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Brain structural and clinical changes after first episode psychosis: Focus on cannabinoid receptor 1 polymorphisms
Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene polymorphisms have been associated with central and peripheral effects of cannabis and schizophrenia pathophysiology. Here, we have tested whether three CNR1 variants (rs1049353, rs1535255 and rs2023239) are associated with changes in brain volumes, body mass index (BMI) or psychopathological scores in a 3-year longitudinal study of 65 first-episode psychosis patients. The rs1049353 at-risk allele was significantly associated with a greater reduction of caudate volume, and the rs2023239 T/C polymorphism showed a significant decrease in thalamic volume after the 3-year period. (Source: Psy...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paula Suárez-Pinilla, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Paul C. Guest, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro Source Type: research

Decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus is related to stop-signal task performance in alcohol-dependent patients
Impairment in inhibitory control has been proposed to contribute to habitual alcohol use, abuse and eventually dependence. Moreover, alcohol-dependent (AD) patients have shown a loss of gray matter volume (GMV) in the brain, specifically in prefrontal regions associated with executive functions, including response inhibition. To date, no study has evaluated whether this prefrontal GMV reduction is related to response inhibition in alcohol dependence. To address this issue, we acquired high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance mages from recently detoxified AD patients (n=22) and healthy controls (HC; n=21). (Source: P...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Corinde E. Wiers, Christiane K. Gawron, Sonja Gröpper, Stephanie Spengler, Heiner Stuke, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Henrik Walter, Felix Bermpohl Source Type: research

Neural activation during risky decision-making in youth at High risk for substance use Disorders
Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10–14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. (Sour...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leslie A. Hulvershorn, Tom A. Hummer, Rena Fukunaga, Ellen Leibenluft, Peter Finn, Melissa A. Cyders, Amit Anand, Lauren Overhage, Allyson Dir, Joshua Brown Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of psychotherapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a systematic review
The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include intrusive thoughts, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility, which are associated with dysfunction in dorsal and ventral corticostriato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. Psychotherapy involving exposure and response prevention has been established as an effective treatment for the affective symptoms, but the impact on the underlying neural circuits is not clear. This systematic review used the Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO databases to investigate how successful therapy may affect neural substrates of OCD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anders Lillevik Thorsen, Odile A. van den Heuvel, Bjarne Hansen, Gerd Kvale Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor imaging reveals No white matter impairments among adults with autism spectrum disorder
Abnormalities within white matter (WM) have been identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there is some support for greater neurobiological deficits among females with ASD, there is little research investigating sex differences in WM in ASD. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate WM aberration in 25 adults with high-functioning ASD and 24 age-, sex- and IQ-matched controls. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to explore differences in WM in major tract bundles. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Melissa Kirkovski, Peter G. Enticott, Jerome J. Maller, Susan L. Rossell, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Individual differences in subcortical microstructure organization reflect reaction time performances during a flanker task: a diffusion tensor imaging study in children with and without ADHD
The results of several previous magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that the fronto-striato-thalamic circuitry is involved in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have investigated the putative association between quantitative diffusion tensor imaging measurements of subcortical grey matter and subject task performances in children with ADHD. Here, we examined whether reaction time (RT) parameters during a flanker task were correlated with mean diffusivity (MD) measurements in the basal ganglia and thalamus in children with ADHD and in controls. (Source: Psychi...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sidy Fall, Laurent Querne, Anne-Gaëlle Le Moing, Patrick Berquin Source Type: research

Hippocampal glutamatergic/NMDA receptor functioning in bipolar disorder:A study combining mismatch negativity and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Disturbances in the hippocampal glutamate (Glu)/N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Here we aim to provide a targeted integration of two measures of glutamatergic functioning in BD; the association between mismatch negativity (MMN) measured over temporal lobes (temporal MMN) and frontal lobes (frontocentral MMN) and in vivo hippocampal-Glu measured via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS). Participants comprised 33 patients with BD and 23 matched controls who underwent a two-tone passive, duration deviant MMN paradigm and 1H-MRS. (Source: Psyc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kate M. Chitty, Jim Lagopoulos, Ian B. Hickie, Daniel F. Hermens Source Type: research

Grey matter morphological anomalies in the caudate head in first-episode psychosis patients with delusions of reference
Delusions of reference (DOR) are theoretically linked with aberrant salience and associative learning. Previous studies have shown that the caudate nucleus plays a critical role in the cognitive circuits of coding prediction errors and associative learning. The current study aimed at testing the hypothesis that abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be involved in the neuroanatomical substrate of DOR. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 44 first-episode psychosis patients (with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder) and 25 healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Haojuan Tao, Gloria H.Y. Wong, Huiran Zhang, Yuan Zhou, Zhimin Xue, Baoci Shan, Eric Y.H. Chen, Zhening Liu Source Type: research

Alteration of spontaneous neuronal activity in young Adults with non-clinical depressive Symptoms
Non-clinical depressive symptoms (nCDSs) are highly prevalent in young adults and may be associated with the risk of developing full-fledged depressive disorders. However, the neural basis underlying nCDSs remains unknown. To explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity in individuals with nCDSs compared with healthy controls (HCs), we investigated resting-state brain activity using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in subjects with nCDSs (n=17) and HCs (n=20). All subjects were drawn from a sample of 1105 college students participating in a survey assessing depressive symptoms. (Source: Psychiatry...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xinhua Wei, Huicong Shen, Jiliang Ren, Wenhua Liu, Ruimeng Yang, Jun Liu, Hongzhen Wu, Xiangdong Xu, Lisha Lai, Jiani Hu, Xiaoping Pan, Xinqing Jiang Source Type: research

The association of gray matter volumes in the frontoparietal attention network with temperamental effortful control in young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study
Structural MRI studies have identified a link between cortical maturation and temperamental effortful control (EC), which is a trait-like risk factor for psychopathology during adolescence. However, little research has explored the underlying neural basis of EC in adults. We aimed to examine the relationship between EC and brain structure in young adults. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 27 undergraduates who completed the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-short form. The data were analyzed with SPM8 using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wenhai Zhang, Hong Li, Jie Chen, Qiang Liu, Xia Liu, Dahua Wang, Jiliang Shen Source Type: research

Associations between regional brain physiology and trait impulsivity, motor inhibition, and impaired control over drinking
Trait impulsivity and poor inhibitory control are well-established risk factors for alcohol misuse, yet little is known about the associated neurobiological endophenotypes. Here we examined correlations among brain physiology and self-reported trait impulsive behavior, impaired control over drinking, and a behavioral measure of response inhibition. A sample of healthy drinkers (n=117) completed a pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) scan to quantify resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and measures of self-reported impulsivity (Eysenck I7 Impulsivity scale) and impaired control over drinking. (Source: Psychiatry Re...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessica Weafer, Mario Dzemidzic, William Eiler II, Brandon G. Oberlin, Yang Wang, David A. Kareken Source Type: research

Neuroticism and serotonin 5-HT receptors in healthy subjects
Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with vulnerability for mood and anxiety disorders. Serotonergic mechanisms likely contribute to neuroticism. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are altered in mood and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT1A receptors are associated with neuroticism in healthy subjects is unclear. We measured brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in 34 healthy subjects in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635. Binding potential (BPP) was determined using the golden standard of kinetic compartmental modeling using arterial blood samples and radiometabolite determination. (So...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jussi Hirvonen, Lauri Tuominen, Kjell Någren, Jarmo Hietala Source Type: research

Increased activity of frontal and limbic regions to emotional stimuli in children at-risk for anxiety disorders
The objective of this study was to examine the function of frontal and limbic brain regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children at risk for anxiety disorders. Study participants included high-risk children (n=20) who had at least one parent with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder and normal-risk control children (n=19). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rhandi Christensen, Michael Van Ameringen, Geoffrey Hall Source Type: research

Reduced prefrontal activation during performance of the Iowa Gambling Task in patients with bipolar disorder
The objective of this study was to evaluate hemodynamic responses of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during performance of the IGT using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants comprised 13 patients and 15 healthy control subjects who were matched for age, sex, handedness, and intelligence quotient. Relative changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb) levels in the frontal region were measured using a 46-channel NIRS system. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yasuki Ono, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Tetsu Hirosawa, Shoryoku Hino, Tatsuya Nagasawa, Takanori Hashimoto, Toshio Munesue, Yoshio Minabe Source Type: research

Affective context interferes with brain responses during cognitive processing in borderline personality disorder: FMRI evidence
Emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with loss of cognitive control in the face of intense negative emotion. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive processing through the dysmodulation of brain regions involved in regulation of emotion, impulse control, executive function and memory. Structural and metabolic brain abnormalities have been reported in these regions in BPD. Using novel fMRI protocols, we investigated the neural basis of negative affective interference with cognitive processing targeting these regions. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul H. Soloff, Richard White, Amro Omari, Karthik Ramaseshan, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar Source Type: research

Brain venular pattern by 7T MRI correlates with memory and haemoglobin in sickle cell anaemia
Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterised by extensive vascular dysfunction that stems from inflammation, thrombosis and occlusion of post-capillary venules. Cognitive impairment is a neurological complication of SCA whose pathogenesis is unknown. We hypothesised that cerebral venular abnormalities are linked to cognitive impairment in SCA. Thus, we employed 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the association between venular density and cognitive function in homozygous SCA. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Enrico M. Novelli, C. Elizabeth Sarles, Howard Jay Aizenstein, Tamer S. Ibrahim, Meryl A. Butters, Anne Connelly Ritter, Kirk I. Erickson, Caterina Rosano Source Type: research

Brain venular pattern by 7T MRI Correlates with memory and hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by extensive vascular dysfunction that stems from inflammation, thrombosis and occlusion of post-capillary venules. Cognitive impairment is a neurological complication of SCA whose pathogenesis is unknown. We hypothesized that cerebral venular abnormalities are linked to cognitive impairment in SCA. Thus, we employed 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the association between venular density and cognitive function in homozygous SCA. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Enrico M Novelli, C. Elizabeth Sarles, Howard Jay Aizenstein, Tamer S Ibrahim, Meryl A Butters, Anne Connelly Ritter, Kirk I Erickson, Caterina Rosano Source Type: research

Symptom severity and disgust-related traits in borderline personality disorder: The role of amygdala subdivisions
The majority of morphometric studies on borderline personality disorder (BPD) found that diagnosed patients have a reduced amygdala volume. We sought to extend this finding by focusing on amygdala subdivisions (centromedial, laterobasal, superficial) and their association with symptom severity and disgust-related traits. Additional disorder-/disgust-relevant regions (insula, somatosensory cortex) were also investigated. We compared structural imaging data from 25 female BPD patients and 25 healthy women via voxel-based morphometry. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne Schienle, Verena Leutgeb, Albert Wabnegger Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mapping brain volumetric abnormalities in never-treated pathological gamblers
Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies to date have investigated brain abnormalities in association with the diagnosis of pathological gambling (PG), but very few of these have specifically searched for brain volume differences between PG patients and healthy volunteers(HV). To investigate brain volume differences between PG patients and HV, 30 male never-treated PG patients (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and 30 closely matched HV without history of psychiatric disorders in the past 2 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging with a 1.5-Tesla insturment. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniel Fuentes, Patricia Rzezak, Fabricio R. Pereira, Leandro F. Malloy-Diniz, Luciana C. Santos, Fábio L.S. Duran, Maria A. Barreiros, Cláudio C. Castro, Geraldo F. Busatto, Hermano Tavares, Clarice Gorenstein Source Type: research

Reduced age-related degeneration of the hippocampal subiculum in long-term meditators
Normal aging is known to result in a reduction of gray matter within the hippocampal complex, particularly in the subiculum. The present study was designed to address the question whether the practice of meditation can amend this age-related subicular atrophy. For this purpose, we established the correlations between subicular volume and chronological age within 50 long-term meditators and 50 control subjects. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were automatically processed combining cytoarchitectonically defined probabilistic maps with advanced tissue segmentation and registration methods. (Source: Psychiatry...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Florian Kurth, Nicolas Cherbuin, Eileen Luders Source Type: research

Increased hippocampal Blood volume and normal Blood flow in schizophrenia
Neuroimaging studies have provided compelling evidence for abnormal hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. Most studies made inferences about baseline hippocampal activity using a single hemodynamic parameter (e.g., blood volume or blood flow). Here we studied several hemodynamic measures in the same cohort to test the hypothesis of increased hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. We used dynamic susceptibility contrast- (DSC-) magnetic resonance imaging to assess blood volume, blood flow, and mean transit time in the hippocampus of 15 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pratik Talati, Swati Rane, Jack Skinner, John Gore, Stephan Heckers Source Type: research

Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses
Psychosis involves dysregulation of response to stress, particularly to negative valence stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of psychosis have shown hyperactivity in hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices. Sex differences in these deficits may be associated with steroid hormone pathway abnormalities, i.e., dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal and -gondal axes. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in psychosis cases would be associated with hyperactivity in hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus, and hypo...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jill M. Goldstein, Katie Lancaster, Julia M. Longenecker, Brandon Abbs, Laura M. Holsen, Sara Cherkerzian, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Nicolas Makris, Ming T. Tsuang, Stephen L. Buka, Larry J. Seidman, Anne Klibanski Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise intervention in young people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders; improved fitness with no change in hippocampal volume
To the Editors (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simon Rosenbaum, Jim Lagopoulos, Jackie Curtis, Lauren Taylor, Andrew Watkins, Benjamin K. Barry, Philip B. Ward Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise intervention in young people
To the Editors: (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simon Rosenbaum, Jim Lagopoulos, Jackie Curtis, Benjamin K. Barry, Lauren Taylor, Andrew Watkins, Philip B. Ward Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Proneness to social anxiety modulates neural complexity in the absence of exposure: A resting state fMRI study using Hurst exponent
To test the hypothesis that brain activity is modulated by trait social anxiety, we measured the Hurst Exponent (HE), an index of complexity in time series, in healthy individuals at rest in the absence of any social trigger. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series were recorded in 36 subjects at rest. All volunteers were healthy without any psychiatric, medical or neurological disorder. Subjects completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) to assess social anxiety and thoughts in social contexts. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Claudio Gentili, Nicola Vanello, Ioana Cristea, Daniel David, Emiliano Ricciardi, Pietro Pietrini Source Type: research

Dissociated large-scale functional connectivity networks of the precuneus in medication-naïve first-episode depression
Research suggests an imbalance in neural activity within large-scale networks as an important pathophysiological aspect of depression. Yet, there is little consensus about to the abnormality within the default mode network (DMN) in major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, 16 first-episode, medication-naïve patients with MDD and 16 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest. With the precuneus (a central node of the DMN) as a seed region, functional connectivity (FC) was measured across the entire brain. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daihui Peng, Elizabeth B. Liddle, Sarina Iwabuchi, Chen Zhang, Zhiguo Wu, Jun Liu, Kaida Jiang, Lin Xu, Peter F Liddle, Lena Palaniyappan, Yiru Fang Source Type: research

Combining various types of classifiers and features extracted from magnetic resonance imaging data in schizophrenia recognition
We investigated a combination of three classification algorithms, namely the modified maximum uncertainty linear discriminant analysis (mMLDA), the centroid method, and the average linkage, with three types of features extracted from three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, specifically MR intensities, grey matter densities, and local deformations for distinguishing 49 first episode schizophrenia male patients from 49 healthy male subjects. The feature sets were reduced using intersubject principal component analysis before classification. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eva Janousova, Daniel Schwarz, Tomas Kasparek Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Brain structure associated with automatic thoughts predicted depression symptoms in healthy individuals
Previous behavioral studies have examined the correlation between personality and depression, and between negative automatic thoughts and depression, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relationships among these three factors. Even less is known about how variations in brain structure are related to negative automatic thoughts, which are thought to mediate the association between personality traits and depressive symptoms. A total of 298 healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and completed the following questionnaires: a Neuroticism scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), and the...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xue Du, Dongtao Wei, Peng Xie, Qinglin Zhang, Jiang Qiu Source Type: research

A splitting brain: Imbalanced neural networks in schizophrenia
Dysconnectivity between key brain systems has been hypothesized to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study examined the pattern of functional dysconnectivity across whole-brain neural networks in 121 first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Group independent component analysis (ICA) was first applied to rsfMRI data to extract 90 functional components of the brain. The functional connectivity between these ICA components was then evaluated and compared between the patient and control groups. (Source: Psychiatry...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mingli Li, Wei Deng, Zongling He, Qiang Wang, Chaohua Huang, Lijun Jiang, Qiyong Gong, Doug M. Ziedonis, Jean A. King, Xiaohong Ma, Nanyin Zhang, Tao Li Source Type: research

Family load impacts orbitofrontal volume in first-episode schizophrenia
In schizophrenia patients, the volume of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has inconsistently been reported to be reduced compared with that in healthy subjects. To investigate the impact of genetic load on OFC volumes, we performed manual tracing of magnetic resonance images in 23 first-episode schizophrenia patients (FE-SZ) and 23 matched healthy controls. In a comparison of FE-SZ patients with a genetic load for schizophrenia with FE-SZ patients without a positive family history and healthy controls, the subgroup with a genetic load showed a significant volume decrease in OFC relative grey matter volume. (Source: Psychiatr...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Berend Malchow, Alkomiet Hasan, Kristina Meyer, Thomas Schneider-Axmann, Katrin E. Radenbach, Oliver Gruber, Wolfgang Reith, Andrew M. McIntosh, Andrea Schmitt, Peter Falkai, Thomas Wobrock Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Effect of direct eye contact in women with PTSD related to interpersonal trauma: Psychophysiological interaction analysis of connectivity of an innate alarm system
This study aimed to examine functional brain connectivity during direct eye contact in women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood abuse as compared with healthy controls. We conducted psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses in SPM8 using the superior colliculus (SC) and locus ceruleus (LC) as seed regions while 16 healthy subjects and 16 patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD related to childhood maltreatment viewed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm involving direct versus averted gaze (happy, sad, neutral). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carolin Steuwe, Judith K. Daniels, Paul A. Frewen, Maria Densmore, Ruth A. Lanius Source Type: research

Effects of fluoxetine on the amygdala and the hippocampus after administration of a single prolonged stress to male Wistar rates: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety- and memory-based disorder. The hippocampus and amygdala are key areas in mood regulation. Fluoxetine was found to improve the anxiety-related symptoms of PTSD patients. However, little work has directly examined the effects of fluoxetine on the hippocampus and the amygdala. In the present study, male Wistar rats received fluoxetine or vehicle after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed −1, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after SPS to examine the effects of fluoxetine on neurometabo...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fang Han, Bing Xiao, Lili Wen, Yuxiu Shi Source Type: research

Relationship between white matter microstructure abnormalities and ADHD symptomatology in adolescents
The present study sought to evaluate whether white matter microstructure abnormalities observed in a cohort of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have specific relationships with either or both Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattentive ADHD symptom domains that would support a dimensional view of ADHD as adopted in the DSM-V. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on 22 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine whether scalar DTI measures in 13 tracts-of-interest demonstrated meaningful associations with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity or In...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Suzanne T. Witt, Michael C. Stevens Source Type: research

Cerebral perfusion differences in women currently with and recovered from anorexia nervosa
In this study, we applied several advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to quantify regional and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 25 healthy women (HC), 23 patients currently with anorexia (AN-C) and 19 patients in long-term weight recovery following anorexia (AN-WR). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Min Sheng, Hanzhang Lu, Peiying Liu, Binu P. Thomas, Carrie J. McAdams Source Type: research

Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder
Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah K. Madsen, Alex Zai, Tara Pirnia, Donatello Arienzo, Liang Zhan, Teena D. Moody, Paul M. Thompson, Jamie D. Feusner Source Type: research

Widespread white matter tract aberrations in youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder
Few studies have examined multiple measures of white matter (WM) differences in youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder (FR-BD). To investigate WM in the FR-BD group, we used three measures of WM structure and two methods of analysis. We used fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in 25 children with familial risk for BD, defined as having both a parent with BD and mood dysregulation, and 16 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Donna J. Roybal, Naama Barnea-Goraly, Ryan Kelley, Layla Bararpour, Meghan E. Howe, Allan L. Reiss, Kiki D. Chang Source Type: research

Brain structure characteristics in intellectually superior schizophrenia
The current study aims to fill a gap in the knowledge base by investigating the structural brain characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia and superior intellectual abilities. Subcortical volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surface area were examined in intellectually normal and intellectually superior participants with schizophrenia and their IQ-matched healthy controls, as well as in intellectually low schizophrenia participants. We replicated significant diagnostic group effects on hippocampal and ventricular size after correction for multiple comparisons. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anja Vaskinn, Cecilie B. Hartberg, Kjetil Sundet, Lars T. Westlye, Ole A. Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz Source Type: research

Validation of a protocol for manual segmentation of the thalamus on magnetic resonance imaging scans
We present a validated protocol for manual segmentation of the thalamus on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using brain image analysis software. The MRI scans of five normal control subjects were randomly selected from a larger cohort recruited from Lund University Hospital and Landskrona Hospital, Sweden. MRIs were performed using a 3.0T Philips MR scanner, with an eight-channel head coil, and high resolution images were acquired using a T1-weighted turbo field echo (T1 TFE) pulse sequence, with resulting voxel size 1×1×1mm3. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brian D. Power, Fiona A. Wilkes, Mitchell Hunter-Dickson, Danielle van Westen, Alexander F. Santillo, Mark Walterfang, Christer Nilsson, Dennis Velakoulis, Jeffrey C.L. Looi Source Type: research

Disrupted fornix integrity in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
The fornix is the primary subcortical output fiber system of the hippocampal formation. In children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), hippocampal volume reduction has been commonly reported, but few studies as yet have evaluated the integrity of the fornix. Therefore, we investigated the fornix of 45 school-aged children with 22q11.2DS and 38 matched typically developing (TD) children. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to reconstruct the body of fornix in each child's brain native space. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yi Deng, Naomi J. Goodrich-Hunsaker, Margarita Cabaral, David G. Amaral, Michael H. Buonocore, Danielle Harvey, Kristopher Kalish, Owen Carmichael, Cynthia M. Schumann, Aaron Lee, Robert F. Dougherty, Lee M. Perry, Brian A. Wandell, Tony J. Simon Source Type: research

-Back task performance and corresponding brain-activation patterns in women with restrictive and bulimic eating-disorder variants: Preliminary findings
Eating disorder (ED) variants characterized by “binge-eating/purging” symptoms differ from “restricting-only” variants along diverse clinical dimensions, but few studies have compared people with these different eating-disorder phenotypes on measures of neurocognitive function and brain activation. We tested the performances of 19 women with “restricting-only” eating syndromes and 27 with “binge-eating/purging” variants on a modified n-back task, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine task-induced brain activations in frontal regions of interest. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mimi Israel, Michael Klein, Jens Pruessner, Lea Thaler, Michael Spilka, Simona Efanov, Anne-Sophie Ouellette, Marcelo Berlim, Nida Ali, Thomas Beaudry, Frederique Van den Eynde, Claire-Dominique Walker, Howard Steiger Source Type: research

N-back task performance and corresponding brain-activation patterns in women with restrictive and bulimic eating-disorder variants: Preliminary findings
Eating disorder variants characterized by “binge-eating/purging” symptoms differ from “restricting-only” variants along diverse clinical dimensions, but few studies have compared people with these different eating-disorder phenotypes on measures of neurocognitive function and brain activation. We tested the performances of 19 women with “restricting-only” eating syndromes and 27 with “binge-eating/purging” variants on a modified n-back task, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine task-induced brain activations in frontal regions of interest. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mimi Israel, Michael Klein, Jens Pruessner, Lea Thaler, Michael Spilka, Simona Efanov, Anne-Sophie Ouellette, Marcelo Berlim, Nida Ali, Thomas Beaudry, Frederique Van den Eynde, Dominique Walker, Howard Steiger Source Type: research

Methamphetamine-sensitized rats show augmented dopamine release to methylphenidate stimulation: A positron emission tomography using [F]fallypride
This study was aimed to examine the use of methylphenidate as a psychostimulant to induce dopamine release and that of [18F]fallypride as a radioligand to estimate the release in a rat model of schizophrenia. Six rats were scanned by positron emission tomography (PET) twice before and after methylphenidate challenge to evaluate dopamine release. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Miho Ota, Shintaro Ogawa, Koichi Kato, Chisato Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Kunugi Source Type: research

Assessment of glutamate in striatal subregions in obsessive-compulsive disorder with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Glutamatergic signaling abnormalities in cortico-striatal circuits are hypothesized to lead to the repetitive thoughts and behaviors of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To test this hypothesis, studies have used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to measure glutamatergic compounds in the striatum of individuals with OCD. However, none has used methods that could measure glutamate minimally contaminated by glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in striatal subregions. Therefore, in this study, a proton MRS imaging (1H MRSI) technique with relatively high spatial resolution at 3.0T was used to measure min...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Helen Blair Simpson, Lawrence S. Kegeles, Liane Hunter, Xiangling Mao, Page Van Meter, Xiaoyan Xu, Marcia B. Kimeldorf, Sarah L. Pearlstein, Mark Slifstein, Dikoma C. Shungu Source Type: research

Indirect association of DAT1 genotype with executive function through white matter volume in orbitofrontal cortex
This study tested an indirect effect model in which DAT1 genotype (9-repeat carriers vs. 10-repeat homozygotes) is linked to phenotypes representing impulsivity and executive function (planning behavior) through effects on white matter (WM) volumes in prefrontal cortex (PFC), particularly orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tammy Chung, Robert Ferrell, Duncan B. Clark Source Type: research

Comparison of regional gray matter volume abnormalities in Alzheimer׳s disease and late life depression with hippocampal atrophy using VSRAD analysis: A voxel-based morphometry study
Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies revealed that hippocampal volume loss in patients with late life depression (LLD) is associated with cognitive impairment and a higher risk for dementia. However, LLD patients can experience hippocampal atrophy without cognitive impairment. Thus, while LLD and AD can show comparable hippocampal atrophy, they may encompass different neuropathological changes. Using VBM, we therefore investigated differences in regional gray matter changes in 17 late-onset LLD patients and 21 AD patients (without a history of LLD) who exhibited comparably severe atrophy of the entorhinal cortex ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kengo Shimoda, Mahito Kimura, Masami Yokota, Yoshiro Okubo Source Type: research

Comparison of regional gray matter volume abnormalities in Alzheimer’s disease and late life depression with hippocampal atrophy using VSRAD analysis: A voxel-based morphometry study
Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies revealed that hippocampal volume loss in patients with late life depression (LLD) is associated with cognitive impairment and a higher risk for dementia. However, LLD patients can experience hippocampal atrophy without cognitive impairment. Thus, while LLD and AD can show comparable hippocampal atrophy, they may encompass different neuropathological changes. Using VBM, we therefore investigated differences in regional gray matter changes in 17 late-onset LLD patients and 21 AD patients (without a history of LLD) who exhibited comparably severe atrophy of the entorhinal cortex ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kengo Shimoda, Mahito Kimura, Masami Yokota, Yoshiro Okubo Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research