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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 16.

New perspectives for the use of high-flow nasal oxygen
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2016 Source:Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia (English Edition) Author(s): P.S. Santos, J. Cravo, A.M. Esquinas (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - August 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antimicrobial peptides alter early immune response to influenza A virus infection in C57BL/6 mice
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Kim S. LeMessurier, Yanyan Lin, Jonathan A. McCullers, Amali E. Samarasinghe Influenza is a disease of the respiratory system caused by single stranded RNA viruses with varying genotypes. Immunopathogenesis to influenza viruses differs based on virus strain, dose, and mouse strain used in laboratory models. Although effective mucosal immune defenses are important in early host defense against influenza, information on the kinetics of these immune defense mechanisms during the course of influenza infection is limited. We investigated cha...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - August 13, 2016 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Three new polyphenolic acids from the leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora with antivirus activity.
Abstract Six polyphenolic acids (1-6), including the three new compounds citriodolic acids A, B and C (1-3), were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one dimensional (1D)- and 2D-NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and circular dichroism (CD). The potential antivirus activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) of all the isolated compounds was evaluated. PMID: 27523640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin)
Source: Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - August 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lin SQ, Zhou ZL, Yin WQ Tags: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) Source Type: research

Chryseobacterium zhengzhouense sp. nov., isolated from groundwater of the well in a vegetable field, and emended description of the genus Chryseobacterium.
Abstract A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, asporogenous rod-shaped bacterium, designated M05W1-39A1(T), was isolated from a Chinese cabbage farmland located in Zhengzhou. China, and subjected to a taxonomic study. Strain M05W1-39A1(T) was found to grow optimally at 25-30 °C, at pH 6.0-7.0 and in the presence of 0.5-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. According to phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain M05W1-39A1(T) belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium and is closely related to Chryseobacterium arachidis LMG 27813(T) (98.8 %) and Chryseobacterium geocarposphaera LMG 27811(T) (98.1 %). The DNA ...
Source: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek - August 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang YN, He WH, An ML, Tian WY, You XY, Ying FQ, Guo J, Gong T Tags: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek Source Type: research

Harnessing the power of cell transplantation to target respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury.
Abstract The therapeutic benefit of cell transplantation has been assessed in a host of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including disorders of the spinal cord such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). The promise of cell transplantation to preserve and/or restore normal function can be aimed at a variety of therapeutic mechanisms, including replacement of lost or damaged CNS cell types, promotion of axonal regeneration or sprouting, neuroprotection, immune response modulation, and delivery of gene products such as neurotrophic factors, amongst other possibilities. Despite significant work in the field of ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Charsar BA, Urban MW, Lepore AC Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant oral Capnocytophaga gingivalis responsible for an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Case report and literature review.
CONCLUSION: This multidrug-resistant C. gingivalis isolate illustrated the role of oral flora as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance and its contribution to the limitation of effective antibiotics in severe respiratory infections. PMID: 27531625 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - August 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ehrmann E, Jolivet-Gougeon A, Bonnaure-Mallet M, Fosse T Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Antimicrobial peptides alter early immune response to influenza A virus infection in C57BL/6 mice.
Abstract Influenza is a disease of the respiratory system caused by single stranded RNA viruses with varying genotypes. Immunopathogenesis to influenza viruses differs based on virus strain, dose, and mouse strain used in laboratory models. Although effective mucosal immune defenses are important in early host defense against influenza, information on the kinetics of these immune defense mechanisms during the course of influenza infection is limited. We investigated changes to antimicrobial peptides and primary innate immune cells at early time points after infection and compared these variables between two promin...
Source: Antiviral Research - August 13, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: LeMessurier KS, Lin Y, McCullers JA, Samarasinghe AE Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Microbiological and molecular characterization of commercially available probiotics containing Bacillus clausii from India and Pakistan.
In conclusion, the current analysis clearly demonstrates that of the five analysed commercial probiotics, only Enterogermina followed the label claims. PMID: 27543819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - August 13, 2016 Category: Food Science Authors: Patrone V, Molinari P, Morelli L Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research

A Protective Kidney-Lung Approach to Improve Outcomes in Mechanically Ventilated Patients
There is increasing evidence that deleterious interactions between the lung and the kidney may be partly responsible for the multiorgan failure and high mortality seen in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lung protective strategies can reduce many of the adverse mechanistic and biological effects of mechanical ventilation. However, the key modifiable mediators are yet to be defined for the titration of balance between protective ventilation settings and distant organ function. Disparate but complementary mechanisms that may be involved in acute lung-kidney interactions will be discussed. A kidney-lung prot...
Source: Blood Purification - August 12, 2016 Category: Hematology Source Type: research

Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis and Anasarca in a Female Patient with Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome Complicated by Respiratory and Kidney Failure
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) was first described in 1960. It may occur as a complication of gonadotropin hormone therapy during assisted pregnancy or for primary infertility. A 26-year-old female patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome and primary infertility was treated to conceive. She received intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) along with follicle-stimulating hormone in an outside private clinic. She presented to the emergency department with abdominal and chest pain, loose stool, vomiting, shortness of breath and decreasing urine output. She was found to have edema, ascites, effusion and acu...
Source: Case Reports in Gastroenterology - August 12, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Contemporary type 1 diabetes pregnancy outcomes: impact of obesity and glycaemic control.
CONCLUSION: Women with type 1 diabetes, even when managed in a specialist setting, still experience adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Poor glycaemic control is not wholly responsible for adverse outcomes, reinforcing the importance of other risk factors, such as obesity and weight gain. PMID: 27510344 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Med J Aust)
Source: Med J Aust - August 12, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Abell SK, Boyle JA, de Courten B, Knight M, Ranasinha S, Regan J, Soldatos G, Wallace EM, Zoungas S, Teede HJ Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

[Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - Rational Diagnostics and Therapy].
Authors: Burkhardt R, Pankow W Abstract In general chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be diagnosed in family practice from history and spirometry. Inconclusive spirometry findings have to be assessed further by techniques available in a pulmonologist's office. Further testing is done for differential diagnostic reasons and for prognostic appraisal. Successful smoking cessation importantly alters the natural downhill course of the disease. Patient education and rehabilitative interventions (e. g. participation in lung sport groups) help to improve life quality. Medical therapies with bronchospasmolytic...
Source: Pneumologie - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Pneumologie Source Type: research

[The Swedish Mozart].
Authors: Kropp R, Schaberg T PMID: 27512932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pneumologie)
Source: Pneumologie - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Pneumologie Source Type: research

[Exon-dependent Subgroup-analysis of the Non-interventional REASON-Study: PFS and OS in EGFR-mutated NSCLC Patients Treated with Gefitinib or Chemotherapy].
Conclusion: Localization and nature of EGFR mutations influences gefitinib treatment outcomes under routine conditions and should therefore be analyzed in detail. PMID: 27512931 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pneumologie)
Source: Pneumologie - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Pneumologie Source Type: research

[Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].
Authors: Baur X, Woitowitz HJ Abstract Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for ...
Source: Pneumologie - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Pneumologie Source Type: research

[Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Needle Aspiration of a Lung Cyst and Eosinophilic Pneumonia].
We report the case of a young male patient with a solitary pulmonary echinococcus cyst. The diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis is based on clinical findings, imaging and serology. In the setting of lung cysts the diagnosis can be difficult, particularly as the sensitivity of the serologic tests is lower compared to liver cysts. Bronchoscopic ultrasound of the cystic lesion and respectively the analysis of the cyst aspirate can lead to the diagnosis. In the present case an eosinophilic pneumonia as the result of the puncture has to be discussed. PMID: 27512929 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pneumologie)
Source: Pneumologie - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Pneumologie Source Type: research

Mortality in Brazil according to gender perspective, years 2000 and 2010
Conclusion: Unequal gender relations and distinct characteristics of exposure to risk factors can explain this mortality, highlighting the need to bring critical incorporation of relational gender perspective by public health policies.RESUMO: Objetivo: O artigo avaliou a mortalidade geral no Brasil em 2000 e 2010. M étodos: A fonte de dados foi o Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Resultados: Os dados evidenciam alto índice de mortalidade dos homens em relação às mulheres na faixa etária dos 20 aos 59 anos e uma expectativa de vida expressivamente menor por parte da popu lação mascu...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia - August 12, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Compliance with the current recommendations for prescribing antibiotics for paediatric community-acquired pneumonia is improving: data from a prospective study in a French network
Lower respiratory tract infection is a common cause of consultation and antibiotic prescription in paediatric practice. The misuse of antibiotics is a major cause of the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacter... (Source: BMC Pediatrics)
Source: BMC Pediatrics - August 12, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elise Launay, Karine Levieux, Corinne Levy, Fran çois Dubos, Alain Martinot, Bénédicte Vrignaud, Flora Lepage, Robert Cohen, Emmanuel Grimprel, Matthieu Hanf, François Angoulvant and Christèle Gras-Le Guen Source Type: research

Pediatric cardiorespiratory failure successfully managed with venoarterial-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a case report
Venoarterial-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VAV ECMO) configuration is a combined procedure of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The proportion of cardiac and respiratory support can be ... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michihito Kyo, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Yoshiko Kida, Tatsutoshi Shimatani, Yusuke Torikoshi, Kei Suzuki, Satoshi Yamaga, Nobuyuki Hirohashi and Nobuaki Shime Source Type: research

Guillain-Barr é syndrome
Publication date: 13–19 August 2016 Source:The Lancet, Volume 388, Issue 10045 Author(s): Hugh J Willison, Bart C Jacobs, Pieter A van Doorn Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100 000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20–30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the op...
Source: The Lancet - August 12, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Impaired Self-healing Capacity in Airway Epithelia Lacking Aquaporin-3
In this study, we utilized AQP3-knockout mice as the in vivo model and AQP3-knockdown human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) as the in vitro model. Airway injury was experimentally induced by intra-tracheal injection of naphthalene. HE staining, transmission and scanning electron microscope were performed to evaluate self-healing capacity in vivo. Transwell and wound-healing assays were performed to evaluate epithelial cell migration in vitro. We found that both the airway epithelial cells of AQP3-knockout mice and AQP3-knockdown HBECs exhibited an obviously impaired self-healing capacity with defective epithelial cell m...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Transcutaneous carbon-dioxide partial pressure trends during six-minute walk test in patients with very severe COPD
Conclusions PCO2 response to 6MWT is highly heterogeneous; however, very low FEV1 and elevated baseline-PCCO2 together with pre-walk dyspnea increase the risk for CO2-retention and EIH. Overweight-BMI seems to carry a protective effect against EIH in very severe COPD. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Viruses are frequently present as the infecting agent in acute exacerbations of COPD in patients presenting to hospital
ConclusionThe spectrum of viruses detected in patients with AECOPD is similar to that of the general population. Viruses are more likely to be identified in patients with AECOPD who present with influenza‐like symptoms and a low CRP. (Source: Internal Medicine Journal)
Source: Internal Medicine Journal - August 12, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Edwina Biancardi, Michael Fennell, William Rawlinson, Paul S. Thomas Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Non-invasive Assessment of Swallowing and Respiration Coordination for the OSA Patient
The objectives of this study are to investigate swallowing and its coordination with respiration in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This is a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referred Medical Center. A non-invasive method of assessing swallowing was used to detect the oropharyngeal swallowing parameters and the coordination with respiration during swallowing. The system used to assess swallowing detected: (1) movement of the larynx using a force-sensing resistor; (2) submental muscle activity using surface electromyography; and (3) coordination with respiration by measuring nasal airflow. Five ...
Source: Dysphagia - August 12, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Rescue of Heme-trafficking Defect by Nce102 [Membrane Biology]
The cellular transport of the cofactor heme and its biosynthetic intermediates such as protoporphyrin IX is a complex and highly coordinated process. To investigate the molecular details of this trafficking pathway, we created a synthetic lesion in the heme biosynthetic pathway by deleting the gene HEM15 encoding the enzyme ferrochelatase in S. cerevisiae and performed a genetic suppressor screen. Cells lacking Hem15 are respiratory-defective because of an inefficient heme delivery to the mitochondria. Thus, the biogenesis of mitochondrial cytochromes is negatively affected. The suppressor screen resulted in the isolation ...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - August 12, 2016 Category: Chemistry Authors: Kim, H. J., Jeong, M.-Y., Parnell, T. J., Babst, M., Phillips, J. D., Winge, D. R. Tags: Bioenergetics Source Type: research

Development of vaccines against pertussis due to Bordetella holmesii using a mouse intranasal challenge model
We examined the protective potency of pertussis vaccines available in Japan and vaccines prepared from B. holmesii. A murine model of respiratory infection was exploited to evaluate protective potency. No Japanese commercial pertussis vaccines were effective against B. holmesii. In contrast, a whole‐cell (wBH) vaccine and an acellular (aBH) vaccine prepared from B. holmesii were both protective. Passive immunization with sera from mice immunized with aBH vaccine established protection against B. holmesii, indicating that B. holmesii‐specific serum antibodies might play an important role in protection. Immuno‐proteomi...
Source: Microbiology and Immunology - August 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Momoko Saito, Keita Odanaka, Nao Otsuka, Kazunari Kamachi, Mineo Watanabe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Therapeutic experience of the application of anisodamine on acute lung injury
Conclusions The anisodamine combining with conventional therapy can relieve the degree of lung injury caused by acute pulmonary contusion, improve ventilatory function, lower the incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and inhibit the activation of inflammatory reaction and the release of inflammatory mediators. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - August 12, 2016 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Polysomnographic outcomes following lingual tonsillectomy for persistent obstructive sleep apnea in down syndrome
ConclusionsIn children with DS, persistent OSA after T&A and lingual tonsil hypertrophy, LT significantly improved AHI, oAHI, and O2 saturation nadir. We recommend that children with DS should be evaluated for lingual tonsil hypertrophy if found to have persistent OSA following T&A. Level of Evidence4 Laryngoscope, 2016 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - August 12, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: J. Drew Prosser, Sally R. Shott, Oscar Rodriguez, Narong Simakajornboon, Jareen Meinzen ‐Derr, Stacey L. Ishman Tags: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Multidimensional vocal assessment after laser treatment for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
ConclusionsRRP patients can achieve a close to normal voice with high satisfaction even after recurrent surgical treatment when ablation of a subepithelial lesion using sufficient laser energy is adequate. Level of Evidence3b Laryngoscope, 2016 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - August 12, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Takeyuki Kono, Haruna Yabe, Kosuke Uno, Koichiro Saito, Kaoru Ogawa Tags: Laryngology Source Type: research

Health Conditions and Passive Suicidal Ideation in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe
Discussion: Certain specific health conditions, as well as total number of conditions, are associated with passive suicidal ideation in middle age and older adulthood. Health is a critical risk factor for suicidal ideation in late life and should be further studied in this particularly at-risk population. (Source: Journals of Gerontology: Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences)
Source: Journals of Gerontology: Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences - August 12, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Lutz, J., Morton, K., Turiano, N. A., Fiske, A. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
Post Brexit Blues—Building Strong Links Across the UK, EU and Beyond... The Baltic states have seen big improvements in the quality of health care, and TB in particular in recent years. Whether this is due to membership of the EU is not certain, but the temporal relationship does support this hypothesis. However they still have a considerable problem with multi-drug, and extremely drug resistant TB. In this issue of Thorax, Balabanova and colleagues describe the experience of Eastern Europe dealing with MDR and XDR-TB (see page 854). Not surprisingly, older age, and co-infection with HIV worsen outcomes but at least ...
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: The Triumvirate Tags: Airwaves Source Type: research

Another piece in the 'research mosaic that describes the role of the lung microbiome in COPD
Bacterial colonisation/infection is ubiquitous in patients with COPD and is likely a biologically relevant facet of disease progression. Correlations have been reported between the identification of bacteria and increases in the intensity of the inflammatory/immune response, cough, sputum production and rates of acute exacerbations of COPD.1–5 The inflammatory/immune response in COPD also persists despite smoking cessation and there is a particularly enhanced inflammatory response in chronic bronchitis and acute exacerbations of COPD, all of which is consistent with a microbial mechanism underlying chronicity and exa...
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Huffnagle, G. B. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Recovery from ICU-acquired weakness; do not forget the respiratory muscles!
Skeletal muscle dysfunction acquired during critical illness (intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness, ICUAW) plays a pivotal role in clinical outcomes such as liberation from mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, physical function and mortality.1 2 ICUAW is a common complication of critical illness with a complex aetiology,3 affecting both limb muscles as well as respiratory muscles. The decline in muscle mass is approximately 2%–4% per day in the first week of ICU stay.4 5 Loss of limb muscle mass is more pronounced in patients with multiple organ failure,4 while a rapid decline i...
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gosselink, R., Langer, D. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Asymptomatic COPD, until you take it to exertion
COPD is a growing problem worldwide, with a staggering high number of affected subjects1 and a huge burden for society in terms of days of work lost and healthcare costs.2 COPD is closely related to smoking, and continued smoking in patients with COPD is associated with further deterioration in lung function.3 Despite elaborate societal preventive measures and smoking discouragement campaigns, smoking prevalence is still high and adolescents and young adults still start smoking. Although WHO reports a declining smoking prevalence worldwide and in many countries, there were still over 1.1 billion people who smoked tobacco i...
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vanfleteren, L. E. G. W. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Is rehabilitation post critical illness a new anti-inflammatory agent?
Physical recovery following a critical illness is important for patients, family and clinicians.1–3 However, there is limited beneficial effect demonstrated from the intervention studies that have investigated physical rehabilitation across the continuum of critical illness recovery, starting in the intensive care unit (ICU) and continuing to the community setting with home-based rehabilitation and follow-up clinics4–8 What is the reason for this lack of treatment effect? As with all trials that show a lack of effect, we must consider a number of factors, including the intervention delivered, the target populat...
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Elliott, D., Puthucheary, Z. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Diagnostic performance of a seven-marker serum protein biosignature for the diagnosis of active TB disease in African primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB
Conclusions We have identified a seven-marker host serum protein biosignature for the diagnosis of TB disease irrespective of HIV infection status or ethnicity in Africa. These results hold promise for the development of a field-friendly point-of-care screening test for pulmonary TB. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chegou, N. N., Sutherland, J. S., Malherbe, S., Crampin, A. C., Corstjens, P. L. A. M., Geluk, A., Mayanja-Kizza, H., Loxton, A. G., van der Spuy, G., Stanley, K., Kotze, L. A., van der Vyver, M., Rosenkrands, I., Kidd, M., van Helden, P. D., Dockrell, H. Tags: Drugs: infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, Screening (epidemiology), Screening (public health) Biomarkers of disease Source Type: research

Community dynamics and the lower airway microbiota in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smokers and healthy non-smokers
Conclusions Microbial community composition in the lower airways of patients with COPD is significantly different to that found in smokers and non-smokers, indicating that a component of the disease is associated with changes in microbiological status. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Einarsson, G. G., Comer, D. M., McIlreavey, L., Parkhill, J., Ennis, M., Tunney, M. M., Elborn, J. S. Tags: Editor's choice, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Asymptomatic subjects with airway obstruction have significant impairment at exercise
Conclusions Although they did not present with chronic activity-related dyspnoea, subjects with a postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC<LLN as detected by screening had poorer exercise tolerance than healthy controls on exertion, and a significant proportion of them had dynamic hyperinflation. These subjects may, therefore, deserve further attention and may warrant regular follow-up. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Soumagne, T., Laveneziana, P., Veil-Picard, M., Guillien, A., Claude, F., Puyraveau, M., Annesi-Maesano, I., Roche, N., Dalphin, J.-C., Degano, B. Tags: Screening (epidemiology), Health education, Screening (public health), Smoking, Tobacco use Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Inspiratory muscle training to enhance recovery from mechanical ventilation: a randomised trial
Conclusions Inspiratory muscle training following successful weaning increases inspiratory muscle strength and quality of life, but we cannot confidently rule out an associated increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Trial registration number ACTRN12610001089022, results. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bissett, B. M., Leditschke, I. A., Neeman, T., Boots, R., Paratz, J. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Mechanical ventilation, Mechanical ventilation Critical care Source Type: research

Systemic inflammation after critical illness: relationship with physical recovery and exploration of potential mechanisms
Conclusions Inflammation is prevalent after critical illness and is associated with poor physical recovery during the first 3 months post-ICU discharge. Previous HCMV exposure is associated with a proinflammatory phenotype despite the absence of detectable systemic viraemia. Trial registration number ISRCTN09412438, post results. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Griffith, D. M., Lewis, S., Rossi, A. G., Rennie, J., Salisbury, L., Merriweather, J. L., Templeton, K., Walsh, T. S., RECOVER Investigators, Walsh, Salisbury, Merriweather, Boyd, Griffith, Huby, Kean, Mackenzie, Krishan, Lewis, Murray, Forbes, Smith, Rat Tags: Drugs: infectious diseases, Inflammation Critical care Source Type: research

CT evaluation of small pulmonary vessels area in patients with COPD with severe pulmonary hypertension
Conclusions CT measurements of small vessels support a distinct vessel-related phenotype in patients with COPD with severe PH, and combined with WT and PaO2 parameters in the paw score, which may offer a non-invasive tool to select patients for RHC. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Coste, F., Dournes, G., Dromer, C., Blanchard, E., Freund-Michel, V., Girodet, P.-O., Montaudon, M., Baldacci, F., Picard, F., Marthan, R., Berger, P., Laurent, F. Tags: Pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary vasculature Source Type: research

Identifying patients at risk for severe exacerbations of asthma: development and external validation of a multivariable prediction model
Conclusions A simple history-based model extended with spirometry identifies patients who are prone to asthma exacerbations. The additional value of FeNO is modest. These models merit an implementation study in clinical practice to assess their utility. Trial registration number NTR 1756. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Loymans, R. J. B., Honkoop, P. J., Termeer, E. H., Snoeck-Stroband, J. B., Assendelft, W. J. J., Schermer, T. R. J., Chung, K. F., Sousa, A. R., Sterk, P. J., Reddel, H. K., Sont, J. K., ter Riet, G. Tags: General practice / family medicine, TB and other respiratory infections, Asthma, Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Primary spontaneous pneumothorax: a cohort study of VATS with talc poudrage
Conclusion The marked difference in recurrence between smokers and non-smokers suggests this as an important predictor of outcome. This study demonstrates a low incidence of recurrence and complications for patients with PSP undergoing VATS with talc poudrage. Talc poudrage requires prospective comparison with pleurectomy and mechanical abrasion. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cardillo, G., Bintcliffe, O. J., Carleo, F., Carbone, L., Di Martino, M., Kahan, B. C., Maskell, N. A. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Thoracic surgery Source Type: research

Survival of patients with multidrug-resistant TB in Eastern Europe: what makes a difference?
Conclusions The burden of additional resistances in patients with MDR-TB is high likely due to primary transmission of resistant strains. Social and programmatic factors including management of alcohol dependency, expansion of HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment need to be addressed in order to achieve cure and to interrupt transmission. The role of last generation fluoroquinolones and injectable agents in treatment of patients with pre-XDR and XDR-TB needs to be further investigated. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Balabanova, Y., Ignatyeva, O., Fiebig, L., Riekstina, V., Danilovits, M., Jaama, K., Davidaviciene, E., Radiulyte, B., Popa, C. M., Nikolayevskyy, V., Drobniewski, F. Tags: Drugs: infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, Drugs misuse (including addiction), Quality improvement, Health education Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Off-label use of inhaled tobramycin in Ontario, Canada
Inhaled tobramycin solution is indicated for use in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Concerns have been raised regarding increasing off-label use of inhaled tobramycin, particularly for the management of COPD. We conducted an 8-year repeated cross-sectional study examining the indication for prescription claims for inhaled tobramycin in Ontario paid for by the Public Drug Benefit Program, which covers all Ontario residents with financial needs or aged 65 and older. Inhaled tobramycin prescription claims increased approximately 3 times greater from 86 prescriptions in the secon...
Source: Thorax - August 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tadrous, M., Khuu, W., Paterson, J. M., Mamdani, M. M., Juurlink, D. N., Gomes, T. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases, Cystic fibrosis Research letter Source Type: research