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Aerobic exercise intervention in young people
To the Editors: (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simon Rosenbaum, Jim Lagopoulos, Jackie Curtis, Benjamin K. Barry, Lauren Taylor, Andrew Watkins, Philip B. Ward Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Proneness to social anxiety modulates neural complexity in the absence of exposure: A resting state fMRI study using Hurst exponent
To test the hypothesis that brain activity is modulated by trait social anxiety, we measured the Hurst Exponent (HE), an index of complexity in time series, in healthy individuals at rest in the absence of any social trigger. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series were recorded in 36 subjects at rest. All volunteers were healthy without any psychiatric, medical or neurological disorder. Subjects completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) to assess social anxiety and thoughts in social contexts. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Claudio Gentili, Nicola Vanello, Ioana Cristea, Daniel David, Emiliano Ricciardi, Pietro Pietrini Source Type: research

Dissociated large-scale functional connectivity networks of the precuneus in medication-naïve first-episode depression
Research suggests an imbalance in neural activity within large-scale networks as an important pathophysiological aspect of depression. Yet, there is little consensus about to the abnormality within the default mode network (DMN) in major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, 16 first-episode, medication-naïve patients with MDD and 16 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest. With the precuneus (a central node of the DMN) as a seed region, functional connectivity (FC) was measured across the entire brain. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daihui Peng, Elizabeth B. Liddle, Sarina Iwabuchi, Chen Zhang, Zhiguo Wu, Jun Liu, Kaida Jiang, Lin Xu, Peter F Liddle, Lena Palaniyappan, Yiru Fang Source Type: research

Combining various types of classifiers and features extracted from magnetic resonance imaging data in schizophrenia recognition
We investigated a combination of three classification algorithms, namely the modified maximum uncertainty linear discriminant analysis (mMLDA), the centroid method, and the average linkage, with three types of features extracted from three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, specifically MR intensities, grey matter densities, and local deformations for distinguishing 49 first episode schizophrenia male patients from 49 healthy male subjects. The feature sets were reduced using intersubject principal component analysis before classification. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eva Janousova, Daniel Schwarz, Tomas Kasparek Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Brain structure associated with automatic thoughts predicted depression symptoms in healthy individuals
Previous behavioral studies have examined the correlation between personality and depression, and between negative automatic thoughts and depression, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relationships among these three factors. Even less is known about how variations in brain structure are related to negative automatic thoughts, which are thought to mediate the association between personality traits and depressive symptoms. A total of 298 healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and completed the following questionnaires: a Neuroticism scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), and the...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xue Du, Dongtao Wei, Peng Xie, Qinglin Zhang, Jiang Qiu Source Type: research

A splitting brain: Imbalanced neural networks in schizophrenia
Dysconnectivity between key brain systems has been hypothesized to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study examined the pattern of functional dysconnectivity across whole-brain neural networks in 121 first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Group independent component analysis (ICA) was first applied to rsfMRI data to extract 90 functional components of the brain. The functional connectivity between these ICA components was then evaluated and compared between the patient and control groups. (Source: Psychiatry...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mingli Li, Wei Deng, Zongling He, Qiang Wang, Chaohua Huang, Lijun Jiang, Qiyong Gong, Doug M. Ziedonis, Jean A. King, Xiaohong Ma, Nanyin Zhang, Tao Li Source Type: research

Family load impacts orbitofrontal volume in first-episode schizophrenia
In schizophrenia patients, the volume of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has inconsistently been reported to be reduced compared with that in healthy subjects. To investigate the impact of genetic load on OFC volumes, we performed manual tracing of magnetic resonance images in 23 first-episode schizophrenia patients (FE-SZ) and 23 matched healthy controls. In a comparison of FE-SZ patients with a genetic load for schizophrenia with FE-SZ patients without a positive family history and healthy controls, the subgroup with a genetic load showed a significant volume decrease in OFC relative grey matter volume. (Source: Psychiatr...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Berend Malchow, Alkomiet Hasan, Kristina Meyer, Thomas Schneider-Axmann, Katrin E. Radenbach, Oliver Gruber, Wolfgang Reith, Andrew M. McIntosh, Andrea Schmitt, Peter Falkai, Thomas Wobrock Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Effect of direct eye contact in women with PTSD related to interpersonal trauma: Psychophysiological interaction analysis of connectivity of an innate alarm system
This study aimed to examine functional brain connectivity during direct eye contact in women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood abuse as compared with healthy controls. We conducted psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses in SPM8 using the superior colliculus (SC) and locus ceruleus (LC) as seed regions while 16 healthy subjects and 16 patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD related to childhood maltreatment viewed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm involving direct versus averted gaze (happy, sad, neutral). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carolin Steuwe, Judith K. Daniels, Paul A. Frewen, Maria Densmore, Ruth A. Lanius Source Type: research

Effects of fluoxetine on the amygdala and the hippocampus after administration of a single prolonged stress to male Wistar rates: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety- and memory-based disorder. The hippocampus and amygdala are key areas in mood regulation. Fluoxetine was found to improve the anxiety-related symptoms of PTSD patients. However, little work has directly examined the effects of fluoxetine on the hippocampus and the amygdala. In the present study, male Wistar rats received fluoxetine or vehicle after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed −1, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after SPS to examine the effects of fluoxetine on neurometabo...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fang Han, Bing Xiao, Lili Wen, Yuxiu Shi Source Type: research

Relationship between white matter microstructure abnormalities and ADHD symptomatology in adolescents
The present study sought to evaluate whether white matter microstructure abnormalities observed in a cohort of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have specific relationships with either or both Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattentive ADHD symptom domains that would support a dimensional view of ADHD as adopted in the DSM-V. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on 22 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine whether scalar DTI measures in 13 tracts-of-interest demonstrated meaningful associations with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity or In...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Suzanne T. Witt, Michael C. Stevens Source Type: research

Cerebral perfusion differences in women currently with and recovered from anorexia nervosa
In this study, we applied several advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to quantify regional and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 25 healthy women (HC), 23 patients currently with anorexia (AN-C) and 19 patients in long-term weight recovery following anorexia (AN-WR). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Min Sheng, Hanzhang Lu, Peiying Liu, Binu P. Thomas, Carrie J. McAdams Source Type: research

Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder
Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah K. Madsen, Alex Zai, Tara Pirnia, Donatello Arienzo, Liang Zhan, Teena D. Moody, Paul M. Thompson, Jamie D. Feusner Source Type: research

Widespread white matter tract aberrations in youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder
Few studies have examined multiple measures of white matter (WM) differences in youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder (FR-BD). To investigate WM in the FR-BD group, we used three measures of WM structure and two methods of analysis. We used fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in 25 children with familial risk for BD, defined as having both a parent with BD and mood dysregulation, and 16 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Donna J. Roybal, Naama Barnea-Goraly, Ryan Kelley, Layla Bararpour, Meghan E. Howe, Allan L. Reiss, Kiki D. Chang Source Type: research

Brain structure characteristics in intellectually superior schizophrenia
The current study aims to fill a gap in the knowledge base by investigating the structural brain characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia and superior intellectual abilities. Subcortical volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surface area were examined in intellectually normal and intellectually superior participants with schizophrenia and their IQ-matched healthy controls, as well as in intellectually low schizophrenia participants. We replicated significant diagnostic group effects on hippocampal and ventricular size after correction for multiple comparisons. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anja Vaskinn, Cecilie B. Hartberg, Kjetil Sundet, Lars T. Westlye, Ole A. Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz Source Type: research

Validation of a protocol for manual segmentation of the thalamus on magnetic resonance imaging scans
We present a validated protocol for manual segmentation of the thalamus on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using brain image analysis software. The MRI scans of five normal control subjects were randomly selected from a larger cohort recruited from Lund University Hospital and Landskrona Hospital, Sweden. MRIs were performed using a 3.0T Philips MR scanner, with an eight-channel head coil, and high resolution images were acquired using a T1-weighted turbo field echo (T1 TFE) pulse sequence, with resulting voxel size 1×1×1mm3. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brian D. Power, Fiona A. Wilkes, Mitchell Hunter-Dickson, Danielle van Westen, Alexander F. Santillo, Mark Walterfang, Christer Nilsson, Dennis Velakoulis, Jeffrey C.L. Looi Source Type: research

Disrupted fornix integrity in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
The fornix is the primary subcortical output fiber system of the hippocampal formation. In children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), hippocampal volume reduction has been commonly reported, but few studies as yet have evaluated the integrity of the fornix. Therefore, we investigated the fornix of 45 school-aged children with 22q11.2DS and 38 matched typically developing (TD) children. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to reconstruct the body of fornix in each child's brain native space. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yi Deng, Naomi J. Goodrich-Hunsaker, Margarita Cabaral, David G. Amaral, Michael H. Buonocore, Danielle Harvey, Kristopher Kalish, Owen Carmichael, Cynthia M. Schumann, Aaron Lee, Robert F. Dougherty, Lee M. Perry, Brian A. Wandell, Tony J. Simon Source Type: research

-Back task performance and corresponding brain-activation patterns in women with restrictive and bulimic eating-disorder variants: Preliminary findings
Eating disorder (ED) variants characterized by “binge-eating/purging” symptoms differ from “restricting-only” variants along diverse clinical dimensions, but few studies have compared people with these different eating-disorder phenotypes on measures of neurocognitive function and brain activation. We tested the performances of 19 women with “restricting-only” eating syndromes and 27 with “binge-eating/purging” variants on a modified n-back task, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine task-induced brain activations in frontal regions of interest. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mimi Israel, Michael Klein, Jens Pruessner, Lea Thaler, Michael Spilka, Simona Efanov, Anne-Sophie Ouellette, Marcelo Berlim, Nida Ali, Thomas Beaudry, Frederique Van den Eynde, Claire-Dominique Walker, Howard Steiger Source Type: research

N-back task performance and corresponding brain-activation patterns in women with restrictive and bulimic eating-disorder variants: Preliminary findings
Eating disorder variants characterized by “binge-eating/purging” symptoms differ from “restricting-only” variants along diverse clinical dimensions, but few studies have compared people with these different eating-disorder phenotypes on measures of neurocognitive function and brain activation. We tested the performances of 19 women with “restricting-only” eating syndromes and 27 with “binge-eating/purging” variants on a modified n-back task, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine task-induced brain activations in frontal regions of interest. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mimi Israel, Michael Klein, Jens Pruessner, Lea Thaler, Michael Spilka, Simona Efanov, Anne-Sophie Ouellette, Marcelo Berlim, Nida Ali, Thomas Beaudry, Frederique Van den Eynde, Dominique Walker, Howard Steiger Source Type: research

Methamphetamine-sensitized rats show augmented dopamine release to methylphenidate stimulation: A positron emission tomography using [F]fallypride
This study was aimed to examine the use of methylphenidate as a psychostimulant to induce dopamine release and that of [18F]fallypride as a radioligand to estimate the release in a rat model of schizophrenia. Six rats were scanned by positron emission tomography (PET) twice before and after methylphenidate challenge to evaluate dopamine release. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Miho Ota, Shintaro Ogawa, Koichi Kato, Chisato Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Kunugi Source Type: research

Assessment of glutamate in striatal subregions in obsessive-compulsive disorder with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Glutamatergic signaling abnormalities in cortico-striatal circuits are hypothesized to lead to the repetitive thoughts and behaviors of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To test this hypothesis, studies have used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to measure glutamatergic compounds in the striatum of individuals with OCD. However, none has used methods that could measure glutamate minimally contaminated by glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in striatal subregions. Therefore, in this study, a proton MRS imaging (1H MRSI) technique with relatively high spatial resolution at 3.0T was used to measure min...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Helen Blair Simpson, Lawrence S. Kegeles, Liane Hunter, Xiangling Mao, Page Van Meter, Xiaoyan Xu, Marcia B. Kimeldorf, Sarah L. Pearlstein, Mark Slifstein, Dikoma C. Shungu Source Type: research

Indirect association of DAT1 genotype with executive function through white matter volume in orbitofrontal cortex
This study tested an indirect effect model in which DAT1 genotype (9-repeat carriers vs. 10-repeat homozygotes) is linked to phenotypes representing impulsivity and executive function (planning behavior) through effects on white matter (WM) volumes in prefrontal cortex (PFC), particularly orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tammy Chung, Robert Ferrell, Duncan B. Clark Source Type: research

Comparison of regional gray matter volume abnormalities in Alzheimer׳s disease and late life depression with hippocampal atrophy using VSRAD analysis: A voxel-based morphometry study
Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies revealed that hippocampal volume loss in patients with late life depression (LLD) is associated with cognitive impairment and a higher risk for dementia. However, LLD patients can experience hippocampal atrophy without cognitive impairment. Thus, while LLD and AD can show comparable hippocampal atrophy, they may encompass different neuropathological changes. Using VBM, we therefore investigated differences in regional gray matter changes in 17 late-onset LLD patients and 21 AD patients (without a history of LLD) who exhibited comparably severe atrophy of the entorhinal cortex ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kengo Shimoda, Mahito Kimura, Masami Yokota, Yoshiro Okubo Source Type: research

Comparison of regional gray matter volume abnormalities in Alzheimer’s disease and late life depression with hippocampal atrophy using VSRAD analysis: A voxel-based morphometry study
Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies revealed that hippocampal volume loss in patients with late life depression (LLD) is associated with cognitive impairment and a higher risk for dementia. However, LLD patients can experience hippocampal atrophy without cognitive impairment. Thus, while LLD and AD can show comparable hippocampal atrophy, they may encompass different neuropathological changes. Using VBM, we therefore investigated differences in regional gray matter changes in 17 late-onset LLD patients and 21 AD patients (without a history of LLD) who exhibited comparably severe atrophy of the entorhinal cortex ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kengo Shimoda, Mahito Kimura, Masami Yokota, Yoshiro Okubo Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging measurement of structural volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition associated with mild to moderate cognitive impairment and with a prevalence rate of up to 22% in veterans. This systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis explores volumetric differences of three key structural brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex ([ACC]), all of which have been implicated in dysfunction of both salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN) in PTSD sufferers. A literature search was conducted in Embase, Medline, PubMed and PsycINFO in May 2013. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniel C. O'Doherty, Kate M. Chitty, Sonia Saddiqui, Maxwell R. Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Corpus callosum Abnormalities in medication-naïve adult Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder
This study examines CC abnormalities in a large sample of medication-naïve OCD patients in comparison to matched healthy controls (HCs). We examined the mid-sagittal area of the CC in medication-naïve OCD patients (n=49) in comparison with age-, sex-, and handedness-matched HCs (n=38). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dania Jose, Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Sunil V. Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy Source Type: research

Detection of early changes in the parahippocampal and posterior cingulum bundles during mild cognitive impairment by using High-resolution multi-parametric diffusion tensor imaging
We aimed to determine alterations occurring in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle (PhC) and posterior cingulum bundle (PoC) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through analysis of high-resolution multi-parametric diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Participants comprised 41 patients with MCI (21 AD converters [MCI-C] and 20 non-converters [MCI-NC]), 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 26 healthy elderly subjects who underwent prospective examination with high-resolution DTI. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kenji Ito, Makoto Sasaki, Junko Takahashi, Ikuko Uwano, Fumio Yamashita, Satomi Higuchi, Jonathan Goodwin, Taisuke Harada, Kohsuke Kudo, Yasuo Terayama Source Type: research

Rostral medial prefrontal dysfunctions and consummatory pleasure in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies
A large number of imaging studies have examined the neural correlates of consummatory pleasure and anticipatory pleasure in schizophrenia, but the brain regions where schizophrenia patients consistently demonstrate dysfunctions remain unclear. We performed a series of meta-analyses on imaging studies to delineate the regions associated with consummatory and anticipatory pleasure dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Nineteen functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography studies using whole brain analysis were identified through a literature search (PubMed and EBSCO; January 1990–February 2014). (Source: ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chao Yan, Tammy Yang, Qi-jing Yu, Zhen Jin, Eric F.C. Cheung, Xun Liu, Raymond C.K. Chan Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Which demographic variables are necessary to correct in neuroimaging studies of serotonin transporter availability? A SPECT study with [I]ADAM
Previous studies have shown that many demographic variables influence serotonin transporter (SERT) availability as assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The aim of this study was to explore which demographic variables influenced the SERT availability most in a SPECT study with [123I]ADAM. Ninety-five healthy volunteers were recruited. Age, sex, smoking alcohol intake, educational level, body mass index, seasonal change, and SERT availability were recorded and then analyzed by multivariate linear regression. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wei Hung Chang, Lan-Ting Lee, I Hui Lee, Mei Hung Chi, Kao Chin Chen, Nan-Tsing Chiu, Wei Jen Yao, Po See Chen, Yen Kuang Yang Source Type: research

Impairments of event-related magnetic fields in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms
Recently there is a growing understanding that patients suffering from negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent a distinct patient population. However, despite the abundance of EEG studies characterizing schizophrenia patients in general, only a handful of studies have focused on the electrophysiological correlates of negative symptoms. The current study examined whether the impairments in event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) commonly reported in heterogeneous groups of patients with mixed positive and negative symptoms also occur in patients with predominantly negative symptoms, and investigated their correlation to c...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keren Yefet, Abraham Goldstein, Liron Rabany, Yechiel Levkovitz Source Type: research

Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents
Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yaling Yang, Katherine L. Narr, Laura A. Baker, Shantanu H. Joshi, Neda Jahanshad, Adrian Raine, Paul M. Thompson Source Type: research

Abnormalities of structural covariance networks in drug-naïve boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the anatomical organization of large-scale brain systems would change in ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. We utilized a structural covariance network (SCN) mapping approach to investigate large-scale networks in 30 drug-naïve ADHD boys and 30 gender- and age-matched controls. The regions showing significant between-group differences in gray matter (GM) volumewere defined as seed regions of interest. Then, the SCNs derived from these seeds were statistically compared between ADHD and controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xinwei Li, Qingjiu Cao, Fang Pu, Deyu Li, Yubo Fan, Li An, Peng Wang, Zhaomin Wu, Li Sun, Shuyu Li, Yufeng Wang Source Type: research

Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder and with or without dissociative identity disorder
Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16 patients with PTSD but without DID (PTSD-only), and 32 healthy controls (HC), and compared their whole-brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) morphological measurements. Associations between GM measurements and severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms or lifetime traumatizing events were eval...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sima Chalavi, Eline M. Vissia, Mechteld E. Giesen, Ellert R.S. Nijenhuis, Nel Draijer, Gareth J. Barker, Dick J. Veltman, Antje A.T.S. Reinders Source Type: research

The association between heroin expenditure and dopamine transporter availability—A single-photon emission computed tomography study
One of the consequences of heroin dependency is a huge expenditure on drugs. This underlying economic expense may be a grave burden for heroin users and may lead to criminal behavior, which is a huge cost to society. The neuropsychological mechanism related to heroin purchase remains unclear. Based on recent findings and the established dopamine hypothesis of addiction, we speculated that expenditure on heroin and central dopamine activity may be associated. A total of 21 heroin users were enrolled in this study. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shih-Hsien Lin, Kao Chin Chen, Sheng-Yu Lee, Nan Tsing Chiu, I Hui Lee, Po See Chen, Tzung Lieh Yeh, Ru-Band Lu, Chia-Chieh Chen, Mei-Hsiu Liao, Yen Kuang Yang Source Type: research

PBMC telomerase activity, but not leukocyte telomere length, correlates with hippocampal volume in major depression
In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic resonance imaging-estimated hippocampal volume in un-medicated depressed individuals and healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Owen M. Wolkowitz, Synthia H. Mellon, Daniel Lindqvist, Elissa S. Epel, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Jue Lin, Victor I. Reus, Heather Burke, Rebecca Rosser, Laura Mahan, Scott Mackin, Tony Yang, Michael Weiner, Susanne Mueller Source Type: research

A pilot study of gray matter volume changes associated with paroxetine treatment and response in social anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has received relatively little attention in neurobiological studies. We sought to identify neuro-anatomical changes associated with successful treatment for the disorder. Fourteen patients (31 years; 57% female) with DSM-IV generalized SAD were imaged before and after 8-weeks of paroxetine treatment on a 1.5 T GE Signa MRI scanner. Symptoms were assessed by a clinician using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Longitudinal changes in voxel based morphometry (VBM) were determined using the VBM8 Toolbox for SPM8. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ardesheer Talati, Spiro P. Pantazatos, Joy Hirsch, Franklin Schneier Source Type: research

Altered cortical structures and tract integrity of the mirror neuron system in association with symptoms of schizophrenia
This study investigated MNS structures, including the pars opercularis (Pop), the supramarginal gyrus (SMg), the third branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and callosal fibers interconnecting bilateral Pop (CC-Pop) and SMg (CC-SMg), and clarified their relationships with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Participants comprised 32 schizophrenia patients and 32 matched controls who received T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, T1WI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chieh-En Jane Tseng, Yi-Ling Chien, Chih-Min Liu, Hsiao-Lan Sharon Wang, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng Source Type: research

The association between heroin expenditure and dopamine transporter availability – a single-photon emission computed tomography study
One of the consequences of heroin dependency is a huge expenditure on drugs. This underlying economic expense may be a grave burden for heroin users and may lead to criminal behavior, which is a huge cost to society. The neuropsychological mechanism related to heroin purchase remains unclear. Based on recent findings and the established dopamine hypothesis of addiction, we speculated that expenditure on heroin and central dopamine activity may be associated. A total of 21 heroin users were enrolled in this study. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shih-Hsien Lin, Kao Chin Chen, Sheng-Yu Lee, Nan-Tsing Chiu, I. Hui Lee, Po See Chen, Tzung Lieh Yeh, Ru-Band Lu, Chia-Chieh Chen, Mei-Hsiu Liao, Yen Kuang Yang Source Type: research

Neural mechanisms underlying the therapeutic actions of guanfacine treatment in youth with ADHD: A pilot fMRI study
Twenty-five youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Go/No-go task before and after 6 to 8 weeks of randomized once-daily treatment with either the α2A-adrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine or placebo. Clinical improvement was greater for guanfacine than placebo and was differentially associated with reduced activation for guanfacine compared with placebo in the right midcingulate cortex/supplementary motor area and the left posterior cingulate cortex. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne-Claude V. Bédard, Kurt P. Schulz, Beth Krone, Juan Pedraza, Stephanie Duhoux, Jeffrey M. Halperin, Jeffrey H. Newcorn Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Orbitofrontal cortex, emotional decision-making and response to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis
This study aimed to determine the relation between pre-therapy OFC GMV or asymmetry and CBTp responsiveness and emotional decision-making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Thirty patients received CBTp+standard care (CBTp+SC; 25 completers) for 6–8 months. All patients (before receiving CBTp) and 25 healthy participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and performed the IGT. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Preethi Premkumar, Dominic Fannon, Adegboyega Sapara, Emmanuelle R. Peters, Anantha P. Anilkumar, Andrew Simmons, Elizabeth Kuipers, Veena Kumari Source Type: research

Reduced event-related low frequency EEG activity In patients with early onset schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings
This study investigated total and evoked theta and delta activity in schizophrenia patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. EEG data were recorded whilst 24 individuals with schizophrenia, 26 unaffected siblings of individuals with schizophrenia and 26 healthy control participants completed a Go/No-Go task. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Molly Simmonite, Alan Thomas Bates, Madeleine Groom, Chris Hollis, Peter Francis Liddle Source Type: research

An fMRI study of cognitive control in problem gamers
A small proportion of video game players develop uncontrolled gaming behavior. A dysfunctional cognitive control circuit may explain this excessive behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated whether problem gamers are characterized by deficits in various aspects of cognitive control (inhibitory control, error processing, attentional control) by measuring brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during Go-NoGo and Stroop task performance. In addition, both impulsivity and attentional control were measured using self-reports. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maartje Luijten, Gert-Jan Meerkerk, Ingmar H.A. Franken, Ben J.M. van de Wetering, Tim M. Schoenmakers Source Type: research

Acute response to psychological trauma and subsequent recovery: No changes in brain structure
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study brain structure in acute stress disorder (ASD) following a psychological trauma and after 4 weeks in remission. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry and FreeSurfer analysis of the hippocampal formation and amygdala revealed no structural changes in ASD (n=75) compared with trauma-exposed individuals without ASD (n=60) and community controls (n=60). These results suggest that ASD, in contrast to posttraumatic stress disorder, is not characterized by structural brain alterations in ASD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Csilla Szabó, Oguz Kelemen, Einat Levy-Gigi, Szabolcs Kéri Source Type: research

Corpus callosum size and diffusion tensor anisotropy in Adolescents and Adults with schizophrenia
The corpus callosum has been implicated as a region of dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia, but the association between age and callosal pathology is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on adults (n=34) and adolescents (n=17) with schizophrenia and adult (n=33) and adolescent (n=15) age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The corpus callosum was manually traced on each participant's MRI, and the DTI scan was co-registered to the MRI. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emily C. Balevich, M. Mehmet Haznedar, Eugene Wang, Randall E. Newmark, Rachel Bloom, Jason S. Schneiderman, Jonathan Aronowitz, Cheuk Y. Tang, King-Wai Chu, William Byne, Monte S. Buchsbaum, Erin A. Hazlett Source Type: research

Brain white matter microstructure in deficit and non-deficit subtypes of schizophrenia
Dividing schizophrenia into its deficit (SZD) and nondeficit (SZND) subtypes may help to identify specific and more homogeneous pathophysiological characteristics. Our aim was to define a whole brain voxelwise map specifically characterizing white matter tracts of schizophrenia patients with and without the deficit syndrome. We compared microstructural diffusion-related parameters as measured by diffusion tensor imaging in 21 SZD patients, 21 SZND patients, and 21 healthy controls, age- and gender-matched. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gianfranco Spalletta, Pietro De Rossi, Fabrizio Piras, Mariangela Iorio, Claudia Dacquino, Francesca Scanu, Paolo Girardi, Carlo Caltagirone, Brian Kirkpatrick, Chiara Chiapponi Source Type: research

Distinct neural correlates of emotional and cognitive empathy in older adults
Empathy is thought to be a mechanism underlying prosocial behavior across the lifespan, yet little is known about how levels of empathy relate to individual differences in brain functioning among older adults. In this exploratory study, we examined the neural correlates of affective and cognitive empathy in older adults. Thirty older adults (M=79 years) underwent fMRI scanning and neuropsychological testing and completed a test of affective and cognitive empathy. Brain response during processing of cognitive and emotional stimuli was measured by fMRI in a priori and task-related regions and was correlated with levels of em...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 23, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Raeanne C. Moore, Sheena I. Dev, Dilip V. Jeste, Isabel Dziobek, Lisa T. Eyler Source Type: research

Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: A matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature
Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 22, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Li Kong, Christina J. Herold, Frank Zöllner, David H. Salat, Marc M. Lässer, Lena A. Schmid, Iven Fellhauer, Philipp A. Thomann, Marco Essig, Lothar R. Schad, Kirk I. Erickson, Johannes Schröder Source Type: research

Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analyzing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: A matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature
Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 22, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Li Kong, Christina J. Herold, Frank Zöllner, David H. Salat, Marc M. Lässer, Lena A. Schmid, Iven Fellhauer, Philipp A. Thomann, Marco Essig, Lothar R. Schad, Kirk I. Erickson, Johannes Schröder Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research