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Challenges of recurrent hepatitis C in the liver transplant patient.
Abstract Cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a very common indication for liver transplant. Unfortunately recurrence of HCV is almost universal in patients who are viremic at the time of transplant. The progression of fibrosis has been shown to be more rapid in the post-transplant patients than in the transplant naïve, hence treatment of recurrent HCV needs to be considered for all patients with documented recurrent HCV. Management of recurrent HCV is a challenging situation both for patients and physicians due to multiple reasons as discussed in this review. The standard HCV treatment with pegylated...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Dhanasekaran R, Firpi RJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Computational biology approach to uncover hepatitis C virus helicase operation.
Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase is a molecular motor that splits nucleic acid duplex structures during viral replication, therefore representing a promising target for antiviral treatment. Hence, a detailed understanding of the mechanism by which it operates would facilitate the development of efficient drug-assisted therapies aiming to inhibit helicase activity. Despite extensive investigations performed in the past, a thorough understanding of the activity of this important protein was lacking since the underlying internal conformational motions could not be resolved. Here we review investigations that ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Flechsig H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and atherosclerosis: Clinical impact and mechanisms.
Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major health issue worldwide due to its burden of chronic liver disease and extrahepatic manifestations including cardiovascular diseases, which are associated with excess mortality. Analysis of published studies supports the view that HCV infection should be considered a risk factor for the development of carotid atherosclerosis, heart failure and stroke. In contrast, findings from studies addressing coronary artery disease and HCV have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, meta-analytic reviews and prospective studies are warranted. The pathogenic mechanis...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Adinolfi LE, Zampino R, Restivo L, Lonardo A, Guerrera B, Marrone A, Nascimbeni F, Florio A, Loria P Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Adaptive immune response during hepatitis C virus infection.
Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 170 million people worldwide and it is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is a hepatotropic non-cytopathic virus able to persist in a great percentage of infected hosts due to its ability to escape from the immune control. Liver damage and disease progression during HCV infection are driven by both viral and host factors. Specifically, adaptive immune response carries out an essential task in controlling non-cytopathic viruses because of its ability to recognize infected cells and to destroy them by cytopathic mechanisms and to...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Larrubia JR, Moreno-Cubero E, Lokhande MU, García-Garzón S, Lázaro A, Miquel J, Perna C, Sanz-de-Villalobos E Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Tools for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection and hepatic fibrosis staging.
Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health issue. Hepatitis C can be cured by therapy, but many infected individuals are unaware of their status. Effective HCV screening, fast diagnosis and characterization, and hepatic fibrosis staging are highly relevant for controlling transmission, treating infected patients and, consequently, avoiding end-stage liver disease. Exposure to HCV can be determined with high sensitivity and specificity with currently available third generation serology assays. Additionally, the use of point-of-care tests can increase HCV screening opportunities. Howe...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Saludes V, González V, Planas R, Matas L, Ausina V, Martró E Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Immunologic, metabolic and genetic factors in hepatitis C virus infection.
Abstract The mechanisms that regulate disease progression during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the response to treatment are not clearly identified. Numerous studies have demonstrated that a strong host immune response against HCV favors HCV clearance. In addition, genetic factors and metabolic machinery, particularly cholesterol modulation, are involved in HCV infection. It is likely that the interplay between all of these factors contributes to the outcome of HCV infection. In recent years, the world has experienced its largest epidemic of obesity. Mexico and the United States are the leading sufferers fr...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Fierro NA, Gonzalez-Aldaco K, Torres-Valadez R, Martinez-Lopez E, Roman S, Panduro A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

How hepatitis C virus invades hepatocytes: The mystery of viral entry.
Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem, with an estimated 170 million people being chronically infected. HCV cell entry is a complex multi-step process, involving several cellular factors that trigger virus uptake into the hepatocytes. The high- density lipoprotein receptor scavenger receptor class B type I, tetraspanin CD81, tight junction protein claudin-1, and occludin are the main receptors that mediate the initial step of HCV infection. In addition, the virus uses cell receptor tyrosine kinases as entry regulators, such as epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin receptor A2. ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhu YZ, Qian XJ, Zhao P, Qi ZT Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Restoring the gut microbiome for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Abstract Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is considered to be a highly successful therapy for recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) based on recent clinical trials. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is thought to be due in part to perturbations in the gut microflora that disrupt homeostasis. FMT restores essential components of the microflora which could reverse the inflammatory processes observed in IBD. Case reports and series for the treatment of IBD by FMT have shown promise with regards to treatment success and safety despite the limitations of the reporting. ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Allegretti JR, Hamilton MJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract Thiopurine analogs and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents have dramatically changed the therapeutics of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), improving short and long-term outcomes. Unfortunately some patients do not respond to therapy and others lose response over time. The pharmacokinetic properties of these drugs are complex, with high inter-patient variability. Thiopurine analogs are metabolized through a series of pathways, which vary according to the patients' pharmacogenetic profile. This profile largely determines the ratios of metabolites, which are in turn associated with likelihoods of clinica...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yarur AJ, Abreu MT, Deshpande AR, Kerman DH, Sussman DA Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Advanced therapeutic endoscopist and inflammatory bowel disease: Dawn of a new role.
Abstract Endoscopy plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonoscopy has been traditionally used in the diagnosis of IBD and helps in determination of an important end point in patient management, "mucosal healing". However, the involvement of an advanced endoscopist has expanded with innovations in therapeutic and newer imaging techniques. Endoscopists are increasingly being involved in the management of anastomotic and small bowel strictures in these patients. The advent of balloon enteroscopy has helped us access areas not deemed possible in the past f...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Modha K, Navaneethan U Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

From conception to delivery: Managing the pregnant inflammatory bowel disease patient.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) typically affects patients during their adolescent and young adult years. As these are the reproductive years, patients and physicians often have concerns regarding the interaction between IBD, medications and surgery used to treat IBD, and reproduction, pregnancy outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. Studies have shown a lack of knowledge among both patients and physicians regarding reproductive issues in IBD. As the literature is constantly expanding regarding these very issues, with this review, we provide a comprehensive, updated overview of the literature on the management ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Huang VW, Habal FM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in ulcerative colitis: Pathogenetic and therapeutic implications.
Abstract Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent co-morbidities of ulcerative colitis patients. The epidemiological association of these diseases suggested a genetic sharing and has challenged gene identification. Diabetes co-morbidity in ulcerative colitis has also relevant clinical and therapeutic implications, with potential clinical impact on the follow up and outcome of patients. These diseases share specific complications, such as neuropathy, hepatic steatosis, osteoporosis and venous thrombosis. It is still unknown whether the coexistence of these diseases may increase their occurrence. Diabetes and hy...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maconi G, Furfaro F, Sciurti R, Bezzio C, Ardizzone S, de Franchis R Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Hepatitis B and C virus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract In recent years, a number of case reports and clinical studies have highlighted the risk of hepatitis B and C virus reactivation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who are treated with immunosuppressive drugs. The cases of viral hepatitis reactivation that have been reported are characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations, from viremia without clinically relevant manifestations to fulminant life-threatening hepatitis. The development and dissemination of biological immunosuppressive drugs have led to a significant increase in the number of reports of interest to physicians in a variet...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sansone S, Guarino M, Castiglione F, Rispo A, Auriemma F, Loperto I, Rea M, Caporaso N, Morisco F Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Clinical management of inflammatory bowel disease in the organ recipient.
Abstract There was estimated a higher incidence of de novo inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after solid organ transplantation than in the general population. The onset of IBD in the organ transplant recipient population is an important clinical situation which is associated to higher morbidity and difficulty in the medical therapeutic management because of possible interaction between anti-reject therapy and IBD therapy. IBD course after liver transplantation (LT) is variable, but about one third of patients may worsen, needing an increase in medical therapy or a colectomy. Active IBD at the time of LT, discontinua...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Indriolo A, Ravelli P Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetics of azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease: A role for glutathione-S-transferase?
Abstract Azathioprine is a purine antimetabolite drug commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In vivo it is active after reaction with reduced glutathione (GSH) and conversion to mercaptopurine. Although this reaction may occur spontaneously, the presence of isoforms M and A of the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) may increase its speed. Indeed, in pediatric patients with IBD, deletion of GST-M1, which determines reduced enzymatic activity, was recently associated with reduced sensitivity to azathioprine and reduced production of azathioprine active metabolites. In addition to increase the ac...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Stocco G, Pelin M, Franca R, De Iudicibus S, Cuzzoni E, Favretto D, Martelossi S, Ventura A, Decorti G Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Anemia in inflammatory bowel disease: A neglected issue with relevant effects.
In conclusion, the management of anemia is a complex aspect of treating IBD patients, one that significantly influences the prognosis of the disease. As a consequence, its correction should be considered a specific, first-line therapeutic goal in the management of these patients. PMID: 24707137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Guagnozzi D, Lucendo AJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Psychiatric comorbidity in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, commonly known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), draw attention from specialists of various disorders, including gastroenterology, psychiatry, and radiology. The involvement of a cortical influence in the brain-gut axis as well as the interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the peripheral nervous system provide an initial explanation of the psychological symptoms associated with IBD. The involvement of structures the limbic system, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala, paves the way for the discovery of ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Filipovic BR, Filipovic BF Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Colon-specific prodrugs of 4-aminosalicylic acid for inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract Despite the advent of biological products, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibodies (infliximab and adalimumab), for treatment of moderate to severe cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), most patients depend upon aminosalicylates as the conventional treatment option. In recent years, the increased knowledge of complex pathophysiological processes underlying IBD has resulted in development of a number of newer pharmaceutical agents like low-molecular-weight heparin, omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics and innovative formulations such as high-dose, once-daily multi-matrix mesalamine, whic...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Dhaneshwar SS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Remote ischemic preconditioning as treatment for non-ischemic gastrointestinal disorders: Beyond ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Abstract Common gastrointestinal diseases such as radiation enteritis (RE), acute pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and drug-induced hepatotoxicity share pathophysiological mechanisms at the molecular level, mostly involving the activation of many pathways of the immune response, ultimately leading to tissue injury. Increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine release, inflammatory cell infiltration and activation and the up-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors participate in the pathophysiology of these complex entities. Treatment varies in each specific disease, but at least in the ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Camara-Lemarroy CR Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

What physicians should know about the management of chronic hepatitis B in children: East side story.
Abstract Understanding the natural course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is very important for the management and treatment of chronic hepatitis B in children. Based on treatment guidelines, the management of HBV carriers and treatment of active hepatitis have been advancing and resulted in increased survival, as well as decreased risks of complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Development of a continuing medical education (CME) program for primary physicians becomes an important responsibility of pediatric hepatologists. CME could prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary trea...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Choe HJ, Choe BH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of nodules in liver cirrhosis.
Abstract Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using microbubble contrast agents are useful for the diagnosis of the nodules in liver cirrhosis. CEUS can be used as a problem-solving method for indeterminate nodules on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as an initial diagnostic test for small newly detected liver nodules. CEUS has unique advantages over CT and MRI including no renal excretion of contrast, real-time imaging capability, and purely intravascular contrast. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by arterial-phase hypervascularity and later washout (negative enhancemen...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kim TK, Jang HJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Clinicopathological study of primary biliary cirrhosis with interface hepatitis compared to autoimmune hepatitis.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the hepatocellular injuries associated with interface and lobular hepatitis in AIH and PBC with interface hepatitis may not be identical. PMID: 24707143 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kobayashi M, Kakuda Y, Harada K, Sato Y, Sasaki M, Ikeda H, Terada M, Mukai M, Kaneko S, Nakanuma Y Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Association of rs1568885, rs1813443 and rs4411591 polymorphisms with anti-TNF medication response in Greek patients with Crohn's disease.
CONCLUSION: Based on our results, the rs1568885 and rs1813443 polymorphisms are associated with clinical and biochemical response to infliximab in Greek patients with Crohn's disease. PMID: 24707144 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Thomas D, Gazouli M, Karantanos T, Rigoglou S, Karamanolis G, Bramis K, Zografos G, Theodoropoulos GE Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: Report of an efficacy study.
CONCLUSION: The triple therapy regime, employing a combination of amoxicillin, clarithromycin and rabeprazole, showed great efficacy and safety in the eradication of H. pylori, and this outcome was not influenced by gender or age. No difference was observed between the 7-d and 10-d regimens. PMID: 24707145 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Onyekwere CA, Odiagah JN, Igetei R, Duro Emanuel AO, Ekere F, Smith S Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Influence of the safety and diagnostic accuracy of preoperative endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for resectable pancreatic cancer on clinical performance.
CONCLUSION: In patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, preoperative EUS-FNA is a safe and accurate diagnostic method. PMID: 24707146 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kudo T, Kawakami H, Kuwatani M, Eto K, Kawahata S, Abe Y, Onodera M, Ehira N, Yamato H, Haba S, Kawakubo K, Sakamoto N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Tumors of the angle of Treitz: A single-center experience.
CONCLUSION: The overall survival of patients with tumors of the angle of Treitz was encouraging even when the tumor size was relatively large. A segmental resection on the left side of the mesenteric vessels is considered to be a reliable and curative option for tumors of the angle of Treitz. PMID: 24707147 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xie YB, Liu H, Cui L, Xing GS, Yang L, Sun YM, Bai XF, Zhao DB, Wang CF, Tian YT Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in elderly people in the Beijing region, China.
CONCLUSION: Type I H. pylori seroprevalence is higher in elderly people. The distribution of strains of H. pylori is significantly affected by age, area and dietary habits. PMID: 24707148 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhang M, Zhou YZ, Li XY, Tang Z, Zhu HM, Yang Y, Chhetri JK Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Prognostic value of number of examined lymph nodes in patients with node-negative gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: Number of eLNs could predict the prognosis of node-negative gastric cancer, and dissection of > 15 eLNs is recommended during lymphadenectomy so as to improve the long-term survival. PMID: 24707149 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jiao XG, Deng JY, Zhang RP, Wu LL, Wang L, Liu HG, Hao XS, Liang H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Prevalence and characteristics of dyspepsia among college students in Zhejiang Province.
CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of dyspepsia among Zhejiang college students is low, the significantly higher rates of concomitant IBS and GERD suggest common pathophysiological disturbances. PMID: 24707150 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Li M, Lu B, Chu L, Zhou H, Chen MY Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Lack of association between apolipoprotein C3 gene polymorphisms and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a Chinese Han population.
CONCLUSION: The two polymorphisms of the APOC3 gene are not associated with a risk of NAFLD, or with lipid profiles, IR and oxidative stress in the Chinese Han population. PMID: 24707151 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Niu TH, Jiang M, Xin YN, Jiang XJ, Lin ZH, Xuan SY Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Psychosocial issues in evidence-based guidelines on inflammatory bowel diseases: A review.
CONCLUSION: Patients and mental health specialists should be able to participate in future guideline groups to contribute to establishing recommendations on psychosocial issues in IBD. Future guidelines should acknowledge the presence of psychosocial problems in IBD-patients and encourage screening for psychological distress. PMID: 24707152 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Häuser W, Moser G, Klose P, Mikocka-Walus A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Transcription factor ERG is a specific and sensitive diagnostic marker for hepatic angiosarcoma.
CONCLUSION: ERG is a more sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for hepatic angiosarcoma in comparison to CD31, CD34 and FVIIIRAg. PMID: 24707153 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang ZB, Yuan J, Chen W, Wei LX Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Evidence based medicine and surgical approaches for colon cancer: Evidences, benefits and limitations of the laparoscopic vs open resection.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopy is superior for the majority of short-term results. Future studies should better differentiate these approaches on the basis of tumors' location and the post-operative hernias. PMID: 24707154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lorenzon L, La Torre M, Ziparo V, Montebelli F, Mercantini P, Balducci G, Ferri M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Colonic and anal metastases from pancreato-biliary malignancies.
We report two cases where metastases from pancreato-biliary cancers were identified in the colon and anal canal. In both cases specific immunohistochemical staining was utilised in the diagnosis. In the first case, the presenting complaint was obstructive jaundice due to an ampullary tumour for which a pancreato-duodenectomy was carried out. However, the patient re-presented 4 wk later with an atypical anal fissure which was found to be metastatic deposit from the primary ampullary adenocarcinoma. In the second case, the patient presented with obstructive jaundice due to a biliary stricture. Subsequent imaging revealed sig...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ejtehadi F, Chatzizacharias NA, Brais RJ, Hall NR, Godfrey EM, Huguet E, Praseedom RK, Jah A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Colonoscopy-induced ischemic colitis in patients without risk factors.
Abstract Ischemic colitis is the most common form of intestinal ischemia. It is a condition that is commonly seen in the elderly and among individuals with risk factors for ischemia. Common predisposing conditions for ischemic colitis are major vascular occlusion, small vessel disorder, shock, some medications, colonic obstructions and hematologic disorders. Ischemic colitis following colonoscopy is rare. Here, we report two cases of ischemic colitis after a routine screening colonoscopy in patients without risk factors for ischemia. PMID: 24707156 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lee SO, Kim SH, Jung SH, Park CW, Lee MJ, Lee JA, Koo HC, Kim A, Han HY, Kang DW Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Successful treatment of liver abscess secondary to foreign body penetration of the alimentary tract: A case report and literature review.
We report a case of gastric antrum penetration due to a toothpick complicated by liver abscess formation. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaint of upper abdominal pain for 2 mo. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed at a local clinic revealed a toothpick penetrating the gastric antrum. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen at our hospital revealed a gastric foreign body embedded in the posterior wall of gastric antrum with regional phlegmon over the lesser sac and adhesion to the pancreatic body without notable vascular injury, and a hepatic abscess seven cm in diameter over the left live...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chong LW, Sun CK, Wu CC, Sun CK Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Hemobilia and other complications caused by percutaneous ultrasound-guided liver biopsy.
We report a patient who suffered from four complications over 11 d after ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy: hemobilia, acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and multiple stomach ulcers. Digital subtraction angiography was done after consultation with doctors, and showed obvious arteriovenous fistula of the right liver. The hepatic artery was selected and embolized by spring orbs. The active bleeding was stopped after embolization of the hepatic artery. The patient was discharged home on day 12 after embolization and remained well. PMID: 24707158 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhou HB Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity.
Abstract Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - April 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ding H, Liu XC, Mei Q, Xu JM, Hu XY, Hu J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Transarterial chemoembolization and bland embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the first line treatment for patients with intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma but is also increasingly being used for patients on the transplant waiting list to prevent further tumor growth. Despite its widespread use, TACE remains an unstandardized procedure, with variation in type and size of embolizing particles, type and dose of chemotherapy and interval between therapies. Existing evidence from randomized controlled trials suggest that bland transarterial embolization (TAE) has the same efficacy with TACE. In the current article, we review the use of ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tsochatzis EA, Fatourou E, O'Beirne J, Meyer T, Burroughs AK Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

DCE-MRI in hepatocellular carcinoma-clinical and therapeutic image biomarker.
Abstract Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) enables tumor vascular physiology to be assessed. Within the tumor tissue, contrast agents (gadolinium chelates) extravasate from intravascular into the extravascular extracellular space (EES), which results in a signal increase on T1-weighted MRI. The rate of contrast agents extravasation to EES in the tumor tissue is determined by vessel leakiness and blood flow. Thus, the signal measured on DCE-MRI represents a combination of permeability and perfusion. The semi-quantitative analysis is based on the calculation of heuristic parameters that c...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chen BB, Shih TT Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Venous thromboembolism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Focus on prevention and treatment.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The most common sites of VTE in IBD patients are the deep veins of the legs and pulmonary system, followed by the portal and mesenteric veins. However, other sites may also be involved, such as the cerebrovascular and retinal veins. The aetiology of VTE is multifactorial, including both inherited and acquired risk factors that, when simultaneously present, multiply the risk to the patient. VTE prevention involves correcting modifiable risk factor...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Papa A, Gerardi V, Marzo M, Felice C, Rapaccini GL, Gasbarrini A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel diseases susceptibility.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), represents a group of chronic inflammatory disorders caused by dysregulated immune responses in genetically predisposed individuals. Genetic markers are associated with disease phenotype and long-term evolution, but their value in everyday clinical practice is limited at the moment. IBD has a clear immunological background and interleukins play key role in the process. Almost 130 original papers were revised including meta-analysis. It is clear these data are very important for understanding the base of the d...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Magyari L, Kovesdi E, Sarlos P, Javorhazy A, Sumegi K, Melegh B Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Dysregulation of mucosal immune response in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The exact etiology and pathology of IBD remain unknown. Available evidence suggests that an abnormal immune response against the microorganisms in the intestine is responsible for the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Dysregulation of immune response in the intestine plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of IBD, involving a wide range of molecules including cytokines. On the other hand, besides T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell immune responses, other subsets of T cells, namely Th17 and regulatory T cells, are li...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xu XR, Liu CQ, Feng BS, Liu ZJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Protective effects of intravenous anesthetics on kidney tissue in obstructive jaundice.
CONCLUSION: Among the agents tested, ketamine and propofol generated the least amount of oxidative stres on renal tissues in this rat model of obstructive jaundice created by common bile duct ligation. The importance of free radical injury in renal tissue in obstructive jaundice under different intravenous anesthetics during hepatobiliary and liver transplant surgery should be considered for prevention of postoperative acute renal failure. PMID: 24695809 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hatipoglu S, Yildiz H, Bulbuloglu E, Coskuner I, Kurutas EB, Hatipoglu F, Ciralik H, Berhuni MS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Detection of genotypic clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by string tests.
CONCLUSION: String test with molecular analysis is a less invasive method to detect genotypic resistance before treatment. Further large-scale investigations are necessary to confirm our results. PMID: 24695835 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wu JY, Wang SS, Lee YC, Yamaoka Y, Graham DY, Jan CM, Wang WM, Wu DC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Laparoscopic hepaticoplasty using gallbladder as a subcutaneous tunnel for hepatolithiasis.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic hepaticoplasty using gallbladder with a subcutaneous tunnel and preserving the sphincter of Oddi is feasible, safe and effective for hepatholithiasis. PMID: 24695884 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cui L, Xu Z, Ling XF, Wang LX, Hou CS, Wang G, Zhou XS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto-related gastric ulcers: A case report.
Abstract A spiral bacterium (SH9), morphologically different from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), was found in a 62-year-old woman's gastric mucosa. Gastroscopic examination revealed multiple gastric ulcers near the pyloric ring; mapping gastric biopsy showed mild mononuclear infiltration with large lymphoid follicles in the antrum, without corpus atrophy. Urea breath test and H. pylori culture were negative, but Giemsa staining of biopsies revealed tightly coiled bacteria that immunostained with anti-H. pylori antibody. Sequencing of SH9 16S rRNA and the partial urease A and B subunit genes showed that the former...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Matsumoto T, Kawakubo M, Akamatsu T, Koide N, Ogiwara N, Kubota S, Sugano M, Kawakami Y, Katsuyama T, Ota H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

New approaches for precise response evaluation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract With the increasing clinical use of cytostatic and novel biologic targeted agents, conventional morphologic tumor burden assessments, including World Health Organization criteria and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, are confronting limitations because of their difficulties in distinguishing viable tumor from necrotic or fibrotic tissue. Therefore, the investigation for reliable quantitative biomarkers of therapeutic response such as metabolic imaging or functional imaging has been desired. In this review, we will discuss the conventional and new approaches to assess tumor burden. Since targete...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hayano K, Fuentes-Orrego JM, Sahani DV Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Oxidative damage in the progression of chronic liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma: An intricate pathway.
Abstract The histo-pathologic and molecular mechanisms leading to initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still ill-defined; however, there is increasing evidence that the gradual accumulation of mutations, genetic and epigenetic changes which occur in preneoplastic hepatocytes results in the development of dysplastic foci, nodules, and finally, overt HCC. As well as many other neoplasias, liver cancer is considered an "inflammatory cancer", arising from a context of inflammation, and characterized by inflammation-related mechanisms that favor tumor cell survival, proliferation, and invasio...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cardin R, Piciocchi M, Bortolami M, Kotsafti A, Barzon L, Lavezzo E, Sinigaglia A, Rodriguez-Castro KI, Rugge M, Farinati F Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Systemic therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma: Current status and future perspectives.
Abstract The management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has substantially changed in the past few decades, the introduction of novel therapies (such as sorafenib) have improved patient survival. Nevertheless, HCC remains the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Decision-making largely relies on evidence-based criteria, as showed in the US and European clinical practice guidelines, which endorse five therapeutic recommendations:resection; transplantation; radiofrequency ablation; chemoembolization; and sorafenib. Many molecularly targeted agents that inhibit angiogenesis, epidermal growth fa...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - March 28, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Germano D, Daniele B Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research