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Regulatory science on biomarker usage for development and proper use of drugs.
PMID: 25948296 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Saito Y, Tohkin M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Regulatory science for the proper evaluation of biomarkers (overview).
Abstract   New drug development (NDD) for intractable diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease has been challenging in recent years because it is difficult to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of new drugs and the response of individual patients. Thus biomarkers might be a useful tool to facilitate NDD because they can be used to evaluate accurately drug responses. Biomarkers include proteins, metabolites, and genetic targets; imaging data and can also be used in pre-clinical studies, clinical trials, and post-marketing surveillance. In pre-clinical studies, biomarkers are used as an index of the pharmacol...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tohkin M, Saito Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Investigation of Predisposition Biomarkers to Identify Risk Factors for Drug-induced Liver Injury in Humans: Analyses of Endogenous Metabolites in an Animal Model Mimicking Human Responders to APAP-induced Hepatotoxicity.
Abstract   Drug-induced liver injury is a main reason of regulatory action pertaining to drugs, including restrictions to clinical indications and withdrawal from the marketplace. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used and effective analgesic/antipyretic agent and relatively safe drug even in long-term treatment. However, it is known that APAP at therapeutic doses may cause hepatotoxicity in some individuals. Hence great efforts have been made to identify risk factors for APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxicity. We investigated the contribution of undernourishment to susceptibility to APAP-induced chronic hepatotoxi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kobayashi A, Kondo K, Sugai S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of mogamulizumab and establishment of an optimal therapy based on genomic biomarkers: from the academic viewpoint.
Abstract   Mogamulizumab (Moga; KW-0761) is a defucosylated humanized anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) antibody engineered to exert potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). A collaborative investigation with industry in preclinical studies has demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efficacy via ADCC for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and CCR4-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). In a phase I study, once-weekly administration of mogamulizumab (0.01-1.0 mg/kg) for 4 weeks was well tolerated. In a phase II study of once-weekly mogamulizumab (1.0 mg/kg) for 8 weeks in relapsed/refractory AT...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Iida S, Ishida T, Ueda R Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Utilization of Genomic Biomarkers for Post-marketing Safety of Drugs.
Abstract   To prevent adverse drug reactions in the post-marketing phase, therapeutic drug monitoring and various laboratory tests have been used for decades. Recently, data on associations between drug adverse reactions and biomarkers based on "omics" technologies/studies have been increasing. Using genomic biomarkers, patients at high risk for developing side effects can be distinguished before initiating medical treatment, allowing the choice of an appropriate drug/initial dosage regimen. Biomarkers based on proteomics or metabolomics can detect the onset of adverse reactions at an earlier stage than can be ac...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kaniwa N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Current PMDA Activities for Use of Biomarkers in Drug Evaluation.
This article outlines the regulatory perspective on remaining challenges and current Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) activities for use of BM in drug evaluation. PMID: 25948301 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ishiguro A Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Frontiers in research of drug transporters aimed at appropriate pain relief by narcotic analgesics.
PMID: 25948302 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tokuyama S, Kawakami J Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Role of Scaffold Proteins in Functional Alteration of Small Intestinal P-glycoprotein by Anti-cancer Drugs.
Abstract   Since there is accumulating evidence to indicate that introduction of early palliative care for cancer patients may improved their quality of life or survival rates, the number of patients receiving pain relief by narcotic analgesics in conjunction with chemotherapy is predicted to increase. Therefore to provide effective combination treatments it is important to evaluate basic evidence regarding drug-drug interactions between anti-cancer drugs and narcotics. We have focused on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux transporter, in small intestine where the absorption process of drugs administered via or...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kobori T, Harada S, Nakamoto K, Tokuyama S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The blood-brain barrier transport mechanism controlling analgesic effects of opioid drugs in CNS.
Abstract   The transport of opioid analgesics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important determinant of their therapeutic effects. The human brain is protected by the BBB, which consists of brain capillary endothelial cells linked with tight junctions. It is well established that the polarized expression of numerous transporters and receptors at the brain capillary endothelial cells controls the blood-brain exchange of nutrients, waste products deriving from neurotransmitter substances, and drugs. Morphine is a substrate of P-glycoprotein and the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux transport at the BBB maint...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Okura T, Higuchi K, Deguchi Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Altered expression of transporter and analgesic of morphine in neuropathic pain mice.
We examined the reason for the decreased concentration of morphine in the brain in case of neuropathic pain. We discovered increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in the small intestine, increased expression and activity of UGT2B in the liver, and increased P-gp expression in the brain under conditions of neuropathic pain. In this symposium, we argue that low brain morphine concentration is considered one of the causes of lower sensitivity to morphine in neuropathic pain patients. PMID: 25948305 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ochiai W, Sugiyama K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Interindividual variation of pharmacokinetic disposition of and clinical responses to opioid analgesics in cancer pain patients.
Abstract   Use of prescription opioids for cancer pain according to the World Health Organization analgesic ladder has been accepted in Japan. Although oxycodone and fentanyl are commonly used as first-line analgesics, a few clinical reports have been published on interindividual variations in their pharmacokinetics and clinical responses in cancer patients. (1) Some factors relating to CYP2D6, CYP3A, ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1), and opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) involve oxycodone pharmacokinetics and sensitivity in humans. The relations between their genetic variations and clinical response...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Naito T, Kawakami J Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Imaging in vivo redox metabolism.
PMID: 25948307 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anzai K, Hyodo F Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Radiation therapy and redox imaging.
Abstract   Radiation therapy kills cancer cells in part by flood of free radicals. Radiation ionizes and/or excites water molecules to create highly reactive species, i.e. free radicals and/or reactive oxygen species. Free radical chain reactions oxidize biologically important molecules and thereby disrupt their function. Tissue oxygen and/or redox status, which can influence the course of the free radical chain reaction, can affect the efficacy of radiation therapy. Prior observation of tissue oxygen and/or redox status is helpful for planning a safe and efficient course of radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance-...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matsumoto K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Redox Molecular Imaging Using ReMI.
Abstract   Tissue redox status is one of the most important parameters to maintain homeostasis in the living body. Numerous redox reactions are involved in metabolic processes, such as energy production in the mitochondrial electron transfer system. A variety of intracellular molecules such as reactive oxygen species, glutathione, thioredoxins, NADPH, flavins, and ascorbic acid may contribute to the overall redox status in tissues. Breakdown of redox balance may lead to oxidative stress and can induce many pathological conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, and aging. Therefore imaging of tissue redox...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hyodo F, Ito S, Utsumi H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of a new redox molecular imaging method.
Abstract   For indirect tissue observation, electron-spin, Overhauser-enhanced, dynamic nuclear polarization magnetic resonance imaging (DNP-MRI) is a useful technique. However, its sensitivity and resolution are low compared with the clinical MRI apparatus. By switching to electron spin resonance (ESR) excitation, the magnetic field of the NMR detection, field cycle technique, which aims to improve resolution, was proposed. However, the effect of eddy currents or current value was altered unsatisfactorily. A team at Kyushu University proposed a new DNP-MRI technique capable of improving NMR detection field by pr...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Naganuma T, Nakao M, Ichikawa K, Utsumi H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Redox and microglia in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Abstract   Altered antioxidant status has been implicated in schizophrenia. Microglia are major sources of free radicals such as superoxide in the brain, and play crucial roles in various brain diseases. Recent postmortem and imaging studies have indicated microglial activation in the brain of schizophrenia patients. Animal models that express some phenotypes of schizophrenia have revealed the underlying microglial pathology. In addition, minocycline, an antibiotic and the best known inhibitor of microglial activation, has therapeutic efficacy in schizophrenia. We have recently revealed that various antipsychotic...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: A Kato T, Hyodo F, Yamato M, Utsumi H, Kanba S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Influence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin.
This study investigated the effect of SIRS on the pharmacokinetics of VCM by analyzing the predictability of TDM and pharmacokinetic parameters in 31 non-SIRS patients and 52 SIRS patients, with stratification by SIRS score. The mean prediction error (ME) and mean absolute prediction error in SIRS score 2 and 3 patients differed from those in non-SIRS patients. The ME in the score 4 group showed a negative value. In the comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters by SIRS score, a significantly lower CLvcm value was observed at score 4 compared with scores 2 and 3, a higher Vd value was observed at score 4 compared with non-SI...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Irikuchi J, Imai T, Yoshida Y, Orii T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Studies Using Text Mining on the Differences in Learning Effects between the KJ and World Café Method as Learning Strategies.
Abstract   The KJ method (named for developer Jiro Kawakita; also known as affinity diagramming) is widely used in participatory learning as a means to collect and organize information. In addition, the World Café (WC) has recently become popular. However, differences in the information obtained using each method have not been studied comprehensively. To determine the appropriate information selection criteria, we analyzed differences in the information generated by the WC and KJ methods. Two groups engaged in sessions to collect and organize information using either the WC or KJ method and small group discussio...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yasuhara T, Sone T, Konishi M, Kushihata T, Nishikawa T, Yamamoto Y, Kurio W, Kohno T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Outcomes of a Long-Term Case Review Program during the On-Site Training of Pharmacy Students.
This study sought to determine whether a long-term case review (LTCR) program helped pharmacy students develop their abilities as pharmacists, and how their level of satisfaction changed.  LTCRs were comprised of four elements: self-learning, one-on-one bedside training with advising pharmacists, daily group sessions including three members, and weekly plenary sessions (case conferences). This program conducted on-site training in a hospital for 21 fifth-year students. The students were divided into 7 groups. One member of each group was assigned to a ward for bedside training for three weeks, while other member(s) of th...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Murai Y, Suzuki H, Mori M, Tasaka H, Suzuki N, Shimada M, Sato H, Hirasawa N, Mano N, Tomioka Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

A successful case of a patient undergoing warfarin and S-1 therapy using Internet-based control of home-measured PT-INR.
Abstract   To avoid major bleeding events in warfarin and S-1 combination therapy, PT-INR levels should be monitored frequently to allow for precise adjustments of the warfarin dose and to verify any side effects reported by the patient. We therefore developed a support system where outpatients obtain a home-measured PT-INR value using the CoaguChek(®) system and submit it along with details of any side effects to us via the Internet using their mobile phone. A 59-year-old man was started on warfarin (1.5 mg/day) and S-1 (100 mg/day), a combination preparation of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium, to tr...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 24, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamamura K, Yano K, Hirooka Y, Hirashiki A, Murohara T, Yamada K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

New Trend in Metal-based Drug Research.
PMID: 25832832 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sakurai H, Odani A Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Iron, Aluminum, and Lanthanum-based Drugs for Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia.
Abstract   The control of the serum phosphorus (P) level in chronic kidney disease patients is important because elevated serum P levels are associated with progression of vascular calcification and increased mortality in these patients. In 2014, a novel phosphate binder, ferric citrate hydrate (Riona(®)), became available for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in Japan, the first country to approve this medication. Ferric citrate hydrate, which relies upon the potent phosphate-binding capacity of ferric iron, inhibits P absorption by forming complexes between ferric iron and dietary phosphate in the gut. The ac...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matsumura K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Application of radioisotopes for theranostics, a combination of diagnostics and therapy.
Abstract   Radioisotopes emit radiation with various characteristics. These characteristics have been used for various applications of radioisotopes in clinical fields. For example, diagnostic nuclear medicine is a technique that uses gamma-emitted radionuclides with high permeability into the body and can visualize changes in physiological and biochemical processes throughout the distributed and interrelated systems of living tissues and organs. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is a technique that uses beta-emitted radionuclides with high radiation damage to the cell and can be used for internal radiation therapy. T...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Saji H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination.
Abstract   When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of i...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ohmachi Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Front-line Research of Idiosyncratic Drug Toxicity.
PMID: 25832836 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamada H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Recent findings regarding the mechanism of idiosyncratic drug toxicity.
Abstract   Animal experiments cannot predict the probability of idiosyncratic drug toxicity; consequently, an important goal of the pharmaceutical industry is to develop a new methodology for preventing this form of drug reaction. Although the mechanism remains unclear, immune reactions are likely involved in the toxic processes underlying idiosyncratic drug toxicity: the drug is first activated into a chemically reactive metabolite that binds covalently to proteins and then acts as an immunogen. Therefore, screening tests to detect chemically reactive metabolites are conducted early during drug development and t...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ikeda T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Establishment of Animal Models of Drug-induced Liver Injury and Analysis of Possible Mechanisms.
Abstract   Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of leading causes of attrition during both early and late stages of drug development and postmarketing. DILI is generally classified into the intrinsic and idiosyncratic types. Intrinsic DILI is dose dependent and predictable as exemplified by acetaminophen toxicity. However, the occurrence of idiosyncratic DILI with very low incidence and severe liver damage is difficult to predict because of the complex nature of DILI and poor understanding of its mechanism. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and our accumulated experimental findings on the pathogen...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Oda S, Yokoi T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Predictive genomic markers for severe adverse drug reactions.
Abstract   Severe adverse drug reactions are an important issue to be considered during proper drug usage in postmarketing period. Most severe adverse reactions are idiosyncratic and unrelated to their pharmacological actions via primary targets. Although these reactions were not predictable, recent developments in the field of genomics have revealed closely associated markers responsible for some severe adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). This review demonstrates genomic biomarkers for SJS/TEN and drug-induced liver injury (DILI) that were found mainl...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Saito Y, Kodama S, Sugiyama E, Nakamura R Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Gene Regulation Involved in the Formation of Long-term Memory.
Abstract   My former research focused on silk fibroin gene transcription. The in vivo transcription initiation site of the fibroin gene, which is similar to the site corresponding to the 5'-terminal of mature fibroin mRNA, was determined. By developing a cell-free transcription system prepared from silk glands, it was found that the upstream region of the fibroin gene is responsible for efficient transcription initiation, which has enhancer-like features. More recent research has switched my focus to cellular neurobiology to understand the molecular mechanisms of long-term memory at the level of gene expression i...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsuda M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Clinical pharmacology and pharmacoepidemiology for medication safety in clinical settings.
In conclusion, our achievement in accurately assessing these would contribute to medication safety and the appropriate use of medicines in clinical settings. PMID: 25832841 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kawakami J Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Preparation and physicochemical study of the preservation of nanoparticles.
In this study, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, and pentasaccharides were added to nanoparticle suspensions, followed by rehydration of the samples, which had been either dried normally or freeze-dried. The particle size after rehydration was measured. In addition, each powder was measured using a powder X-ray diffractometer and thermal analysis device to investigate the correlation between the nanoparticles' aggregation and the crystal form of saccharides. The diameter of the nanoparticles was maintained when it was freeze-dried, while particle aggregation occurred when normally dried samples were used. In addition, crys...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kamiya S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Analysis of phthalates in aromatic and deodorant aerosol products and evaluation of exposure risk.
Abstract   We established an analytical method for the detection of seven phthalates, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate, di-i-butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octhyl phthalate, using an ultra high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a photodiode array detector. This method is quick, with minimal contamination, and was applied to the analysis of aromatic and deodorant aerosol products. Phthalates were detected in 15 of 52 samples purchased from 1999 to 2012 in Yokohama. Three types of phthalate (DEP, DBP, DEHP) were detec...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sato Y, Sugaya N, Nakagawa T, Morita M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Elevated serum lithium concentration due to switch from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition.
We report a patient with elevated serum lithium concentration caused by switching from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition. A 73-year-old female inpatient was treated with lithium carbonate 600 mg/d for manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Her serum lithium level was maintained at 0.57-0.79 mEq/L. She was administered total parenteral nutrition owing to difficulty in oral intake. Her diet contained 4.8-5.8 g/d of sodium chloride. After this, parenteral with enteral nutrition was initiated. The total sodium chloride intake decreased from 6.3 to 3.0-4.0 g/d following this change. On day 15 after in...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 5, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Goto H, Tomita T, Doki S, Nakanishi R, Kojima C, Yoneshima M, Yoshida T, Tanaka K, Kohda Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Necessity of Advance Pharmaceutical Education and Research for Upbringing of the Pharmacist Who Can Make a Immediate Decision in Patient's Problems.
PMID: 25747205 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ooi K, Takamura N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The necessity for pharmaceutical education on perioperative care-considering the activities of operating room pharmacists in relation to types of anesthetic operations involved.
Abstract   In an effort better to understand the application of pharmaceutical services in the operating room (OR) we conducted a survey among OR department directors of 526 hospitals throughout Japan. A total of 202 directors responded to the survey. Pharmacists are expected to achieve better outcomes in pharmacotherapy as well as play major roles as members of diverse perioperative care teams. Besides implementing medication safety standards, pharmacists' roles include optimizing drug therapy and other clinical interventions, both in OR and wards. Presently, few pharmacists in Japan participate in perioperative...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shibata Y, Kawamoto M, Kihira K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Practice of drug monitoring based on comprehensive pharmaceutical judgment.
Abstract   With the revisions to the pay for performance of pharmaceutical service of inpatients in April 2012, the ward permanent time of pharmacists grew longer than previously; however, there are as yet few reports on the pharmaceutical outcome of the new medical service. To improve the pharmaceutical service requires that pharmacists collect useful medical information and extract the problems of pharmaceutical care for inpatients. Since many cases of treatment with multidrug regimens are regularly performed, pharmacists cannot contribute to medical treatment only by knowledge of a single disease. Therefore qu...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Katayama T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Health assessment of local residents who made full use of symptomatology skills and test device.
Abstract   A strategy named "Japan is back" adopted in June 2013 specifies that pharmacies shall be regarded as community-based places where health-related information is provided, and the public shall be encouraged to use the services of pharmacies and pharmacists who can advise on health and appropriate use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, and promote self medication. In Japan there are approximately 55000 pharmacies and 260000 pharmacists, and community residents are recommended to use these resources. As advisors on healthcare in the community, pharmacists are required to make judgments regarding drug use in ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Akagawa S, Morikawa N, Ikeda K, Okazaki T, Takahashi S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Key points in clinical pharmaceutical education and research, as seen from pharmaceutical consultation clinics.
Abstract   Pharmaceutical education was expanded to a 6-year system in 2006, in an efforts to enhance clinical pharmaceutical research and education. Since that time, pharmacists have attempted to participate in medical all aspects of medical care, but an environment in which they can master direct pharmaceutical techniques for patients has not yet been sufficiently developed. This is because pharmaceutical education emphasizes the acquisition of knowledge and has not reached the point where it cultivates minds that can adapt to the multitude of situations that are envisaged in medical settings. By incorporating ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ooi K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Necessity of Research of Pharmaceutical Departments in the Creation of New Pharmaceutical Skills through Technical Education of Physical Assessment.
Abstract   Physical assessment skills are now being more widely accepted by pharmacists and pharmaceutical departments than in the past. This is explained by the realization that pharmacists can prevent serious adverse effects and evaluate drug efficacy for their patients through assessment, thus providing effective medical care. However, is that all physical assessment can provide to pharmacists and pharmaceutical students? These students, in turn, should recognize the "need for skill" and the "pleasure to be gained in acquiring that skill" through the physical assessment performed by doctors. They should also r...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takamura N, Tokunaga J, Ogata K, Setoguchi N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The creation of useful analytical tools to elucidate biological phenomena.
PMID: 25747211 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kishikawa N, Todoroki K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Chemiluminescence assay for the investigation of reactive oxygen species generator.
Abstract   Quinones play critical roles in biological systems, but are also regarded as a class of toxins that can cause oxidative stress in living cells, and the involvement of quinone-based reactive oxygen species in oxidative stress has been reported. In biological systems, quinones are reduced to semiquinone radicals by the enzyme NADPH:quinone reductase. Next, semiquinone radicals react with dissolved oxygen to form superoxide anion, which reacts with biological molecules to cause oxidative stress. On the other hand, chemiluminescence reagents such as luminol can emit chemiluminescence after oxidation by rea...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kishikawa N, Kuroda N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development and Application of FD-LC-MS/MS Proteomics Analysis Revealing Protein Expression and Biochemical Events in Tissues and Cells.
Abstract   It is routine to search for and recognized genetic defects in human disorders to provide knowledge for diagnosis, treatment, and protection against diseases. It is also important to investigate and demonstrate the cause of a disease from the proteomic perspective, because intracellular signaling systems depend on protein dynamics. Demonstrating changes in protein levels enables us to understand biochemical events during the initiation and progression of a disease. To understand changes in protein levels in tissues and cells, we have developed a novel proteomics approach, FD-LC-MS/ MS. This consists of ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ichibangase T, Imai K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Highly Selective Analysis of Biogenic-related Compounds Utilizing Fluorous Chemistry.
Abstract   Perfluoroalkyl-containing compounds are highly fluorous, meaning that they have a remarkable affinity for one another and effectively exclude non-fluorous species. Utilizing this unique property, we have developed a fluorous derivatization with a liquid chromatographic analysis method for highly selective analysis of target analytes. Although most previous methods focused on extremely sensitive detection-oriented derivatization, the fluorous derivatization method involves highly specific separation for analytes. This method includes perfluoroalkylation of analytes with a fluorous reagent, and separatio...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hayama T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of HPLC analysis methods for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.
Abstract   Therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) preparations are produced from cultured cells; therefore, detailed and multidimensional analyses of their heterogeneities are required. We analyzed five commercially available mAb preparations by high-temperature reversed-phase LC using a wide-pore core-shell column for pluralistic quality assessment. At a highly elevated column temperature, isopropanol with high eluotropic strength coefficients and a wide-pore core-shell type octyl column showed good peak resolution of the investigated mAbs and their related constituents. We used this method to estimate the residu...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Todoroki K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Next Generation Type Formulation Developed Using Innovation to Overcome Trade-offs between Patient-oriented Approach and Clinical Effectiveness of Formulation.
PMID: 25747216 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Uchida T, Namiki N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Trade-offs in the Development of Various Dosage Form (Overview).
Abstract   In this symposium we focused on trade-offs which might occur in the process of development of many types of formulation and corresponding dissolution methods. Firstly, we focused on a solubility-permeability trade-off in the case of micelle with surfactant or molecular complex with CyD. The micelle would be successful in increasing drug solubility, however it rather decreased permeability of model drug progesterone (Biopharmaceutics Classfication System (BCS) Class II) as an overall flux. Secondly in order to reduce bitterness of branched chain amino acid (BCAA), increasing particle sizes of each amino...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Uchida T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Trade-offs in Oral Drug Product Development.
This article introduces examples of such innovations which have been successful in doing this, as well as some encountered in the oral formulation development and in the selection of proper dosage forms. Based on these examples, points to be considered in order to produce the drug product are thoroughly discussed. PMID: 25747218 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kondo H, Sako K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Clinical functionality required for orally disintegrating tablets selected as the next generation type.
Abstract   Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are currently widely used in drug therapy and are clinically attractive, because they are suitable for administration to patients with dysphagia and improve adherence, both of which increase the possibility of achieving the expected therapeutic effect. These properties of ODTs, which increase treatment effectiveness, are termed their "clinical functionality", and ODTs with a high clinical functionality are required to meet the increasing need for these tablets. For example, there is a need for development of a clinically effective ODT with superior disintegrating pr...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Namiki N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Oral dosage forms for children: acceptability and palatability.
Abstract   Children generally reject taking medicine which does not have a favorable shape, taste, flavor, etc. However, if a child who needs to take a medicine, rejects taking it, he might never recover from his condition. When a child is unable to take medicine orally, it is intravenously administered, and he and his caregivers then may experience stress. Syrups and suspensions are considered as favorable types of dosage forms in which to orally administer medicine to infants and children. However, they may have disadvantages such as solubility, a bad taste, portability problems or required refrigerator storage...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kojima J Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of a novel oral jelly formulation for elderly patients.
Abstract   Deterioration of the swallowing function in elderly persons and drug refusal among the behavioral abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are commonly reported. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-swallow jelly formulation of Donepezil HCl which AD patients can take as a dessert. The development process, however, was full of trade-off problems. (1) Need for evaluating the taste of a drug product vs. Safety of human sensory evaluation of the taste. The trade-off was resolved by using a taste sensor. (2) Speed of development vs. Safety of the manufacturing process. We put priority on the safety rather t...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Harada T, Yasuoka K, Sakurai M, Murase T, Owaki T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research