and frontoparietal (FPN) functional brain networks is linked to allocation of attention to external stimuli, and activity in the default-mode network (DMN) is to allocation of attention to internal representations. Tasks requiring attention to external stimuli shift activity to the DAN/FPN and away from the DMN, and optimal task performance depends on balancing DAN/FPN against DMN activity. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study assessed the balance of DAN/FPN and DMN activity in 13 schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy controls while they were engaged in a task sw...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Todd S. Woodward, KaWai Leong, Nicole Sanford, Christine M. Tipper, Katie M. Lavigne Source Type: research

The relationship between cortical thickness and body mass index differs between women with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls
In this study, we applied a well validated procedure implemented in Freesurfer software toolkit to investigate cortical thickness in a sample of 21 patients with AN and 18 healthy controls, focusing on group differences and on the relationship between BMI and cortical thickness. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Luca Lavagnino, Federico Amianto, Benson Mwangi, Federico D’Agata, Angela Spalatro, Giovana B Zunta Soares, Giovanni Abbate Daga, Paolo Mortara, Secondo Fassino, Jair Soares Source Type: research