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Tizanidine for the management of acute postoperative pain after inguinal hernia repair: A placebo-controlled double-blind trial
BACKGROUND: α2-Agonists are used postoperatively as a component of multimodal analgesia. Tizanidine is a centrally acting α2-agonist with muscle relaxant properties. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of tizanidine with placebo in terms of postoperative pain scores, analgesic consumption, return to daily activity and health-related quality of life. DESIGN: A randomised double-blind study. SETTING: Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital. INTERVENTIONS: After obtaining ethical approval and informed patient consent, 60 patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair under general an...
Source: European Journal of Anaesthesiology - February 3, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Postoperative pain Source Type: research

Comparison of Efficacy and Side Effects of Oral Baclofen Versus Tizanidine Therapy with Adjuvant Botulinum Toxin Type A in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity
This retrospective study aimed to compare the therapeutic response, including side effects, for oral baclofen versus oral tizanidine therapy with adjuvant botulinum toxin type A in a group of 64 pediatric patients diagnosed with static encephalopathy and spastic equinus foot deformity. Following botulinum toxin A treatment, clinical improvement led to the gradual reduction of baclofen or tizanidine dosing to one-third of the former dose. Gross Motor Functional Measure and Caregiver Health Questionnaire scores were markedly elevated post–botulinum toxin A treatment, with scores for the tizanidine (Gross Motor Function...
Source: Journal of Child Neurology - January 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Dai, A. I., Aksoy, S. N., Demiryürek, A. T. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Long-term myocardial toxicity in a patient with tizanidine and etizolam overdose
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2015 Source:Journal of Cardiology Cases Author(s): Mari Amino, Koichiro Yoshioka, Yuji Ikari, Sadaki Inokuchi Tizanidine hydrochloride, α2-receptor stimulant, is a central muscle relaxant. Etizolam is a benzodiazepine-based anti-anxiety agent. Both drugs are widely used for the treatment of a variety of muscle pain and frequently used together in Japan. We experienced a case of complicating prolonged myocardial dysfunction in a 56-year-old woman. Six hours after overdose of 48mg tizanidine and 24mg etizolam, she showed sinus bradycardia and peripheral vascular resistanc...
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - January 12, 2016 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Analgesic efficacy of oral gabapentin added to standard epidural corticosteroids in patients with failed back surgery.
CONCLUSION: It was concluded that addition of oral gabapentin to epidural corticosteroid application in patients with failed back surgery syndromes was effective in ameliorating pain at an early stage without significant side effects. PMID: 22291506 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications)
Source: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications - November 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Tizanidine-induced acute severe cystitis in a female taking famotidine.
We report a case of a 26-year-old Asian female on famotidine who presented with acute severe urinary burning after taking tizanidine. PMID: 26251632 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications)
Source: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications - November 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Tizanidine and Speech Therapy for Spastic Dysarthria: A Case Study
To evaluate tizanidine with speech therapy for dysarthria associated with spastic tetraplegia. (Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - November 23, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Jon A. Mukand, Patricia Swift Fulton, Minh Tran, Nita H. Mukand Tags: Research Poster Source Type: research

Spinal antinociceptive action of amiloride and its interaction with tizanidine in the rat formalin test.
PMID: 26357686 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pain Research and Management)
Source: Pain Research and Management - September 10, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ouyang H, Wang P, Huang W, Li Q, Nie B, Zeng W Tags: Pain Res Manag Source Type: research

Evaluation of tizanidine as a marker of canine CYP1A2 activity
The dog CYP1A2 enzyme is likely an important contributor to the metabolism of veterinary drugs. Dog CYP1A2 is expressed in liver, plus it is inducible and polymorphic, creating the potential for intersubject differences in pharmacokinetics. Hence, the ability to probe dog CYP1A2 activity and inhibition is relevant toward veterinary drug development and drug–drug interaction assessment. Previous studies have relied on human probes with questionable specificity for CYP1A2, so it was hypothesized that recombinant CYP1A2 could be used to find a specific CYP1A2 substrate. Intrinsic clearance experiments demonstrated that tiza...
Source: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - July 30, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: C. W. Locuson, P. Williams, J. M. Adcock, J. S. Daniels Tags: Scientific Paper Source Type: research

Tizanidine-induced cystitis
Poudel RR, Kafle NK (Source: International Journal of COPD)
Source: International Journal of COPD - July 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A severe interaction between Tizanidine and Ciprofloxacin
Tizanidine is a commonly prescribed medication for muscle spasms [1]. The pharmacokinetics of Tizanidine are altered by the use of CYP1A2 inhibitors as Ciprofloxacin in healthy subjects; elevation of Tizanidine levels leads to a decrease in psychomotor activity and hemodynamic changes which are manifested as a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate [2,3]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia)
Source: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia - June 29, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Alaa Abd-Elsayed, Hesham Elsharkawy, Wael Sakr Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Interventions to Reduce Spasticity and Improve Function in People With Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Distinctions Revealed by Different Analytical Methods
Conclusions. Improvements in function were achieved in a limited number of people with SCI. Using the MID and GMM techniques, differences in responses to interventions between high-and low-functioning participants could be identified. These techniques may, therefore, have potential to be used for characterizing therapeutic effects resulting from different interventions. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - June 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Duffell, L. D., Brown, G. L., Mirbagheri, M. M. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

A Case of Stiff Person Syndrome: Immunomodulatory Effect of Benzodiazepines: Successful Rituximab and Tizanidine Therapy
This report demonstrates ineffective benzodiazepine therapy of SPS that prompts tachyphylaxis, loss of responsiveness, and finally benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Convulsion and anxiety correlate with high level of creatine phosphokinase (CK). Although tonus and spasm attacks were successfully controlled by tizanidine, glutamate release inhibitor, the immune response, and autoimmune diabetes development require the plasmapheresis, mycophenolat mofetil, and rituximab therapy that results in a significant decrease of GADAb, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and CK normalization. Unfortunately...
Source: Medicine - June 1, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

"Spinal" Movement Disorders in NMO Patients: An Under-Recognized Phenomenon (S46.001)
CONCLUSIONS: Movement disorders are common in NMO patients and can be a major source of disability. Randomized clinical trials are needed to identify effective treatments. Study Supported by:Disclosure: Dr. Abboud has nothing to disclose. Acorda Therapeutics; Sanofi; Viropharma, Inc.; NeuralStem, Inc.; Shire/Abvie; TerumoBCT (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Abboud, H., Levy, M. Tags: Neuromyelitis Optica Source Type: research

Scoliosis in Childhood-Onset Stiff Person Syndrome (P2.073)
CONCLUSIONS: In children and young adults with spinal column deformities including hyperlordosis or new scoliosis, the diagnosis of SPS should be considered since early treatment may help reduce long term complications, disability and improve the quality of life. Study Supported by: noneDisclosure: Dr. Rasameesoraj has nothing to disclose. Dr. Katirji has nothing to disclose. Dr. Devereaux has received personal compensation for activities with Digitrace. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rasameesoraj, T., Katirji, B., Devereaux, M. Tags: Neurological Consequences of Autoimmune Disease Source Type: research

Facilitatory effects of anti-spastic medication on robotic locomotor training in people with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury
The objective of this study was to investigate whether an anti-spasticity medication can facilitate the effects of robotic locomotor treadmill training (LTT) to improve gait function in people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Individuals with chronic incomplete SCI were recruited and carried out a 4 week intervention of either locomotor treadmill training (LTT) alone (n = 26) or LTT combined with Tizanidine (TizLTT), an anti-spasticity medication (n = 22). Gait function was evaluated using clinical outcome measures of gait, speed and endurance. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of th...
Source: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation - March 20, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Lynsey DuffellGeoffrey BrownMehdi Mirbagheri Source Type: research

Drugs used to treat joint and muscle disease
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015 Source:Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine Author(s): David G. Lambert Joint disease: Arthritis can be simply broken into osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Osteoarthritis is treated with symptomatic pain relief and surgery. RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of joints (leading to their destruction), tissues around joints and other organ systems. Treatment (for pain) of RA in the first instance is with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with second-line treatment using disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). DMAR...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - February 24, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Impact of Intravenous Acetaminophen on Reducing Opioid Use After Hysterectomy
ConclusionThe multimodal approach to perioperative analgesic management, which includes concurrent administration of intravenous acetaminophen and opioids, is effective in reducing the total average amount of opioids administered on postoperative days 1–2 and perioperatively. Limitations of this study include its short duration, retrospective design, and single‐site setting. These results may not be generalized to patients undergoing other types of obstetric‐gynecologic surgeries. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - December 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Brittany O. Herring, Sheila Ader, Angel Maldonado, Carla Hawkins, Margaretta Kearson, Madeline Camejo Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Cranberry juice ingestion and clinical drug-drug interaction potentials; review of case studies and perspectives.
Authors: Srinivas NR Abstract Cranberry juice is a popular beverage with many health benefits. It has anthocyanins to supplement dietary needs. Based on in vitro evidence cranberry juice is an inhibitor of CYP enzymes and at higher amounts as potent as ketoconazole (CYP3A) and fluconazole (CYP2C9). There is, however, a discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo observations with respect to a number of substrates (cyclosporine, warfarin, flurbiprofen, tizanidine, diclofenac, amoxicillin, ceflacor); with the exception of a single report on midazolam, where there was a moderate increase in the AUC of midazolam in subjec...
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences - December 2, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: J Pharm Pharm Sci Source Type: research

Patient education and self-care for the management of jaw pain upon awakening: a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of adding pharmacologic treatment with cyclobenzaprine or tizanidine.
CONCLUSION: The use of tizanidine or cyclobenzaprine in addition to self-care management and patient education was not more effective than placebo for the management of patients with myofascial jaw pain upon awakening. PMID: 24822235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Journal of Orofacial Pain)
Source: Journal of Orofacial Pain - November 25, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: J Oral Facial Pain Headache Source Type: research

Profound Symptomatic Bradycardia Requiring Transvenous Pacing After a Single Dose of Tizanidine
We report a case of profound symptomatic bradycardia after a single dose of tizanidine. (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Jennifer Cortes, Brad Hall, Danyelle Redden Tags: Pharmacology in Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Prescriber perceptions of a near real-time fax alert program for potential drug-drug interactions.
CONCLUSIONS: The positive response to fax alerts by physicians varies by the component drugs of the PDDI alerts. PMID: 24761821 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy)
Source: Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy - November 14, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: J Manag Care Pharm Source Type: research

Central noradrenergic mechanisms and the acute stress response during painful stimulation
Events that threaten tissue integrity including noxious stimulation activate central noradrenergic circuits, particularly locus coeruleus and its projections. Recent advances in theory hold that an adaptive, defensive shift in brain activity takes place in response to threat. In principle, this shift may accentuate the autonomic and central biomarkers of the perception of painful events and the experience of pain itself. We have examined the effects of an alpha-2 agonist on pupil dilation responses, skin conductance responses, near field somatosensory evoked potentials and pain reports in normal volunteers undergoing repea...
Source: Journal of Psychopharmacology - November 12, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chapman, C. R., Bradshaw, D. H., Donaldson, G. W., Jacobson, R. C., Nakamura, Y. Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research

Hot-melts in Buccoadhesive Patches: An Approach for Bioavailability Enhancement of Highly-Metabolized Drugs with Short Elimination Half-Life.
Abstract The present study deals with the inclusion or incorporation of hot-melts into buccoadhesive patches. Our aim is to develop a patient-friendly dosage form that is capable of extending release of short elimination half-life drugs so to decrease dosing frequency and to increase the bioavailability of highly-metabolized drugs with the ultimate aim of dose reduction. Tizanidine hydrochloride (TIZ) was used as a model drug. TIZ was incorporated into Compritol-based hot-melts, and then further formulated into buccal patches prepared using HPMC, PVA and Polyox. A Central Composite Face-centered Design was employed...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - October 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: El Mahrouk GM, El Gazayerly ON, Aboelwafa AA, Taha MS Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research

Coadministration of Tramadol and Tizanidine in an Experimental Acute Pain Model in Rat
Abstract The use of drug combinations to achieve a desired effect is a common practice in pharmacological reaserch and in clinical practice. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential synergistic antinociceptive interactions between tizanidine, an α‐2‐adrenoceptor agonist and tramadol on formalin‐induced nociception in rat using isobolographic analyses. Tramadol (0.1–100 μg/paw) and tizanidine (0.01–10 μg/paw) were injected into the paw prior to formalin injection (1%). Both drugs produced a dose‐dependent antinociceptive effect. The EC50 values were estimated for individual drugs, a...
Source: Drug Development Research - September 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Karla Lizet Beltrán‐Villalobos, Pamela Monserrat Ramírez‐Marín, Carlos Alberto Zúñiga Cruz, Myrna Déciga‐Campos Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Chronic Daily Headache: Diagnosis and Management.
Abstract Chronic daily headache is defined as the presence of a headache on 15 days or more per month for at least three months. The most common types of chronic daily headache are chronic migraines and chronic tension-type headaches. If a red flag for a secondary cause of headache is present, magnetic resonance imaging of the head should be performed. All patients should be asked about medication overuse, which can increase the frequency of headaches. Patients who overuse medications for abortive therapy for headache should be encouraged to stop the medications entirely and consider prophylactic treatment. Several...
Source: American Family Physician - April 15, 2014 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yancey JR, Sheridan R, Koren KG Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

Alpha2-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal.
CONCLUSIONS: Clonidine and lofexidine are more effective than placebo for the management of withdrawal from heroin or methadone. No significant difference in efficacy was detected for treatment regimens based on clonidine or lofexidine, and those based on reducing doses of methadone over a period of around 10 days but methadone is associated with fewer adverse effects than clonidine, and lofexidine has a better safety profile than clonidine. PMID: 24683051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 31, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Gowing L, Farrell MF, Ali R, White JM Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Non-antiepileptic drugs for trigeminal neuralgia.
CONCLUSIONS: There is low-quality evidence that the effect of tizanidine is not significantly different than that of carbamazepine in treating trigeminal neuralgia. Pimozide is more effective than carbamazepine, although the evidence is of low quality and the data did not allow comparison of adverse event rates. There is also low-quality evidence that 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride eye drops have no benefit over placebo. Limitations in the data for tocainide prevent any conclusions being drawn. There is insufficient evidence from randomised controlled trials to show significant benefit from non-antiepileptic drugs in trig...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - December 3, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Zhang J, Yang M, Zhou M, He L, Chen N, Zakrzewska JM Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Effect of Antispastic Drugs on Motor Reflexes and Voluntary Muscle Contraction in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury
Conclusions: These results suggest that antispastic drugs are effective in reducing stretch reflexes without substantially reducing volitional torque. Differential effects of tizanidine and baclofen on reflexes of flexors and extensors warrant further investigation into patient-specific management of antispastic drugs. (Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - November 25, 2013 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Virginia Way Tong Chu, Thomas George Hornby, Brian David Schmit Tags: Featured Articles Source Type: research

The effect of antispastic drugs on motor reflexes and voluntary muscle contraction in incomplete spinal cord injury.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that antispastic agents are effective in reducing stretch reflexes without substantially reducing volitional torque. Differential effects of tizanidine and baclofen on reflexes of flexors and extensors warrant further investigation into patient-specific management of antispastic medications. PMID: 24269485 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physica Medica)
Source: Physica Medica - November 21, 2013 Category: Physics Authors: Tong Chu VW, Hornby TG, Schmit BD Tags: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Source Type: research

Amitriptyline versus tizanidine in the management of tension‐type headache in Nepal
(Source: Emergency Medicine Australasia)
Source: Emergency Medicine Australasia - November 13, 2013 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Ajay Singh Thapa Tags: Case Letter Source Type: research

Use of Intrathecal Baclofen for Treatment of Severe Spasticity in Selected Patients With Motor Neuron Disease
Conclusions. Our findings suggest that ITB can effectively reduce spasticity and related symptoms without compromising function in selected patients with U-MND. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - October 7, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Bethoux, F., Boulis, N., McClelland, S., Willis, M. A., Hussain, M., Machado, A., Mychkovsky, L., Stough, D., Sutliff, M., Pioro, E. P. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Unintentional Pediatric Exposures to Central Alpha-2 Agonists Reported to the National Poison Data System
Conclusions: The number of unintentional pediatric exposures to alpha-2 agonists increased from 2000-2011. Clonidine exposures were the most commonly reported, more symptomatic, and associated with 3 deaths. Despite central nervous system depression, bradycardia, and hypotension being common, the need for intubation and vasopressors was rare. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - October 3, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: George Sam Wang, Marie-Claire Le Lait, Kennon Heard Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Adherence Associated With Oral Medications in the Treatment of Spasticity
Objective: To examine adherence to baclofen, tizanidine, and dantrolene (U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved oral spasticity medications), and identified determinants of adherence.Design: A retrospective administrative claims data analysis that used medical and pharmacy claims data and enrollment information from a large, national U.S. health plan.Subjects and Methods: The subjects were commercial health plan members who initiated treatment on baclofen, tizanidine, or dantrolene from January 1, 2004, through September 30, 2009, and who had stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, or mult...
Source: PM and R - May 6, 2013 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Rachel Halpern, Patrick Gillard, Glenn D. Graham, Sepideh F. Varon, Richard D. Zorowitz Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Use of common migraine treatments in breast-feeding women: a summary of recommendations.
CONCLUSIONS: Several excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast-feeding women. Clinicians treating migraine should discuss both acute and preventive treatment options shortly before and within a few months after delivery, keeping in mind the clinical features of the individual patient, and in consultation with their obstetrician and pediatrician. An awareness of the pharmacological data that are currently available and how to access that data may be helpful in making treatment decisions in this population. PMID: 23465038 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Headache)
Source: Headache - April 1, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Hutchinson S, Marmura MJ, Calhoun A, Lucas S, Silberstein S, Peterlin BL Tags: Headache Source Type: research

Use of Common Migraine Treatments in Breast‐Feeding Women: A Summary of Recommendations
ConclusionsSeveral excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast‐feeding women. Clinicians treating migraine should discuss both acute and preventive treatment options shortly before and within a few months after delivery, keeping in mind the clinical features of the individual patient, and in consultation with their obstetrician and pediatrician. An awareness of the pharmacological data that are currently available and how to access that data may be helpful in making treatment decisions in this population. (Source: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain)
Source: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain - March 6, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Susan Hutchinson, Michael J. Marmura, Anne Calhoun, Sylvia Lucas, Stephen Silberstein, B. Lee Peterlin Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Pharmacokinetic Profile of the Combination of Naproxen and Tizanidine in Rat
This study examines the pharmacokinetics of naproxen when it is combined with tizanidine. Combining these two drugs is an attractive modality for inflammation complaints. Oral coadministration of naproxen/tizanidine produced a synergistic anti‐inflammatory effect in rats. The swelling of the rat paw was measured by a plethysmometer using carrageenan as an inflammatory agent. In this study, rats received oral doses of naproxen (1, 3, and 4.2 mg/kg), and these doses were combined with a fixed dose of tizanidine (0.01 mg/kg). To evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between naproxen/tizanidine, blood samples were obt...
Source: Drug Development Research - February 27, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Selene Isabel Patiño‐Camacho, María Guadalupe Lozoya Moreno, Francisco Javier Flores‐Murrieta, Myrna Déciga‐Campos Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Clinical Survey of Tizanidine-induced Adverse Effects-Impact of Concomitant Drugs Providing Cytochrome P450 1A2 Modification-.
Abstract The drug-drug interactions of tizanidine and cytochrome (CYP) P450 1A2 inhibitors, which potentially alter the hepatic metabolism of tizanidine, were investigated by retrospective survey of medical records with regard to prescription. One thousand five hundred sixty-three patients treated with tizanidine at University of Tsukuba Hospital were investigated. Of those, 713 patients (45.6%) were treated with coadministration of tizanidine and CYP1A2 inhibitors (37 drugs). The patients who received a combination of tizanidine and CYP1A2 inhibitors were characterized as elderly, having multiple diseases, and tak...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - February 10, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Momo K, Homma M, Matsumoto S, Sasaki T, Kohda Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

A Rational Approach to the Management of Chronic Migraine
About 2% of the adult population has chronic migraine with only 20% diagnosed with this disorder. Those with medication overuse may improve with withdrawal of overuse medications. The intravenous dihydroergotamine regimen usually produces short‐term benefit for those with medically refractory chronic migraine. OnabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate have shown efficacy in large placebo‐controlled randomized trials. Sodium valproate, gabapentin, tizanidine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine, zonisamide, and possibly memantine may be alternative or possibly combined treatment options but with lesser levels of evidence supporting their...
Source: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain - January 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Randolph W. Evans Tags: Expert Opinion Source Type: research

A rational approach to the management of chronic migraine.
Abstract About 2% of the adult population has chronic migraine with only 20% diagnosed with this disorder. Those with medication overuse may improve with withdrawal of overuse medications. The intravenous dihydroergotamine regimen usually produces short-term benefit for those with medically refractory chronic migraine. OnabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate have shown efficacy in large placebo-controlled randomized trials. Sodium valproate, gabapentin, tizanidine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine, zonisamide, and possibly memantine may be alternative or possibly combined treatment options but with lesser levels of evidence sup...
Source: Headache - January 1, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Evans RW Tags: Headache Source Type: research

Tizanidine Increases Antinociceptive Effect and Prevents Gastric Damage Induced by Ketorolac in the Rat
In this study, we evaluated the potential synergistic effect of these drugs in the thermal paw stimulation model and their effect on gastric ulcer production in response in the rat. Dose‐response curves for ketorolac and tizanidine were constructed and from these, an ED40 value was obtained. Isobolographic analysis was carried out based on 0.5:0.5 proportions. In addition, protective effect of tizanidine against ketorolac‐induced gastric damage was evaluated. A synergistic interaction in thermal hyperalgesia and gastroprotective activity was observed, suggesting a good therapeutic potential of this combination in the t...
Source: Drug Development Research - November 21, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Juan Rodríguez‐Silverio, María Elena Sánchez‐Mendoza, Jesús Arrieta‐Valencia, Héctor Isaac Rocha‐Gonzalez, Francisco Javier Flores‐Murrieta Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Tizanidine Increases Antinociceptive Effect and Prevent Gastric Damage Induced by Ketorolac in the Rat
In this study, we evaluated the potential synergistic effect of these drugs in the thermal paw stimulation model and their effect on gastric ulcer production in response in the rat. Dose‐response curves for ketorolac and tizanidine were constructed and from these, an ED40 value was obtained. Isobolographic analysis was carried out based on 0.5:0.5 proportions. In addition, protective effect of tizanidine against ketorolac‐induced gastric damage was evaluated. A synergistic interaction in thermal hyperalgesia and gastroprotective activity was observed, suggesting a good therapeutic potential of this combination in the t...
Source: Drug Development Research - November 21, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Juan Rodríguez‐Silverio, María Elena Sánchez‐Mendoza, Jesús Arrieta‐Valencia, Héctor Isaac Rocha‐Gonzalez, Francisco Javier Flores‐Murrieta Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Spasticity: pathophysiology, evaluation and management.
This article reviews the current understanding of pathophysiology, clinical features and management of spasticity. PMID: 22976059 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Practical Neurology)
Source: Practical Neurology - September 19, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Kheder A, Nair KP Tags: Pract Neurol Source Type: research

Ciprofloxacin/tizanidine: Bradycardia, hypoxaemia and hypotension: case report
(Source: Reactions)
Source: Reactions - May 22, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Development of orodispersible tizanidine HCl tablets using spray dried coprocessed exipient bases
Rajashree Masareddy, A Kokate, V ShahIndian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2011 73(4):392-396Tizanidine HCl is a centrally acting α-2 adrenergic agonist muscle relaxant with a slightly bitter taste having short half-life of 2.5 h. In the present study effect of co-processed excipient bases in formulation of orodispersible tizanidine HCl tablets by direct compression method was investigated. Co-processed excipient of microcrystalline cellulose with SSL-hydroxypropylcellulose was prepared using spray drier in 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 ratio. Formulated tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, in vitro disinteg...
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - May 4, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rajashree MasareddyA KokateV Shah Source Type: research

Tizanidine: A Cause of Hypokalemia
(Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - March 26, 2012 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: National Kidney Foundation 2012 Spring Clinical Meetings Abstracts Source Type: research

Drugs used to treat muscle and joint disease
Abstract: There are a wide range of joint and muscle diseases. The main joint diseases covered in this article are osteoarthritis and gout. The former is treated with symptomatic pain relief and the latter with strategies to reduce uric acid deposition in the joint, especially allopurinol. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease targeted to muscle type nicotinic receptors. Treatment is based on improving neuromuscular function by (i) increasing acetylcholine concentrations with neostigmine and pyridostigmine, (ii) immunosuppression, (iii) thymectomy and (iv) plasmapheresis. General muscle spasticity can be caused by a ...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2012 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: David G. Lambert Tags: Pharmacology Source Type: research

Towards Safer and More Predictable Drug Treatment – Reflections from Studies of the First BCPT Prize Awardee
AbstractThis MiniReview is a personal recollection of selected research topics, which the author in collaboration with colleagues has studied, aiming to improve the predictability of drug therapy. In early studies, we found bi‐ and trivalent cations to reduce the absorption of various tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. Certain antacids elevated the bioavailability of some non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs and sulphonylureas. Various brands of phenytoin tablets revealed great differences in their bioavailability, causing clinical consequences. Numerous factors affecting the antidotal effect of activated charcoal ...
Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 21, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pertti J. Neuvonen Tags: MiniReview Source Type: research

Tizanidine (Zanaflex): A Muscle Relaxant That May Prolong the QT Interval by Blocking IKr
Conclusion: Tizanidine prolongs the QT interval by blocking IKr. Patients could be at risk of cardiac proarrhythmia during impaired drug elimination, such as in case of CYP1A2 inhibition during drug interactions. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 6, 2012 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kaddar, N., Vigneault, P., Pilote, S., Patoine, D., Simard, C., Drolet, B. Tags: Experimental Studies Source Type: research