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Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 25, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subsequent memory Effects in schizophrenia
Differential neural activation at encoding can predict which stimuli will be subsequently remembered or forgotten, and memory deficits are pronounced in schizophrenia. We used event-related fMRI to investigate subsequent memory effects for visual fractals in patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and healthy controls (n=28). Participants incidentally encoded the fractals during an oddball task and 10 minutes later they made old/new recognition memory judgments on 30 target fractals and 30 foil fractals. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 22, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Azurii K. Collier, Daniel H. Wolf, Jeffrey N. Valdez, Raquel E. Gur, Ruben C. Gur Source Type: research

Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy Controls
Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janelle N. Beadle, Sergio Paradiso, Michael Brumm, Michelle Voss, Katherine Halmi, Laurie M. McCormick Source Type: research

Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior
The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Merideth A. Addicott, John M. Pearson, Brett Froeliger, Michael L. Platt, F. Joseph McClernon Source Type: research

Left frontal lobe hypoperfusion and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer׳s disease patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors
Depressive symptoms are common in patients with Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and increase the caregiver burden. Many studies have reported dorsolateral prefrontal hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in AD patients with depressive symptoms, most of whom did not take acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI). It is not clear, however, whether a similar condition is present in patients taking AChEI medication. Fifty-seven consecutive AD patients taking AChEI were recruited at a memory clinic. Objective depressive symptoms were evaluated using the depression domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-dep). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Etsuko Oshima, Seishi Terada, Shuhei Sato, Chikako Ikeda, Koji Oda, Shinichiro Inoue, Kiyohiro Kawada, Osamu Yokota, Yosuke Uchitomi Source Type: research

High frequency rTMS; a more effective treatment for auditory verbal hallucinations?
The great majority of studies on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a therapeutic tool for auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have used 1-Hz stimulation with inconsistent results. Recently, it has been suggested that 20-Hz rTMS has strong therapeutic effects. It is conceivable that this 20-Hz stimulation is more effective than 1-Hz stimulation. The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the efficacy of 20-Hz rTMS compared with 1-Hz rTMS as a treatment for AVH. Eighteen schizophrenia patients with medication-resistant AVH were randomized over two treatment groups. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Antoin D. de Weijer, Iris E.C. Sommer, Anne Lotte Meijering, Mirjam Bloemendaal, Sebastiaan F.W. Neggers, Kirstin Daalman, Eduard H.J.F. Boezeman Source Type: research

Left frontal lobe hypoperfusion and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors
Depressive symptoms are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increase the caregiver burden. Many studies have reported dorsolateral prefrontal hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in AD patients with depressive symptoms, most of whom did not take acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI). It is not clear, however, whether a similar condition is present in patients taking AChEI medication. Fifty-seven consecutive AD patients taking AChEI were recruited at a memory clinic. Objective depressive symptoms were evaluated using the depression domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-dep). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Etsuko Oshima, Seishi Terada, Shuhei Sato, Chikako Ikeda, Koji Oda, Shinichiro Inoue, Kiyohiro Kawada, Osamu Yokota, Yosuke Uchitomi Source Type: research

Cognitive and structural neuroimaging characteristics of schizophrenia patients with large, rare copy number deletions
Large (>500kb), rare (frequency (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrew Kenneth Martin, Gail Robinson, David Reutens, Bryan Mowry Source Type: research

The neural correlates of emotional face-PROCESSING in adolescent depression: A Dimensional approach focusing on anhedonia and illness severity
Deficits in emotional processing, a known clinical feature of major depression (MDD), have been widely investigated using emotional face paradigms and neuroimaging. However, most studies have not accounted for the high inter-subject variability of symptom severity. Similarly, only sparse research has focused on MDD in adolescence, early in the course of the illness. Here we sought to investigate neural responses to emotional faces using both categorical and dimensional analyses with a focus on anhedonia, a core symptom of MDD associated with poor outcomes. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah E. Henderson, Ana I. Vallejo, Benjamin A. Ely, Guoxin Kang, Amy Krain Roy, Daniel S. Pine, Emily R. Stern, Vilma Gabbay Source Type: research

Recurrence analysis of the EEG during sleep accurately IDENTIFIES SUBJECTS With mental health symptoms
Analysis of brain recurrence (ABR) is a novel computational method that uses two variables for sleep depth and two for sleep fragmentation to quantify temporal changes in non-random brain electrical activity. We postulated that ABR of the sleep-staged EEG could identify an EEG signature specific for the presence of mental health symptoms. Using the Mental Health Inventory Questionnaire (MHI-5) as ground truth, psychological distress was assessed in a study cohort obtained from the Sleep Heart Health Study. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David E. McCarty, Naresh M. Punjabi, Paul Y. Kim, Clifton Frilot, Andrew A. Marino Source Type: research

Relationship between amygdala volume and emotion recognition in adolescents at ultra-High risk for psychosis
Amygdala volume has been proposed as a neural risk biomarker for psychotic illness, but findings in the ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) population have been somewhat inconsistent, which may be related to underlying social cognitive abilities. The current study investigated whether amygdala volumes were related to emotion-recognition impairments in UHR individuals, and whether volumes differed by sex. Secondary aims were to assess whether (a) emotion-recognition performance was associated with interhemispheric amygdala volume asymmetry and (b) amgydala volume and volume asymmetry acted as a mediator between emotion-reco...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cali F. Bartholomeusz, Sarah L. Whittle, Eleanor Pilioussis, Kelly Allott, Simon Rice, Miriam R. Schäfer, Christos Pantelis, G. Paul Amminger Source Type: research

Obsessive-Compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder
The role of rumination at the beginning of eating disorder (ED) is not well understood. We hypothesized that impulsivity, rumination and restriction could be associated with neural activity in response to food stimuli in young individuals with eating disorders (ED). We measured neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tested working memory (WM) and administered the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI-R) in 15 adolescent females with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (mean age 15 years) and 20 ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Samantha J Brooks, Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Ingemar Swenne, Marianne Aronsson, Sanaz Zarei, Lina Lundberg, Josefin A Jacobsson, Mathias Rask-Andersen, Helena Salonen-Ros, Agneta Rosling, Elna-Marie Larsson, Helgi B Schiöth Source Type: research

Feeling but not caring: Empathic alteration in narcissistic men with High psychopathic traits
This study aimed at comparing both the response to physical pain and the observation of pain being inflicted to another person in individuals with clinically significant psychopathic traits, namely patients with severe narcissistic personality disorder (NPD, n=11), and community controls (CC, n=13). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Louis-Alexandre Marcoux, Pierre-Emmanuel Michon, Sophie Lemelin, Julien A. Voisin, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Philip L. Jackson Source Type: research

Resting state networks in major depressive disorder
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examines the spontaneous low frequency neural activity of the brain to reveal networks of correlated neural activity. A number of different methodologies, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, have been used to examine networks of neural activity that may be related to clinical presentation. Major depressive disorder (MDD) research has largely focused on the default mode network (DMN), which is most active at rest and may relate to negative rumination. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 9, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Arpan Dutta, Shane McKie, J.F. William Deakin Tags: Review article Source Type: research

An exploratory analysis of go/nogo event-related potentials in major depression and depression following traumatic brain injury
Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are estimated to be between 20% and 45%, a higher prevalence than that seen in the general population. These increased rates may be due to specific changes in brain function following TBI. Event related potentials (ERPs) are well suited for measuring the electrophysiological differences between groups in areas of cognitive processing impaired in both MDD and TBI, such as response inhibition. The current study presented an emotional Go/Nogo task (with schematic emotional faces as stimuli) to participants with TBI, participants with MDD, and part...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Neil W. Bailey, Kate E. Hoy, Jerome J. Maller, Rebecca A. Segrave, Richard Thomson, Nicholas Williams, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Prefrontal GABA and glutathione imbalance in posttraumatic stress disorder: Preliminary findings
Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with a variety of structural and functional brain changes, the molecular pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these macroscopic alterations are unknown. Recent studies support the existence of an altered excitation–inhibition balance in PTSD. Further, there is preliminary evidence from blood-sample studies suggesting heightened oxidative stress in PTSD, potentially leading to neural damage through excessive brain levels of free radicals. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 25, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lars Michels, Thomas Schulte-Vels, Matthis Schick, Ruth L. O’Gorman, Thomas Zeffiro, Gregor Hasler, Christoph Mueller-Pfeiffer Source Type: research

Distinct structural neural patterns of trait physical and social anhedonia: Evidence from cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and inter-regional correlations
In this study, the relationships between cortical thickness, volume of subcortical structures and scores on the Chapman physical and social anhedonia scales were examined in a non-clinical sample (n=72, 35 males). FreeSurfer was used to examine the cortical thickness and the volume of six identified subcortical structures related to trait anhedonia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 18, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yi Wang, Yi Deng, Germaine Fung, Wen-hua Liu, Xin-hua Wei, Xin-qing Jiang, Simon S.Y. Lui, Eric F.C. Cheung, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

Intergenerational transmission of fronto-parietal dysfunction during forethought in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A pilot study
There are only a few published reports of neural abnormalities within the families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare cerebral activation of ADHD and control biological parent–child dyads during forethought, a prospective function of working memory. Reduced activations in ADHD dyads were found in the inferior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobule and left inferior parietal lobule. This suggests that fronto-parietal abnormalities are shared within ADHD families. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hélène Poissant, Lucile Rapin, Adrianna Mendrek Source Type: research

Peripheral antioxidant markers are associated with total hippocampal and CA3/dentate gyrus volume in MDD and healthy controls–preliminary findings
Several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), are associated with increased blood markers of oxidative stress. The relevance of this to the oxidation-sensitive hippocampus (HC) is unknown. We investigated the relationship between peripheral oxidative stress markers and HC volume in unmedicated individuals with MDD (n=16) and healthy controls (n=19). To conserve power, our primary analysis was carried out in the combined group of subjects, and secondary analyses examined each group separately. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniel Lindqvist, Susanne Mueller, Synthia H. Mellon, Yali Su, Elissa S. Epel, Victor I. Reus, Rebecca Rosser, Laura Mahan, R. Scott Mackin, Tony T. Yang, Owen M. Wolkowitz Source Type: research

Adding insult to injury: Childhood and adolescent risk factors for psychosis predict lower fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in healthy adults
Although epidemiological studies provide strong support for demographic and environmental risk factors in psychotic disorders, few data examine how these risk factors relate to the putative aberrant neurodevelopment associated with illness. The present study examined how the accumulation of risk factors including low IQ, low parental socioeconomic status (SES), history of adolescent cannabis use and childhood trauma, and high levels of subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) contributed to aberrant neurodevelopmental outcomes in 112 otherwise healthy adults recruited from the community. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pamela DeRosse, Toshikazu Ikuta, Bart D. Peters, Katherine H. Karlsgodt, Philip R. Szeszko, Anil K. Malhotra Source Type: research

Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette's Disorder
Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thilo Deckersbach, Tina Chou, Jennifer C. Britton, Lindsay E. Carlson, Hannah E. Reese, Jedidiah Siev, Lawrence Scahill, John C. Piacentini, Douglas W. Woods, John T. Walkup, Alan L. Peterson, Darin D. Dougherty, Sabine Wilhelm Source Type: research

A preliminary examination of cortical neurotransmitter levels associated with heavy drinking in posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients have low cortical concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and elevated glutamate (Glu) as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is highly comorbid with PTSD, but the neurobiological underpinnings are largely unknown. We wanted to determine if PTSD patients with AUD have normalized cortical GABA and Glu levels in addition to metabolite alterations common to AUD. We compared brain metabolite concentrations in 10 PTSD patients with comorbid AUD (PAUD) with concentrtations in 28 PTSD patients without AUD and in 20 trauma-expos...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David Louis Pennington, Christoph Abé, Steven Laszlo Batki, Dieter Johannes Meyerhoff Source Type: research

Increased association over time between regional frontal lobe BOLD change magnitude and cardiac vagal control with sertraline treatment for major depression
We examined whether the relationship between changes in BOLD within MVN regions and changes in cardiac vagal control (VC) during affective state shifting changed with depression treatment. Ten depressed and ten control subjects performed an emotional counting Stroop task designed to trigger affective change in the attentional background while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent electrocardiography (ECG) on four occasions: week 0 (pre-treatment) and weeks 2, 6 and 12 of treatment on sertraline. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 9, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ryan Smith, John J.B. Allen, Julian F. Thayer, Carolyn Fort, Richard D. Lane Source Type: research

Voxel-based morphometry study of the insular cortex in bipolar depression
In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate gray matter volume abnormalities in the insular subregion in 27 patients with BD and in 27 age and sex-matched controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Li-Rong Tang, Chun-Hong Liu, Bin Jing, Xin Ma, Hai-Yun Li, Yu Zhang, Feng Li, Yu-Ping Wang, Zhi Yang, Chuan-Yue Wang Source Type: research

Reduced structural integrity and functional lateralization of the dorsal language pathway correlate with hallucinations in schizophrenia: A combined diffusion spectrum imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging study
Recent studies suggest that structural and functional alterations of the language network are associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. However, the ways in which the underlying structure and function of the network are altered and how these alterations are related to each other remain unclear. To elucidate this, we used diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) to reconstruct the dorsal and ventral pathways and employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic task to obtain information about the functional activation in the corresponding regions in 18 patients with schizophrenia and...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chen-Hao Wu, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Pin-Jane Chen, Tai-Li Chou, Yung-Chin Hsu, Chih-Min Liu, Hsiao-Lan Wang, Chung-Ming Chen, Mau-Sun Hua, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng Source Type: research

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Evidence for reduced neuronal integrity in the anterior cingulate
Neuroimaging studies have suggested that dysfunction of the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit is a key pathophysiologic feature of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Several studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) have found abnormal neural metabolite concentrations among OCD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic integrity of the anterior cingulate, caudate and putamen in OCD. In the present study, 32 unmedicated patients with OCD, including 23 who were drug-naïve, were compared using MRS with 32 healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Raşit Tükel, Kubilay Aydın, Erhan Ertekin, Seda Şahin Özyıldırım, Vedat Taravari Source Type: research

Parietal abnormalities are related to avoidance in social anxiety disorder: A study using voxel-based morphometry and manual volumetry
Evidence is accumulating that various mental disorders are related to neural abnormalities in the parietal cortices that are associated with the default mode network (DMN). Participants comprised 67 persons with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 64 matched healthy controls who underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a comprehensive clinical assessment. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) across the entire brain and manual volumetry of the parietal cortices were performed. The results indicate abnormal manually segmented volumes or gray matter (GM) volumes within the precuneus, postcentral gyrus and inferior par...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eva Irle, Antonia Barke, Claudia Lange, Mirjana Ruhleder Source Type: research

Decreased default-mode network homogeneity in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients at rest
The dysconnectivity hypothesis proposes that abnormal resting state connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) plays a key role in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about alterations of the network homogeneity (NH) of the DMN in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Unaffected siblings have unique advantages as subjects of neuroimaging studies independent of the clinical and treatment issues that complicate studies of the patients themselves. In the present study, we investigated NH of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wenbin Guo, Feng Liu, Dapeng Yao, Jiajing Jiang, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Jian Zhang, Liuyu Yu, Jinguo Zhai, Changqing Xiao Source Type: research

Multimodal MRI markers support a model of small vessel ischemia for depressive symptoms in very old adults
This study aims to identify brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with late-life depressive symptoms in the population. Older community-dwelling adults (n=314) from the Health ABC study underwent brain MRI. Logistic regression was used to characterize the relationships between depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale, CES-D) and the following whole-brain variables: white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden, fractional anisotropy (FA), and gray matter volume (GMV). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 22, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dana L. Tudorascu, Caterina Rosano, Vijay K. Venkatraman, Rebecca L. MacCloud, Tamara Harris, Kristine Yaffe, Anne B. Newman, Howard J. Aizenstein Source Type: research

A multimodal MRI study of the hippocampus in medication-naive children with ADHD: What connects ADHD and depression?
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for developing depression. The neurobiological substrates that convey this risk remain poorly understood. On the basis of considerable data implicating hippocampal abnormalities in depressive disorders, we aimed to explore the relationship between the hippocampus and levels of depressive symptomatology in ADHD. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the volumes and resting-state functional connectivity of the hippocampus in a sample of 32 medication naive children with ADHD (ages 6 – 13) and 33 age- and sex-matched healthy co...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 18, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jonathan Posner, Francesco Siciliano, Zhishun Wang, Jun Liu, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Laurence Greenhill Source Type: research

Social cognition in patients following surgery to the prefrontal cortex
Impaired social cognition, including emotion recognition, may explain dysfunctional emotional and social behaviour in patients with lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the VMPFC is a large, poorly defined area that can be sub-divided into orbital and medial sectors. We sought to investigate social cognition in patients with discrete, surgically circumscribed prefrontal lesions. Twenty-seven patients between 1 and 12 months post-neurosurgery were divided into groups based on Brodmann areas resected, determined by post-surgical magnetic resonance imaging. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 18, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lisanne Michelle Jenkins, David Gordon Andrewes, Christian Luke Nicholas, Katharine Jann Drummond, Bradford Armstrong Moffat, Pramit Phal, Patricia Desmond, Roy Peter Caspar Kessels Source Type: research

Neural structure and social dysfunction in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis
Individuals at a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis have gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities that are similar to, though less severe than, those in individuals with schizophrenia. Less GMV in schizophrenia is related to worse social cognition and social functioning, but the relationship between GMV and social functioning in CHR individuals has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study was to (1) investigate differences in GMV between healthy controls (HC) and CHR individuals, and (2) evaluate the relationship between GMV and social functioning in these two groups. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 18, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah Hope Lincoln, Christine I’Lee Hooker Source Type: research

Prognostic classification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer׳s disease: MRI independent component analysis
Identifying predictors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) can lead to more accurate diagnosis and facilitate clinical trial participation. We identified 320 participants (93 cognitively normal or CN, 162 MCI, 65 AD) with baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and cognition data in the Alzheimer׳s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. We used independent component analysis (ICA) on structural MR images to derive 30 matter covariance patterns (ICs) across all participants. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 16, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Auriel A. Willette, Vince D. Calhoun, Josephine M. Egan, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, for the Alzheimer׳s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Source Type: research

Correlations of inflammatory gene pathways, corticolimbic functional activities, and aggression in pediatric bipolar disorder: A preliminary study
The mechanisms underlying aggression in adolescents with bipolar disorder have been poorly understood. The present study has investigated the associations among TNF gene expressions, functional brain activations under the frustrative non-reward task, and aggression in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Baseline gene expressions and aggressive tendencies were measured with the RNA-sequencing and Brief Rating of Aggression by Children and Adolescents (BRACHA), respectively. Our results show that activity levels of left subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), right amygdala, left Brodmann area 10 (orbitofrontal cortex), and...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Drew Barzman, Jim Eliassen, Robert McNamara, Pablo Abonia, Douglas Mossman, Michele Durling, Caleb Adler, Melissa DelBello, Ping-I Lin Source Type: research

Cingulum bundle diffusivity and delusions of reference in first episode and chronic schizophrenia
The goal of this study was to assess integrity of the cingulum bundle in patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, and matched controls as well as to determine the relationship between diffusion measures of cingulum bundle integrity and severity of patients׳ delusions of reference. Participants, who comprised 18 first episode patients, 20 chronic patients, and two groups of matched controls (20 subjects in each), underwent 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (chronic+first episode) showed decreased fractional anisotropy in the right cingulum bundle comp...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer Fitzsimmons, Jason S. Schneiderman, Thomas J. Whitford, Tali Swisher, Margaret A. Niznikiewicz, Paula E. Pelavin, Douglas P. Terry, Raquelle I. Mesholam-Gately, Larry J. Seidman, Jill M. Goldstein, Marek Kubicki Source Type: research

On the usefulness of structural brain imaging for young first episode inpatients with psychosis
The objective of the study was to determine whether structural brain imaging was clinically useful in first episode psychosis (FEP) inpatient adolescents and young adults. The sample (N=115) was from the single largest medical center in the Pacific. A retrospective chart review design was used to review 12- to 30-year-old inpatient admissions with FEP. The primary measurement was whether structural brain imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed any remarkable neurological findings related to FEP that led to non-psychiatric treatment. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Steven Robert Williams, Chad Yukio Koyanagi, Earl Shigemi Hishinuma Source Type: research

Increased left hemisphere impairment in high-functioning autism: A tract based spatial statistics study
There is evidence emerging from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) research that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with greater impairment in the left hemisphere. Although this has been quantified with volumetric region of interest analyses, it has yet to be tested with white matter integrity analysis. In the present study, tract based spatial statistics was used to contrast white matter integrity of 12 participants with high-functioning autism or Aspergers syndrome (HFA/AS) with 12 typically developing individuals. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 11, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thomas John Perkins, Mark Andrew Stokes, Jane Anne McGillivray, Alexander Julien Mussap, Ivanna Anne Cox, Jerome Joseph Maller, Richard Garth Bittar Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Neural processing correlates of assaultive violence exposure and PTSD symptoms during implicit threat processing: A network-level analysis among adolescent girls” [Psychiatry Res.: Neuroimaging 214 (2013), 238–246]
The authors regret to report an error in a subset of analyses of the originally published manuscript. Due to a technical error in the calculation of the within-subject hemodynamic response functions (HRF) for the three networks of interest, the between-group comparison of functional activation for the frontocingulate, frontoparietal, and default mode were reported incorrectly. The correct results are as follows: The estimated HRFs for the frontocingulate, frontoparietal, and default mode network are provided in corrected Supplemental Fig. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Josh M. Cisler, J. Scott Steele, Sonet Smitherman, Jennifer K. Lenow, Clinton D. Kilts Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Enhanced action tendencies in high versus low obsessive-compulsive symptoms: An event-related potential study
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by repeated thoughts and behaviors. Inhibitory deficits are presumably related to the onset and maintenance of this disorder. The present study investigated whether obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms are related to enhanced response tendencies in reaction to external stimuli. Our goal was to search for direct evidence of an early response preparation process by examining the event-related potential (ERP) component of the readiness potential (RP). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adi Dayan, Andrea Berger, Gideon Emanuel Anholt Source Type: research

Abnormal white matter integrity in long-term abstinent alcohol dependent patients
A number of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported substantial white matter (WM) abnormalities in alcohol-dependent patients. These studies were usually performed in recovering alcohol-dependent patients who had been abstinent for days to several weeks. The current study was designed to examine WM microstructure and decision-making in a sample of long-term abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. The study included 12 subjects with alcohol dependence who had been abstinent for at least 6 months before testing and scanning and 13 healthy control subjects. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nabi Zorlu, Tugba Karavul Ucman, Fazil Gelal, Cigdem Colak Kalayci, Serap Polat, Aybala Saricicek, Pelin Kurtgöz Zorlu, Seref Gulseren Source Type: research

Enhanced action tendencies in high versus low obsessive-compulsive symptoms: an event-related potential study
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by repeated thoughts and behaviors. Inhibitory deficits are presumably related to the onset and maintenance of this disorder. The present study investigated whether obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms are related to enhanced response tendencies in reaction to external stimuli. Our goal was to search for direct evidence of an early response preparation process by examining the event-related potential (ERP) component of the readiness potential (RP). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adi Dayan, Andrea Berger, Gideon Anholt Source Type: research

Impact of alcohol consumption in healthy adults: A magnetic resonance imaging investigation
The impact of alcohol on brain morphology was studied in a large group of cognitively intact people whose consumption of alcohol was below the threshold for abuse. Participants were 367 healthy subjects, aged 18 years or older, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for reasons other than cognitive impairment. MRI analyses were carried out using SPM8 software on the MATLAB 7.9 platform. Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were normalized for intracranial volume. Participants were interviewed about their lifetime consumption of alcohol, nicotine and other available illicit substances. (Source: Psychiatry ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Antonio Preti, Cristina Muscio, Marina Boccardi, Marco Lorenzi, Giovanni de Girolamo, Giovanni Frisoni Source Type: research

Time-of-day differences and short-term stability of the neural response to monetary reward: A pilot study
Human and animal studies indicate that reward function is modulated by the circadian clock that governs our daily sleep/wake rhythm. For example, a robust circadian rhythm exists in positive affect, which is lower in the morning hours and peaks in the afternoon. A handful of functional neuroimaging studies suggest that systematic diurnal variation exists in brain activity related to other functions, but no published human studies have examined daily variation in the neural processing of reward. In the present study, we attempt to advance this literature by using functional neuroimaging methods to examine time-of-day change...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brant P. Hasler, Erika E. Forbes, Peter L. Franzen Source Type: research

Positive symptoms and water diffusivity of the prefrontal and temporal cortices in schizophrenia patients: A pilot study
The development of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has provided information about microstructural changes in the brain. Most DTI studies have focused on white matter. Few DTI studies have examined the gray matter in schizophrenia and, to date, there has been no attempt to identify the relationship between water diffusivity and symptom severity in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine microstructural deficits in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and temporal cortex in schizophrenia patients using fractional anisotropy and water diffusivity. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jin Young Park, Hae-Jeong Park, Dae-Jin Kim, Jae-Jin Kim Source Type: research

Cortical thinning of temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex in medication-naïve children and adolescents with ADHD
Structural and functional brain studies on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have primarily examined anatomical abnormalities in the prefronto-striatal circuitry (especially, dorsal and lateral areas of the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum). There is, however, increased evidence that several temporal lobe regions could play an important role in ADHD. The present study used MRI-based measurements of cortical thickness to examine possible differences in both prefrontal and temporal lobe regions between medication-näive patients with ADHD (N=50) and age- and sex-matched typically developing controls (N=50)...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alberto Fernández-Jaén, Sara López-Martín, Jacobo Albert, Daniel Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, Ana Laura Fernández-Perrone, Diana Quiñones Tapia, Beatriz Calleja-Pérez Source Type: research

The SIENA/FSL whole brain atrophy algorithm is no more reproducible at 3T than 1.5T for Alzheimer׳s disease
The back-to-back (BTB) acquisition of MP-RAGE MRI scans of the Alzheimer׳s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1) provides an excellent data set with which to check the reproducibility of brain atrophy measures. As part of ADNI1, 131 subjects received BTB MP-RAGEs at multiple time points and two field strengths of 3T and 1.5T. As a result, high quality data from 200 subject-visit-pairs was available to compare the reproducibility of brain atrophies measured with FSL/SIENA over 12 to 18 month intervals at both 3T and 1.5T. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keith S. Cover, Ronald A. van Schijndel, Veronica Popescu, Bob W. van Dijk, Alberto Redolfi, Dirk L. Knol, Giovanni B. Frisoni, Frederik Barkhof, Hugo Vrenken, neuGRID, the Alzheimer׳s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Source Type: research

The SIENA/FSL whole brain atrophy algorithm is no more reproducible at 3T than 1.5T for Alzheimer's disease
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keith S Cover, Ronald A van Schijndel, Veronica Popescu, Bob W van Dijk, Alberto Redolfi, Dirk L Knol, Giovanni B. Frisoni, Frederik Barkhof, Hugo Vrenken, neuGRID, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Source Type: research

Increased binding of 5-HT receptors in a dissociative amnesic patient after the recovery process
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Soichiro Kitamura, Fumihiko Yasuno, Makoto Inoue, Jun Kosaka, Kuniaki Kiuchi, Kiwamu Matsuoka, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Tetsuya Suhara Source Type: research