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Rostral medial prefrontal dysfunctions and consummatory pleasure in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies
A large number of imaging studies have examined the neural correlates of consummatory pleasure and anticipatory pleasure in schizophrenia, but the brain regions where schizophrenia patients consistently demonstrate dysfunctions remain unclear. We performed a series of meta-analyses on imaging studies to delineate the regions associated with consummatory and anticipatory pleasure dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Nineteen functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography studies using whole brain analysis were identified through a literature search (PubMed and EBSCO; January 1990–February 2014). (Source: ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chao Yan, Tammy Yang, Qi-jing Yu, Zhen Jin, Eric F.C. Cheung, Xun Liu, Raymond C.K. Chan Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Which demographic variables are necessary to correct in neuroimaging studies of serotonin transporter availability? A SPECT study with [I]ADAM
Previous studies have shown that many demographic variables influence serotonin transporter (SERT) availability as assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The aim of this study was to explore which demographic variables influenced the SERT availability most in a SPECT study with [123I]ADAM. Ninety-five healthy volunteers were recruited. Age, sex, smoking alcohol intake, educational level, body mass index, seasonal change, and SERT availability were recorded and then analyzed by multivariate linear regression. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wei Hung Chang, Lan-Ting Lee, I Hui Lee, Mei Hung Chi, Kao Chin Chen, Nan-Tsing Chiu, Wei Jen Yao, Po See Chen, Yen Kuang Yang Source Type: research

Impairments of event-related magnetic fields in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms
Recently there is a growing understanding that patients suffering from negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent a distinct patient population. However, despite the abundance of EEG studies characterizing schizophrenia patients in general, only a handful of studies have focused on the electrophysiological correlates of negative symptoms. The current study examined whether the impairments in event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) commonly reported in heterogeneous groups of patients with mixed positive and negative symptoms also occur in patients with predominantly negative symptoms, and investigated their correlation to c...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keren Yefet, Abraham Goldstein, Liron Rabany, Yechiel Levkovitz Source Type: research

Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents
Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yaling Yang, Katherine L. Narr, Laura A. Baker, Shantanu H. Joshi, Neda Jahanshad, Adrian Raine, Paul M. Thompson Source Type: research

Abnormalities of structural covariance networks in drug-naïve boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the anatomical organization of large-scale brain systems would change in ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. We utilized a structural covariance network (SCN) mapping approach to investigate large-scale networks in 30 drug-naïve ADHD boys and 30 gender- and age-matched controls. The regions showing significant between-group differences in gray matter (GM) volumewere defined as seed regions of interest. Then, the SCNs derived from these seeds were statistically compared between ADHD and controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xinwei Li, Qingjiu Cao, Fang Pu, Deyu Li, Yubo Fan, Li An, Peng Wang, Zhaomin Wu, Li Sun, Shuyu Li, Yufeng Wang Source Type: research

Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder and with or without dissociative identity disorder
Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16 patients with PTSD but without DID (PTSD-only), and 32 healthy controls (HC), and compared their whole-brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) morphological measurements. Associations between GM measurements and severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms or lifetime traumatizing events were eval...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sima Chalavi, Eline M. Vissia, Mechteld E. Giesen, Ellert R.S. Nijenhuis, Nel Draijer, Gareth J. Barker, Dick J. Veltman, Antje A.T.S. Reinders Source Type: research

PBMC telomerase activity, but not leukocyte telomere length, correlates with hippocampal volume in major depression
In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic resonance imaging-estimated hippocampal volume in un-medicated depressed individuals and healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Owen M. Wolkowitz, Synthia H. Mellon, Daniel Lindqvist, Elissa S. Epel, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Jue Lin, Victor I. Reus, Heather Burke, Rebecca Rosser, Laura Mahan, Scott Mackin, Tony Yang, Michael Weiner, Susanne Mueller Source Type: research

A pilot study of gray matter volume changes associated with paroxetine treatment and response in social anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has received relatively little attention in neurobiological studies. We sought to identify neuro-anatomical changes associated with successful treatment for the disorder. Fourteen patients (31 years; 57% female) with DSM-IV generalized SAD were imaged before and after 8-weeks of paroxetine treatment on a 1.5 T GE Signa MRI scanner. Symptoms were assessed by a clinician using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Longitudinal changes in voxel based morphometry (VBM) were determined using the VBM8 Toolbox for SPM8. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ardesheer Talati, Spiro P. Pantazatos, Joy Hirsch, Franklin Schneier Source Type: research

Altered cortical structures and tract integrity of the mirror neuron system in association with symptoms of schizophrenia
This study investigated MNS structures, including the pars opercularis (Pop), the supramarginal gyrus (SMg), the third branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and callosal fibers interconnecting bilateral Pop (CC-Pop) and SMg (CC-SMg), and clarified their relationships with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Participants comprised 32 schizophrenia patients and 32 matched controls who received T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, T1WI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chieh-En Jane Tseng, Yi-Ling Chien, Chih-Min Liu, Hsiao-Lan Sharon Wang, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng Source Type: research

The association between heroin expenditure and dopamine transporter availability – a single-photon emission computed tomography study
One of the consequences of heroin dependency is a huge expenditure on drugs. This underlying economic expense may be a grave burden for heroin users and may lead to criminal behavior, which is a huge cost to society. The neuropsychological mechanism related to heroin purchase remains unclear. Based on recent findings and the established dopamine hypothesis of addiction, we speculated that expenditure on heroin and central dopamine activity may be associated. A total of 21 heroin users were enrolled in this study. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shih-Hsien Lin, Kao Chin Chen, Sheng-Yu Lee, Nan-Tsing Chiu, I. Hui Lee, Po See Chen, Tzung Lieh Yeh, Ru-Band Lu, Chia-Chieh Chen, Mei-Hsiu Liao, Yen Kuang Yang Source Type: research

Neural mechanisms underlying the therapeutic actions of guanfacine treatment in youth with ADHD: A pilot fMRI study
Twenty-five youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Go/No-go task before and after 6 to 8 weeks of randomized once-daily treatment with either the α2A-adrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine or placebo. Clinical improvement was greater for guanfacine than placebo and was differentially associated with reduced activation for guanfacine compared with placebo in the right midcingulate cortex/supplementary motor area and the left posterior cingulate cortex. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne-Claude V. Bédard, Kurt P. Schulz, Beth Krone, Juan Pedraza, Stephanie Duhoux, Jeffrey M. Halperin, Jeffrey H. Newcorn Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Orbitofrontal cortex, emotional decision-making and response to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis
This study aimed to determine the relation between pre-therapy OFC GMV or asymmetry and CBTp responsiveness and emotional decision-making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Thirty patients received CBTp+standard care (CBTp+SC; 25 completers) for 6–8 months. All patients (before receiving CBTp) and 25 healthy participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and performed the IGT. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Preethi Premkumar, Dominic Fannon, Adegboyega Sapara, Emmanuelle R. Peters, Anantha P. Anilkumar, Andrew Simmons, Elizabeth Kuipers, Veena Kumari Source Type: research

Reduced event-related low frequency EEG activity In patients with early onset schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings
This study investigated total and evoked theta and delta activity in schizophrenia patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. EEG data were recorded whilst 24 individuals with schizophrenia, 26 unaffected siblings of individuals with schizophrenia and 26 healthy control participants completed a Go/No-Go task. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Molly Simmonite, Alan Thomas Bates, Madeleine Groom, Chris Hollis, Peter Francis Liddle Source Type: research

An fMRI study of cognitive control in problem gamers
A small proportion of video game players develop uncontrolled gaming behavior. A dysfunctional cognitive control circuit may explain this excessive behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated whether problem gamers are characterized by deficits in various aspects of cognitive control (inhibitory control, error processing, attentional control) by measuring brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during Go-NoGo and Stroop task performance. In addition, both impulsivity and attentional control were measured using self-reports. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maartje Luijten, Gert-Jan Meerkerk, Ingmar H.A. Franken, Ben J.M. van de Wetering, Tim M. Schoenmakers Source Type: research

Acute response to psychological trauma and subsequent recovery: No changes in brain structure
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study brain structure in acute stress disorder (ASD) following a psychological trauma and after 4 weeks in remission. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry and FreeSurfer analysis of the hippocampal formation and amygdala revealed no structural changes in ASD (n=75) compared with trauma-exposed individuals without ASD (n=60) and community controls (n=60). These results suggest that ASD, in contrast to posttraumatic stress disorder, is not characterized by structural brain alterations in ASD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Csilla Szabó, Oguz Kelemen, Einat Levy-Gigi, Szabolcs Kéri Source Type: research

Corpus callosum size and diffusion tensor anisotropy in Adolescents and Adults with schizophrenia
The corpus callosum has been implicated as a region of dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia, but the association between age and callosal pathology is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on adults (n=34) and adolescents (n=17) with schizophrenia and adult (n=33) and adolescent (n=15) age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The corpus callosum was manually traced on each participant's MRI, and the DTI scan was co-registered to the MRI. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emily C. Balevich, M. Mehmet Haznedar, Eugene Wang, Randall E. Newmark, Rachel Bloom, Jason S. Schneiderman, Jonathan Aronowitz, Cheuk Y. Tang, King-Wai Chu, William Byne, Monte S. Buchsbaum, Erin A. Hazlett Source Type: research

Brain white matter microstructure in deficit and non-deficit subtypes of schizophrenia
Dividing schizophrenia into its deficit (SZD) and nondeficit (SZND) subtypes may help to identify specific and more homogeneous pathophysiological characteristics. Our aim was to define a whole brain voxelwise map specifically characterizing white matter tracts of schizophrenia patients with and without the deficit syndrome. We compared microstructural diffusion-related parameters as measured by diffusion tensor imaging in 21 SZD patients, 21 SZND patients, and 21 healthy controls, age- and gender-matched. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gianfranco Spalletta, Pietro De Rossi, Fabrizio Piras, Mariangela Iorio, Claudia Dacquino, Francesca Scanu, Paolo Girardi, Carlo Caltagirone, Brian Kirkpatrick, Chiara Chiapponi Source Type: research

Distinct neural correlates of emotional and cognitive empathy in older adults
Empathy is thought to be a mechanism underlying prosocial behavior across the lifespan, yet little is known about how levels of empathy relate to individual differences in brain functioning among older adults. In this exploratory study, we examined the neural correlates of affective and cognitive empathy in older adults. Thirty older adults (M=79 years) underwent fMRI scanning and neuropsychological testing and completed a test of affective and cognitive empathy. Brain response during processing of cognitive and emotional stimuli was measured by fMRI in a priori and task-related regions and was correlated with levels of em...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 23, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Raeanne C. Moore, Sheena I. Dev, Dilip V. Jeste, Isabel Dziobek, Lisa T. Eyler Source Type: research

Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: A matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature
Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 22, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Li Kong, Christina J. Herold, Frank Zöllner, David H. Salat, Marc M. Lässer, Lena A. Schmid, Iven Fellhauer, Philipp A. Thomann, Marco Essig, Lothar R. Schad, Kirk I. Erickson, Johannes Schröder Source Type: research

Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analyzing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: A matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature
Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 22, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Li Kong, Christina J. Herold, Frank Zöllner, David H. Salat, Marc M. Lässer, Lena A. Schmid, Iven Fellhauer, Philipp A. Thomann, Marco Essig, Lothar R. Schad, Kirk I. Erickson, Johannes Schröder Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Precuneal and amygdala spontaneous activity and functional connectivity in war-zone-related PTSD
Abnormality in the “fear circuitry” has been known as a major neural characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies also revealed decreased functional connectivity in the default mode network in PTSD. The present study aims to investigate, in war-zone-related PTSD, the spontaneous activity and functional connectivity of the amygdala and the precuneus, which are two representative brain regions of the two networks, respectively. Two groups of 52 male US Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom veterans (PTSD vs. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xiaodan Yan, Mariana Lazar, Arieh Y. Shalev, Thomas C. Neylan, Owen M. Wolkowitz, Adam D. Brown, Clare Henn-Haase, Rachel Yehuda, Janine D. Flory, Duna Abu-Amara, Daniel K. Sodickson, Charles R. Marmar Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes in the dopamine transporter and cognition in suicide attempters with charcoal burning
This study was designed to elucidate associations between changes in the dopamine transporter (DAT) and cognitive function in patients following CO poisoning during a follow-up period of 6 months. Participants comprised 31 healthy controls (HCs) and 21 CO poisoning patients. Each subject underwent single photon emission computed tomography with [99mTc] TRODAT-1 to measure DAT availability and completed a cognitive battery assessing attention, memory, and executive function. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kai-Chun Yang, Shyh-Jen Wang, Wen-Chi Hsieh, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Chen-Chang Yang, Jou-Fang Deng, Chun-Lung Lin, Yuan-Hwa Chou Source Type: research

Neurostructural correlates of two subtypes of specific phobia: A voxel-based morphometry study
This study aims to fill this gap by comparing the two subtypes and also comparing them with a non-phobic control group. Gray and white matter data of 33 snake phobia subjects (SP), 26 dental phobia subjects (DP), and 37 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kevin Hilbert, Ricarda Evens, Nina Isabel Maslowski, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrike Lueken Source Type: research

Neurocognitive impairment on motor imagery associated with positive symptoms in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: Evidence from event-related brain potentials
Motor imagery provides direct insight into an anatomically interconnected system involved in the integration of sensory information with motor actions, a process that is associated with positive symptoms in schizophrenia (SCZ). However, very little is known about the electrophysiological processing of motor imagery in first episode SCZ. In the current study, we used a visual hand mental rotation (MR) paradigm to manipulate the processing of motor imagery while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 42 SCZ participants and 40 healthy controls (HC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 8, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jiu Chen, Xingqu Wu, Yan Zhang, Dunhong Wei, Wentao Ma, Guangxiong Liu, Zihe Deng, Laiqi Yang, Zhijun Zhang Source Type: research

Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility
This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: William Jonathan McGeown, Giuliana Mazzoni, Manila Vannucci, Annalena Venneri Source Type: research

Intracranial volume normalization methods: Considerations when investigating gender differences in regional brain volume
Intracranial volume (ICV) normalization of regional brain volumes (v) is common practice in volumetric studies of the aging brain. Multiple normalization methods exist and this study aimed to investigate when each method is appropriate to use in gender dimorphism studies and how differences in v are affected by the choice of method. A new method based on weighted ICV matching is also presented. Theoretical reasoning and simulated experiments were followed by an evaluation using real data comprising 400 subjects, all 75 years old, whose ICV was segmented with a gold standard method. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 5, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Richard Nordenskjöld, Filip Malmberg, Elna-Marie Larsson, Andrew Simmons, Håkan Ahlström, Lars Johansson, Joel Kullberg Source Type: research

Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder
In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). Previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Britta Reinke, Silke Matura, David Prvulovic, David E.J. Linden, Vincent van de Ven Source Type: research

Determinants of brain SPECT perfusion and connectivity in treatment-resistant depression
This study aims to characterize and compare functional brain single photon emission tomography (SPECT) perfusion and connectivity in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) according to distinct demographic or clinical profiles (male vs. female; old vs. young; unipolar vs. bipolar) and to study their relationship to the severity and the duration of episode/illness. We retrospectively included 127 consecutive patients who met DSM-IV criteria for a nonpsychotic major TRD episode. All patients were studied using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Raphaëlle Richieri, Laurent Boyer, Catherine Faget-Agius, Jean Farisse, Olivier Mundler, Christophe Lançon, Eric Guedj Source Type: research

Clinical High risk and first episode schizophrenia: Auditory event-related potentials
The clinical high risk (CHR) period is a phase denoting a risk for overt psychosis during which subacute symptoms often appear, and cognitive functions may deteriorate. To compare biological indices during this phase with those during first episode schizophrenia, we cross-sectionally examined sex- and age-matched clinical high risk (CHR, n=21), first episode schizophrenia patients (FESZ, n=20) and matched healthy controls (HC, n=25) on oddball and novelty paradigms and assessed the N100, P200, P3a and P3b as indices of perceptual, attentional and working memory processes. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elisabetta C. del Re, Kevin M. Spencer, Naoya Oribe, Raquelle Mesholam-Gately, Jill Goldstein, Martha Shenton, Tracey Petryshen, Larry J. Seidman, Robert W. McCarley, Margaret A. Niznikiewicz Source Type: research

The relationship of brain structure to age and executive functioning in adolescent disruptive behavior disorder
Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13–17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 24, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tom A. Hummer, Yang Wang, William G. Kronenberger, David W. Dunn, Vincent P. Mathews Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 23, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Volume of hippocampal substructures in borderline personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with smaller hippocampi in comparison to hippocampal size in controls. However, specific pathology in hippocampal substructures (i.e., head, body and tail) has not been sufficiently investigated. To address hippocampal structure in greater detail, we studied 39 psychiatric inpatients and outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BPD and 39 healthy controls. The hippocampus and its substructures were segmented manually on magnetic resonance imaging scans. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stefan Henner Kreisel, Kirsten Labudda, Oleg Kurlandchikov, Thomas Beblo, Markus Mertens, Christine Thomas, Nina Rullkötter, Katja Wingenfeld, Christoph Mensebach, Friedrich G. Woermann, Martin Driessen Source Type: research

Occipital bending (Yakovlevian torque) in bipolar depression
Differing levels of occipital lobe asymmetry and enlarged lateral ventricles have been reported within patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy controls, suggesting different rates of occipital bending (OB). This may exert pressure on subcortical structures, such as the hippocampus, reduced among psychiatric patients. We investigated OB prevalence in 35 patients with BD and 36 healthy controls, and ventricular and occipital volumes. Prevalence was four times higher among BD patients (12/35 [34.3%]) than in control subjects (3/36 [8.3%]), as well as larger lateral ventricular volumes. (Source: Psychiatry Re...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jerome J. Maller, Rodney Anderson, Richard H. Thomson, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Aberrant amygdala intrinsic functional connectivity distinguishes youths with bipolar disorder from those with severe mood dysregulation
It remains unclear the degree to which youths with episodic mania (bipolar disorder; BD) vs. those with chronic, severe irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD) should be placed in similar or distinct diagnostic groups. Addressing this clinically meaningful question requires greater understanding of the neural alterations underlying both disorders. We evaluated resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 53 youths (14 BD, 20 healthy volunteers (HV), and 19 SMD, ages 9–18.5 years). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joel Stoddard, Derek Hsu, Rick Reynolds, Melissa A. Brotman, Monique Ernst, Daniel S. Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel P. Dickstein Source Type: research

Medial frontal gyrus alterations in schizophrenia: Relationship with duration of illness and executive dysfunction
Executive functioning is consistently impaired in schizophrenia, and it has been associated with reduced gray matter volume in prefrontal areas. Abnormalities in prefrontal brain regions have also been related to the illness duration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of executive functioning decline and chronicity in prefrontal regions of patients with schizophrenia. Participants comprised 33 schizophrenic patients, 18 with duration of illness (DoI) shorter than 10 years and 15 with duration of illness longer than 10 years. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marianna Frascarelli, Stefania Tognin, Alessia Mirigliani, Fabrizio Parente, Antonino Buzzanca, Maria Chiara Torti, Emanuele Tinelli, Francesca Caramia, Fabio Di Fabio, Massimo Biondi, Paolo Fusar-Poli Source Type: research

Development and application of a diagnostic algorithm for posttraumatic stress disorder
Intact cognitive functions rely on synchronous neural activity; conversely, alterations in synchrony are thought to underlie psychopathology. We recently demonstrated that anomalies in synchronous neural interactions (SNI) determined by magnetoencephalography represent a putative PTSD biomarker. Here we develop and apply a regression-based diagnostic algorithm to further validate SNI as a PTSD biomarker in 432 veterans (235 controls; 138 pure PTSD; 59 PTSD plus comorbid disorders). Correlation coefficients served as proximities in multidimensional scaling (MDS) to obtain a two-dimensional representation of the data. (Sourc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lisa M. James, Ilana Belitskaya-Lévy, Ying Lu, Hui Wang, Brian E. Engdahl, Arthur C. Leuthold, Apostolos P. Georgopoulos Source Type: research

Decreased amygdala–insula resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) adopts a dimensional approach for examining pathophysiological processes underlying categorically defined psychiatric diagnoses. We used this framework to examine relationships among symptom dimensions, diagnostic categories, and resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth selected from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study (n=42) and healthy control youth (n=18). Region of interest analyses examined relationships among resting state connectivity, symptom dimensions (behavioral and emotional dysregulation measured with the Parent General Be...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Genna Bebko, Michele Bertocci, Henry Chase, Amanda Dwojak, Lisa Bonar, Jorge Almeida, Susan Beth Perlman, Amelia Versace, Claudiu Schirda, Michael Travis, Mary Kay Gill, Christine Demeter, Vaibhav Diwadkar, Jeffrey Sunshine, Scott Holland, Robert Kowatch, Source Type: research

Decreased amygdala-insula resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) adopts a dimensional approach for examining pathophysiological processes underlying categorically defined psychiatric diagnoses. We used this framework to examine relationships among symptom dimensions, diagnostic categories, and resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth selected from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study (n=42) and healthy control youth (n=18). Region of interest analyses examined relationships among resting state connectivity, symptom dimensions (behavioral and emotional dysregulation measured with the Parent General Be...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Genna Bebko, Michele Bertocci, Henry Chase, Amanda Dwojak, Lisa Bonar, Jorge Almeida, Susan Beth Perlman, Amelia Versace, Claudiu Schirda, Michael Travis, Mary Kay Gill, Christine Demeter, Vaibhav Diwadka, Jeffrey Sunshine, Scott Holland, Robert Kowatch, Source Type: research

Dysregulation between emotion and theory of mind networks in borderline personality disorder
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) commonly display deficits in emotion regulation, but findings in the area of social cognitive (e.g., theory of mind, ToM) capacities have been heterogeneous. The aims of the current study were to investigate differences between patients with BPD and controls in functional connectivity (1) between the emotion and ToM network and (2) in the default mode network (DMN). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate 19 healthy controls and 17 patients with BPD at rest and during ToM processing. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Aisling O’Neill, Arun D'Souza, Andrea C. Samson, Angela Carballedo, Christian Kerskens, Thomas Frodl Source Type: research

Old wine in new bottles: Validating the clinical utility of SPECT in predicting cognitive performance in mild traumatic brain injury
In this study, subjects with mild TBI underwent 99mTc-ECD SPECT scanning, and were administered a brief battery of cognitive tests and self-report symptom scales of concussion and emotional distress. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kristoffer Romero, Nancy J. Lobaugh, Sandra E. Black, Lisa Ehrlich, Anthony Feinstein Source Type: research

The relationship between stress, HPA axis functioning and brain structure in first episode psychosis over the first 12 weeks of treatment
This study used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether biological measures of stress were related to brain structure at baseline and to structural changes over the first 12 weeks of treatment in first episode patients (n=22) compared with matched healthy controls (n=22). At baseline, no significant group differences in biological measures of stress, cortical thickness or hippocampal volume were observed, but a significantly stronger relationship between baseline levels of cortisol and smaller white matter volumes of the cuneus and anterior cingulate was found in patients compared with controls. (Source: Psychiat...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Renate L.E.P. Reniers, Belinda Garner, Christina Phassouliotis, Lisa J Phillips, Connie Markulev, Christos Pantelis, Sarah Bendall, Patrick D McGorry, Stephen J Wood Source Type: research

Frontal lobe hypoactivation in medication-free adults with bipolar II depression during response inhibition
In executive function, specifically in response inhibition, numerous studies support the essential role for the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). Hypoactivation of the IFC during response-inhibition tasks has been found consistently in subjects with bipolar disorder during manic and euthymic states. The aim of this study was to examine whether reduced IFC activation also exists in unmedicated subjects with bipolar disorder during the depressed phase of the disorder. Participants comprised 19 medication-free bipolar II (BP II) depressed patients and 20 healthy control subjects who underwent functional magnetic resonance imagin...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Conor Penfold, Nathalie Vizueta, Jennifer D. Townsend, Susan Y. Bookheimer, Lori L. Altshuler Source Type: research

Consolidation time affects performance and neural activity during visual working memory
We presented visual pattern masks at four SOAs after the offset of the memory array (100ms, 200ms, 400ms, 800ms). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christian Knöchel, Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Robert Bittner, Michael Stäblein, Vera Heselhaus, David Prvulovic, Fabian Fußer, Tarik Karakaya, Johannes Pantel, Konrad Maurer, David E.J. Linden Source Type: research

[H]Ifenprodil binding in post-mortem brains of Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics: A whole-hemisphere autoradiography study
The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunits are sensitive to ethanol and are found in brain areas related to ethanol addiction, dependence, development of alcohol tolerance, and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Previous studies indicate that early-onset Cloninger type 2 alcoholics have an intact, responsive, dopaminergic system in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), whereas type 1 alcoholics have dopaminergic defects. NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the NAC are involved in both non-opioid and opioid receptor-mediated reward. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jukka Kupila, Olli Kärkkäinen, Virpi Laukkanen, Merja Häkkinen, Hannu Kautiainen, Jari Tiihonen, Markus Storvik Source Type: research

Brain structure in narcissistic personality disorder: A VBM and DTI pilot study
We analysed T1-weighted MRI scans using voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics (TBBS) on diffusion tensor images (DTI) in narcissistic personality disorder patients and healthy controls. Grey matter deficits include right prefrontal and bilateral medial prefrontal / anterior cingulate cortices, and decreased fractional anisotropy in right frontal lobe white matter. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 7, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Igor Nenadic, Daniel Güllmar, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Johanna Steinke, Christian Gaser Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Abnormal regional homogeneity in young adult suicide attempters with no diagnosable psychiatric disorder: A resting state functional magnetic imaging study
Many young adults who attempt suicide have no discernible mental illness, suggesting an etiology distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Neurological anomalies associated with a history of suicidal behavior may predict future risk. In the present study, we explored changes in neural circuit organization associated with suicidal behavior by comparing local synchronization of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in suicide attempters without a psychiatric diagnosis (SA group, 19.84±1.61 years, n=19) with those in healthy controls (HC group, 20.30±1.72 years, n=20) using regional homogeneity (ReHo)...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jun Cao, Jian-mei Chen, Li Kuang, Ming Ai, Wei-dong Fang, Yao Gan, Wo Wang, Xiao-rong Chen, Xiao-ming Xu, Heng-guang Wang, Zhen Lv Source Type: research

Abnormal regional homogeneity in suicidal adolescents with no diagnosable psychiatric disorder: A resting state functional magnetic imaging study
Many young adults who attempt suicide have no discernible mental illness, suggesting an etiology distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Neurological anomalies associated with a history of suicidal behavior may predict future risk. In the present study, we explored changes in neural circuit organization associated with suicidal behavior by comparing local synchronization of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in suicide attempters without a psychiatric diagnosis (SA group, 19.84±1.61 years, n=19) with those in healthy controls (HC group, 20.30±1.72 years, n=20) using regional homogeneity (ReHo)...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jun Cao, Wei-dong Fang, Li Kuang, Jian-mei Chen, Ming Ai, Yao Gan, Wo Wang, Xiao-rong Chen, Xiao-ming Xu, Heng-guang Wang, Zhen Lv Source Type: research

Perception of social stimuli in mania: An fMRI study
Patients with mania show alterations of social behaviour. Neuropsychological studies in euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) have revealed deficits in cognitive, but not emotional aspects of social cognition (SC). Here, we studied the neural signature of social stimulus processing in mania. We expected alterations in regions associated with cognitive SC (dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex, dMPFC). Participants comprised 14 manic patients and 14 matched healthy controls who viewed standardized pictures with social and non-social content during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 5, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tatiana Usnich, Stephanie Spengler, Bastian Sajonz, Dorrit Herold, Michael Bauer, Felix Bermpohl Source Type: research

A cross-sectional and longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study of the post-central gyrus in first-episode schizophrenia patients
The post-central gyrus (PoCG) has received little attention in brain imaging literature. However, some magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have detected the presence of PoCG abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-six first-episode schizophrenia patients, selected through the PAFIP Program and carefully assessed for dimensional psychopathology and cognitive functioning, and 56 matched healthy controls were scanned twice over 1-year follow-up. PoCG gray matter volumes were measured at both time-points and compared between the groups. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 5, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adele Ferro, Roberto Roiz-Santiáñez, Victor Ortíz-García de la Foz, Diana Tordesillas-Gutiérrez, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Noemi de La Fuente-González, Lourdes Fañanás, Paolo Brambilla, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro Source Type: research