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The structure of the geriatric depressed brain and response to electroconvulsive therapy
In this study the presence of psychotic symptoms was related to pretreatment smaller GM volume of the left IFG and bilateral temporal cortex. Smaller volume of the IFG pretreatment was related to faster treatment response, and smaller volume of the right lateral temporal cortex pretreatment was related to larger response to ECT. These results are possibly explained by the connectivity between these brain regions and an interconnected network that is particularly activated by the ECT-induced seizures. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 31, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mardien L. Oudega, Eric van Exel, Max L. Stek, Mike P. Wattjes, Wiesje M. van der Flier, Hannie C. Comijs, Annemieke Dols, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Piet Eikelenboom, Odile A. van den Heuvel Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Prefrontal grey and white matter neurometabolite changes after atomoxetine and methylphenidate in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Abstract: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral childhood disorder. Dysfunction of prefrontal neural circuits which are responsible for executive and attentional functions has been previously shown in ADHD. We investigated the neurometablite changes in areas included in dorsolateral prefrontal neural circuits after 2 months of long-acting methylphenidate or atomoxetine medication in children with ADHD who were responders to treatment. Twenty-one ADHD children were examined by single voxel 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) before and after 2 months of medication with OROS ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 28, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Veronika Husarova, Michal Bittsansky, Igor Ondrejka, Dusan Dobrota Tags: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy Source Type: research
Functional connectivity in major depression: Increased phase synchronization between frontal cortical EEG-source estimates
Abstract: Structural and metabolic alterations in prefrontal brain areas, including the subgenual (SGPFC), medial (MPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), have been shown in major depressive disorder (MDD). Still it remains largely unknown how brain connectivity within these regions is altered at the level of neuronal oscillations. Therefore, the goal was to analyze prefrontal electroencephalographic phase synchronization in MDD and its changes after antidepressant treatment. In 60 unmedicated patients and 60 healthy controls (HC), a 15-min resting electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in subjects at baseline a...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sebastian Olbrich, Anja Tränkner, Tobias Chittka, Ulrich Hegerl, Peter Schönknecht Tags: Electroencephalograpy and evoked potentials Source Type: research
Altered local activity and functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in elderly individuals with subthreshold depression
This study aimed to investigate the resting-state regional activity and functional connectivity of the ACC in a community sample of elderly individuals with subthreshold depression (StD). We employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to acquire data from 19 elderly subjects with StD and 18 normal controls. We used a regional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis and a correlation-based functional connectivity (FC) approach to explore changes in local activity and remote connectivity of the ACC in StD. Compared to controls, the StD group demonstrated increased ALFF in the anterior portion ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 24, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rui Li, Zhenling Ma, Jing Yu, Yong He, Juan Li Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Impaired mismatch negativity is associated with current functional status rather than genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate whether mismatch negativity (MMN) is associated with functional status or is a state-independent trait for schizophrenia. We assessed MMN in 26 patients with schizophrenia, 20 healthy subjects with high genetic loading, and 48 healthy controls. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson׳s correlations were used to test the hypothesis that MMN is not state-independent. We found a significant main effect of group, indicating differences in the peak amplitudes of the MMN among the three groups. Post-hoc analyses revealed that schizophrenia patients showed a significan...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Minah Kim, Sung Nyun Kim, Suji Lee, Min Soo Byun, Kyung Soon Shin, Hye Youn Park, Joon Hwan Jang, Jun Soo Kwon Tags: Electroencephalograpy and evoked potentials Source Type: research
The relationship between fasting serum glucose and cerebral glucose metabolism in late-life depression and normal aging
Abstract: Evidence exists for late-life depression (LLD) as both a prodrome of and risk factor for Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). The underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Impaired peripheral glucose metabolism may explain the association between depression and AD given the connection between type 2 diabetes mellitus with both depression and AD. Positron emission tomography (PET) measures of cerebral glucose metabolism are sensitive to detecting changes in neural circuitry in LLD and AD. Fasting serum glucose (FSG) in non-diabetic young (YC; n=20) and elderly controls (EC; n=12) and LLD patients (n=16) w...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christopher M. Marano, Clifford I. Workman, Christopher H. Lyman, Elisse Kramer, Carol R. Hermann, Yilong Ma, Vijay Dhawan, Thomas Chaly, David Eidelberg, Gwenn S. Smith Tags: Positron emission tomography Source Type: research
Cerebral white matter abnormalities and their associations with negative but not positive symptoms of schizophrenia
This study demonstrates that patients with chronic schizophrenia evince widespread cerebral FA abnormalities and that these abnormalities, especially in the left hemisphere, are associated with negative symptoms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Takeshi Asami, Sang Hyuk Lee, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Thomas J. Whitford, Margaret Niznikiewicz, Paul Nestor, Robert W. McCarley, Martha E. Shenton, Marek Kubicki Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
A multi-scanner study of subcortical brain volume abnormalities in schizophrenia
We examined these abnormalities using automated image analysis software and provide effect size estimates for prospective multi-scanner schizophrenia studies. Subcortical and intracranial volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer 5.0.0 from high-resolution structural imaging scans from 186 schizophrenia patients (mean age±S.D.=38.9±11.6, 78% males) and 176 demographically similar controls (mean age±S.D.=37.5±11.2, 72% males). Scans were acquired from seven 3-Tesla scanners. Univariate mixed model regression analyses compared between-group volume differences. Weighted mean effect sizes (and number of subjects needed for 80...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theo G.M. van Erp, Douglas N. Greve, Jerod Rasmussen, Jessica Turner, Vince D. Calhoun, Sarah Young, Bryon Mueller, Gregory G. Brown, Gregory McCarthy, Gary H. Glover, Kelvin O. Lim, Juan R. Bustillo, Aysenil Belger, Sarah McEwen, James Voyvodic, Daniel H Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Lack of association of the rs1344706 ZNF804A variant with cognitive functions and DTI indices of white matter microstructure in two independent healthy populations
Abstract: The rs1344706 single nucleotide polymorphism within intron 2 of the ZNF804A gene is strongly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This variant has also been associated in some studies with a range of cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes, but several studies have reported no effect on the same phenotypes in other samples. Here, we genotyped 670 healthy adult Norwegian subjects and 1753 healthy adult Swedish subjects for rs1344706, and tested for associations with cognitive phenotypes including general intellectual abilities, memory functions and cognitive inhibition. We also tested whether rs134470...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carla Patricia Duarte Fernandes, Lars Tjelta Westlye, Sudheer Giddaluru, Andrea Christoforou, Karolina Kauppi, Rolf Adolfsson, Lars-Göran Nilsson, Lars Nyberg, Astri Johansen Lundervold, Ivar Reinvang, Vidar Martin Steen, Stéphanie Le Hellard, Thomas Es Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity in a genetic rat model of depression
Abstract: Abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity, measured by resting-state functional MRI, has been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). Our study is the first to demonstrate hypo- and hyperconnectivity between the hippocampus and cortical, subcortical regions in a genetic animal model of depression, similar to connectivity anomalies found in MDD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kathleen A. Williams, Neha S. Mehta, Eva E. Redei, Lei Wang, Daniel Procissi Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research
An fMRI-study on semantic priming of panic-related information in depression without comorbid anxiety
Abstract: Depression often involves anxiety symptoms and shows a strong comorbidity with panic disorder. However, the neural basis is unclear. The aim of the current study was to use semantic priming to investigate the neural correlates of panic and anxiety-related information processing in depression. In a lexical decision task, panic/agoraphobia-disorder-related and neutral word-pairs were presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants comprised 19 patients with major depression but without comorbid anxiety and 19 demographically matched controls. On a behavioral level, comparable significant primin...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katharina Sass, Tilo Kircher, Siegfried Gauggel, Ute Habel Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Olfactory sulcus morphology in established bipolar affective disorder
Abstract: This MRI study examined the morphology of the olfactory sulcus, a potential marker of early neurodevelopment in 26 patients with bipolar I disorder and 24 matched controls. Bipolar patients had significantly shallower olfactory sulci bilaterally compared to controls, suggesting that neurodevelopmental abnormalities contribute to the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tsutomu Takahashi, Gin S. Malhi, Yumiko Nakamura, Michio Suzuki, Christos Pantelis Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of prefrontal white matter in psychotropic naïve children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder
Abstract: Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has a typical onset during childhood or adolescence. Although recent in-vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies report gray matter metabolite abnormalities in children and adolescents with OCD, there are no existing 1H-MRS studies that measure white matter (WM) metabolite levels in this population. In the present study, we measured metabolite levels in the left and right prefrontal WM (LPFWM and RPFWM, respectively) of psychotropic-naïve children and adolescents with OCD (LPFWM: N=15, mean age 13.3±2.4 years; right RPFWM: N=14, mean age 13.0±2.3 years)...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alexander Mark Weber, Noam Soreni, Jeffrey A. Stanley, Alessia Greco, Sandra Mendlowitz, Peter Szatmari, Russell Schachar, Katharina Mannasis, Paulo Pires, Richard Swinson, Michael D. Noseworthy Tags: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy Source Type: research
Face processing in depersonalization: An fMRI study of the unfamiliar self
Abstract: Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is characterized by a core sense of unfamiliarity. Nine DPD participants and 10 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing self and unfamiliar faces. Compared with control subjects, the DPD group exhibited significantly greater activation in several brain regions in response to self vs. stranger faces. Implications are discussed. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah Ketay, Holly K. Hamilton, Brian W. Haas, Daphne Simeon Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research
Neural activation during response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Preliminary findings on the effects of medication and symptom severity
Abstract: Studies of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have suggested that they have deficient response inhibition, but findings concerning the neural correlates of inhibition in this patient population are inconsistent. We used the Stop-Signal task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare neural activation associated with response inhibition between adults with ADHD (N=35) and healthy comparison subjects (N=62), and in follow-up tests to examine the effect of current medication use and symptom severity. There were no differences in Stop-Signal task performance or neural activat...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eliza Congdon, Lori L. Altshuler, Jeanette A. Mumford, Katherine H. Karlsgodt, Fred W. Sabb, Joseph Ventura, James J. McGough, Edythe D. London, Tyrone D. Cannon, Robert M. Bilder, Russell A. Poldrack Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control of men with lifelong antisocial behavior
Abstract: Results of meta-analyses suggested subtle deficits in cognitive control among antisocial individuals. Because almost all studies focused on children with conduct problems or adult psychopaths, however, little is known about cognitive control mechanisms among the majority of persistent violent offenders who present an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The present study aimed to determine whether offenders with ASPD, relative to non-offenders, display dysfunction in the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control and to assess the extent to which these dysfunctions are associated with psychopathic traits a...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 18, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Boris Schiffer, Christina Pawliczek, Bernhard Mu¨ller, Michael Forsting, Elke Gizewski, Norbert Leygraf, Sheilagh Hodgins Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Chronic cocaine administration causes extensive white matter damage in brain: Diffusion tensor imaging and immunohistochemistry studies
Abstract: The effect of chronic cocaine exposure on multiple white matter structures in rodent brain was examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), locomotor behavior, and end point histology. The animals received either cocaine at a dose of 100mg/kg (N=19), or saline (N=17) for 28 days through an implanted osmotic minipump. The animals underwent serial DTI scans, locomotor assessment, and end point histology for determining the expressions of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-heavy protein (NF-H), proteolipid protein (PLP), Nogo-A, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Differences in ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 7, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ponnada A. Narayana, Juan J. Herrera, Kurt H. Bockhorst, Emilio Esparza-Coss, Ying Xia, Joel L. Steinberg, F. Gerard Moeller Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
Vertex-based morphometry in euthymic bipolar disorder implicates striatal regions involved in psychomotor function
Abstract: We hypothesized that psychomotor disturbances in patients with bipolar disorder are associated with morphometric changes in functionally specific regions of the basal ganglia and thalamus. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging and vertex-based morphometry to investigate whether psychomotor performance is associated with changes in volume and shape in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder (n=27) compared with matched healthy controls (n=27). We saw no significant differences between age- and sex-matched groups in motor performance. We found a statistically significant group difference in the shape of the...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 7, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benny Liberg, Carl Johan Ekman, Carl Sellgren, Anette Johansson, Mikael Landén Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Increased activation in Broca's area after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia
Abstract: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes in cerebral activity in patients with schizophrenia after participation in the Cognitive Remediation Program for Schizophrenia and other related disorders (RECOS). As RECOS therapists make use of problem-solving and verbal mediation techniques, known to be beneficial in the rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndromes, we expected an increased activation of frontal areas after remediation. Executive functioning and cerebral activation during a covert verbal fluency task were measured in eight patients with schizophrenia before (T1) and after (T2...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pascal Vianin, Sébastien Urben, Pierre Magistretti, Pierre Marquet, Eleonora Fornari, Laure Jaugey Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Reduced cortical and subcortical volumes in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder
We examined adolescents in the early stages of BPD to provide a unique opportunity to investigate which parts of the brain are initially affected by the disorder before confounding factors such as long-term medication or chronicity can mask them. A group of 60 right-handed female adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age (20 patients with BPD, 20 clinical controls, and 20 healthy controls) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Focus was on the examination of hippocampal and amygdalar volume differences. Furthermore, a cortical thickness analysis was conducted. FreeSurfer software detected significant group differenc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 5, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julia Richter, Romuald Brunner, Peter Parzer, Franz Resch, Bram Stieltjes, Romy Henze Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Pharmaco-MEG evidence for attention related hyper-connectivity between auditory and prefrontal cortices in ADHD
Abstract: The ability to attend to particular stimuli while ignoring others is crucial in goal-directed activities and has been linked with prefrontal cortical regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Both hyper- and hypo-activation in the DLPFC has been reported in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during many different cognitive tasks, but the network-level effects of such aberrant activity remain largely unknown. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we examined functional connectivity between regions of the DLPFC and the modality-specific auditory cortices during an audit...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, John D. Franzen, Nichole L. Knott, Matthew L. White, Martin W. Wetzel, Tony W. Wilson Tags: Magnetoencephalography Source Type: research
Somatotopy and bodily hallucinations
To the Editors: Hallucinations are commonly defined as “perceptual experiences in the absence of sensory input”. Hallucinations, one of the major first rank symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum disorders, include bodily hallucinations (BH), which may encompass tactile, somatic, visceral, proprioceptive, kinesthetic, vestibular, coenesthetic, nociceptive, sexual or thermal experiences. Although the underlying mechanisms of BH have not been established, four neuroimaging case reports have described pathophysiological correlates of BH (). According to these case reports, three patients had SZ () and the fourth patient...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 31, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pierre Alexis Geoffroy, Vincent Laprevote, Pierre Thomas, Renaud Jardri Tags: Letter to the Editors Source Type: research
Antidepressant response to aripiprazole augmentation associated with enhanced FDOPA utilization in striatum: A preliminary PET study
Abstract: Several double blind, prospective trials have demonstrated an antidepressant augmentation efficacy of aripiprazole in depressed patients unresponsive to standard antidepressant therapy. Although aripiprazole is now widely used for this indication, and much is known about its receptor-binding properties, the mechanism of its antidepressant augmentation remains ill-defined. In vivo animal studies and in vitro human studies using cloned dopamine dopamine D2 receptors suggest aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist; in this preliminary neuroimaging trial, we hypothesized that aripiprazole's antidepressant augmenta...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 27, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Charles R. Conway, John T. Chibnall, Paul Cumming, Mark A. Mintun, Marie Anne I. Gebara, Dana C. Perantie, Joseph L. Price, Martha E. Cornell, Jonathan E. McConathy, Sunil Gangwani, Yvette I. Sheline Tags: Positron emission tomography Source Type: research
Resting state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens in youth with a family history of alcoholism
Abstract: Adolescents with a family history of alcoholism (FHP) are at heightened risk for developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a key brain region for reward processing, is implicated in the development of AUDs. Thus, functional connectivity of the NAcc may be an important marker of risk in FHP youth. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) was used to examine the intrinsic connectivity of the NAcc in 47 FHP and 50 family history negative (FHN) youth, ages 10–16 years old. FHP and FHN adolescents showed significant group differences in resting state synchrony betwe...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anita Cservenka, Kaitlyn Casimo, Damien A. Fair, Bonnie J. Nagel Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Distinctive spontaneous regional neural activity in patients with somatoform pain disorder: A preliminary resting-state fMRI study
Abstract: This resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study found that nine patients with somatoform pain disorder exhibited atypical precentral gyrus activation compared with 20 healthy controls. The role of the precentral gyrus in pain-related processing is discussed. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Atsuo Yoshino, Yasumasa Okamoto, Yoshihiko Kunisato, Shinpei Yoshimura, Ran Jinnin, Yumi Hayashi, Makoto Kobayakawa, Mitsuru Doi, Kyoko Oshita, Ryuji Nakamura, Keisuke Tanaka, Hidehisa Yamashita, Masashi Kawamoto, Shigeto Yamawaki Tags: Brief report Source Type: research
Evidence for altered amygdala activation in schizophrenia in an adaptive emotion recognition task
Abstract: Deficits in social cognition seem to present an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, and are known to be associated with an altered amygdala response to faces. However, current results are heterogeneous with respect to whether this altered amygdala response in schizophrenia is hypoactive or hyperactive in nature. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate emotion-specific amygdala activation in schizophrenia using a novel adaptive emotion recognition paradigm. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia outpatients and 16 healthy controls who viewed face stimuli expressing emotio...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniela Mier, Stefanie Lis, Karina Zygrodnik, Carina Sauer, Jens Ulferts, Bernd Gallhofer, Peter Kirsch Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Brain atrophy in primary progressive aphasia involves the cholinergic basal forebrain and Ayala's nucleus
Abstract: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by left hemispheric frontotemporal cortical atrophy. Evidence from anatomical studies suggests that the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP), a subnucleus of the cholinergic basal forebrain, may be involved in the pathological process of PPA. Therefore, we studied the pattern of cortical and basal forebrain atrophy in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA and 18 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined the cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei according to Mesulam's nomenclature and the NSP in MRI reference sp...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stefan J. Teipel, Wilhelm Flatz, Nibal Ackl, Michel Grothe, Ingo Kilimann, Arun L.W. Bokde, Lea Grinberg, Edson Amaro, Vanja Kljajevic, Eduardo Alho, Christina Knels, Anne Ebert, Helmut Heinsen, Adrian Danek Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Dorsal prefrontal cortical serotonin 2A receptor binding indices are differentially related to individual scores on harm avoidance
Abstract: Although the serotonergic system has been implicated in healthy as well as in pathological emotional states, knowledge about its involvement in personality is limited. Earlier research on this topic suggests that post-synaptic 5-HT2A receptors could be involved in particular in frontal cortical areas. In drug-naïve healthy individuals, we examined the relationship between these 5-HT2A receptors and the temperament dimension harm avoidance (HA) using 123I-5-I-R91150 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). HA is a personality feature closely related to stress, anxiety and depression proneness, and it i...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chris Baeken, Axel Bossuyt, Rudi De Raedt Tags: Single photon emission computed tomography Source Type: research
Occupancy of serotonin transporters in the amygdala by paroxetine in association with attenuation of left amygdala activation by negative faces in major depressive disorder
Abstract: Amygdala hyperactivation in major depressive disorder (MDD) might be attenuated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but the working mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher amygdala serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy by paroxetine results in greater attenuation of amygdala activation by negative facial expressions in MDD patients. We treated fifteen MDD patients (22–55 years) with paroxetine 20–50mg/day. After 6 and 12 weeks, we quantified (1) clinical response (≥50% decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), (2) SERT occupancy in both amygdala measured by repeate...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Henricus G. Ruhé, Michiel Koster, Jan Booij, Marcel van Herk, Dick J. Veltman, Aart H. Schene Tags: Single photon emission computed tomography Source Type: research
Hoarding disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder show different patterns of neural activity during response inhibition
Abstract: Although hoarding disorder (HD) has been historically conceptualized as a subtype or dimension of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), preliminary evidence suggests that these two disorders have distinct neural underpinnings. The aim of the present study was to compare the hemodynamic responses of HD patients, OCD patients, and healthy controls (HC) during response inhibition on a high-conflict Go/NoGo task that has previously proved sensitive to OCD. Participants comprised 24 HD patients, 24 OCD patients, and 24 HCs who completed a Go/NoGo task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although beha...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David F. Tolin, Suzanne T. Witt, Michael C. Stevens Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Gyrification differences in children and adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A pilot study
Abstract: We used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain gyrification patterns between 19 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 9 children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and 23 control children. We found that VCFS is associated with widespread decreases in gyrification. In ADHD, we found minor differences from control children. No evidence was found for common gyrification patterns between VCFS and ADHD children. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 30, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sabine E. Mous, Canan Karatekin, Chiu-Yen Kao, Irving I. Gottesman, Danielle Posthuma, Tonya White Tags: Brief report Source Type: research
Disentangling possible effects of childhood physical abuse on gray matter changes in violent offenders with psychopathy
This study presents the first, albeit preliminary, evidence suggesting that some of the structural brain anomalies distinguishing violent offenders with psychopathy may result from physical abuse in childhood. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nathan J. Kolla, Sarah Gregory, Stephen Attard, Nigel Blackwood, Sheilagh Hodgins Tags: Structural magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
The neural correlates of the dominance dimension of emotion
Abstract: Emotion has been conceptualized as a dimensional construct, while the number of dimensions – two or three – has been debated. Research has consistently identified two dimensions – valence and arousal – though ample evidence exists that three dimensions are necessary to describe emotion. One proposed third dimension, identified as dominance, is relevant in clinical syndromes, personality and consumer psychology. Dominance refers to an individual's sense of having an ability to affect the environment. Neuroimaging studies have generally focused on the two dimensions of valence and arousal, leaving the neura...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Matthew Jerram, Athene Lee, Alyson Negreira, David Gansler Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Microstructural changes of the nucleus accumbens due to increase of estradiol level during menstrual cycle contribute to recurrent manic episodes—A single case study
We examined a rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patient who demonstrated manic episode regularly at around day 7 of the menstrual cycle. We hypothesize that gonadal hormones may induce a state-dependent change in cerebral microstructure and function. Following this hypothesis, the serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were analyzed and diffusion tensor imaging data were examined between the manic and euthymic states of the patient. Estradiol levels increased in the late follicular phase at manic state when compared to the luteal or early follicular phase at euthymic state. DTI results showed that the patient had increase...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 16, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kiwamu Matsuoka, Fumihiko Yasuno, Makoto Inoue, Akihide Yamamoto, Takashi Kudo, Soichiro Kitamura, Koji Okada, Kuniaki Kiuchi, Jun Kosaka, Hidehiro Iida, Toshifumi Kishimoto Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
Disrupted action monitoring in recent-onset psychosis patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
Abstract: Schizophrenia patients experience cognitive control disturbances, manifest in altered neural signatures during action monitoring. It remains unclear whether error- and conflict-monitoring disturbances co-occur, and whether they are observed in recent-onset psychosis patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. We tested electrophysiological measures of action monitoring in these patients. Seventy-three schizophrenia patients (SZ), 26 bipolar disorder type I patients (BP), each within one year of psychosis onset, and 54 healthy control subjects (HC) underwent EEG during Stroop task performance. In the trial-av...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 5, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael J. Minzenberg, Glenn C. Gomes, Jong H. Yoon, Tamara Y. Swaab, Cameron S. Carter Tags: Electroencephalography and evoked potentials Source Type: research
Dopamine transporter dysfunction in Han Chinese people with chronic methamphetamine dependence after a short-term abstinence
Abstract: Single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) after the administration of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 was performed on healthy subjects and subjects with methamphetamine (METH)dependence at time 1 (T1) after 24–48h of abstinence, time 2 (T2) after 2 weeks of abstinence, and time 3 (T3) after 4 weeks of abstinence. In contrast to values in controls, the values of the striatal DAT specific uptake ratios (SURs) in subjects with METH dependence were significantly lower at T1 (n=25), T2 (n=9), and T3 (n=8); a mild increase in SURs was observed at T2 and T3, but values were still significantly lower than those in controls. I...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 5, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jie Yuan, Rongbin Lv, James Robert Brašić, Mei Han, Xingdang Liu, Yuankai Wang, Guangming Zhang, Congjin Liu, Yu Li, Yanping Deng Tags: Single photon emission computed tomography Source Type: research
Frontal gamma noise power and cognitive domains in schizophrenia
Abstract: The cognitive deficit profile is different among individuals with schizophrenia. We quantified the amount of electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli onset (noise power) over frontal regions regarding deficit in cognitive domains. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls underwent clinical, cognitive and electrophysiological assessments. Noise power studies may be considered complementary but not equivalent to induced power studies. We compared gamma and theta noise power magnitude during a P300 paradigm between subsets of patients divided according to cognitive deficit in key dom...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Álvaro A. Díez, Vanessa Suazo, Pilar Casado, Manuel Martín-Loeches, María Victoria Perea, Vicente Molina Tags: Electroencephalography and evoked potentials Source Type: research
Depressive symptoms and regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer's disease
In this study, we tried to clarify the cerebral blood flow (CBF) correlates of depressive symptoms in AD, excluding the effect of apathy and anxiety. Seventy-nine consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units of the Memory Clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The level of depressive symptoms was evaluated using the depression domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). The patients underwent brain SPECT with 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer. After removing the effects of age, anxiety and apathy scores of NPI, and five subscales of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-revised (ACE-R), correlation analysi...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Seishi Terada, Etsuko Oshima, Shuhei Sato, Chikako Ikeda, Shigeto Nagao, Satoshi Hayashi, Chinatsu Hayashibara, Osamu Yokota, Yosuke Uchitomi Tags: Single photon emission computed tomography Source Type: research
A comparative diffusion tensor imaging study of corpus callosum subregion integrity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia
Abstract: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have provided evidence for corpus callosum (CC) white matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ). These findings include alterations in shape, volume, white matter intensity and structural integrity compared to healthy control populations. Although CC alterations are implicated in both SZ and BD, no study of which we are aware has investigated callosal subregion differences between these two patient populations. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess CC integrity in patients with BD (n=16), SZ (n=19) and healthy controls (HC) ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jian Li, Elliot Kale Edmiston, Kaiyuan Chen, Yanqing Tang, Xuan Ouyang, Yifeng Jiang, Guoguang Fan, Ling Ren, Jie Liu, Yifang Zhou, Wenyan Jiang, Zhening Liu, Ke Xu, Fei Wang Tags: Diffusion tensor imaging Source Type: research
Resting-state synchrony between anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus relates to body shape concern in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa
Abstract: Cortical areas supporting cognitive control and salience demonstrate different neural responses to visual food cues in patients with eating disorders. This top-down cognitive control, which interacts with bottom-up appetitive responses, is tightly integrated not only in task conditions but also in the resting-state. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key node of a large-scale network that is involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity of the dACC and hypothesized that altered connectivity would be demonstrated in cortical midli...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Seojung Lee, Kyung Ran Kim, Jeonghun Ku, Jung-Hyun Lee, Kee Namkoong, Young-Chul Jung Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Whole cortical and default mode network mean functional connectivity as potential biomarkers for mild Alzheimer's disease
Abstract: The search for an Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker is one of the most relevant contemporary research topics due to the high prevalence and social costs of the disease. Functional connectivity (FC) of the default mode network (DMN) is a plausible candidate for such a biomarker. We evaluated 22 patients with mild AD and 26 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a 3.0T scanner. To identify the DMN, seed-based FC of the posterior cingulate was calculated. We also measured the sensitivity/specificity of the method, and verified a corre...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 25, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar, Brunno Machado de Campos, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Benito Pereira Damasceno, Fernando Cendes Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Characterizing the normative profile of 18F-FDG PET brain imaging: Sex difference, aging effect, and cognitive reserve
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate findings of positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET) in normal subjects to clarify the effects of sex differences, aging, and cognitive reserve on cerebral glucose metabolism. Participants comprised 123 normal adults who underwent 18F-FDG PET and a neuropsychological battery. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) to investigate sex differences, and aging effects. The effects of cognitive reserve on 18F-FDG uptake were investigated using years of education as a proxy. Finally, we studied the effect of cognitive reserve on the recruitmen...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hiroshi Yoshizawa, Yunglin Gazes, Yaakov Stern, Yoko Miyata, Shinichiro Uchiyama Tags: Positron emission tomography Source Type: research
Cluster B personality symptoms in persons at genetic risk for schizophrenia are associated with social competence and activation of the right temporo-parietal junction during emotion processing
Abstract: Personality disorders are common in nonpsychotic siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and some personality traits in this group may be associated with an increased risk for full-blown psychosis. We sought to establish if faulty right-hemisphere activation induced by social cognitive tasks, as previously described in patients with schizophrenia, is associated with specific personality symptoms in their unaffected siblings. We observed that cluster B personality symptoms in this group were inversely related to activation in the right temporo parietal junction (rTPJ, a structure critical in social cognitive proc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Micaela Giuliana Goldschmidt, Mirta Fabiana Villarreal, Delfina de Achával, Lucas Javier Drucaroff, Elsa Yolanda Costanzo, Mariana Nair Castro, Jaime Pahissa, Joan Camprodon, Charles Nemeroff, Salvador Martín Guinjoan Tags: Functional magnetic resonance imaging Source Type: research
Cognitive processes associated with compulsive buying behaviours and related EEG coherence
This study specifically investigated the electrophysiology of CB associated with executive processing and cue-reactivity in order to reveal differences in neural connectivity (EEG Coherence) and distinguish it from characteristics of addiction or mood disorder. Participants (N=24, M=25.38yrs, S.D.=7.02yrs) completed the Sensitivity to Punishment Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire and a visual memory task associated with shopping items. Sensitivities to reward and punishment were examined with EEG coherence measures for preferred and non-preferred items and compared to CB psychometrics. Widespread EEG coherence differences...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lee Matthew Lawrence, Joseph Ciorciari, Michael Kyrios Tags: Electroencephalography and evoked potentials Source Type: research
Multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in those at elevated genetic risk of developing schizophrenia
Abstract: Computational brain-imaging studies of individuals at familial high risk for psychosis have provided interesting results, but interpreting these findings can be a challenge due to a number of factors. We searched the literature for studies reporting whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings in people at familial high risk for schizophrenia compared with a control group. A voxel-wise meta-analysis with the effect-size version of Signed Differential Mapping (ES-SDM) identified regional abnormalities of functional brain response. Similarly, an ES-SDM meta-anal...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Deborah Cooper, Victoria Barker, Joaquim Radua, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Stephen M. Lawrie Tags: Multimodal imaging Source Type: research