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Relationship between the catechol--methyl transferase Val108/158Met genotype and brain volume in treatment-naive major depressive disorder: Voxel-based morphometry analysis
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme engaged in the degradation of dopamine and noradrenaline by catalyzing the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine. An association was found between the Valine (Val) 108/158Methionine (Met) COMT polymorphism (rs4680) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The authors prospectively investigated the relationship between the Val108/158Met COMT genotype and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) findings for patients with first-episode and treatment-naïve MDD and healthy subjects (HS). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keita Watanabe, Shingo Kakeda, Reiji Yoshimura, Osamu Abe, Satoru Ide, Kenji Hayashi, Asuka Katsuki, Wakako Umene-Nakano, Rieko Watanabe, Jun Nakamura, Yukunori Korogi Source Type: research

Familial risk and ADHD-specific neural activity revealed by case-control, discordant twin pair design
Individuals with ADHD, as well as their family members who do not meet clinical criteria, have shown deficits in executive function. However, it remains unclear whether underlying neural alterations are familial or ADHD-specific. To investigate this issue, neural activation underlying executive function was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of a Stroop task in three groups of individuals: 20 young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, their 20 dizygotic co-twins without ADHD in childhood, and 20 unrelated controls selected from dizygotic twin pairs in which neither twin had...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Detre A. Godinez, Erik G. Willcutt, Gregory C. Burgess, Brendan E. Depue, Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, Marie T. Banich Source Type: research

Psychopathic traits in adolescents are associated with Higher structural connectivity
Altered structural connectivity has been reported in antisocial juveniles, but findings have been inconsistent. Given the phenotypical heterogeneity among individuals showing antisocial behavior, specification of the association between structural connectivity and the dimensions of psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible traits) may aid in more reliably elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying antisocial behavior during adolescence. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Louise E. Pape, Moran D. Cohn, Matthan W.A. Caan, Guido van Wingen, Wim van den Brink, Dick J. Veltman, Arne Popma Source Type: research

Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa
The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [11C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [11C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Allegra Broft, Mark Slifstein, Joseph Osborne, Paresh Kothari, Simon Morim, Rebecca Shingleton, Lindsay Kenney, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Evelyn Attia, Diana Martinez, B. Timothy Walsh Source Type: research

Comparison of automated brain segmentation using a brain phantom and patients with early Alzheimer's dementia or mild cognitive impairment
This study evaluates the reliability of frequently used segmentation programs (SPM, FreeSurfer, FSL) using a realistic digital brain phantom and MRI brain acquisitions from patients with manifest Alzheimer´s disease (AD, n=34), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=60), and healthy subjects (n=32) matched for age and sex. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Iven Fellhauer, Frank G. Zöllner, Johannes Schröder, Christina Degen, Li Kong, Marco Essig, Philipp A. Thomann, Lothar R. Schad Source Type: research

Meta-cognition is associated with cortical thickness in youth at clinical High risk of psychosis
Meta-cognition is compromised in people with schizophrenia and people at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. In the current work in a CHR sample, we hypothesized that meta-cognitive functions would correlate with cortical thickness in five brain regions implicated in the pathogenesis of psychosis: inferior and middle frontal cortices, anterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal cortex and insula. Secondly, we hypothesized that similar neural systems would underlie different meta-cognitive functions. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lisa Buchy, Jacque Stowkowy, Frank P. MacMaster, Karissa Nyman, Jean Addington Source Type: research

Evidence for smaller right amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood trauma
Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood trauma are relatively understudied, albeit the potential importance to the disorder. Whereas some studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes, no evidence was found for abnormal amygdala volumes. Here we investigated hippocampus and amygdala volumes and shapes in an adult sample of PTSD patients related to childhood trauma. T1-weighted MR images were acquired from 12 female PTSD patients with trauma related to physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse before age 18, and from 12 matched controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ilya M. Veer, Nicole Y.L. Oei, Mark A. van Buchem, Philip Spinhoven, Bernet M. Elzinga, Serge A.R.B. Rombouts Source Type: research

Effect of a socıal defeat experıence on prefrontal actıvıty ın schızophrenıa
The social defeat (SD) hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that repeated experiences of SD may lead to sensitization of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and to precipitation of psychosis. Based on previous definitions adapted to a human experimental paradigm, we prepared a computer simulation of SD to mimic this subjective experience. We measured prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls during exposure to a single SD experience with functional near infrared spectroscopy. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bora Baskak, Zeynel Baran, Halise Devrimci-Özgüven, Kerim Münir, Özgür Öner, Tuğba Özel-Kızıl Source Type: research

Neural Correlates associated with symptom provocation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder after a single session of sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
This study examined neural correlates of a provocation task in youth with OCD, before and after sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We hypothesized that rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would inhibit activity in cortico-striato-thalamic (CST) circuits associated with OCD to a greater extent than sham rTMS. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ernest Pedapati, Mark DiFrancesco, Steve Wu, Cathy Giovanetti, Tiffany Nash, Antonio Mantovani, Robert Ammerman, Elana Harris Source Type: research

Facilitation of emotion regulation with a single dose of escitalopram: A randomized fMRI study
Acute antidepressant administration modulates neural activity consistent with decreases in negative emotion processing bias. However, studies are yet to examine whether treatment facilitates neural activity during reappraisal, an adaptive emotion regulation strategy associated with behavioral treatment response. Here we examine the impact of acute administration on reappraisal of negative stimuli using pharmaco-fMRI. Thirty-six healthy female participants completed two sessions of fMRI scanning, separated by a one-week washout period. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Kim L. Felmingham, Richard A. Bryant, Pradeep J. Nathan, Gin S. Malhi, Andrew H. Kemp Source Type: research

Female but not male young heavy drinkers display Altered performance monitoring
Difficulties in monitoring ongoing behaviour may be linked to real-life problematic drinking behaviours. Prior research suggests female heavy drinkers in particular display greater cognitive control deficits. Here, we examine trial-to-trial behavioural adaptations in a conflict monitoring task, relative to drinking behaviour and sex. Heavy Drinkers (n=31, 16 male) and Controls (n=35, 18 male) completed an Eriksen flanker task while brain electrical activity was recorded. For reaction time, error rates, and N2 and P3 amplitude of the event-related potential, trial-to-trial conflict adaptation was evidenced by a differential...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janette L Smith, Richard P Mattick, Christopher Sufani Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled Version of the Stop-Signal Task
The stop-signal task has been used extensively to investigate the neural correlates of inhibition deficits in children with ADHD. However, previous findings of atypical brain activation during the stop-signal task in children with ADHD may be confounded with attentional processes, precluding strong conclusions on the nature of these deficits. In addition, there are recent concerns on the construct validity of the SSRT metric. The aim of this study was to control for confounding factors and improve the specificity of the stop-signal task to investigate inhibition mechanisms in children with ADHD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tieme W.P. Janssen, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Rosa van Mourik, Gordon D. Logan, Jaap Oosterlaan Source Type: research

Assessing Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Using Group-wise Sparse Representation of FMRI Data
Task-based fMRI activation mapping has been widely used in clinical neuroscience in order to assess different functional activity patterns in conditions such as prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) affected brains and healthy controls. In this paper, we propose a novel, alternative approach of group-wise sparse representation of the fMRI data of multiple groups of subjects (healthy control, exposed non-dysmorphic PAE and exposed dysmorphic PAE) and assess the systematic functional activity differences among these three populations. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jinglei Lv, Xi Jiang, Xiang Li, Dajiang Zhu, Shijie Zha, Tuo Zhang, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Zhihao Li, Claire Coles, Xiaoping Hu, Tianming Liu Source Type: research

Cortical thickness differences in the prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with adhd in relation to dopamine transporter (dat1) genotype
This study aimed to investigate the influence of 10R DAT1 on thickness of the prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with ADHD. To this end, brain magnetic resonance images were acquired from 33 patients with homozygosity for the 10R allele and 30 patients with a single copy or no copy of the allele. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alberto Fernández-Jaén, Sara López-Martín, Jacobo Albert, Daniel Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, ana Laura Fernández-Perrone, Mar Jiménez de la Peña, Beatriz Calleja-Pérez, Manuel Recio Rodríguez, Sonia López Arribas, Nuria Muñoz Jareño Source Type: research

Aberrant Functional Connectivity of Resting State Networks associated with trait anxiety
Trait anxiety, a personality dimension, has been characterized by functional consequences such as increased distractibility, attentional bias in favor of threat-related information and hyper-responsive amygdala. However, literature on the association between resting state brain functional connectivity, as studied using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and reported anxiety levels in the sub-clinical population is limited. In the present study, we employed rs-fMRI to investigate the possible alterations in the functional integrity of Resting State Networks (RSNs) associated with trait anxiety of...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shilpi Modi, Mukesh Kumar, Pawan Kumar, Subash Khushu Source Type: research

Self-reported impulsivity is negatively correlated with amygdalar volumes in cocaine dependence
This study aimed to examine relationships between impulsivity and volumes of the amygdala and hippocampus in cocaine-dependent and healthy comparison individuals. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. FreeSurfer was used to assess amygdalar and hippocampal volumes from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Songli Mei, Jiansong Xu, Kathleen M. Carroll, Marc N. Potenza Source Type: research

Sex differences in abnormal white matter development associated with conduct disorder in children
In this study, white matter maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was examined in 110 children aged 10.0±0.8 years selected to vary widely in their numbers of CD symptoms. The results replicated age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) found in previous studies. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: jean Decety, Keith J. Yoder, Benjamin B. Lahey Source Type: research

Successful antidepressant chronotherapeutics enhance fronto-limbic neural responses and connectivity in Bipolar Depression
This study aims at investigating the effect of TSD+LT on effective connectivity and neural response in cortico-limbic circuitries during implicit processing of fearful and angry faces in patients with BD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benedetta Vai, Sara Poletti, Daniele Radaelli, Sara Dallaspezia, Chiara Bulgarelli, Clara Locatelli, Irene Bollettini, Andrea Falini, Cristina Colombo, Enrico Smeraldi, Francesco Benedetti Source Type: research

Morphological abnormalities in prefrontal surface area and thalamic volume in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Although previous morphological studies have demonstrated abnormalities in prefrontal cortical thickness in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), studies investigating cortical surface area are lacking. As the development of cortical surface is closely linked to the establishment of thalam-ocortical connections, any abnormalities in the structure of the thalamus are likely to relate to altered cortical surface area. Using a clinically well-defined sample of children with ADHD (n=25, 1 female) and typically developing controls (n=24, 1 female), we studied surface area across the cortex to determine ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martin J. Batty, Lena Palaniyappan, Gaia Scerif, Madeleine J. Groom, Elizabeth B. Liddle, Peter F. Liddle, Chris Hollis Source Type: research

Machine learning algorithm accurately detects fMRI signature of vulnerability to major depression
Standard functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses cannot assess the potential of a neuroimaging signature as a biomarker to predict individual vulnerability to major depression (MD). Here, we use machine learning for the first time to address this question. Using a recently identified neural signature of guilt-selective functional disconnection, the classification algorithm was able to distinguish remitted MD from control participants with 78.3% accuracy. This demonstrates the high potential of our fMRI signature as a biomarker of MD vulnerability. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: João R. Sato, Jorge Moll, Sophie Green, John F.W. Deakin, Carlos E. Thomaz, Roland Zahn Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Machine learning algorithm detects fMRI signature of to major depression
Standard functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses cannot assess the potential of a neuroimaging signature as a biomarker to predict individual vulnerability to major depression (MD). Here, we use machine learning for the first time to address this question. Using a recently identified neural signature of guilt-selective functional disconnection, the classification algorithm was able to distinguish remitted MD from control participants with 78.3% accuracy. This demonstrates the high potential of our fMRI signature as a biomarker of MD vulnerability. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: João R. Sato, Jorge Moll, Sophie Green, John F.W. Deakin, Carlos E. Thomaz, Roland Zahn Source Type: research

Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls
Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in VSWM-related brain abnormalities in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 109 individuals with ADHD (60% male) and 103 controls (53% male), aged 8–25 years, during a spatial span working memory task. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hanneke van Ewijk, Wouter D. Weeda, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Marjolein Luman, Catharina A. Hartman, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Stephen V. Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K. Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan Source Type: research

Methadone maintenance dose modulates anterior cingulate glutamate levels in heroin-dependent individuals: A preliminary H MRS study
Mu-opioid receptor agonists alter brain glutamate (GLU) levels in laboratory animals. This clinical study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to examine regional brain GLU levels during experimental manipulation of methadone (MTD) maintenance dose under double-blind, within-subject conditions in seven heroin-dependent volunteers. Subjects were scanned first at a high MTD dose (100mg/day), underwent a 3-week outpatient MTD dose taper, and then were scanned again at a low MTD dose (10–25mg/day; modified for participant comfort). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mark K. Greenwald, Eric A. Woodcock, Dalal Khatib, Jeffrey A. Stanley Source Type: research

Neural correlatesy of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls
Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in VSWM-related brain abnormalities in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 109 individuals with ADHD (60% male) and 103 controls (53% male), aged 8-25 years, during a spatial span working memory task. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hanneke van Ewijk, Wouter D. Weeda, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Marjolein Luman, Catharina A. Hartman, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Stephen V. Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K. Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan Source Type: research

Decreased somatosensory activity to non-threatening touch in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disorder prevalent in combat veterans. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with PTSD exhibit abnormal responses to non-threatening visual and auditory stimuli, but have not examined somatosensory processing. Thirty male combat veterans, 16 with PTSD and 14 without, completed a tactile stimulation task during a 306-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording. Significant oscillatory neural responses were imaged using a beamforming approach. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amy S. Badura-Brack, Katherine M. Becker, Timothy J. McDermott, Tara J. Ryan, Madelyn M. Becker, Allison R. Hearley, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W. Wilson Source Type: research

White matter structure in young adults with familial risk for psychosis – the Oulu brain and mind study
According to the disconnectivity model, disruptions in neural connectivity play an essential role in the pathology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine whether these abnormalities are present in young adults with familial risk (FR) for psychosis in the general population. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics to compare whole brain fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and axial and radial diffusion in 47 (17 males) FR subjects to 51 controls (17 males). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jenni Koivukangas, Lassi Björnholm, Osmo Tervonen, Jouko Miettunen, Tanja Nordström, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Erika Jääskeläinen, Sari Mukkala, Irma Moilanen, Jennifer H. Barnett, Peter B. Jones, Juha Nikkinen, Juha Veijola Source Type: research

Aberrant functioning of the putamen links delusions, antipsychotic drug dose, and compromised connectivity in first episode psychosis—preliminary fMRI findings
The dopamine theory proposes the relationship of delusions to aberrant signaling in striatal circuitries that can be normalized with dopamine D2 receptor-blocking drugs. Localization of such circuitries, as well as their upstream and downstream signaling, remains poorly known. We collected functional magnetic resonance images from first-episode psychosis patients and controls during an audiovisual movie. Final analyses included 20 patients and 20 controls; another sample of 10 patients and 10 controls was used to calculate a comparison signal-time course. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tuukka T. Raij, Teemu Mäntylä, Tuula Kieseppä, Jaana Suvisaari Source Type: research

Temporal profile of brain response to alprazolam in patients with generalized anxiety disorder
This study investigated the temporal pattern of brain response to emotional stimuli during 28 days of alprazolam treatment among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) randomized 2:1 to drug or placebo in a double-blind design. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained during an emotion face matching task (EFMT) and an affective stimulus expectancy task (STIMEX) were performed at baseline, one hour after initial drug administration and 28 days later. Alprazolam significantly reduced scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire after one week and 28 days of treatment. (Sou...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gregory G. Brown, Susanne Ostrowitzki, Murray B. Stein, Markus von Kienlin, Thomas T. Liu, Alan Simmons, Christina Wierenga, Orah Y. Stein, Andreas Bruns, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Martin Paulus Source Type: research

Investigation of white matter abnormalities in first episode psychosis patients with persistent negative symptoms
This study aimed to explore microstructure in the neurocircuitry proposed to be involved in PNS, by using a region-of-interest approach. Secondly, the relationship between individual negative symptoms and white matter were explored. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cindy L. Hovington, Michael Bodnar, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Ridha Joober, Ashok K. Malla, Martin Lepage Source Type: research

Changes in brain regions associated with food-intake regulation, body mass and metabolic profiles during acute antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia
Imaging studies have consistently demonstrated global and regional structural brain abnormalities in people with schizophrenia (Haijma et al., 2013). While some abnormalities are present at, and prior to the onset of first psychotic symptoms, longitudinal studies have established that progressive changes also occur (Olabi et al., 2011). These changes may represent illness progression (Lieberman et al., 2001), although some evidence suggests that they are related to antipsychotic treatment per se (Ho et al., 2011; Andreasen et al., 2013; Fusar-Poli et al., 2013). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robin Emsley, Laila Asmal, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Stefan du Plessis, Jonathan Carr, Martin Kidd, Anil K Malhotra, Matthijs Vink, Rene S. Kahn Source Type: research

Examining the neural correlates of emergent equivalence relations in fragile X syndrome
The neural mechanisms underlying the formation of stimulus equivalence relations are poorly understood, particularly in individuals with specific learning impairments. As part of a larger study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), and age- and IQ-matched controls with intellectual disability, were required to form new equivalence relations in the scanner. Following intensive training on matching fractions to pie charts (A=B relations) and pie charts to decimals (B=C relations) outside the scanner over a 2-day period, participants were tested on the trained ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Megan Klabunde, Manish Saggar, Kristin M. Hustyi, Ryan G. Kelley, Allan L. Reiss, Scott S. Hall Source Type: research

Neural correlates of malingering in mild traumatic brain injury: A positron emission tomography study
The detection of malingering in cognitive performance is a challenge in clinical and legal environments. Neuroimaging may provide an objective method to determine the source of failure on tests of symptom validity. Participants comprised 45 combat veterans, 31 with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), not seeking medical or legal compensation, who completed the Tombaugh Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Based on TOMM performance (i.e., less than 45 of 50 total correct, suggesting suboptimal effort or malingering), subjects were separated into poor TOMM score (PT; n=10) and good...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea D. Spadoni, Elena Kosheleva, Monte S. Buchsbaum, Alan N. Simmons Source Type: research

Serum vitamin D and hippocampal gray matter volume in schizophrenia
In this study, we examined for potential association between serum vitamin D level and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve or antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients (n=35). Serum vitamin D level was estimated using 25-OH vitamin D immunoassay. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V. Kalmady, Amaresha C. Anekal, Dania Jose, Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Boban Joseph, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Vasanthapuram Ravi, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Bangalore N. Gangadhar Source Type: research

Altered threat and safety neural processing linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia: a two-task fMRI study
Persecutory delusions are a clinically important symptom in schizophrenia associated with social avoidance and increased violence. Few studies have investigated the neurobiology of persecutory delusions, which is a prerequisite for developing novel treatments. The aim of this two-paradigm functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study is to characterize social “real world” and linguistic threat brain activations linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia (n=26) using instructed-fear/safety and emotional word paradigms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David L. Perez, Hong Pan, Daniel S. Weisholtz, James C. Root, Oliver Tuescher, David B. Fischer, Tracy Butler, David R. Vago, Nancy Isenberg, Jane Epstein, Yulia Landa, Thomas E. Smith, Adam J. Savitz, David A. Silbersweig, Emily Stern Source Type: research

Altered processing of visual emotional stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study
Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display abnormal emotional processing and bias towards emotional content. Most neurophysiological studies in PTSD found higher amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to trauma-related visual content. Here we aimed to characterize brain electrical activity in PTSD subjects in response to non-trauma-related emotion-laden pictures (positive, neutral and negative). A combined behavioral-ERP study was conducted in 14 severe PTSD patients and 14 controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rotem Saar Ashkenazy, Hadar Shalev, Magdalena K. Kanthak, Jonathan Guez, Alon Friedman, Jonathan E. Cohen Source Type: research

Functional network centrality in obesity: A resting-state and task fMRI study
Obesity is associated with structural and functional alterations in brain areas that are often functionally distinct and anatomically distant. This suggests that obesity is associated with differences in functional connectivity of regions distributed across the brain. However, studies addressing whole brain functional connectivity in obesity remain scarce. Here, we compared voxel-wise degree centrality and eigenvector centrality between participants with obesity (n=20) and normal-weight controls (n=21). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Isabel García-García, María Ángeles Jurado, Maite Garolera, Idoia Marqués-Iturria, Annette Horstmann, Bàrbara Segura, Roser Pueyo, María José Sender-Palacios, Maria Vernet-Vernet, Arno Villringer, Carme Junqué, Daniel S. Margulies, Jane Neumann Source Type: research

Glutamatergic metabolite correlations with neuropsychological tests in first episode schizophrenia
Increased glutamatergic metabolites have been found in first episode schizophrenia. Although abnormal neuropsychological functioning has been demonstrated to be a core feature of schizophrenia, no studies have examined glutamatergic metabolites and neuropsychological function in drug-naïve patients. The present study addressed whether higher levels of glutamatergic metabolites would be associated with poorer neuropsychological performance and social functioning in first episode patients. Glutamatergic concentration estimates were obtained from the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and thalamus at baseline and 10 months...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kara Dempster, Ross Norman, Jean Théberge, Maria Densmore, Betsy Schaefer, Peter Williamson Source Type: research

Gender moderates the association between dorsal medial prefrontal cortex volume and depressive symptoms in a subclinical sample
Major depressive disorder is associated with lower medial prefrontal cortex volumes. The roles that gender might play in moderating this relationship and what particular medial prefrontal cortex subregion(s) might be implicated is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess dorsal, ventral, and anterior cingulate regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in a normative sample of male and female adults. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to measure these three variables. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joshua M. Carlson, Emily Depetro, Joshua Maxwell, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Greg Hajcak Proudfit Source Type: research

Alterations in hippocampal connectivity across the psychosis dimension
Recent evidence demonstrates that hippocampal hyperactivity helps mediate psychosis. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we examined hippocampal connectivity alterations in individuals with psychosis (PS) versus healthy controls (HC). Because of its putative greater involvement in psychiatric disorders, we hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus network would show greater dysconnectivity in psychosis. We tested rsfMRI connectivity in 88 PS (including 21 with schizophrenia; 40 with schizoaffective disorder; 27 with psychotic bipolar I disorder) and 65 HC. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Niyatee Samudra, Elena I. Ivleva, Nicholas A. Hubbard, Bart Rypma, John A. Sweeney, Brett A. Clementz, Matcheri S Keshavan, Godfrey D. Pearlson, Carol A. Tamminga Source Type: research

Dissociation in borderline personality disorder: Disturbed cognitive and emotional inhibition and its neural correlates
Evidence is heterogeneous regarding whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display disturbed emotional inhibition in the emotional Stroop task. Previous findings suggest that state dissociation may influence cognitive inhibition of task-irrelevant material, particularly with negative content. Our aim was to examine performance in an emotional Stroop task including negative, neutral, and positive words in BPD patients and healthy controls during functional magnetic resonance imaging. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dorina Winter, Annegret Krause-Utz, Stefanie Lis, Chui-De Chiu, Ruth Lanius, Friederike Schriner, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

In vivo effects of ketamine on glutamate-glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Proof of concept
This study examined the concurrent neurochemical effects of ketamine versus saline infusions using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) during the clinical proof-of-concept crossover trial. Levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the excitatory neurochemicals glutamate+glutamine (Glx) were acquired in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a region implicated in OCD pathology. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carolyn I. Rodriguez, Lawrence S. Kegeles, Amanda Levinson, R. Todd Ogden, Xiangling Mao, Matthew S. Milak, Donna Vermes, Shan Xie, Liane Hunter, Pamela Flood, Holly Moore, Dikoma C. Shungu, Helen B. Simpson Source Type: research

Reduced neural differentiation between self-referential cognitive and emotional processes in women with borderline personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with disturbed emotion regulation. Psychotherapeutic interventions using mindfulness elements have shown effectiveness in reducing clinical symptoms, yet little is known about their underlying neurobiology. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 19 female BPD patients and 19 healthy controls were compared during mindful introspection, cognitive self-reflection and a neutral condition. The activation pattern in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in BPD patients was different from that in healthy subject when directing attention onto their ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sigrid Scherpiet, Uwe Herwig, Sarah Opialla, Hanne Scheerer, Viola Habermeyer, Lutz Jäncke, Annette B. Brühl Source Type: research

Relationship between a BDNF gene polymorphism and the brain volume in treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder: A VBM analysis of brain MRI
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) relates to basic neuronal functions, such as cell survival, axonal outgrowth, and dendritic growth. The Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene may affect genetic susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD). We prospectively investigated the relationship between the Val66Met BDNF genotype and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) findings for first episode and drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy subjects (HS). Participants comprised 38 MDD patients and 42 age- and sex-matched HS were divided into groups based on their BDNF genotype. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Satoru Ide, Shingo Kakeda, Keita Watanabe, Reiji Yoshimura, Osamu Abe, Kenji Hayashi, Issei Ueda, Taro Kishi, Asuka Katsuki, Wakako Umene-Nakano, Nakao Iwata, Jun Nakamura, Yukunori Korogi Source Type: research

Combination of dynamic C-PIB PET and structural MRI improves diagnosis of Alzheimers disease
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is an established technique for measuring brain atrophy, and dynamic positron emission tomography with 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB PET) has the potential to provide both perfusion and amyloid deposition information. It remains unclear, however, how to better combine perfusion, amyloid deposition and morphological information extracted from dynamic 11C-PIB PET and sMRI with the goal of improving the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Linwen Liu, Liping Fu, Xi Zhang, Jinming Zhang, Xiaojun Zhang, Baixuan Xu, Jiahe Tian, Yong Fan Source Type: research

Combination of dynamic 11C-PIB PET and structural MRI improves diagnosis of Alzheimers disease1
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is an established technique for measuring brain atrophy, and dynamic positron emission tomography with 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB PET) has the potential to provide both perfusion and amyloid deposition information. It remains unclear, however, how to better combine perfusion, amyloid deposition and morphological information extracted from dynamic 11C-PIB PET and sMRI with the goal of improving the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Linwen Liu, Liping Fu, Xi Zhang, Jinming Zhang, Xiaojun Zhang, Baixuan Xu, Jiahe Tian, Yong Fan Source Type: research

Voume and shape analysis of subcortical brain structures and ventricles in euthymic bipolar I disorder
This study aimed to establish trait-related subcortical volumetric and shape abnormalities in a large, homogeneous sample of prospectively confirmed euthymic bipolar I disorder (BD-I) patients (n=60), compared with healthy volunteers (n=60). Participants were individually matched for age and gender. Volume and shape metrics were derived from manually segmented S-MR images for the hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, and lateral ventricles. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephen J. Quigley, Cathy Scanlon, Liam Kilmartin, Louise Emsell, Camilla Langan, Brian Hallahan, Michael Murray, Conor Waters, Mairead Waldron, Sarah Hehir, Helen Casey, Emma McDermott, Jason Ridge, Joanne Kenney, Stefani O’Donoghue, Rory Nannery, Srin Source Type: research

Neural correlates of anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study
Panic disorder has been associated with dysfunctional neuropsychological dimensions, including anxiety sensitivity. Brain-imaging studies of the neural correlates of emotional processing have identified a network of structures that constitute the neural circuitry for emotions. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and insula, which are part of this network, are also involved in the processing of threat-related stimuli. The aim of the study was to investigate if neural activity in response to emotional stimuli in the cortico-limbic network is associated to anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sara Poletti, Daniele Radaelli, Michele Cucchi, Liana Ricci, Benedetta Vai, Enrico Smeraldi, Francesco Benedetti Source Type: research

A voxel-based morphometry study of gray matter correlates of facial emotion recognition in bipolar disorder
Facial emotion recognition (FER) is one of the many cognitive deficits reported in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate neuroanatomical correlates of FER impairments in BD type I (BD-I). Participants comprised 21 euthymic BD-I patients without Axis I DSM IV-TR comorbidities and 21 healthy controls who were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and the Penn Emotion Recognition Test (ER40). Preprocessing of images used DARTEL (diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra) for optimized voxel-based morphometry in SPM8. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maila de Castro L. Neves, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, Leandro Malloy-Diniz, Rodrigo Nicolato, Fernando Silva Neves, Fábio Luis de Souza-Duran, Geraldo Busatto, Humberto Corrêa Source Type: research

Gender effect on pre-attentive change detection in major depressive disorder patients revealed by auditory MMN
Gender differences in rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are well established, but gender differences in cognitive function have been little studied. Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) was used to investigate gender differences in pre-attentive information processing in first episode MDD. In the deviant-standard reverse oddball paradigm, duration auditory MMN was obtained in 30 patients (15 males) and 30 age-/education-matched controls. Over frontal-central areas, mean amplitude of increment MMN (to a 150-ms deviant tone) was smaller in female than male patients; there was no sex difference in decrement MMN (to a 50-...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhengxue Qiao, Aiying Yang, Xiaohui Qiu, Xiuxian Yang, Congpei Zhang, Xiongzhao Zhu, Jincai He, Lin Wang, Bing Bai, Hailian Sun, Lun Zhao, Yanjie Yang Source Type: research