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Unique insula subregion resting-state functional connectivity with amygdala complexes in posttraumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype
We examined insula subregion (anterior, mid, and posterior) functional connectivity with the bilateral amygdala using a region-of-interest seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM8. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrew A. Nicholson, Iman Sapru, Maria Densmore, Paul A. Frewen, Richard W.J. Neufeld, Jean Théberge, Margaret C. McKinnon, Ruth A. Lanius Source Type: research

Putamen volume correlates with obsessive compulsive characteristics in healthy population
Obsessions and compulsions (OCs) are frequent in healthy subjects; however neural backgrounds of the subclinical OCs were largely unknown. Results from recent studies suggested involvement of the putamen in the OC traits. To investigate this issue, 49 healthy subjects were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Anatomical delineation on MRI yielded the global volume and local shape of the putamen. Other striatal structures (the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) were also examined for exploratory purpose. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yasutaka Kubota, Wataru Sato, Takanori Kochiyama, Shota Uono, Sayaka Yoshimura, Reiko Sawada, Morimitsu Sakihama, Motomi Toichi Source Type: research

Mothers with depressive symptoms display differential brain activations when empathizing with infant faces
Maternal care during the first year of life provides the foundation for the infant’s emotional and cognitive development. Depressive symptoms in mothers can undermine their early dyadic interaction, which may lead to various psychopathological disorders with long-term consequences. During this period, the mother-child interaction is exclusively preverbal and is based on the mother’s ability to understand her infant’s needs and feelings (i.e., empathy) and on reciprocal imitation of facial expressions that promote a social dialogue that influences the development of the infant self. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Delia Lenzi, Cristina Trentini, Emiliano Macaluso, Sonia Graziano, Anna Maria Speranza, Patrizia Pantano, Massimo Ammaniti Source Type: research

Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder
Neural models of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit that over-response of components of the brain’s salience network (SN) to negative stimuli plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of MDD. In the present proof-of-concept study, we tested this formulation directly by examining the affective consequences of training depressed persons to down-regulate response of SN nodes to negative material. Ten participants in the real neurofeedback group saw, and attempted to learn to down-regulate, activity from an empirically identified node of the SN. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: J. Paul Hamilton, Gary H. Glover, Epifanio Bagarinao, Catie Chang, Sean Mackey, Matthew Sacchet, Ian H. Gotlib Source Type: research

Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in insula and angular gyrus/supramarginal gyrus: Significant findings in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder
In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) were applied to examine the changes of interhemispheric FC of the whole brain in patients with SD. A total of 25 first-episode, medication-naive SD patients and 28 age-, sex-, education-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state fMRI, and the data were analyzed by VMHC. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Qinji Su, Dapeng Yao, Muliang Jiang, Feng Liu, Liling Long, Yi Dai, Miaoyu Yu, Zhikun Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jianrong Liu, Changqing Xiao, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo Source Type: research

Amygdala activity during autobiographical memory recall as a biomarker for residual symptoms in patients remitted from depression
We performed a linear regression analysis on demographic, memory performance, and amygdala activity during memory recall on 23 unmedicated participants remitted from major depressive disorder. Amygdala activity during positive memory recall, and the percent of specific positive memories recalled were the variables that explained the most variance in residual depressive symptoms. This model was not significant in control or currently depressed participants. Longitudinal follow up is necessary to assess whether these variables predict relapse. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kymberly D. Young, Wayne C. Drevets, Jerzy Bodurka, Sheldon S. Preskorn Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Effects of rivastigmine on visual attention in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A serial functional MRI activation pilot-study
A pilot study to investigate the effects of rivastigmine on the brain activation pattern due to visual attention tasks in a group of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired patients (aMCI). The design was an initial three-month double blind period with a rivastigmine and placebo arms, followed by a nine-month open-label period. All patients underwent serial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline, and after three and six months of follow-up. Primary endpoint was the effect of rivastigmine on functional brain changes during visual attention (face and location matching) tasks. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Arun L.W. Bokde, Enrica Cavedo, Patricia Lopez-Bayo, Simone Lista, Thomas Meindl, Christine Born, Samantha Galluzzi, Frank Faltraco, Bruno Dubois, Stefan J. Teipel, Maximilian Reiser, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Harald Hampel Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of hippocampal atrophy in early recognition of Alzheimer´s disease – a critical appraisal after two decades of research
As a characteristic feature of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) hippocampal atrophy (HA) can be demonstrated in the majority of patients by using neuroimaging techniques in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hippocampal atrophy is associated with declarative memory deficits and can also be associated with changes of adjacent medial temporal substructures such as the parahippocampal gyrus or the the entorhinal cortex. Similar findings are present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) albeit to a lesser extent. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Johannes Schröder, Johannes Pantel Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Multiprobe molecular imaging of an NMDA receptor hypofunction rat model for glutamatergic dysfunction
There are many indications of a connection between abnormal glutamate transmission through N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction and the occurrence of schizophrenia. The importance of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) became generally recognized due to its physical link through anchor proteins with NMDAR. Neuroinflammation as well as the kynurenine (tryptophan catabolite; TRYCAT) pathway are equally considered as major contributors to the pathology.We aimed to investigate this interplay between glutamate release, neuronal activation and inflammatory markers, by using small-animal positron emiss...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lauren Kosten, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Robert Verkerk, David Thomae, Livia De Picker, Leonie wyffels, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Sigrid Stroobants, Steven Staelens Source Type: research

Different roads to the same destination – The impact of impulsivity on decision-making processes under risk within a rewarding context in a healthy male sample
In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of decision-making under risk in 12 impulsive, as defined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and 13 normal men. Although both groups showed similar decision-making behavior, neural activation regarding decision-making processes differed significantly. Impulsive persons revealed stronger activation in the (ventro-) medial prefrontal cortex and less deactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex while playing for potential gains. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ramona Dinu-Biringer, Frauke Nees, Rosalux Falquez, Moritz Berger, Sven Barnow Source Type: research

Converging effects of cocaine addiction and sex on neural responses to monetary rewards
There is some evidence that cocaine addiction manifests as more severe in women than men. Here, we examined whether these sex-specific differences in the clinical setting parallel differential neurobehavioral sensitivity to rewards in the laboratory setting. Twenty-eight (14 females/14 males) cocaine-dependent and 25 (11 females/14 males) healthy individuals completed a monetary reward task during fMRI. Results showed that the effects of cocaine dependence and sex overlapped in regions traditionally considered part of the mesocorticolimbic brain circuits including the hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as we...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anna B. Konova, Scott J. Moeller, Muhammad A. Parvaz, Monja I. Froböse, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z. Goldstein Source Type: research

Disentangling introspective and exteroceptive attentional control from emotional appraisal in depression using fMRI: A preliminary study
We examined BOLD activity in ten healthy and ten depressed subjects while they viewed emotional picture sets and categorized their experience in the moment as pleasant, unpleasant or neutral (introspective attention), as well as when they viewed matched pictures and judged whether they depicted indoor or outdoor scenes (exteroceptive attention). Contrasts permitted investigation of differences in neural activity between groups associated with (1) attentional control, and (2) appraisal of valence. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ryan Smith, Leslie C. Baxter, Julian F. Thayer, Richard D. Lane Source Type: research

Different roads to the same destination-the impact of impulsivity on decision-making processes under risk within a rewarding context in a healthy male sample
In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of decision-making under risk in 12 impulsive, as defined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and 13 normal men. Although both groups showed similar decision-making behavior, neural activation regarding decision-making processes differed significantly. Impulsive persons revealed stronger activation in the (ventro-) medial prefrontal cortex and less deactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex while playing for potential gains. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ramona Dinu-Biringer, Frauke Nees, Rosalux Falquez, Moritz Berger, Sven Barnow Source Type: research

Serotonin Signaling Modulates the Effects of Familial Risk for Depression on Cortical Thickness
In this study, we assessed whether the effects of familial risk were modulated by the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ravi Bansal, Bradley S. Peterson, Jay Gingrich, Xuejun Hao, Zagaa Odgerel, Virginia Warner, Priya J. Wickramaratne, Ardesheer Talati, Mark Ansorge, Alan S. Brown, Andre Sourander, Myrna M. Weissman Source Type: research

Fronto-temporal alterations and affect regulation in methamphetamine dependence with and without a history of psychosis
Methamphetamine (MA) has been shown to have neurotoxic effects associated with brain structure changes and schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Although these abnormalities may in turn be related to cognitive impairment and increased aggression, their association with affect dysregulation is less well studied. We investigated cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in 21 participants with MA dependence, 19 patients with MA-associated psychosis (MAP), and 19 healthy controls. Participants' affect regulation abilities were assessed through self-report scales on emotion reactivity (ERS) and difficulties in emotion regula...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne Uhlmann, Jean-Paul Fouche, Nastassja Koen, Ernesta M. Meintjes, Don Wilson, Dan J. Stein Source Type: research

Efficacy of identifying neural components in the face and emotion processing system in schizophrenia using a dynamic functional localizer
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in face perception and emotion recognition. Despite consistent behavioural results, the neural mechanisms underlying these cognitive abilities have been difficult to isolate, in part due to differences in neuroimaging methods used between studies for identifying regions in the face processing system. Given this problem, we aimed to validate a recently developed fMRI-based dynamic functional localizer task for use in studies of psychiatric populations and specifically schizophrenia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Aiden E.G.F. Arnold, Giuseppe Iaria, Vina M. Goghari Source Type: research

Altered Balance of Functional Brain Networks in Schizophrenia
Activity in dorsal attention (DAN) and frontoparietal (FPN) functional brain networks is linked to allocation of attention to external stimuli, and activity in the default-mode network (DMN) is to allocation of attention to internal representations. Tasks requiring attention to external stimuli shift activity to the DAN/FPN and away from the DMN, and optimal task performance depends on balancing DAN/FPN against DMN activity. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study assessed the balance of DAN/FPN and DMN activity in 13 schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy controls while they were engaged in a task sw...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Todd S. Woodward, KaWai Leong, Nicole Sanford, Christine M. Tipper, Katie M. Lavigne Source Type: research

The relationship between cortical thickness and body mass index differs between women with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls
In this study, we applied a well validated procedure implemented in Freesurfer software toolkit to investigate cortical thickness in a sample of 21 patients with AN and 18 healthy controls, focusing on group differences and on the relationship between BMI and cortical thickness. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Luca Lavagnino, Federico Amianto, Benson Mwangi, Federico D’Agata, Angela Spalatro, Giovana B Zunta Soares, Giovanni Abbate Daga, Paolo Mortara, Secondo Fassino, Jair Soares Source Type: research

Cortical activation changes and sub-threshold affective symptoms are associated with social functioning in a non-clinical population: A multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study
Few studies have examined the relationship between social function and brain activation in non-clinical populations. The aim of the present study was to assess this relationship and examine the underlying cortical mechanisms in a non-clinical population. Eighty healthy volunteers performed a serial arithmetic task according to the Uchida-Kraepelin performance test while hemoglobin concentration changes were assessed on the surface of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using 32-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Koichiro Fujimaki, Hidenori Takemoto, Shigeru Morinobu Source Type: research

White Matter Alterations Associated with Suicide in Patients with Schizophrenia or Schizophreniform Disorder
This study examines the relationship between alterations in brain white matter (WM) and suicidal behavior in people with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. The study participants were 56 patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, with (n=15) and without (n=41) a history of suicide attempts. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sung-Jae Lee, Borah Kim, Daeyoung Oh, Min-Kyoung Kim, Keun-Hyang Kim, Seong Yun Bang, Tai Kiu Choi, Sang-Hyuk Lee Source Type: research

Externalizing personality traits, empathy, and gray matter volume in healthy young drinkers
Externalizing psychopathology has been linked to prefrontal abnormalities. While clinically diagnosed subjects show altered frontal gray matter, it is unknown if similar deficits relate to externalizing traits in non-clinical populations. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to retrospectively analyze the cerebral gray matter volume of 176 young adult social to heavy drinkers (mean age= 24.0±2.9, male= 83.5%) from studies of alcoholism risk. We hypothesized that prefrontal gray matter volume and externalizing traits would be correlated. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Judith Charpentier, Mario Dzemidzic, John West, Brandon G. Oberlin, William J.A. Eiler, Andrew J. Saykin, David A. Kareken Source Type: research

Prospective Longitudinal Study of Subcortical Brain Volumes in Individuals at High Familial Risk of Mood Disorders with or without Subsequent Onset of Depression
Subcortical volumetric brain abnormalities have been observed in mood disorders. However, it is unknown whether these reflect adverse effects predisposing to mood disorders or emerge at illness onset. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted at baseline and after two years in 111 initially unaffected young adults at increased risk of mood disorders because of a close family history of bipolar disorder and 93 healthy controls (HC). During the follow-up, 20 high-risk subjects developed major depressive disorder (HR-MDD), with the others remaining well (HR-well). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 31, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martina Papmeyer, Jessika E. Sussmann, Tiffany Stewart, Stephen Giles, John G. Centola, Vasileios Zannias, Stephen M. Lawrie, Heather C. Whalley, Andrew M. McIntosh Source Type: research

Amygdala alterations during an emotional conflict task in women recovered from anorexia nervosa
The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is not completely understood, but research suggests that alterations in brain circuits related to cognitive control and emotion are central. The aim of this study was to explore neural responses to an emotional conflict task in women recovered from AN. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural responses to an emotional conflict task in 22 women recovered from AN and 21 age-matched healthy controls. The task involved categorizing affective faces while ignoring affective words. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lasse Bang, Øyvind Rø, Tor Endestad Source Type: research

Early differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies: Comparison between F-FDG PET and I-IMP SPECT
We examined nine AD patients (AD group), nine DLB patients (DLB group), eight MCI due to AD patients (MCI-AD group), and nine MCI due to DLB patients (MCI-DLB group) with FDG PET and IMP SPECT using a well-characterized normal database and a stereotactic extraction estimation method. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yuhei Chiba, Eizo Iseki, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Kazumi Ota, Koji Kasanuki, Masaru Suzuki, Yoshio Hirayasu, Heii Arai, Kiyoshi Sato Source Type: research

Impaired frontal processing during agency inferences in schizophrenia
People generally experience themselves as the cause of outcomes following from their own actions. Such agency inferences occur fluently and are essential to social interaction. However, schizophrenia patients often experience difficulties in distinguishing their own actions from those of others. Building on recent research into the neural substrates underlying agency inferences in healthy individuals, the present study investigates how these inferences are represented on a neural level in patients with schizophrenia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert A. Renes, Matthijs Vink, Anouk van der Weiden, Merel Prikken, Martijn G.J.C. Koevoets, René S. Kahn, Henk Aarts, Neeltje E.M. van Haren Source Type: research

The innate alarm circuit in post-traumatic stress disorder: Conscious and subconscious processing of fear- and trauma-related cues
Fast defensive responses to salient threatening stimuli are an important clinical feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated the neural correlates of subliminal and supraliminal processing of fearful faces and individualized trauma-related words in individuals with PTSD (n=26) compared with healthy controls (n=20) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Increased activity in the right cerebellum and the posterior cingulum was observed in individuals with PTSD during subliminal processing of trauma-related words, whereas increased activity of the basal forebrain was found within the PTSD group wh...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Paul A. Frewen, Jean Théberge, Ruth A. Lanius Source Type: research

Prediction of later clinical course by a specific glucose metabolic pattern in non-demented patients with probable REM sleep behavior disorder admitted to a memory clinic: A case study
The present study is a follow-up study of 11 non-demented patients with probable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) at our memory clinic. During the follow-up period (mean±SD of 46.7±6.4 months), all 11 patients exhibited cognitive decline: four (Group A) exhibited core clinical features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), along with severe cognitive decline, and were subsequently diagnosed as having probable DLB; four (Group B) did not exhibit core clinical features of DLB; and the remaining three (Group C) were diagnosed as having Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kazumi Ota, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Koji Kasanuki, Daizo Kondo, Yuhei Chiba, Norio Murayama, Heii Arai, Kiyoshi Sato, Eizo Iseki Source Type: research

A DTI study on the corpus callosum of treatment-naïve boys with ‘pure’ Tourette syndrome
The objective of the present study was to refine knowledge about interhemispheric connectivity in TS by analyzing four different diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in a very homogeneous group of treatment-naïve boys with pure TS in comparison to male healthy controls (HC). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD) and mean diffusivity (MD) of five CC-segments were assessed from DTI of 26 treatment-naïve boys with pure TS and 24 HC. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nicole Wolff, Ina Luehr, Jennifer Sender, Stefan Ehrlich, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Peter Dechent, Veit Roessner Source Type: research

An Electrocortical Investigation of Voluntary Emotion Regulation in Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - a debilitating disorder characterized by severe deficits in emotion regulation - is prevalent among U.S. military veterans. Research into the pathophysiology of PTSD has focused primarily on emotional reactivity, showing evidence of heightened neural response during negative affect provocation. By comparison, studies of brain functioning during the voluntary regulation of negative affect are limited. In the current study, combat-exposed U.S. military veterans with (n=25) and without (n=25) PTSD performed an emotion regulation task during electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. (Sourc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Annmarie MacNamara, Julia A. DiGangi, Amy E. Kennedy, Christine A. Rabinak, Ryan Patwell, Justin E. Greenstein, Eric Proescher, Sheila A.M. Rauch, Greg Hajcak, K. Luan Phan Source Type: research

Decreased gray matter volume is associated with the subtypes of psychotic symptoms in patients with antipsychotic-naïve mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease: A voxel-based morphometry study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between brain regional gray matter volume and two subtypes of psychotic symptoms, namely paranoid and misidentification subtypes, in antipsychotic-naïve mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty AD patients with psychotic symptoms and 25AD patients without psychotic symptoms were assessed for cognitive and functional impairment. Presence and subtype of psychotic symptoms were assessed by using the delusion and hallucination subscale of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Inventory (K-NPI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Young-Min Lee, Young-In Chung, Je-Min Park, Byung-Dae Lee, Eunsoo Moon, Hee-Jeong Jeong, Ji-Hoon Kim, Hak-Jin Kim, Chi-Woong Mun, Tae-Hyung Kim, Young-Hoon Kim, Eun-Joo Kim Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Depressive symptomatology, serotonergic activity, and neuroticism: A methodological recommendation
To the Editors: (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Renzo Bianchi, Eric Laurent Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Functional connectivity correlates of response inhibition impairment in anorexia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by high levels of cognitive control and behavioral perseveration. The present study aims at exploring inhibitory control abilities and their functional connectivity correlates in patients with AN. Inhibitory control-an executive function that allows the realization of adaptive behavior according to environmental contingencies-has been assessed by means of the Stop-Signal paradigm. The study involved 155 patients with lifetime AN and 102 healthy women. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Enrico Collantoni, Silvia Michelon, Elena Tenconi, Daniela Degortes, Francesca Titton, Renzo Manara, Maurizio Clementi, Claudia Pinato, Monica Forzan, Matteo Cassina, Paolo Santonastaso, Angela Favaro Source Type: research

Antidepressant short-term and long-term brain effects during self-referential processing in major depression
This study aimed to assess short- and long-term effects of agomelatine on these neural bases in depressed patients and the association between pre-treatment brain activation and remission of depression 6 months later. We conducted a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during an emotional self-referential task, including three scanning sessions (baseline, after 1 week, and after 7 weeks). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pauline Delaveau, Maritza Jabourian, Cédric Lemogne, Najib Allaïli, Walid Choucha, Nathalie Girault, Stéphane Lehericy, Judith Laredo, Philippe Fossati Source Type: research

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Potentiates Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in Depressed Adolescents
Abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission may have a role in the pathophysiology of adolescent depression. The present pilot study examined changes in cortical glutamine/glutamate ratios in depressed adolescents receiving high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Ten adolescents with treatment-refractory major depressive disorder received up to 30 sessions of 10-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at 120% motor threshold with 3,000 pulses per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul E. Croarkin, Paul A. Nakonezny, Christopher A. Wall, Lauren L. Murphy, Shirlene M. Sampson, Mark A. Frye, John D. Port Source Type: research

Disrupted amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in antipsychotic-naïve adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia
Evidence points to a crucial role for altered neural oscillations and synchrony in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies found aberrant amplitudes of low-frequency oscillations in adult patients with schizophrenia. Whether the abnormality is also present in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) is largely unknown. We recruited 39 adolescents with a first episode of EOS and 31 age- and education- matched healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Junjie Zheng, Yan Zhang, Xiaofeng Guo, Xvjun Duan, Jiang Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen Source Type: research

Abnormal striatal resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder
In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) was used to investigate functional connectivity in the CSTC circuitry in adolescents with OCD. Imaging was obtained with the Human Connectome Project (HCP) scanner using newly developed pulse sequences which allow for higher spatial and temporal resolution. Fifteen adolescents with OCD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (ages 12–19) underwent R-fMRI on the 3T HCP scanner. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gail A. Bernstein, Bryon A. Mueller, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Sarah M. Campbell, Emily K. Regan, Peter M. Nelson, Alaa K. Houri, Susanne S. Lee, Alexandra D. Zagoloff, Kelvin O. Lim, Essa S. Yacoub, Kathryn R. Cullen Source Type: research

Abnormal striatal resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder
In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) was used to investigate functional connectivity in the CSTC in adolescents with OCD. Imaging was obtained with the Human Connectome Project (HCP) scanner using newly developed pulse sequences which allow for higher spatial and temporal resolution. Fifteen adolescents with OCD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (ages 12–19) underwent R-fMRI on the 3T HCP scanner. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gail A. Bernstein, Bryon A. Mueller, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Sarah M. Campbell, Emily K. Regan, Peter M. Nelson, Alaa K. Houri, Susanne S. Lee, Alexandra D. Zagoloff, Kelvin O. Lim, Essa S. Yacoub, Kathryn R. Cullen Source Type: research

Confirmation of MRI anatomical measurements as endophenotypic markers for bipolar disorder in a new sample from the NIMH Genetics of Bipolar Disorder in Latino Populations study
The main objective of this study is to establish potential neuromorphometric differences which might act as markers of genetic risk for bipolar disorder and therefore serve as endophenotypes for discovery of genes that contribute to bipolar disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess structural brain volumes of 49 subjects. Volumetric analyses were first performed to test possible differences in the volume of brain structures between subjects with bipolar disorder type I (BPI) and control subjects in a new sample, based on regions previously reported in the literature as being either increased or decrease...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hugo Sandoval, Jair C. Soares, Benson Mwangi, Stephanie Asonye, Luis A. Alvarado, Juan Zavala, Mercedes E. Ramirez, Marsal Sanches, Luke R. Enge, Michael A. Escamilla Source Type: research

White matter microstructure in ultra-high risk and first episode schizophrenia: a prospective study
There is increasing evidence of white matter (WM) pathology in schizophrenia, but its role at the very early stage of the disorder remains unclear. In an exploration of WM microstructure in ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects and first episode schizophrenia (FES), 34 FES, 27 UHR and 26 healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) investigation. Whole brain fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) values were extracted. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 17, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Silvia Rigucci, Giulia Santi, Valentina Corigliano, Annamaria Imola, Camilla Rossi-Espagnet, Iginia Mancinelli, Eleonora De Pisa, Giovanni Manfredi, Alessandro Bozzao, Filippo Carducci, Paolo Girardi, Anna Comparelli Source Type: research

Erratum to “Resting state networks in major depressive disorder” [Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, volume 224, (2014), 139–151]
Table 1 in the above mentioned article was misaligned. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Arpan Dutta, Shane McKie, J.F. William Deakin Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Schizophrenia Symptom and Functional Correlates of Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation to Emotion Stimuli: An fMRI Investigation
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness characterized by distinct positive and negative symptoms and functional impairment. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a region of the brain's limbic system that is hypoactive during emotion processing in schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests the hypoactive ACC in schizophrenia is due to negative (and not positive) symptoms. However, this finding has not been replicated and the functional significance of this relationship remains unclear. The present study examined the association between positive and negative symptoms, ACC activation to emotional images, and functional outco...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brady D. Nelson, Olivia A. Bjorkquist, Emily K. Olsen, Ellen S. Herbener Source Type: research

Altered sensitization patterns to sweet food stimuli in patients recovered from anorexia and bulimia nervosa
Recent studies show that higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) and overeating in bulimia nervosa (BN). The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensitization effects might underlie pathologic eating behavior when a taste stimulus is administered repeatedly. Recovered AN (RAN, n=14) and BN (RBN, n=15) subjects were studied in order to avoid the confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measured higher-order brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose (caloric) and sucralose (non-caloric). (Source: ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Angela Wagner, Alan N. Simmons, Tyson A. Oberndorfer, Guido K.W. Frank, Danyale McCurdy-McKinnon, Julie L. Fudge, Tony T. Yang, Martin P. Paulus, Walter H. Kaye Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 31, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Author reply to: “Depressive symptomatology, serotonergic activity, and neuroticism: A methodological recommendation”
We thank Drs. Bianchi and Laurent for their response concerning our study on brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor density in vivo and neuroticism. We fully agree that state-considerations, e.g., depressive symptomatology should be taken into account in personality research in general (Jylhä et al. 2009). In our study, we made an effort to reduce the confounding effect of affective symptoms on personality traits such as neuroticism by recruiting healthy subjects with no reported history of, or first-degree relatives diagnosed with, major depressive disorder or psychotic disorder. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jussi Hirvonen, Lauri Tuominen, Kjell Någren, Jarmo Hietala Source Type: research

Sex-specific neural activity when cognitive interference in individuals with or without internalizing disorders
The processing of cognitive interference is a self-regulatory capacity that is impaired in persons with internalizing disorders. This investigation was to assess sex differences in the neural correlates of cognitive interference in individuals with and without an illness history of an internalizing disorder. We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygenation-level-dependent responses in both males (n=63) and females (n=80) with and without this illness history during performance of the Simon task. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhishun Wang, Rachel H. Jacobs, Rachel Marsh, Guillermo Horga, Jianping Qiao, Virginia Warner, Myrna M. Weissman, Bradley S. Peterson Source Type: research

Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve
We examined cognitive reserve in a research program that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lawrence J Whalley, Roger T Staff, Helen C Fox, Alison D Murray Source Type: research

Differential neural processing of unpleasant haptic sensations in somatic and affective partitions of the insula in non-suicidal self-injury
Altered perception and neural processing of pain have been observed during non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Evidence suggests that this phenomenon could be associated with the affective rather than the somatosensory dimension of pain. Sub-partitions of the insula have been suggested to process these different aspects differentially. In the present study, activation within the posterior, middle, and anterior partitions of the insula upon unpleasant electric stimulation was compared between subjects with a history of NSSI and healthy controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martina Bonenberger, Paul L. Plener, Rebecca C. Groschwitz, Georg Grön, Birgit Abler Source Type: research

Altered resting-state functional connectivity in women with chronic fatigue syndrome
The biological underpinnings of the psychological factors characterizing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to evaluate alterations of resting-state functional connectivity in CFS patients. Participants comprised 18 women with CFS and 18 age-matched female healthy controls who were recruited from the local community. Structural and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired during a 6-min passive-viewing block scan. Posterior cingulate cortex seeded resting-state functional connectivity was evaluated, and correlation analyses of connectivity strength were performed. (Sourc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Byung-Hoon Kim, Kee Namkoong, Jae-Jin Kim, Seojung Lee, Kang Joon Yoon, Moonjong Choi, Young-Chul Jung Source Type: research