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Intravenous Glutamine Administration Modulates TNF- α/IL-10 Ratio and Attenuates NFkB Phosphorylation in a Protein Malnutrition Model
In conclusion, this study shows that GLN has the capacity to reduce TNF-α synthesis as well as to act as a negative regulator of NFkB phosphorylation, leading to a positive outcome in the control of TNF -α production. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 26, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Discovery of New Benzothiazine Derivative as Modulator of Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis
In conclusion, EHP possesses significant anti-arthritic property which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and immunomo dulatory effects. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 25, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Changes in the Levels of Interleukin-17 Between Atopic and Non-atopic Children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia
AbstractAs previous study showed thatMycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) induced a cellular immune response associated with interleukin-17 (IL-17), we designed this study to explore IL-17 in MP pneumonia patients with atopic sensitization and 144 patients were evaluated and divided into three groups: atopic MP pneumonia group (n = 38), non-atopic MP pneumonia group (n = 74), and atopic non-MP pneumonia group (n = 32). Serum IL-17 was measured at admission acute phase and at recovery phase. We found IL-17 levels only in the atopic MP pneumonia group that were significantly higher at recovery phase than at acute phase, an...
Source: Inflammation - August 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The P2X 7 Receptor Involved in gp120-Induced Cell Injury in BV2 Microglia
This study was aimed at exploring the effects of P2X7 receptor on BV2 microglia cell injury induced by glycoprotein gp120 (gp120) and its underlying mechanisms. We used the MTS method to study the influence of different gp120 concentrations on BV2 microglia cells, and to test the degree of cell injury in each gp120 treatment group; quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot were used to detect the P2X7 mRNA and receptor protein expressions. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the P2X7 receptor expression and P65 NF- κB, respectively. We also measured the content of TNFα, IL-1β, nitric oxide ...
Source: Inflammation - August 16, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Healthy and Inflamed Gingival Fibroblasts Differ in Their Inflammatory Response to Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide
In conclusion, the resident IGFs do not exhibit LPS tolerance and play an important role in modulating host immune response, which are critical in the immuno pathogenesis of periodontal disease. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Astragaloside IV on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats Via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
In this study, we investigated the effects of astragaloside IV (As-IV) on pulmonary fibrosis and its mechanisms of action. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in a model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BLM). Rats were intraperitoneally injected with As-IV (10, 20, 50  mg/kg) daily for 28 days, while the rats in control and BLM groups were injected with a saline solution. The effects of As-IV treatment on pulmonary injury were evaluated with the lung wet/dry weight ratios, cell counts, and histopathologic. Oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Vitamin A Deficiency Promotes Inflammation by Induction of Type 2 Cytokines in Experimental Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma Murine Model
AbstractVitamin A (VA) deficiency is one of the most common malnutrition conditions. Recent reports showed that VA plays an important role in the immune balance; lack of VA could result in enhanced type 2 immune response characterized by increased type 2 cytokine production and type 2 innate lymphoid cell infiltration and activation. Type 2 immune response plays protective role in anti-infection but plays pathological role in asthmatic disease. In order to investigate the role of VA in the asthmatic disease, we used ovalbumin-induced asthma murine model and observed the pathological changes between mouse-received VA-defici...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Influence of Radiotherapy on AIM2 Inflammasome in Radiation Pneumonitis
In conclusion, radiotherapy triggered some critical components of AIM2 inflammasome in RP. The activation of AIM2 inflammasome by radiotherapy may contribute to the pathogenesis of RP. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Polystyrene-Divinylbenzene-Based Adsorbents Reduce Endothelial Activation and Monocyte Adhesion Under Septic Conditions in a Pore Size-Dependent Manner
AbstractEndothelial activation with excessive recruitment and adhesion of immune cells plays a central role in the progression of sepsis. We established a microfluidic system to study the activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by conditioned medium containing plasma from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood or from septic blood and to investigate the effect of adsorption of inflammatory mediators on endothelial activation. Treatment of stimulated whole blood with polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based cytokine adsorbents (average pore sizes 15 or 30  nm) prior to passage over the endothelial layer resulted in...
Source: Inflammation - August 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Role of Liriodendrin in Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury
AbstractIn current study, we investigated the role of liriodendrin, a constituent isolated fromSargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehd. Et Wils (Sargentodoxaceae), in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced acute lung inflammatory response and injury (ALI). The inflammatory mediator levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pathologic changes in lung tissues were evaluated via pathological section with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. To investigate the mechanism whereby liriodendrin regulates lung inflammation, the phosphorylation of the NF-kB (p65) an...
Source: Inflammation - August 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Icariine Restores LPS-Induced Bone Loss by Downregulating miR-34c Level
AbstractBacteria-induced inflammatory responses cause excessive bone resorption in chronic inflammatory diseases such as septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and orthopedic implant failure. Icariine has been reported to facilitate the bone healing and reduce the occurrence of osteoporosis in clinical, moreover, laboratory studies which have proved that Icariine promotes the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastsin vitro. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Icariine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone lossvia an osteogenic-in vitro model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, w...
Source: Inflammation - August 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diosmin Modulates the NF-kB Signal Transduction Pathways and Downregulation of Various Oxidative Stress Markers in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy
AbstractHyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress plays an imperative role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. NF-kB is an important transcription factor in eukaryotes which regulates a diverse array of cellular process, including inflammation, immunological response, apoptosis, growth and development. Increased expression of NF-kB plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the nephroprotective nature of diosmin by assessing the various biochemical parameters, markers of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cyt...
Source: Inflammation - August 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

PGRN Suppresses Inflammation and Promotes Autophagy in Keratinocytes Through the Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
Abstract Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease that has a major impact on patients ’ quality of life. Progranulin (PGRN) is highly expressed in skin diseases and plays an important role in inflammation response and autophagy. However, the function of PGRN in the immune system and autophagy in psoriasis has not been clearly identified and elaborated on. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of PGRN on the inflammatory and autophagy process underlying inflammation in HaCaT cells. We showed that PGRN was markedly highly expressed in psoriasis lesions and inflammatory HaCaT cells. Specif...
Source: Inflammation - July 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Coptisine Prevented IL- β-Induced Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Chondrocytes
Abstract Interleukin 1 β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Coptisine is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Coptidis rhizome and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of co ptisine on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated chondrocytes have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coptisine on IL-1β-induced inflammation in human articular chondrocytes. Our results showed that coptisine greatly inhibited the production of ni tric...
Source: Inflammation - July 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

PGRN Suppresses Inflammation and Promotes Autophagy in Keratinocytes Through the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
Abstract Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease that has a major impact on patients’ quality of life. Progranulin (PGRN) is highly expressed in skin diseases and plays an important role in inflammation response and autophagy. However, the function of PGRN in the immune system and autophagy in psoriasis has not been clearly identified and elaborated on. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of PGRN on the inflammatory and autophagy process underlying inflammation in HaCaT cells. We showed that PGRN was markedly highly expressed in psoriasis lesions and inflammatory HaCaT cells...
Source: Inflammation - July 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Ferulic Acid Against Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Formaldehyde-Induced Hepatotoxicity
This study was designed to elucidate the protective effects of ferulic acid (FA) on formaldehyde-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring some routine biochemical parameters, cytokine levels, and oxidative stress-related parameters in addition to YKL-40 in male Wistar albino rats. Tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Also, serum YKL-40, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin concentrations, and AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH activities were measured. Histological specimens were examined in light ...
Source: Inflammation - July 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nanoparticle-Delivered IRF5 siRNA Facilitates M1 to M2 Transition, Reduces Demyelination and Neurofilament Loss, and Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice
ABSTRACT Macrophage activation and persistent inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI), and different phenotypes of macrophages play diverse roles in the pathological process of SCI. After SCI, there is an acute phase of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage infiltration, followed by a long-lasting phase of classically activated (M1) macrophage accumulation in the wound. The long-lasting predominance of M1 macrophages may derail healing and compromise organ functions. Based on the previous findings that the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) up-regulates gen...
Source: Inflammation - July 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Parallel Profiles of Inflammatory and Effector Memory T Cells in Visceral Fat and Liver of Obesity-Associated Cancer Patients
This study reflects similar processes of inflammation and T cell activation in the omentum and liver, and may suggest common targets to modulate pathological inflammation at these sites. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 16, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) Polarizes Both M-CSF- and GM-CSF-Differentiated Macrophages Toward an M1-Like Phenotype
In this study, we characterized the interaction between S. cerevisiae and M1- or M2-like macrophages. M1-like macrophages had a higher yeast uptake capacity than M2-like macrophages, but both cell types internalized opsonized yeast to the same extent. The M1 surface markers HLAII and CD86 were upregulated after yeast uptake in M1- and M2-like macrophages. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-6, increased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory mediators did not change. These results demonstrate that S. cerevisiae can target both M1 and M2 macrophages, paralleled...
Source: Inflammation - July 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Enhanced p62 is Responsible for Mitochondrial Pathway-Dependent Apoptosis and Interleukin-1β Production at the Early Phase by Monosodium Urate Crystals in Murine Macrophage
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Involvement of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Receptors in Pathogenesis and Inflammatory Response Induced by Alpha-Neurotoxin Bot III of Scorpion Venom
This study aims to elucidate the involvement of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in pathogenesis and inflammatory response triggered by this toxin. Injection of Bot III to animals induces an increase of peroxidase activities, an imbalance of oxidative status, tissue damages in lung parenchyma, and myocardium correlated with metabolic disorders. The pretreatment with nicotine (nicotinic receptor agonist) or atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) protected the animals from almost all disorders caused by Bot III toxin, especially the immunological alterations. Bisoprolol administration (selective β1 adrenergic recepto...
Source: Inflammation - July 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Asiatic Acid Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
In conclusion, AA inhibited LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine production, which is mediated via blocking of the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Astragaloside IV Inhibits the Inflammatory Injury of Chicken Type II Pneumocytes Induced by Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli
Abstract Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induces septicemia in chickens by invading type II pneumocytes after breaching the blood–air barrier. Type II pneumocytes play an important role in maintaining the function of the blood–air barrier. Astragaloside IV has been shown in previous studies to have an anti-inflammatory effect. To explore whether astragaloside IV can inhibit APEC-induced injury in chicken type II pneumocytes, cells were infected with APEC-O78. The results showed that astragaloside IV significantly reduced cell damage in chicken type II pneumocytes induced by APEC-O78 by downregulating ...
Source: Inflammation - July 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Melatonin Alters the Mechanical and Thermal Hyperalgesia Induced by Orofacial Pain Model in Rats
In this study, we evaluated the effect of acute dose of melatonin upon hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant in a chronic orofacial pain model in Sprague–Dawley rats. Nociceptive behavior was assessed by facial Von Frey and the hot plate tests at baseline and thereafter 30, 60, and 120 min, 24 h, and 7 days after melatonin treatment. We demonstrated that acute melatonin administration alters mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia induced by an orofacial pain model (TMD), highlighting that the melatonin effect upon mechanical hyperalgesia remained until 7 days after its administration. Besides, we observed...
Source: Inflammation - July 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Theophylline with Methylprednisolone Combination Therapy on Biomechanics and Histopathology in Diaphragm Muscles of Rats
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of theophylline and methylprednisolone on the mechanical response and histopathology of hemidiaphragm muscle in rats. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of theophylline and methylprednisolone, which are frequently used in clinics and which have different effects on the respiratory system and on the biomechanics and histopathology of the diaphragm muscle. The study included four groups of rats. Group T received 1 mg/kg of intraperitoneal theophylline, group M received 2 mg/kg of intraperitoneal methylprednisolone, group TM re...
Source: Inflammation - July 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hesperidin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation in Mice by Promoting the miRNA-132 Pathway
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside from citrus fruits, produces antidepressant-like effects in both mice and rats. However, whether these effects are mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines remains unknown. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the effects of hesperidin on the depressive-like behavior; the serum corticosterone concentrations; and the interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like mice. In particular, we evaluated the miRNA-132 expression after LPS and hesperid...
Source: Inflammation - July 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibiting High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) Attenuates Inflammatory Cytokine Expression and Neurological Deficit in Ischemic Brain Injury Following Cardiac Arrest in Rats
ABSTRACT Cardiac arrest (CA), if untreated for more than 5 min, can induce severe brain damage, the underlying mechanism of which is still unclear. Previous studies have indicated that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein implicated in several inflammatory disorders, is involved in the inflammatory processes following brain ischemia. However, the role of HMGB1 in brain dysfunction after CA is yet to be determined. In a rat CA model, HMGB1 protein expression was higher at 1, 3, and 7 days post-CA, compared to that in naïve and sham-treated rats. Following injection of HMGB1 antibody (anti-HMGB1) ...
Source: Inflammation - June 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

1, 8-Cineol Protect Against Influenza-Virus-Induced Pneumonia in Mice
Abstract 1,8-Cineol is a major monoterpene principally from eucalyptus essential oils and has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and inhibitory of nuclear factor (NF)-kB effect. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 1,8-cineol on mice infected with influenza A virus. We found that 1,8-cineol protects against influenza viral infection in mice. Moreover, 1,8-cineol efficiently decreased the level of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and MCP-1 in nasal lavage fluids and the level of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in lung tissues of mice infected with influenza virus. The results also showed that 1,8-cine...
Source: Inflammation - June 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Carvacrol Exerts Neuroprotective Effects Via Suppression of the Inflammatory Response in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rats
In conclusion, we have shown that carvacrol inhibits the inflammatory response via inhibition of the NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, carvacrol may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Erdosteine in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells
Abstract Erdosteine is widely used as a mucolytic agent and also has free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine. We investigated the effect of erdosteine on the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kB/inhibitor of NFkB (IkB), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Cultured RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with erdosteine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In Western blotting, pretreatment with erdosteine inhibited the IkBα degradatio...
Source: Inflammation - June 18, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Susceptibility to Aspergillus Infections in Rats with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease via Deficiency Function of Alveolar Macrophages and Impaired Activation of TLR2
In this study, we used cigarette smoke exposure to generate COPD rat model. colony-forming units (CFU) count assessment and phagocytosis were applied to evaluate the defense function of COPD rats against Aspergillus challenge. ELISA, western blotting, and GST-Rac1 pull-down assays were conducted to determine the expressions of cytokines and TLR2-associated signaling pathway. Our data showed that Aspergillus burdens increased, phagocytosis of Aspergillus as well as the expressions of inflammatory cytokines from alveolar macrophages (AMs) were impaired in COPD rats compared with normal rats. Though TLR2 signaling-related pro...
Source: Inflammation - June 16, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Coptisine Prevented IL-β-Induced Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Chondrocytes
Abstract Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Coptisine is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Coptidis rhizome and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of coptisine on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated chondrocytes have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coptisine on IL-1β-induced inflammation in human articular chondrocytes. Our results showed that coptisine greatly inhibited the production of n...
Source: Inflammation - June 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Geraniin Inhibits LPS-Induced THP-1 Macrophages Switching to M1 Phenotype via SOCS1/NF-κB Pathway
In conclusion, geraniin inhibits LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages switching to M1 phenotype through SOCS1/NF-κB pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 11, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Statins and IL-1β, IL-10, and MPO Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid: Preliminary Results
Abstract Statins possess a wide variety of pleiotropic properties that are independent of their lipid-lowering abilities such as attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, platelet aggregation and stimulating bone formation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of statins on clinical periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in inflammatory periodontal diseases. Seventy-nine subjects with hyperlipidemia and 48 systemically healthy controls (C) were included. Hyperlipidemic patients were either given a diet (HD) or prescribe...
Source: Inflammation - June 11, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor {Delta} Increases Sphingomyelin Synthase Activity in THP-1 Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell
Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors, which mediate glucose and lipid homeostasis by regulating the expression of a large number of transcription factors. Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of sphingomyelin (SM), and its expression and activity have been reported to be associated with atherosclerosis (AS). Although there have been many functional PPAR and SMS studies on atherosclerosis in recent years, few have investigated the correlation between the activation of PPARδ and the activity of SMS. In his study, macrophage-induced foam cells we...
Source: Inflammation - June 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Polyomavirus BK Induces Inflammation via Up-regulation of CXCL10 at Translation Levels in Renal Transplant Patients with Nephropathy
Abstract Polyomavirus BK-associated nephropathy (BKAN) is an important mechanism for renal losing after kidney transplantation. It seems that Polyomavirus BK can induce nephropathy by direct cell lysis and stimulation of the immune system and induction of inflammation. CXCL10 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which stimulates the migration and activation of immune cells to the infected sites. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of CXCL10 in the Polyomavirus BK-infected and Polyomavirus BK-non-infected post renal transplanted nephropathic patients in comp...
Source: Inflammation - June 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Leukocytes Enhance Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production in a Mouse Air-Pouch-Type Inflammation Model
In this study, we investigated the contribution of LPS-activated leukocytes to the production of TSLP in a mouse air-pouch-type inflammation model. LPS induced the production of TSLP in this model but not in the mouse keratinocyte cell line PAM212. Transfer of the infiltrated leukocytes collected from an LPS-injected air pouch to the air pouch of another mouse enhanced TSLP production. Further, the LPS-activated leukocytes produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); a deficiency in these cytokines attenuated the LPS-induced production of TSLP. TSLP production was induced by TNF-α and enh...
Source: Inflammation - June 7, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Enhanced p62 Is Responsible for Mitochondrial Pathway-Dependent Apoptosis and Interleukin-1β Production at the Early Phase by Monosodium Urate Crystals in Murine Macrophage
Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the role of p62-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in the initiation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in macrophages. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by MSU crystals was measured using western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, or PARP1, and by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting was applied to detect ubiquitination of p62, TRAF6, and caspase-9. Mitochondrial apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell ...
Source: Inflammation - June 7, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Evaluation and Toxicological Analysis of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg
Abstract Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Myrtaceae) is used in Brazilian traditional medicine against fever, diabetes, hypercholesteremic, obesity, and urinary diseases. In the present study, the compounds 2′,6′-dihydroxy-3′-methyl-4′-metoxychalcone and 2′,4′-dihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethyl-6′-methoxychalcone were identified for the first time in leaves of the C. xanthocarpa. These compounds and the hydroethanolic extract (HECX) significantly inhibited paw edema and reduced both leukocyte migration and the leakage of protein into the pleural cavity. No toxicity was detected by HECX in an acute ...
Source: Inflammation - June 7, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Melatonin Inhibits CXCL10 and MMP-1 Production in IL-1β-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
Abstract Melatonin is a hormone that is mainly secreted by the pineal gland and exhibits a wide spectrum of activities, including antioxidant functions. Melatonin has been detected in gingival crevicular fluid. However, the role of melatonin in periodontal tissue is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of melatonin on inflammatory mediator expression in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Interleukin (IL)-1β induced CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 production in HPDLC. Melatonin decreased CXCL10 ...
Source: Inflammation - June 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Attenuates Neutrophil Recruitment by a Mechanism Dependent on Nicotinic Receptor and the Spleen
Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the effect of beta-adrenergic receptor activation on neutrophil migration in experimental peritonitis elucidating the neuroimmune components involved such as nicotinic receptors and the spleen. Mice pre-treated with mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist) and propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist) or splenectomized animals were treated with isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) prior to intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan. After 4 h, the infiltrating neutrophils and the local cytokine/chemokine levels were evaluated in the peritoneal lavage. The effect of isopro...
Source: Inflammation - June 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 Signaling Pathway
ABSTRACT Ischemic stroke can activate multiple transcription factors and cause inflammatory reactions, which involve pattern recognition receptors with immunostimulatory effects. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the receptors related to innate immunity and several inflammatory reactions. The promising anti- inflammatory activity of salvianolic acid B (SAB) had been previously reported, but its effect on ischemic stroke remains unknown. An oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in vitro and a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in vivo were used in this paper, and the results show...
Source: Inflammation - June 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Rifampin, Povidone-Iodine and Hydrogen Peroxide on the Formation of Epidural Fibrosis in the Experimental Epidural Fibrosis Model
Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the effect of direct application of rifampin, povidone-iodine, and hydrogen peroxide on the formation of epidural fibrosis in rats. Forty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were equally and randomly divided into four groups (laminectomy, topical rifampin, topical povidone-iodine, and topical hydrogen peroxide). Laminectomy was performed at the T12 level in all rats. Four weeks later, the extent of epidural fibrosis was assessed both macroscopically and histopathologically. ANOVA test was used for the evaluation of dural thickness. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the...
Source: Inflammation - June 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Autoimmune Lupus, Arthritis
Abstract Hypoxia elicits an orchestrated response in cells, tissues, and entire organisms to survive a hypoxic challenge. On a molecular level, this response can be controlled by oxygen-dependent stabilization of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Recently, studies have shown that HIF-1α plays an important role in the development and function of T helper (Th) cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells, and dendritic cells (DCs). Because these cells are critical in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, the roles of HIF-1α in these ...
Source: Inflammation - May 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Review: the Multiple Roles of Monocytic Microparticles
Abstract Monocytic microparticles (mMP) are microparticles derived from human monocytes either under in vivo or in vitro conditions. The size of mMP is between 0.1 and 1.0 μm. Apart from the size range, mMPs are also identified based on phosphatidylserine and CD14 expression on their surface, though this is not always the case. Monocytic MP are critical players in inflammation, endothelial cell function, and blood coagulation. They exhibit dual function by either helping the progression of such conditions or limiting it, depending on certain factors. Furthermore, the numbers of mMP are elevated in some autoimmun...
Source: Inflammation - May 24, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effect of Pressure-Controlled Ventilation and Volume-Controlled Ventilation in Prone Position on Pulmonary Mechanics and Inflammatory Markers
This study revealed that there is no difference regarding inflammatory marker levels between volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 24, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of the T lymphocytes and Remodeling in Asthma
This study used immunohistochemical techniques for identified monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, ECP, MBP, tenascin, and laminin) in the bronchi. The highest number of eosinophils and T lymphocyte cells in bronchial biopsies was found in AA, and NAA. The number of T lymphocytes in AA was significantly higher than in NAA and HC. The degree of epithelial damage was higher in the AA group compared to the other groups. The tenascin- and laminin-positive layers in AA were thicker than other groups. In AA, a significant negative correlation was found between epithelial integrity and the count for eosinophils or T lympho...
Source: Inflammation - May 24, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Synergistic Effects of Electroacupuncture and Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats
Abstract Electroacupuncture (EA) and transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are both promising therapeutic applications for intestinal disorders. The current study examined their combined effect on rat intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the possible mechanism. Five groups were performed: con group (shame operation),I/R group (model group), MSC group (I/R + MSC), EA group (I/R + EA), and combined group (I/R + MSC + EA). Intestinal histological damage, crypt cell proliferation degree, mucosal cytokines expression, and levels of inflammation factors were studied for...
Source: Inflammation - May 24, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Soluble Levels of Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) and Progression of Atherosclerosis in Individuals Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: ACTG NWCS 332
Abstract Identification of biomarkers and/or mediators of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with HIV infection would be of diagnostic and therapeutic value. As soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory (esRAGE) have been implicated in vascular complications in other settings, we investigated whether either soluble form of RAGE was associated with changes in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in HIV-infected patients and HIV-uninfected controls. We found no differences in sRAGE, esRAGE, or CIMT among groups at study entry, or in yearly rates of change in sRAGE, es...
Source: Inflammation - May 23, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Recombinant DNA Plasmid Encoding the sIL-4R-NAP Fusion Protein Suppress Airway Inflammation in an OVA-Induced Mouse Model of Asthma
Abstract Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease. It was prevalently perceived that Th2 cells played the crucial role in asthma pathogenesis, which has been identified as the important target for anti-asthma therapy. The soluble IL-4 receptor (sIL-4R), which is the decoy receptor for Th2 cytokine IL-4, has been reported to be effective in treating asthma in phase I/II clinical trail. To develop more efficacious anti-asthma agent, we attempt to test whether the Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP), a novel TLR2 agonist, would enhance the efficacy of sIL-4R in anti-asthma therapy. In ou...
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research