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(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Precuneal and amygdala spontaneous activity and functional connectivity in war-zone-related PTSD
Abnormality in the “fear circuitry” has been known as a major neural characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies also revealed decreased functional connectivity in the default mode network in PTSD. The present study aims to investigate, in war-zone-related PTSD, the spontaneous activity and functional connectivity of the amygdala and the precuneus, which are two representative brain regions of the two networks, respectively. Two groups of 52 male US Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom veterans (PTSD vs. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xiaodan Yan, Mariana Lazar, Arieh Y. Shalev, Thomas C. Neylan, Owen M. Wolkowitz, Adam D. Brown, Clare Henn-Haase, Rachel Yehuda, Janine D. Flory, Duna Abu-Amara, Daniel K. Sodickson, Charles R. Marmar Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes in the dopamine transporter and cognition in suicide attempters with charcoal burning
This study was designed to elucidate associations between changes in the dopamine transporter (DAT) and cognitive function in patients following CO poisoning during a follow-up period of 6 months. Participants comprised 31 healthy controls (HCs) and 21 CO poisoning patients. Each subject underwent single photon emission computed tomography with [99mTc] TRODAT-1 to measure DAT availability and completed a cognitive battery assessing attention, memory, and executive function. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kai-Chun Yang, Shyh-Jen Wang, Wen-Chi Hsieh, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Chen-Chang Yang, Jou-Fang Deng, Chun-Lung Lin, Yuan-Hwa Chou Source Type: research

Neurostructural correlates of two subtypes of specific phobia: A voxel-based morphometry study
This study aims to fill this gap by comparing the two subtypes and also comparing them with a non-phobic control group. Gray and white matter data of 33 snake phobia subjects (SP), 26 dental phobia subjects (DP), and 37 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kevin Hilbert, Ricarda Evens, Nina Isabel Maslowski, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrike Lueken Source Type: research

Neurocognitive impairment on motor imagery associated with positive symptoms in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: Evidence from event-related brain potentials
Motor imagery provides direct insight into an anatomically interconnected system involved in the integration of sensory information with motor actions, a process that is associated with positive symptoms in schizophrenia (SCZ). However, very little is known about the electrophysiological processing of motor imagery in first episode SCZ. In the current study, we used a visual hand mental rotation (MR) paradigm to manipulate the processing of motor imagery while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 42 SCZ participants and 40 healthy controls (HC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 8, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jiu Chen, Xingqu Wu, Yan Zhang, Dunhong Wei, Wentao Ma, Guangxiong Liu, Zihe Deng, Laiqi Yang, Zhijun Zhang Source Type: research

Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility
This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: William Jonathan McGeown, Giuliana Mazzoni, Manila Vannucci, Annalena Venneri Source Type: research

Intracranial volume normalization methods: Considerations when investigating gender differences in regional brain volume
Intracranial volume (ICV) normalization of regional brain volumes (v) is common practice in volumetric studies of the aging brain. Multiple normalization methods exist and this study aimed to investigate when each method is appropriate to use in gender dimorphism studies and how differences in v are affected by the choice of method. A new method based on weighted ICV matching is also presented. Theoretical reasoning and simulated experiments were followed by an evaluation using real data comprising 400 subjects, all 75 years old, whose ICV was segmented with a gold standard method. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 5, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Richard Nordenskjöld, Filip Malmberg, Elna-Marie Larsson, Andrew Simmons, Håkan Ahlström, Lars Johansson, Joel Kullberg Source Type: research

Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder
In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). Previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Britta Reinke, Silke Matura, David Prvulovic, David E.J. Linden, Vincent van de Ven Source Type: research

Determinants of brain SPECT perfusion and connectivity in treatment-resistant depression
This study aims to characterize and compare functional brain single photon emission tomography (SPECT) perfusion and connectivity in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) according to distinct demographic or clinical profiles (male vs. female; old vs. young; unipolar vs. bipolar) and to study their relationship to the severity and the duration of episode/illness. We retrospectively included 127 consecutive patients who met DSM-IV criteria for a nonpsychotic major TRD episode. All patients were studied using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Raphaëlle Richieri, Laurent Boyer, Catherine Faget-Agius, Jean Farisse, Olivier Mundler, Christophe Lançon, Eric Guedj Source Type: research

Clinical High risk and first episode schizophrenia: Auditory event-related potentials
The clinical high risk (CHR) period is a phase denoting a risk for overt psychosis during which subacute symptoms often appear, and cognitive functions may deteriorate. To compare biological indices during this phase with those during first episode schizophrenia, we cross-sectionally examined sex- and age-matched clinical high risk (CHR, n=21), first episode schizophrenia patients (FESZ, n=20) and matched healthy controls (HC, n=25) on oddball and novelty paradigms and assessed the N100, P200, P3a and P3b as indices of perceptual, attentional and working memory processes. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elisabetta C. del Re, Kevin M. Spencer, Naoya Oribe, Raquelle Mesholam-Gately, Jill Goldstein, Martha Shenton, Tracey Petryshen, Larry J. Seidman, Robert W. McCarley, Margaret A. Niznikiewicz Source Type: research

The relationship of brain structure to age and executive functioning in adolescent disruptive behavior disorder
Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13–17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 24, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tom A. Hummer, Yang Wang, William G. Kronenberger, David W. Dunn, Vincent P. Mathews Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 23, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Volume of hippocampal substructures in borderline personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with smaller hippocampi in comparison to hippocampal size in controls. However, specific pathology in hippocampal substructures (i.e., head, body and tail) has not been sufficiently investigated. To address hippocampal structure in greater detail, we studied 39 psychiatric inpatients and outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BPD and 39 healthy controls. The hippocampus and its substructures were segmented manually on magnetic resonance imaging scans. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stefan Henner Kreisel, Kirsten Labudda, Oleg Kurlandchikov, Thomas Beblo, Markus Mertens, Christine Thomas, Nina Rullkötter, Katja Wingenfeld, Christoph Mensebach, Friedrich G. Woermann, Martin Driessen Source Type: research

Occipital bending (Yakovlevian torque) in bipolar depression
Differing levels of occipital lobe asymmetry and enlarged lateral ventricles have been reported within patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy controls, suggesting different rates of occipital bending (OB). This may exert pressure on subcortical structures, such as the hippocampus, reduced among psychiatric patients. We investigated OB prevalence in 35 patients with BD and 36 healthy controls, and ventricular and occipital volumes. Prevalence was four times higher among BD patients (12/35 [34.3%]) than in control subjects (3/36 [8.3%]), as well as larger lateral ventricular volumes. (Source: Psychiatry Re...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jerome J. Maller, Rodney Anderson, Richard H. Thomson, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Aberrant amygdala intrinsic functional connectivity distinguishes youths with bipolar disorder from those with severe mood dysregulation
It remains unclear the degree to which youths with episodic mania (bipolar disorder; BD) vs. those with chronic, severe irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD) should be placed in similar or distinct diagnostic groups. Addressing this clinically meaningful question requires greater understanding of the neural alterations underlying both disorders. We evaluated resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 53 youths (14 BD, 20 healthy volunteers (HV), and 19 SMD, ages 9–18.5 years). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joel Stoddard, Derek Hsu, Rick Reynolds, Melissa A. Brotman, Monique Ernst, Daniel S. Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel P. Dickstein Source Type: research

Medial frontal gyrus alterations in schizophrenia: Relationship with duration of illness and executive dysfunction
Executive functioning is consistently impaired in schizophrenia, and it has been associated with reduced gray matter volume in prefrontal areas. Abnormalities in prefrontal brain regions have also been related to the illness duration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of executive functioning decline and chronicity in prefrontal regions of patients with schizophrenia. Participants comprised 33 schizophrenic patients, 18 with duration of illness (DoI) shorter than 10 years and 15 with duration of illness longer than 10 years. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marianna Frascarelli, Stefania Tognin, Alessia Mirigliani, Fabrizio Parente, Antonino Buzzanca, Maria Chiara Torti, Emanuele Tinelli, Francesca Caramia, Fabio Di Fabio, Massimo Biondi, Paolo Fusar-Poli Source Type: research

Development and application of a diagnostic algorithm for posttraumatic stress disorder
Intact cognitive functions rely on synchronous neural activity; conversely, alterations in synchrony are thought to underlie psychopathology. We recently demonstrated that anomalies in synchronous neural interactions (SNI) determined by magnetoencephalography represent a putative PTSD biomarker. Here we develop and apply a regression-based diagnostic algorithm to further validate SNI as a PTSD biomarker in 432 veterans (235 controls; 138 pure PTSD; 59 PTSD plus comorbid disorders). Correlation coefficients served as proximities in multidimensional scaling (MDS) to obtain a two-dimensional representation of the data. (Sourc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lisa M. James, Ilana Belitskaya-Lévy, Ying Lu, Hui Wang, Brian E. Engdahl, Arthur C. Leuthold, Apostolos P. Georgopoulos Source Type: research

Decreased amygdala–insula resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) adopts a dimensional approach for examining pathophysiological processes underlying categorically defined psychiatric diagnoses. We used this framework to examine relationships among symptom dimensions, diagnostic categories, and resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth selected from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study (n=42) and healthy control youth (n=18). Region of interest analyses examined relationships among resting state connectivity, symptom dimensions (behavioral and emotional dysregulation measured with the Parent General Be...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Genna Bebko, Michele Bertocci, Henry Chase, Amanda Dwojak, Lisa Bonar, Jorge Almeida, Susan Beth Perlman, Amelia Versace, Claudiu Schirda, Michael Travis, Mary Kay Gill, Christine Demeter, Vaibhav Diwadkar, Jeffrey Sunshine, Scott Holland, Robert Kowatch, Source Type: research

Decreased amygdala-insula resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) adopts a dimensional approach for examining pathophysiological processes underlying categorically defined psychiatric diagnoses. We used this framework to examine relationships among symptom dimensions, diagnostic categories, and resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth selected from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study (n=42) and healthy control youth (n=18). Region of interest analyses examined relationships among resting state connectivity, symptom dimensions (behavioral and emotional dysregulation measured with the Parent General Be...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Genna Bebko, Michele Bertocci, Henry Chase, Amanda Dwojak, Lisa Bonar, Jorge Almeida, Susan Beth Perlman, Amelia Versace, Claudiu Schirda, Michael Travis, Mary Kay Gill, Christine Demeter, Vaibhav Diwadka, Jeffrey Sunshine, Scott Holland, Robert Kowatch, Source Type: research

Dysregulation between emotion and theory of mind networks in borderline personality disorder
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) commonly display deficits in emotion regulation, but findings in the area of social cognitive (e.g., theory of mind, ToM) capacities have been heterogeneous. The aims of the current study were to investigate differences between patients with BPD and controls in functional connectivity (1) between the emotion and ToM network and (2) in the default mode network (DMN). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate 19 healthy controls and 17 patients with BPD at rest and during ToM processing. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Aisling O’Neill, Arun D'Souza, Andrea C. Samson, Angela Carballedo, Christian Kerskens, Thomas Frodl Source Type: research

Old wine in new bottles: Validating the clinical utility of SPECT in predicting cognitive performance in mild traumatic brain injury
In this study, subjects with mild TBI underwent 99mTc-ECD SPECT scanning, and were administered a brief battery of cognitive tests and self-report symptom scales of concussion and emotional distress. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kristoffer Romero, Nancy J. Lobaugh, Sandra E. Black, Lisa Ehrlich, Anthony Feinstein Source Type: research

The relationship between stress, HPA axis functioning and brain structure in first episode psychosis over the first 12 weeks of treatment
This study used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether biological measures of stress were related to brain structure at baseline and to structural changes over the first 12 weeks of treatment in first episode patients (n=22) compared with matched healthy controls (n=22). At baseline, no significant group differences in biological measures of stress, cortical thickness or hippocampal volume were observed, but a significantly stronger relationship between baseline levels of cortisol and smaller white matter volumes of the cuneus and anterior cingulate was found in patients compared with controls. (Source: Psychiat...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Renate L.E.P. Reniers, Belinda Garner, Christina Phassouliotis, Lisa J Phillips, Connie Markulev, Christos Pantelis, Sarah Bendall, Patrick D McGorry, Stephen J Wood Source Type: research

Frontal lobe hypoactivation in medication-free adults with bipolar II depression during response inhibition
In executive function, specifically in response inhibition, numerous studies support the essential role for the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). Hypoactivation of the IFC during response-inhibition tasks has been found consistently in subjects with bipolar disorder during manic and euthymic states. The aim of this study was to examine whether reduced IFC activation also exists in unmedicated subjects with bipolar disorder during the depressed phase of the disorder. Participants comprised 19 medication-free bipolar II (BP II) depressed patients and 20 healthy control subjects who underwent functional magnetic resonance imagin...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Conor Penfold, Nathalie Vizueta, Jennifer D. Townsend, Susan Y. Bookheimer, Lori L. Altshuler Source Type: research

Consolidation time affects performance and neural activity during visual working memory
We presented visual pattern masks at four SOAs after the offset of the memory array (100ms, 200ms, 400ms, 800ms). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christian Knöchel, Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Robert Bittner, Michael Stäblein, Vera Heselhaus, David Prvulovic, Fabian Fußer, Tarik Karakaya, Johannes Pantel, Konrad Maurer, David E.J. Linden Source Type: research

[H]Ifenprodil binding in post-mortem brains of Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics: A whole-hemisphere autoradiography study
The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunits are sensitive to ethanol and are found in brain areas related to ethanol addiction, dependence, development of alcohol tolerance, and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Previous studies indicate that early-onset Cloninger type 2 alcoholics have an intact, responsive, dopaminergic system in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), whereas type 1 alcoholics have dopaminergic defects. NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the NAC are involved in both non-opioid and opioid receptor-mediated reward. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jukka Kupila, Olli Kärkkäinen, Virpi Laukkanen, Merja Häkkinen, Hannu Kautiainen, Jari Tiihonen, Markus Storvik Source Type: research

Brain structure in narcissistic personality disorder: A VBM and DTI pilot study
We analysed T1-weighted MRI scans using voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics (TBBS) on diffusion tensor images (DTI) in narcissistic personality disorder patients and healthy controls. Grey matter deficits include right prefrontal and bilateral medial prefrontal / anterior cingulate cortices, and decreased fractional anisotropy in right frontal lobe white matter. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 7, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Igor Nenadic, Daniel Güllmar, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Johanna Steinke, Christian Gaser Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Abnormal regional homogeneity in young adult suicide attempters with no diagnosable psychiatric disorder: A resting state functional magnetic imaging study
Many young adults who attempt suicide have no discernible mental illness, suggesting an etiology distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Neurological anomalies associated with a history of suicidal behavior may predict future risk. In the present study, we explored changes in neural circuit organization associated with suicidal behavior by comparing local synchronization of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in suicide attempters without a psychiatric diagnosis (SA group, 19.84±1.61 years, n=19) with those in healthy controls (HC group, 20.30±1.72 years, n=20) using regional homogeneity (ReHo)...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jun Cao, Jian-mei Chen, Li Kuang, Ming Ai, Wei-dong Fang, Yao Gan, Wo Wang, Xiao-rong Chen, Xiao-ming Xu, Heng-guang Wang, Zhen Lv Source Type: research

Abnormal regional homogeneity in suicidal adolescents with no diagnosable psychiatric disorder: A resting state functional magnetic imaging study
Many young adults who attempt suicide have no discernible mental illness, suggesting an etiology distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Neurological anomalies associated with a history of suicidal behavior may predict future risk. In the present study, we explored changes in neural circuit organization associated with suicidal behavior by comparing local synchronization of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in suicide attempters without a psychiatric diagnosis (SA group, 19.84±1.61 years, n=19) with those in healthy controls (HC group, 20.30±1.72 years, n=20) using regional homogeneity (ReHo)...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 6, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jun Cao, Wei-dong Fang, Li Kuang, Jian-mei Chen, Ming Ai, Yao Gan, Wo Wang, Xiao-rong Chen, Xiao-ming Xu, Heng-guang Wang, Zhen Lv Source Type: research

Perception of social stimuli in mania: An fMRI study
Patients with mania show alterations of social behaviour. Neuropsychological studies in euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) have revealed deficits in cognitive, but not emotional aspects of social cognition (SC). Here, we studied the neural signature of social stimulus processing in mania. We expected alterations in regions associated with cognitive SC (dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex, dMPFC). Participants comprised 14 manic patients and 14 matched healthy controls who viewed standardized pictures with social and non-social content during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 5, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tatiana Usnich, Stephanie Spengler, Bastian Sajonz, Dorrit Herold, Michael Bauer, Felix Bermpohl Source Type: research

A cross-sectional and longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study of the post-central gyrus in first-episode schizophrenia patients
The post-central gyrus (PoCG) has received little attention in brain imaging literature. However, some magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have detected the presence of PoCG abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-six first-episode schizophrenia patients, selected through the PAFIP Program and carefully assessed for dimensional psychopathology and cognitive functioning, and 56 matched healthy controls were scanned twice over 1-year follow-up. PoCG gray matter volumes were measured at both time-points and compared between the groups. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 5, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adele Ferro, Roberto Roiz-Santiáñez, Victor Ortíz-García de la Foz, Diana Tordesillas-Gutiérrez, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Noemi de La Fuente-González, Lourdes Fañanás, Paolo Brambilla, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro Source Type: research

Alterations of GABA and glutamate–glutamine levels in premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Increasing evidence has suggested that the GABAergic neurotransmitter system is involved in the pathogenesis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate whether PMDD is associated with alterations in brain GABA levels. Levels of glutamate–glutamine (Glx) were also explored. Participants comprised 22 women with PMDD and 22 age-matched healthy controls who underwent 3T 1H MRS during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. GABA+ and Glx levels were quantified in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and the left basal gan...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bo Liu, Guangbin Wang, Dongmei Gao, Fei Gao, Bin Zhao, Mingqi Qiao, Huan Yang, Yanhong Yu, Fuxin Ren, Ping Yang, Weibo Chen, Caroline D. Rae Source Type: research

White matter fractional anisotropy over two time points in early-onset schizophrenia and adolescent cannabis use disorder: A naturalistic diffusion tensor imaging study
Recurrent exposure to cannabis in adolescence increases the risk for later development of psychosis, but there are sparse data regarding the impact of cannabis use on brain structure during adolescence. This pilot study investigated the effect of cannabis use disorder (CUD) upon white matter fractional anisotropy (WM FA) values in non-psychotic treatment-seeking adolescents relative to adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (EOSS) and to healthy control participants (HC). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography methods were used to examine FA of the cingulum bundle, superior longitudinal fasc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katherine A. Epstein, Sanjiv Kumra Source Type: research

Alterations of GABA and glutamate-glutamine levels in premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A 3 T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Increasing evidence has suggested the GABAergic neurotransmitter system is involved in the pathogenesis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to investigate whether PMDD is associated with alterations in brain GABA levels. Levels of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) were also explored. Participants comprised 22 women with PMDD and 22 age-matched healthy controls who underwent 3T 1H-MRS during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. GABA+ and Glx levels were quantified in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and the left basal ganglia (l...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bo Liu, Guangbin Wang, Dongmei Gao, Fei Gao, Bin Zhao, Mingqi Qiao, Huan Yang, Yanhong Yu, Fuxin Ren, Ping Yang, Weibo Chen, Caroline D. Rae Source Type: research

Increased brain activity to unpleasant stimuli in individuals with the 7R allele of the DRD4 gene
The aim of the study was to examine functional brain activity in response to unpleasant images in individuals with the 7-repeat (7R) allele compared to individuals with the 4-repeat (4R) allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene (VNTR in exon 3). Based on the response ready hypothesis, individuals with the DRD4-4R/7R genotype were expected to show greater functional brain activity in response to unpleasant compared to neutral stimuli in specific regions of the frontal, temporal, parietal and limbic lobes, which form the networks involved in attentional, emotional, and preparatory responses. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jean-G. Gehricke, James Swanson, Sophie Duong, Jenny Nguyen, Timothy Wigal, James Fallon, Cyrus Caburian, L. Tugan Muftuler, Robert Moyzis Source Type: research

Serotonin transporter availability in thalamic subregions in schizophrenia: A study using 7.0-T MRI with [11C]DASB High-resolution PET
The serotonin transporter (SERT) is an integral protein that provides an index of serotonergic innervation. Until recently, few studies have investigated SERT binding in thalamic subregions in schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to examine SERT availability in thalamic subdivisions (anterior nucleus, mediodorsal nucleus, and pulvinar) using 7.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)benzonitrile ([11C]DASB) in schizophrenia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Don Son, Jeong-Hee Kim, Eun-Jung Choi, Sang-Yoon Lee, Jee Eun Lee, Zang-Hee Cho, Young-Bo Kim Source Type: research

Is transition to schizophrenia predicted by anomalous lateralization? commentary on cooper et Al.’s meta-analysis, 2014
To the Editors: (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: T.J. Crow Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Fractional anisotropy in individuals with schizophrenia and their nonpsychotic siblings
Fractional anisotropy (FA) was examined in a priori selected fiber tracts in individuals with schizophrenia (n=25) and their non-psychotic siblings (n=29) versus controls (n=35). FA was reduced in a portion of the fornix in individuals with schizophrenia (although this did not survive correction for the number of tracts investigated). FA in the siblings did not differ from that in controls in any of the investigated tracts. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 31, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael P. Harms, Kazi D. Akhter, John G. Csernansky, Susumu Mori, Deanna M. Barch Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Executive-affective connectivity in smokers viewing anti-smoking images: An fMRI study
Despite knowledge of the harmful consequences of smoking on health, tobacco users continue to smoke. Neuroimaging studies have begun to provide insight into the mechanisms underlying this response. Regions involved in executive control and affective processing/persuasion are activated when viewing the negative value of smoking, but these systems can interact in ways that promote or hinder its impact on behavior. The goal of this functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to examine the dynamics between these systems during the processing of images designed to elicit a negative emotional response regarding tobacco smok...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 31, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laurence Dinh-Williams, Adrianna Mendrek, Alexandre Dumais, Josiane Bourque, Stéphane Potvin Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 25, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subsequent memory Effects in schizophrenia
Differential neural activation at encoding can predict which stimuli will be subsequently remembered or forgotten, and memory deficits are pronounced in schizophrenia. We used event-related fMRI to investigate subsequent memory effects for visual fractals in patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and healthy controls (n=28). Participants incidentally encoded the fractals during an oddball task and 10 minutes later they made old/new recognition memory judgments on 30 target fractals and 30 foil fractals. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 22, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Azurii K. Collier, Daniel H. Wolf, Jeffrey N. Valdez, Raquel E. Gur, Ruben C. Gur Source Type: research

Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore–exploit behavior
The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Merideth A. Addicott, John M. Pearson, Brett Froeliger, Michael L. Platt, F. Joseph McClernon Source Type: research

Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy Controls
Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janelle N. Beadle, Sergio Paradiso, Michael Brumm, Michelle Voss, Katherine Halmi, Laurie M. McCormick Source Type: research

Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior
The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Merideth A. Addicott, John M. Pearson, Brett Froeliger, Michael L. Platt, F. Joseph McClernon Source Type: research

Left frontal lobe hypoperfusion and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer׳s disease patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors
Depressive symptoms are common in patients with Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and increase the caregiver burden. Many studies have reported dorsolateral prefrontal hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in AD patients with depressive symptoms, most of whom did not take acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI). It is not clear, however, whether a similar condition is present in patients taking AChEI medication. Fifty-seven consecutive AD patients taking AChEI were recruited at a memory clinic. Objective depressive symptoms were evaluated using the depression domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-dep). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Etsuko Oshima, Seishi Terada, Shuhei Sato, Chikako Ikeda, Koji Oda, Shinichiro Inoue, Kiyohiro Kawada, Osamu Yokota, Yosuke Uchitomi Source Type: research

High frequency rTMS; a more effective treatment for auditory verbal hallucinations?
The great majority of studies on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a therapeutic tool for auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have used 1-Hz stimulation with inconsistent results. Recently, it has been suggested that 20-Hz rTMS has strong therapeutic effects. It is conceivable that this 20-Hz stimulation is more effective than 1-Hz stimulation. The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the efficacy of 20-Hz rTMS compared with 1-Hz rTMS as a treatment for AVH. Eighteen schizophrenia patients with medication-resistant AVH were randomized over two treatment groups. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Antoin D. de Weijer, Iris E.C. Sommer, Anne Lotte Meijering, Mirjam Bloemendaal, Sebastiaan F.W. Neggers, Kirstin Daalman, Eduard H.J.F. Boezeman Source Type: research

Left frontal lobe hypoperfusion and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors
Depressive symptoms are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increase the caregiver burden. Many studies have reported dorsolateral prefrontal hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in AD patients with depressive symptoms, most of whom did not take acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI). It is not clear, however, whether a similar condition is present in patients taking AChEI medication. Fifty-seven consecutive AD patients taking AChEI were recruited at a memory clinic. Objective depressive symptoms were evaluated using the depression domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-dep). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Etsuko Oshima, Seishi Terada, Shuhei Sato, Chikako Ikeda, Koji Oda, Shinichiro Inoue, Kiyohiro Kawada, Osamu Yokota, Yosuke Uchitomi Source Type: research

Cognitive and structural neuroimaging characteristics of schizophrenia patients with large, rare copy number deletions
Large (>500kb), rare (frequency (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrew Kenneth Martin, Gail Robinson, David Reutens, Bryan Mowry Source Type: research

The neural correlates of emotional face-PROCESSING in adolescent depression: A Dimensional approach focusing on anhedonia and illness severity
Deficits in emotional processing, a known clinical feature of major depression (MDD), have been widely investigated using emotional face paradigms and neuroimaging. However, most studies have not accounted for the high inter-subject variability of symptom severity. Similarly, only sparse research has focused on MDD in adolescence, early in the course of the illness. Here we sought to investigate neural responses to emotional faces using both categorical and dimensional analyses with a focus on anhedonia, a core symptom of MDD associated with poor outcomes. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah E. Henderson, Ana I. Vallejo, Benjamin A. Ely, Guoxin Kang, Amy Krain Roy, Daniel S. Pine, Emily R. Stern, Vilma Gabbay Source Type: research

Recurrence analysis of the EEG during sleep accurately IDENTIFIES SUBJECTS With mental health symptoms
Analysis of brain recurrence (ABR) is a novel computational method that uses two variables for sleep depth and two for sleep fragmentation to quantify temporal changes in non-random brain electrical activity. We postulated that ABR of the sleep-staged EEG could identify an EEG signature specific for the presence of mental health symptoms. Using the Mental Health Inventory Questionnaire (MHI-5) as ground truth, psychological distress was assessed in a study cohort obtained from the Sleep Heart Health Study. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David E. McCarty, Naresh M. Punjabi, Paul Y. Kim, Clifton Frilot, Andrew A. Marino Source Type: research

Relationship between amygdala volume and emotion recognition in adolescents at ultra-High risk for psychosis
Amygdala volume has been proposed as a neural risk biomarker for psychotic illness, but findings in the ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) population have been somewhat inconsistent, which may be related to underlying social cognitive abilities. The current study investigated whether amygdala volumes were related to emotion-recognition impairments in UHR individuals, and whether volumes differed by sex. Secondary aims were to assess whether (a) emotion-recognition performance was associated with interhemispheric amygdala volume asymmetry and (b) amgydala volume and volume asymmetry acted as a mediator between emotion-reco...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cali F. Bartholomeusz, Sarah L. Whittle, Eleanor Pilioussis, Kelly Allott, Simon Rice, Miriam R. Schäfer, Christos Pantelis, G. Paul Amminger Source Type: research