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Chronic cocaine administration causes extensive white matter damage in brain: Diffusion tensor imaging and immunohistochemistry studies
Abstract: The effect of chronic cocaine exposure on multiple white matter structures in rodent brain was examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), locomotor behavior, and end point histology. The animals received either cocaine at a dose of 100mg/kg (N=19), or saline (N=17) for 28 days through an implanted osmotic minipump. The animals underwent serial DTI scans, locomotor assessment, and end point histology for determining the expressions of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-heavy protein (NF-H), proteolipid protein (PLP), Nogo-A, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Differences in ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 7, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ponnada A. Narayana, Juan J. Herrera, Kurt H. Bockhorst, Emilio Esparza-Coss, Ying Xia, Joel L. Steinberg, F. Gerard Moeller Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
Vertex-based morphometry in euthymic bipolar disorder implicates striatal regions involved in psychomotor function
Abstract: We hypothesized that psychomotor disturbances in patients with bipolar disorder are associated with morphometric changes in functionally specific regions of the basal ganglia and thalamus. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging and vertex-based morphometry to investigate whether psychomotor performance is associated with changes in volume and shape in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder (n=27) compared with matched healthy controls (n=27). We saw no significant differences between age- and sex-matched groups in motor performance. We found a statistically significant group difference in the shape of the...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 7, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benny Liberg, Carl Johan Ekman, Carl Sellgren, Anette Johansson, Mikael Landén Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Increased activation in Broca's area after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia
Abstract: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes in cerebral activity in patients with schizophrenia after participation in the Cognitive Remediation Program for Schizophrenia and other related disorders (RECOS). As RECOS therapists make use of problem-solving and verbal mediation techniques, known to be beneficial in the rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndromes, we expected an increased activation of frontal areas after remediation. Executive functioning and cerebral activation during a covert verbal fluency task were measured in eight patients with schizophrenia before (T1) and after (T2...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pascal Vianin, Sébastien Urben, Pierre Magistretti, Pierre Marquet, Eleonora Fornari, Laure Jaugey Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Reduced cortical and subcortical volumes in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder
We examined adolescents in the early stages of BPD to provide a unique opportunity to investigate which parts of the brain are initially affected by the disorder before confounding factors such as long-term medication or chronicity can mask them. A group of 60 right-handed female adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age (20 patients with BPD, 20 clinical controls, and 20 healthy controls) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Focus was on the examination of hippocampal and amygdalar volume differences. Furthermore, a cortical thickness analysis was conducted. FreeSurfer software detected significant group differenc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 5, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julia Richter, Romuald Brunner, Peter Parzer, Franz Resch, Bram Stieltjes, Romy Henze Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Pharmaco-MEG evidence for attention related hyper-connectivity between auditory and prefrontal cortices in ADHD
Abstract: The ability to attend to particular stimuli while ignoring others is crucial in goal-directed activities and has been linked with prefrontal cortical regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Both hyper- and hypo-activation in the DLPFC has been reported in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during many different cognitive tasks, but the network-level effects of such aberrant activity remain largely unknown. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we examined functional connectivity between regions of the DLPFC and the modality-specific auditory cortices during an audit...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, John D. Franzen, Nichole L. Knott, Matthew L. White, Martin W. Wetzel, Tony W. Wilson Tags: Magnetoencephalography Source Type: research
Somatotopy and bodily hallucinations
To the Editors: Hallucinations are commonly defined as “perceptual experiences in the absence of sensory input”. Hallucinations, one of the major first rank symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum disorders, include bodily hallucinations (BH), which may encompass tactile, somatic, visceral, proprioceptive, kinesthetic, vestibular, coenesthetic, nociceptive, sexual or thermal experiences. Although the underlying mechanisms of BH have not been established, four neuroimaging case reports have described pathophysiological correlates of BH (). According to these case reports, three patients had SZ () and the fourth patient...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 31, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pierre Alexis Geoffroy, Vincent Laprevote, Pierre Thomas, Renaud Jardri Tags: Letter to the Editors Source Type: research
Antidepressant response to aripiprazole augmentation associated with enhanced FDOPA utilization in striatum: A preliminary PET study
Abstract: Several double blind, prospective trials have demonstrated an antidepressant augmentation efficacy of aripiprazole in depressed patients unresponsive to standard antidepressant therapy. Although aripiprazole is now widely used for this indication, and much is known about its receptor-binding properties, the mechanism of its antidepressant augmentation remains ill-defined. In vivo animal studies and in vitro human studies using cloned dopamine dopamine D2 receptors suggest aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist; in this preliminary neuroimaging trial, we hypothesized that aripiprazole's antidepressant augmenta...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Charles R. Conway, John T. Chibnall, Paul Cumming, Mark A. Mintun, Marie Anne I. Gebara, Dana C. Perantie, Joseph L. Price, Martha E. Cornell, Jonathan E. McConathy, Sunil Gangwani, Yvette I. Sheline Tags: Positron emission tomography Source Type: research
Resting state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens in youth with a family history of alcoholism
Abstract: Adolescents with a family history of alcoholism (FHP) are at heightened risk for developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a key brain region for reward processing, is implicated in the development of AUDs. Thus, functional connectivity of the NAcc may be an important marker of risk in FHP youth. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) was used to examine the intrinsic connectivity of the NAcc in 47 FHP and 50 family history negative (FHN) youth, ages 10–16 years old. FHP and FHN adolescents showed significant group differences in resting state synchrony betwe...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anita Cservenka, Kaitlyn Casimo, Damien A. Fair, Bonnie J. Nagel Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Distinctive spontaneous regional neural activity in patients with somatoform pain disorder: A preliminary resting-state fMRI study
Abstract: This resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study found that nine patients with somatoform pain disorder exhibited atypical precentral gyrus activation compared with 20 healthy controls. The role of the precentral gyrus in pain-related processing is discussed. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Atsuo Yoshino, Yasumasa Okamoto, Yoshihiko Kunisato, Shinpei Yoshimura, Ran Jinnin, Yumi Hayashi, Makoto Kobayakawa, Mitsuru Doi, Kyoko Oshita, Ryuji Nakamura, Keisuke Tanaka, Hidehisa Yamashita, Masashi Kawamoto, Shigeto Yamawaki Tags: Brief report Source Type: research
Evidence for altered amygdala activation in schizophrenia in an adaptive emotion recognition task
Abstract: Deficits in social cognition seem to present an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, and are known to be associated with an altered amygdala response to faces. However, current results are heterogeneous with respect to whether this altered amygdala response in schizophrenia is hypoactive or hyperactive in nature. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate emotion-specific amygdala activation in schizophrenia using a novel adaptive emotion recognition paradigm. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia outpatients and 16 healthy controls who viewed face stimuli expressing emotio...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniela Mier, Stefanie Lis, Karina Zygrodnik, Carina Sauer, Jens Ulferts, Bernd Gallhofer, Peter Kirsch Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Brain atrophy in primary progressive aphasia involves the cholinergic basal forebrain and Ayala's nucleus
Abstract: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by left hemispheric frontotemporal cortical atrophy. Evidence from anatomical studies suggests that the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP), a subnucleus of the cholinergic basal forebrain, may be involved in the pathological process of PPA. Therefore, we studied the pattern of cortical and basal forebrain atrophy in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA and 18 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined the cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei according to Mesulam's nomenclature and the NSP in MRI reference sp...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stefan J. Teipel, Wilhelm Flatz, Nibal Ackl, Michel Grothe, Ingo Kilimann, Arun L.W. Bokde, Lea Grinberg, Edson Amaro, Vanja Kljajevic, Eduardo Alho, Christina Knels, Anne Ebert, Helmut Heinsen, Adrian Danek Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Dorsal prefrontal cortical serotonin 2A receptor binding indices are differentially related to individual scores on harm avoidance
Abstract: Although the serotonergic system has been implicated in healthy as well as in pathological emotional states, knowledge about its involvement in personality is limited. Earlier research on this topic suggests that post-synaptic 5-HT2A receptors could be involved in particular in frontal cortical areas. In drug-naïve healthy individuals, we examined the relationship between these 5-HT2A receptors and the temperament dimension harm avoidance (HA) using 123I-5-I-R91150 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). HA is a personality feature closely related to stress, anxiety and depression proneness, and it i...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chris Baeken, Axel Bossuyt, Rudi De Raedt Tags: Single photon emission computed tomography Source Type: research
Occupancy of serotonin transporters in the amygdala by paroxetine in association with attenuation of left amygdala activation by negative faces in major depressive disorder
Abstract: Amygdala hyperactivation in major depressive disorder (MDD) might be attenuated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but the working mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher amygdala serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy by paroxetine results in greater attenuation of amygdala activation by negative facial expressions in MDD patients. We treated fifteen MDD patients (22–55 years) with paroxetine 20–50mg/day. After 6 and 12 weeks, we quantified (1) clinical response (≥50% decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), (2) SERT occupancy in both amygdala measured by repeate...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Henricus G. Ruhé, Michiel Koster, Jan Booij, Marcel van Herk, Dick J. Veltman, Aart H. Schene Tags: Single photon emission computed tomography Source Type: research
Hoarding disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder show different patterns of neural activity during response inhibition
Abstract: Although hoarding disorder (HD) has been historically conceptualized as a subtype or dimension of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), preliminary evidence suggests that these two disorders have distinct neural underpinnings. The aim of the present study was to compare the hemodynamic responses of HD patients, OCD patients, and healthy controls (HC) during response inhibition on a high-conflict Go/NoGo task that has previously proved sensitive to OCD. Participants comprised 24 HD patients, 24 OCD patients, and 24 HCs who completed a Go/NoGo task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although beha...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David F. Tolin, Suzanne T. Witt, Michael C. Stevens Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Gyrification differences in children and adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A pilot study
Abstract: We used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain gyrification patterns between 19 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 9 children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and 23 control children. We found that VCFS is associated with widespread decreases in gyrification. In ADHD, we found minor differences from control children. No evidence was found for common gyrification patterns between VCFS and ADHD children. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 30, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sabine E. Mous, Canan Karatekin, Chiu-Yen Kao, Irving I. Gottesman, Danielle Posthuma, Tonya White Tags: Brief report Source Type: research
Disentangling possible effects of childhood physical abuse on gray matter changes in violent offenders with psychopathy
This study presents the first, albeit preliminary, evidence suggesting that some of the structural brain anomalies distinguishing violent offenders with psychopathy may result from physical abuse in childhood. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nathan J. Kolla, Sarah Gregory, Stephen Attard, Nigel Blackwood, Sheilagh Hodgins Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
The neural correlates of the dominance dimension of emotion
Abstract: Emotion has been conceptualized as a dimensional construct, while the number of dimensions – two or three – has been debated. Research has consistently identified two dimensions – valence and arousal – though ample evidence exists that three dimensions are necessary to describe emotion. One proposed third dimension, identified as dominance, is relevant in clinical syndromes, personality and consumer psychology. Dominance refers to an individual's sense of having an ability to affect the environment. Neuroimaging studies have generally focused on the two dimensions of valence and arousal, leaving the neura...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Matthew Jerram, Athene Lee, Alyson Negreira, David Gansler Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Microstructural changes of the nucleus accumbens due to increase of estradiol level during menstrual cycle contribute to recurrent manic episodes—A single case study
We examined a rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patient who demonstrated manic episode regularly at around day 7 of the menstrual cycle. We hypothesize that gonadal hormones may induce a state-dependent change in cerebral microstructure and function. Following this hypothesis, the serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were analyzed and diffusion tensor imaging data were examined between the manic and euthymic states of the patient. Estradiol levels increased in the late follicular phase at manic state when compared to the luteal or early follicular phase at euthymic state. DTI results showed that the patient had increase...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 16, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kiwamu Matsuoka, Fumihiko Yasuno, Makoto Inoue, Akihide Yamamoto, Takashi Kudo, Soichiro Kitamura, Koji Okada, Kuniaki Kiuchi, Jun Kosaka, Hidehiro Iida, Toshifumi Kishimoto Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
Disrupted action monitoring in recent-onset psychosis patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
Abstract: Schizophrenia patients experience cognitive control disturbances, manifest in altered neural signatures during action monitoring. It remains unclear whether error- and conflict-monitoring disturbances co-occur, and whether they are observed in recent-onset psychosis patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. We tested electrophysiological measures of action monitoring in these patients. Seventy-three schizophrenia patients (SZ), 26 bipolar disorder type I patients (BP), each within one year of psychosis onset, and 54 healthy control subjects (HC) underwent EEG during Stroop task performance. In the trial-av...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 5, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael J. Minzenberg, Glenn C. Gomes, Jong H. Yoon, Tamara Y. Swaab, Cameron S. Carter Tags: Electroencephalography and evoked potentials Source Type: research
Dopamine transporter dysfunction in Han Chinese people with chronic methamphetamine dependence after a short-term abstinence
Abstract: Single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) after the administration of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 was performed on healthy subjects and subjects with methamphetamine (METH)dependence at time 1 (T1) after 24–48h of abstinence, time 2 (T2) after 2 weeks of abstinence, and time 3 (T3) after 4 weeks of abstinence. In contrast to values in controls, the values of the striatal DAT specific uptake ratios (SURs) in subjects with METH dependence were significantly lower at T1 (n=25), T2 (n=9), and T3 (n=8); a mild increase in SURs was observed at T2 and T3, but values were still significantly lower than those in controls. I...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 5, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jie Yuan, Rongbin Lv, James Robert Brašić, Mei Han, Xingdang Liu, Yuankai Wang, Guangming Zhang, Congjin Liu, Yu Li, Yanping Deng Tags: Single photon emission computed tomography Source Type: research
Frontal gamma noise power and cognitive domains in schizophrenia
Abstract: The cognitive deficit profile is different among individuals with schizophrenia. We quantified the amount of electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli onset (noise power) over frontal regions regarding deficit in cognitive domains. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls underwent clinical, cognitive and electrophysiological assessments. Noise power studies may be considered complementary but not equivalent to induced power studies. We compared gamma and theta noise power magnitude during a P300 paradigm between subsets of patients divided according to cognitive deficit in key dom...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Álvaro A. Díez, Vanessa Suazo, Pilar Casado, Manuel Martín-Loeches, María Victoria Perea, Vicente Molina Tags: Electroencephalography and evoked potentials Source Type: research
Depressive symptoms and regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer's disease
In this study, we tried to clarify the cerebral blood flow (CBF) correlates of depressive symptoms in AD, excluding the effect of apathy and anxiety. Seventy-nine consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units of the Memory Clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The level of depressive symptoms was evaluated using the depression domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). The patients underwent brain SPECT with 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer. After removing the effects of age, anxiety and apathy scores of NPI, and five subscales of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-revised (ACE-R), correlation analysi...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Seishi Terada, Etsuko Oshima, Shuhei Sato, Chikako Ikeda, Shigeto Nagao, Satoshi Hayashi, Chinatsu Hayashibara, Osamu Yokota, Yosuke Uchitomi Tags: Single photon emission computed tomography Source Type: research
A comparative diffusion tensor imaging study of corpus callosum subregion integrity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia
Abstract: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have provided evidence for corpus callosum (CC) white matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ). These findings include alterations in shape, volume, white matter intensity and structural integrity compared to healthy control populations. Although CC alterations are implicated in both SZ and BD, no study of which we are aware has investigated callosal subregion differences between these two patient populations. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess CC integrity in patients with BD (n=16), SZ (n=19) and healthy controls (HC) ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jian Li, Elliot Kale Edmiston, Kaiyuan Chen, Yanqing Tang, Xuan Ouyang, Yifeng Jiang, Guoguang Fan, Ling Ren, Jie Liu, Yifang Zhou, Wenyan Jiang, Zhening Liu, Ke Xu, Fei Wang Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
Resting-state synchrony between anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus relates to body shape concern in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa
Abstract: Cortical areas supporting cognitive control and salience demonstrate different neural responses to visual food cues in patients with eating disorders. This top-down cognitive control, which interacts with bottom-up appetitive responses, is tightly integrated not only in task conditions but also in the resting-state. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key node of a large-scale network that is involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity of the dACC and hypothesized that altered connectivity would be demonstrated in cortical midli...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Seojung Lee, Kyung Ran Kim, Jeonghun Ku, Jung-Hyun Lee, Kee Namkoong, Young-Chul Jung Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Whole cortical and default mode network mean functional connectivity as potential biomarkers for mild Alzheimer's disease
Abstract: The search for an Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker is one of the most relevant contemporary research topics due to the high prevalence and social costs of the disease. Functional connectivity (FC) of the default mode network (DMN) is a plausible candidate for such a biomarker. We evaluated 22 patients with mild AD and 26 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a 3.0T scanner. To identify the DMN, seed-based FC of the posterior cingulate was calculated. We also measured the sensitivity/specificity of the method, and verified a corre...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 25, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar, Brunno Machado de Campos, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Benito Pereira Damasceno, Fernando Cendes Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Characterizing the normative profile of 18F-FDG PET brain imaging: Sex difference, aging effect, and cognitive reserve
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate findings of positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET) in normal subjects to clarify the effects of sex differences, aging, and cognitive reserve on cerebral glucose metabolism. Participants comprised 123 normal adults who underwent 18F-FDG PET and a neuropsychological battery. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) to investigate sex differences, and aging effects. The effects of cognitive reserve on 18F-FDG uptake were investigated using years of education as a proxy. Finally, we studied the effect of cognitive reserve on the recruitmen...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hiroshi Yoshizawa, Yunglin Gazes, Yaakov Stern, Yoko Miyata, Shinichiro Uchiyama Tags: Positron emission tomography Source Type: research
Cluster B personality symptoms in persons at genetic risk for schizophrenia are associated with social competence and activation of the right temporo-parietal junction during emotion processing
Abstract: Personality disorders are common in nonpsychotic siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and some personality traits in this group may be associated with an increased risk for full-blown psychosis. We sought to establish if faulty right-hemisphere activation induced by social cognitive tasks, as previously described in patients with schizophrenia, is associated with specific personality symptoms in their unaffected siblings. We observed that cluster B personality symptoms in this group were inversely related to activation in the right temporo parietal junction (rTPJ, a structure critical in social cognitive proc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Micaela Giuliana Goldschmidt, Mirta Fabiana Villarreal, Delfina de Achával, Lucas Javier Drucaroff, Elsa Yolanda Costanzo, Mariana Nair Castro, Jaime Pahissa, Joan Camprodon, Charles Nemeroff, Salvador Martín Guinjoan Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Cognitive processes associated with compulsive buying behaviours and related EEG coherence
This study specifically investigated the electrophysiology of CB associated with executive processing and cue-reactivity in order to reveal differences in neural connectivity (EEG Coherence) and distinguish it from characteristics of addiction or mood disorder. Participants (N=24, M=25.38yrs, S.D.=7.02yrs) completed the Sensitivity to Punishment Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire and a visual memory task associated with shopping items. Sensitivities to reward and punishment were examined with EEG coherence measures for preferred and non-preferred items and compared to CB psychometrics. Widespread EEG coherence differences...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lee Matthew Lawrence, Joseph Ciorciari, Michael Kyrios Tags: Electroencephalography and evoked potentials Source Type: research
Multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in those at elevated genetic risk of developing schizophrenia
Abstract: Computational brain-imaging studies of individuals at familial high risk for psychosis have provided interesting results, but interpreting these findings can be a challenge due to a number of factors. We searched the literature for studies reporting whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings in people at familial high risk for schizophrenia compared with a control group. A voxel-wise meta-analysis with the effect-size version of Signed Differential Mapping (ES-SDM) identified regional abnormalities of functional brain response. Similarly, an ES-SDM meta-anal...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Deborah Cooper, Victoria Barker, Joaquim Radua, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Stephen M. Lawrie Tags: Multimodal imaging Source Type: research
MRI diffusion tractography study in individuals with schizotypal features: A pilot study
Abstract: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have identified changes in white matter tracts in schizophrenia patients and those at high risk of transition. Schizotypal samples represent a group on the schizophrenia continuum that share some aetiological risk factors but without the confounds of illness. The aim of the current study was to compare tract microstructural coherence as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) between 12 psychometrically defined schizotypes and controls. We investigated bilaterally the uncinate and arcuate fasciculi (UF and AF) via a probabilistic tractography algorithm (PICo), with FA values ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Richard P. Smallman, Emma Barkus, Hojjatollah Azadbakht, Karl V. Embleton, Hamied A. Haroon, Shôn W. Lewis, David M. Morris, Geoffrey J. Parker, Teresa M. Rushe Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
Abnormal cingulum bundle development in autism: A probabilistic tractography study
In this study we used probabilistic tractography to identify the cingulum bundle in 21 adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. We investigated group differences in the relationships between age and fractional anisotropy, a putative measure of white matter integrity, within the cingulum bundle. Moreover, in a preliminary investigation, we examined the relationship between cingulum fractional anisotropy and executive functioning using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The ASD participants demonstrated significantly lower frac...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 14, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Toshikazu Ikuta, Keith M. Shafritz, Joel Bregman, Bart D. Peters, Patricia Gruner, Anil K. Malhotra, Philip R. Szeszko Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
Basal ganglia volume in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia is associated with treatment response to antipsychotic medication
Abstract: We investigated the relationship between basal ganglia volume and treatment response to the atypical antipsychotic medication risperidone in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia. Basal ganglia volumes included the bilateral caudate, putamen, and pallidum and were measured using the Freesurfer automated segmentation pipeline in 23 subjects. Also, baseline symptom severity, duration of illness, age, gender, time off medication, and exposure to previous antipsychotic were measured. Treatment response was significantly correlated with all three regions of the bilateral basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, and pallidum...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 8, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nathan L. Hutcheson, David G. Clark, Mark S. Bolding, David M. White, Adrienne C. Lahti Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Neural correlates of delusion in bipolar depression
Abstract: Approximately one-half of all patients affected by bipolar disorder present psychotic features at least in one occasion. This factor worsens the personal and social burden of the disease. Several studies find an altered brain activity in mesolimbic and prefrontal regions in relation to aberrant attribution of salience to stimuli in delusional patients. The aim of the present study is to investigate gray matter (GM) structural correlates of the past history of delusions in a sample of bipolar patients. The sample includes 34 delusional and 39 non-delusional bipolar patients. Brain-imaging volumetric sequences were...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 6, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniele Radaelli, Sara Poletti, Irene Gorni, Clara Locatelli, Enrico Smeraldi, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Resting state fMRI entropy probes complexity of brain activity in adults with ADHD
Abstract: In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), quantitative neuroimaging techniques have revealed abnormalities in various brain regions, including the frontal cortex, striatum, cerebellum, and occipital cortex. Nonlinear signal processing techniques such as sample entropy have been used to probe the regularity of brain magnetoencephalography signals in patients with ADHD. In the present study, we extend this technique to analyse the complex output patterns of the 4 dimensional resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in adult patients with ADHD. After adjusting for the effec...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 4, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Moses O. Sokunbi, Wilson Fung, Vijay Sawlani, Sabine Choppin, David E.J. Linden, Johannes Thome Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Comparing neural correlates of REM sleep in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: A neuroimaging study
Abstract: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances predict poor clinical outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In MDD, REM sleep is characterized by activation of limbic and paralimbic brain regions compared to wakefulness. The neural correlates of PTSD during REM sleep remain scarcely explored, and comparisons of PTSD and MDD have not been conducted. The present study sought to compare brain activity patterns during wakefulness and REM sleep in 13 adults with PTSD and 12 adults with MDD using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET). PTSD was asso...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sommer Ebdlahad, Eric A. Nofzinger, Jeffrey A. James, Daniel J. Buysse, Julie C. Price, Anne Germain Tags: Positron emission tomography Source Type: research
fMRI response to negative words and SSRI treatment outcome in major depressive disorder: A preliminary study
This study provides preliminary evidence that SSRIs may be most beneficial in patients who are less able to engage cognitive control networks while processing negative stimuli. Differences between these findings and previous fMRI studies of SSRI treatment outcome may relate to differences in task design. Regional BOLD responses to negative words predictive of SSRI outcome in this study were both overlapping and distinct from those predictive of outcome with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in previous studies using the same task. Future studies may examine prediction of differential outcome across treatments in the conte...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jeffrey Morris Miller, Noam Schneck, Greg J. Siegle, Yakuan Chen, R. Todd Ogden, Toshiaki Kikuchi, Maria A. Oquendo, J. John Mann, Ramin V. Parsey Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Modulation of fronto-limbic activity by the psychoeducation in euthymic bipolar patients. A functional MRI study
Abstract: Bipolar disorders (BD) are mainly characterized by emotional and cognitive processing impairment. The cerebral substrate explaining BD impairment and the action mechanisms of therapies are not completely understood, especially for psychosocial interventions. This fMRI study aims at assessing cerebral correlates of euthymic bipolar patients (EBP) before and after psychoeducation therapy. Sixteen EBP and 16 matched healthy subjects (HS) performed a word-face emotional Stroop task in two separate fMRI sessions at 3-month interval. Between fMRI sessions, EBP underwent psychoeducation. Before psychoeducation, the comp...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 24, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pauline Favre, Monica Baciu, Cédric Pichat, Marie-Atéa De Pourtalès, Benjamin Fredembach, Sabrina Garçon, Thierry Bougerol, Mircea Polosan Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Altered relationships between age and functional brain activation in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis
Abstract: Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, but whether the adolescent period, proximal to onset, is associated with aberrant development in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is incompletely understood. While abnormal gray and white matter development has been observed, alterations in functional neuroimaging (fMRI) parameters during adolescence as related to conversion to psychosis have not yet been investigated. Twenty CHR individuals and 19 typically developing controls (TDC), (ages 14–21), were recruited from the Center for Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States (CAP...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katherine H. Karlsgodt, Theo G.M. van Erp, Carrie E. Bearden, Tyrone D. Cannon Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Object recognition deficit in early- and adult-onset schizophrenia regardless of age at disease onset
Abstract: Perceptual closure is the ability of the brain to recognize a complete object based on fragmentary information and has been known to be impaired in schizophrenia. Here, the neural integrity of perceptual closure in schizophrenia with different disease onsets was evaluated by examining the generation of event-related potential (ERP) components (P100, N180, and Ncl).ERPs were recorded from 40 patients (19 early-onset schizophrenia, “EOS” and 21 adult-onset schizophrenia, “AOS”) and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. Brain electric source analysis (BESA) was applied to localize the cerebral generators underl...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hedieh Azadmehr, André Rupp, Martin Andermann, Dinka Pavicic, Kerstin Herwig, Matthias Weisbrod, Franz Resch, Rieke Oelkers-Ax Tags: Evoked potentials Source Type: research
Hemispheric asymmetry of primary auditory cortex and Heschl's gyrus in schizophrenia and nonpsychiatric brains
Abstract: Heschl's gyrus (HG) is reported to have a normal left>right hemispheric volume asymmetry, and reduced asymmetry in schizophrenia. Primary auditory cortex (A1) occupies the caudal–medial surface of HG, but it is unclear if A1 has normal asymmetry, or whether its asymmetry is altered in schizophrenia. To address these issues, we compared bilateral gray matter volumes of HG and A1, and neuron density and number in A1, in autopsy brains from male subjects with or without schizophrenia. Comparison of diagnostic groups did not reveal altered gray matter volumes, neuron density, neuron number or hemispheric asymmetrie...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: John F. Smiley, Troy A. Hackett, Todd M. Preuss, Cynthia Bleiwas, Khadija Figarsky, J. John Mann, Gorazd Rosoklija, Daniel C. Javitt, Andrew J. Dwork Tags: Neuropathology Source Type: research
A positive relationship between harm avoidance and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability
This study adds to a growing body of knowledge concerning the biological basis of personality and may prove useful in understanding the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders (such as anxiety disorders) that have similar characteristics to HA. Study findings may indicate that heightened cholinergic neurotransmission is associated with increased anxiety-like traits. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Steven Storage, Mark A. Mandelkern, Jonathan Phuong, Maggie Kozman, Meaghan K. Neary, Arthur L. Brody Tags: Positron emission tomography Source Type: research
White matter metabolism differentiates schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a preliminary PET study
Abstract: Fluorodeoxyglucose-F18 positron emission tomography studies (FDG-PET) have shown similar corticolimbic metabolic dysregulation in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, with hypoactive prefrontal cortex coupled with hyperactive anterior limbic areas. However, it is not clear whether white matter metabolism connecting these regions is differently affected in the two disorders. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia (mean age±S.D.=30.23±9.7 year-old; 19 males; mean weight±S.D.=71±3kg) and 26 patients with bipolar disorder (mean age±S.D.=48.73±13 year-old; 18 males; mean weight±S.D.=75±15kg) underwent an FDG-PE...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alfredo Carlo Altamura, Alessandra Bertoldo, Giorgio Marotta, Riccardo Augusto Paoli, Elisabetta Caletti, Filippo Dragogna, Massimiliano Buoli, Valentina Baglivo, Massimo Carlo Mauri, Paolo Brambilla Tags: Positron emission tomography Source Type: research
Longitudinal cerebral diffusion changes reflect progressive decline of language and cognition
Abstract: Language deficits are regularly found in cortical neurodegenerative diseases. The progression of language deficits shows a considerable inter-individual variability even within one diagnostic group. We aimed at detecting patterns of altered diffusion as well as atrophy of cerebral gray and white matter which underlie ongoing language-related deterioration in patients with cortical neurodegenerative diseases.Diffusion tensor imaging and T1-weighted MRI data of 26 patients with clinically diagnosed neurodegenerative disorders were acquired at baseline and 14 months later in this prospective study. Language function...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lars Frings, Katharina Dressel, Stefanie Abel, Irina Mader, Volkmar Glauche, Cornelius Weiller, Michael Hüll Tags: Multimodal imaging Source Type: research
Characterizing white matter health and organization in atherosclerotic vascular disease: A diffusion tensor imaging study
This study examined differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) between AVD and healthy comparison (HC) participants, and described the regional patterns of FA in each group. AVD participants were hypothesized to have lower FA than HC participants, indicating abnormalities in white matter health or organization. 1.5T diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 35 AVD and 22 HC participants. Mean FA measures were calculated for the white matter of the whole brain, as well for individual lobes. Globally and in every brain region measured except the temporal lobes, there were significant effects of group where AVD participants ha...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kelly Rowe Bijanki, Stephan Arndt, Vincent A. Magnotta, Peg Nopoulos, Sergio Paradiso, Joy T. Matsui, Hans J. Johnson, David J. Moser Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
White matter characterization of adolescent binge drinking with and without co-occurring marijuana use: A 3-year investigation
Abstract: The aims of this study were to investigate the consequences of prolonged patterns of alcohol and marijuana use on white matter integrity and neurocognitive functioning in late adolescence, and examine neurodevelopmental trajectories over three years of regular follow-up visits. Three groups of demographically similar teens received assessments every 1.5 years (controls with consistently minimal substance use, n=16; teens who gradually increase their heavy episodic drinking n=17, and continuous binge drinkers with heavy marijuana use, n=21), including comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations, diffusion tensor ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joanna Jacobus, Lindsay M. Squeglia, Sunita Bava, Susan F. Tapert Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
An altered neural response to reward may contribute to alcohol problems among late adolescents with an evening chronotype
Abstract: Evening chronotypes not only differ from morning-types in their sleep and circadian timing, but they are prone to problematic outcomes involving reward function, including affective disturbance, sensation seeking, and substance involvement. We explored the neural mechanisms underlying these chronotype differences by comparing the neural response to reward in morning- and evening-types. Using a monetary reward fMRI paradigm, we compared the neural response to reward in 13 morning-types and 21 evening-types (all 20 y/o males). Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and vent...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brant P. Hasler, Stephanie L. Sitnick, Daniel S. Shaw, Erika E. Forbes Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research