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Blessing or burden? The role of appraisal for family rituals and flourishing among LGBT adults.
Despite recent trends toward greater societal acceptance of LGBT individuals in many Western countries, the elevated chances of being confronted by rejection and hostility or fear are still likely to lead to detrimental psychological health outcomes for this population. The current study assesses how the family can be a resource for psychological well-being. Based on self-determination theory and the family ritual literature, we hypothesize that the various family rituals enhance the chances that the human need for relatedness will be satisfied and positively contribute to the degree to which the person flourishes in life....
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - May 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hanke, Katja; van Egmond, Marieke Christina; Crespo, Carla; Boer, Diana Source Type: research

The association between self-perceived parental role and meaning in life among gay and heterosexual fathers.
The association between self-perceived parental role and meaning in life (indicated by personal growth and purpose in life) was explored among 82 Israeli gay fathers that were individually matched with 82 heterosexual fathers. Self-perceived parental role was associated with meaning in life and this association was moderated by sexual orientation, demonstrating a significant positive association between self-perceived parental role and meaning in life among gay fathers but not among heterosexual fathers. The results are interpreted in light of the unique parental role gay fathers possibly construct in the context of intent...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Shenkman, Geva; Shmotkin, Dov Source Type: research

Trust: An innovative tool for investigating marital conflict in response to a novel stressor.
The goal of this study was to investigate an innovative approach to elicit marital conflict behaviors in response to a novel stressor. Past research has relied exclusively on assessments of marital conflict that measure reoccurring or past conflict. Couples engaged in 2 interactions: (a) a standardized conflict discussion and (b) the Timed Reconstruction of Unseen Structures Together (TRUST) task, in which couples worked together to solve an unfamiliar problem. Results indicated that the TRUST task was effective at eliciting both positive and negative conflict behaviors and explained unique variance in self-reports of mari...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - April 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; George, Melissa W.; Quinn-Sparks, Amy R. Source Type: research

Personality and dyadic adjustment: Who you think your partner is really matters.
Research has demonstrated consistently that a broad range of personality traits affect intimate relationship quality; however, most of this research has used only self-ratings of personality. More recently, researchers have acknowledged that how partners perceive one another may also influence intimate relationships. The primary goal of the present study was to determine the predictive utility of partner-ratings of personality above and beyond self-ratings for explaining dyadic adjustment in a community sample of committed heterosexual couples (N = 87). This research was embedded within a Big Three model of personality, us...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - April 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brock, Rebecca L.; Dindo, Lilian; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna Source Type: research

Family-focused prevention with Latinos: What about sisters and brothers?
Discussion addresses the feasibility of sibling-focused programs with low -income Latino families and makes recommendations for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Journal of Family Psychology)
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - April 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Uma ña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.; McHale, Susan M.; Feinberg, Mark F.; Kuo, Sally I-Chun Source Type: research

Optimal assessment of parenting, or how I learned to stop worrying and love reporter disagreement.
The purpose of this study was to examine differences and similarities across ratings of parenting by preadolescents, parents, and observers. Two hundred forty-one preadolescents rated their parents on warmth and harshness. Both mothers and fathers self-reported on these same dimensions, and observers rated each parents ’ warmth and harshness during a 10 min interaction task with the preadolescent. For the majority of outcomes assessed, the differences between preadolescent, parent, and observer ratings accounted for significant amounts of variance, beyond the levels accounted for by the average of their reports. A replic...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - April 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schofield, Thomas J.; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Weaver, Jennifer M. Source Type: research

Trust, attachment, and mindfulness influence intimacy and disengagement during newlyweds ’ discussions of relationship transgressions.
Discussions of relationship transgressions —violations of relationship norms—are often difficult for couples to successfully navigate. Nevertheless, engaging in and resolving these discussions should promote intimacy. Drawing on the risk regulation model, individuals’ experiences of disengagement and intimacy during transgression discu ssions should depend on their trust in their partner regarding the transgression and how they regulate distress related to lower trust. Attachment style represents individual differences in emotion regulation in close relationship contexts and is indicated by the risk regulation model....
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - April 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Khalifian, Chandra E.; Barry, Robin A. Source Type: research

I just want to be left alone: Daily overload and marital behavior.
Stressful, busy days have been linked with increases in angry and withdrawn marital behavior. The process by which stressors in 1 domain, such as work, affect an individual ’s behavior in another domain, such as the marital relationship, is known as spillover. Using 56 days of daily diary reports in a diverse sample of 47 wives and 39 husbands, this study examined associations between daily experiences of overload and 3 marital behaviors: overt expressions of anger, disregard of the spouse’s needs (“disregard”), and reductions in affection and disclosure (“distancing”). Two potential mechanisms by which daily o...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - April 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sears, Meredith S.; Repetti, Rena L.; Robles, Theodore F.; Reynolds, Bridget M. Source Type: research

Spanking and child outcomes: Old controversies and new meta-analyses.
This article addresses 2 persistent issues, namely whether effect sizes for spanking are distinct from those for physical abuse, and whether effect sizes for spanking are robust to study design differences. Meta-analyses focused specifically on spanking were conducted on a total of 111 unique effect sizes representing 160,927 children. Thirteen of 17 mean effect sizes were significantly different from zero and all indicated a link between spanking and increased risk for detrimental child outcomes. Effect sizes did not substantially differ between spanking and physical abuse or by study design characteristics. (PsycINFO Dat...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - April 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew Source Type: research

Gay grandfathers: Intergenerational relationships and mental health.
This study explored the experiences of 79 gay grandfathers with their adult children and grandchildren. According to family systems theory, intergenerational relationships such as parent –grandparent dyads or parent–child–grandparent triads are important to understanding individual functioning within the family system. Consistent with findings of earlier research on heterosexual grandparents, gay grandfathers reported closer relationships with grandchildren who lived near them and with whom they had frequent contact. In addition, gay grandfathers who reported that they had disclosed their sexual orientation to grandc...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - March 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tornello, Samantha L.; Patterson, Charlotte J. Source Type: research

Who gives to whom? Testing the support gap hypothesis with naturalistic observations of couple interactions.
We examined sex differences in explicitly supportive behavior exchanges between husbands and wives using naturalistic video-recordings of everyday couple interactions inside the home. Thirty dual-earner, middle class, heterosexual couples with school-age children were recorded in their homes over 4 days. Specific instances of face-to-face explicit couple support in the video-recordings were identified, and the support role assumed by each partner (recipient vs. provider), the method of support initiation (solicitations vs. offers), and the type of support (instrumental vs. emotional) in each interaction were coded. Paired ...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - March 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wang, Shu-wen; Repetti, Rena L. Source Type: research

Bidirectional associations between bedtime parenting and infant sleep: Parenting quality, parenting practices, and their interaction.
In keeping with transactional conceptualizations of infant sleep development (Sadeh, Tikotzky, & Scher, 2010), the present study was an examination of longitudinal, bidirectional linkages between bedtime parenting (through direct observations of parenting practices and quality) and infant sleep across the first 6 months postpartum. In doing so, we also drew from Darling and Steinberg’s (1993) conceptual model to examine parenting quality as a moderator of linkages between specific bedtime practices and infant sleep. Multilevel model analyses revealed that the strongest increases in infant nighttime sleep across the first...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - March 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Philbrook, Lauren E.; Teti, Douglas M. Source Type: research

Parents ’ work-family experiences and children’s problem behaviors: The mediating role of the parent–child relationship.
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children ’s outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents’ negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children’s internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of paren t–child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents’ work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - March 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vieira, Joana M.; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G.; Matos, Paula Mena Source Type: research

Parents’ work-family experiences and children’s problem behaviors: The mediating role of the parent–child relationship.
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children’s outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents’ negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children’s internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent–child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents’ work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated t...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - March 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vieira, Joana M.; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G.; Matos, Paula Mena Source Type: research

Profiles of cognitive appraisals and triangulation into interparental conflict: Implications for adolescent adjustment.
Youth appraisals and triangulation into conflicts are key mechanisms by which interparental conflict places youth at risk for psychological maladjustment. Although evidence suggests that there are multiple mechanisms at work (e.g., Fosco& Feinberg, 2015; Grych, Harold,& Miles, 2003), this body of work has relied on variable-centered analyses that are limited to the unique contributions of each process to the variance in outcomes. In reality, it is possible that different combinations of these risk mechanisms may account for multifinality in risk outcomes. Using latent profile analysis (LPA) we examined profiles of threat a...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - March 10, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fosco, Gregory M.; Bray, Bethany C. Source Type: research

Buffering the responses of avoidantly attached romantic partners in strain test situations.
Strain tests are unique contexts that have important implications for relationships, but they have rarely been studied in social interactions. We investigate how more avoidant individuals (responders) react when their romantic partners (askers) request cooperation with an important plan/goal that requires a major sacrifice from responders. As predicted, more avoidant responders were less accommodating when asked to sacrifice and showed drops in trust and commitment following the strain test discussion. However, certain asker behaviors —expressing confidence that the responding partner will facilitate the request, and ack...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - February 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Farrell, Allison K.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Overall, Nickola C.; Shallcross, Sandra L. Source Type: research

Testing specificity among parents’ depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.
The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for p...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - February 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gruhn, Meredith A.; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Compas, Bruce E. Source Type: research

Single mothers by choice: Mother –child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment.
Fifty-one solo mother families were compared with 52 two-parent families all with a 4 –9-year-old child conceived by donor insemination. Standardized interview, observational and questionnaire measures of maternal wellbeing, mother–child relationships and child adjustment were administered to mothers, children and teachers. There were no differences in parenting quality between f amily types apart from lower mother–child conflict in solo mother families. Neither were there differences in child adjustment. Perceived financial difficulties, child’s gender, and parenting stress were associated with children’s adjust...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - February 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Golombok, Susan; Zadeh, Sophie; Imrie, Susan; Smith, Venessa; Freeman, Tabitha Source Type: research

Single mothers by choice: Mother–child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment.
Fifty-one solo mother families were compared with 52 two-parent families all with a 4–9-year-old child conceived by donor insemination. Standardized interview, observational and questionnaire measures of maternal wellbeing, mother–child relationships and child adjustment were administered to mothers, children and teachers. There were no differences in parenting quality between family types apart from lower mother–child conflict in solo mother families. Neither were there differences in child adjustment. Perceived financial difficulties, child’s gender, and parenting stress were associated with children’s adjustme...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - February 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Golombok, Susan; Zadeh, Sophie; Imrie, Susan; Smith, Venessa; Freeman, Tabitha Source Type: research

Marital violence and coparenting quality after separation.
Research has identified multiple predictors of coparenting quality, but few studies have investigated how intimate partner violence (IPV) affects divorcing couples’ coparenting relationships. We addressed this question in a sample of 154 mothers with different marital IPV experiences. Mothers were recruited within 4 months of a divorce filing and completed two interviews 3 months apart. At Time 1, mothers reported on violence and coercive control during marriage, and postseparation behavioral (e.g., parental communication), emotional (e.g., anger), and intrusion (e.g., harassment) dynamics; at Time 2, they reported on co...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - February 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Crossman, Kimberly A.; Khaw, Lyndal; Raffaelli, Marcela Source Type: research

Child adjustment and parent functioning: Considering the role of child-driven effects.
Based on 13,694 mother–child dyads from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten Study (ECLS-K; Rock & Pollack, 2002; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Sorongon, & Najarian, 2009), this study is an examination of the bidirectional relations between parental and child functioning from kindergarten through 3rd grade. Results from the cross-lagged models demonstrated that child-driven effects co-occurred with parental effects, and that these effects were comparable in size. At the same time, however, results from the latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed idiosyncratic patterns of parent and child functioning. Compared with child...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - February 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Yan, Ni; Ansari, Arya Source Type: research

Advancing family psychology.
To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge soph...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - February 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fiese, Barbara H. Source Type: research

The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.
Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper i...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - January 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kern, Justin L.; McBride, Brent A.; Laxman, Daniel J.; Dyer, W. Justin; Santos, Rosa M.; Jeans, Laurie M. Source Type: research

Interplay between marital attributions and conflict behavior in predicting depressive symptoms.
Marital attributions—that is, causal inferences and explanations spouses make about their partners’ behavior—have been implicated as predictors of relationship functioning. Extending previous work, we examined marital attributions as a moderator of the link between marital conflict and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Participants were 284 couples who reported on marital attributions and depressive symptoms. Couples also engaged in a videotaped marital conflict interaction, which was later coded for specific conflict behaviors. The results showed that husbands’ and wives’ marital attributions about their partner...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - January 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ellison, Jenna K.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Cummings, E. Mark Source Type: research

Daily parental knowledge of youth activities is linked to youth physical symptoms and HPA functioning.
Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via t...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - January 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lippold, Melissa A.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M. Source Type: research

The roles of general and technology-related parenting in managing youth screen time.
This study examines the associations of 2 types of parenting practices —general adaptive parenting and technology-related strategies—with youth screen time. We hypothesized that technology-related parenting focused on behavioral control would relate directly to screen time and serve to link general parenting to screen time. Participants were 615 parents drawn from 3 community samples of families with children across 3 development stages: young childhood (3–7 years; n = 210), middle childhood (8–12 years; n = 200), and adolescents (13–17 years; n = 205). Using structural equation modeling, we found that general ad...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - January 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sanders, Wesley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Breslend, Nicole Lafko Source Type: research

Perceived family social support buffers against the effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent depression, aggression, and severe violence.
The authors compared the protective effects of 3 sources of perceived social support—from family members, friends, and school personnel—on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents exposed to rocket attacks. Data were based on 362 Israeli adolescents (median age = 14), chronically exposed to rockets from the Gaza Strip, for whom robust effects of exposure on internalizing and externalizing symptoms were reported during the 2009–2010 period (Henrich & Shahar, 2013). New analyses revealed that perceived family social support assessed in 2009 buffered against the effect of exposure to rocket attacks on dep...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - December 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C. Source Type: research

Parents ’ experience of flooding in discipline encounters: Associations with discipline and interplay with related factors.
In family psychology, the term flooding refers to the feeling of being overwhelmed by a family member ’s behavior in a manner that undermines an organized response. In the present investigation we first aimed to clarify the role of flooding in overreactive and lax discipline. The second study aim was to more fully establish the position of parental flooding in its nomological network given the rel ative paucity of research on parental flooding. Maternal discipline and physiological responses, as well as child behavior, were observed in laboratory discipline encounters with 97 mother–toddler dyads. Mothers then rated th...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - December 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lorber, Michael F.; Mitnick, Danielle M.; Slep, Amy M. Smith Source Type: research

Parents’ experience of flooding in discipline encounters: Associations with discipline and interplay with related factors.
In family psychology, the term flooding refers to the feeling of being overwhelmed by a family member’s behavior in a manner that undermines an organized response. In the present investigation we first aimed to clarify the role of flooding in overreactive and lax discipline. The second study aim was to more fully establish the position of parental flooding in its nomological network given the relative paucity of research on parental flooding. Maternal discipline and physiological responses, as well as child behavior, were observed in laboratory discipline encounters with 97 mother–toddler dyads. Mothers then rated the ...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - December 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lorber, Michael F.; Mitnick, Danielle M.; Slep, Amy M. Smith Source Type: research

Cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD improves various PTSD symptoms and trauma-related cognitions: Results from a randomized controlled trial.
Numerous studies document an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and impairments in intimate relationship functioning, and there is evidence that PTSD symptoms and associated impairments are improved by cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (CBCT for PTSD; Monson & Fredman, 2012). The present study investigated changes across treatment in clinician-rated PTSD symptom clusters and patient-rated trauma-related cognitions in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBCT for PTSD with waitlist in a sample of 40 individuals with PTSD and their partners (N = 40; Monson et al., 2012). Compared with ...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - December 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Macdonald, Alexandra; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Wagner, Anne C.; Fredman, Steffany J.; Monson, Candice M. Source Type: research

Marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms among Korean mothers transitioning to parenthood.
Although many empirical findings support associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms, gaps remain in our understanding of the magnitude and direction of the associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms as well as the associations in a collectivistic culture. The present study examined autoregressive cross-lagged associations between marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms across a 3-year investigation in a sample of Korean mothers transitioning to parenthood. The sample consisted of 2,078 mothers in the Panel Study of Korean Children. The mothers reported marital sat...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - December 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Choi, Eunsil Source Type: research

The role of siblings in adoption outcomes and experiences from adolescence to emerging adulthood.
We present 3 studies using longitudinal, mixed method data within the same overarching sample of adoptive families. Study 1 was a follow-up to Berge et al.’s (2006) study of adolescent adoptees and their adopted siblings with birth family contact; we found evidence of changes in the status of contact collectively experienced by 26 adopted sibling pairs when target adoptees were emerging adults. In Study 2, we found that target adoptees (n = 91) with siblings (adopted or not) who were more involved with target adoptees’ birth family contact demonstrated more favorable behavioral outcomes than target adoptees who had uni...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - December 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Farr, Rachel H.; Flood, Margaux E.; Grotevant, Harold D. Source Type: research

PTSD symptoms and marital adjustment among ex-POWs’ wives.
This study prospectively assessed the implications of war captivity and former prisoners of war’s (ex-POWs) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD trajectory on their wives’ marital adjustment, adjusting for their secondary traumatization (ST). Results show that marital adjustment of the wives of ex-POWs with PTSD (N = 66) was lower compared to wives of ex-POWs (N = 37) and combat veterans (N = 55) without PTSD symptoms. Investigating the possible mechanism underlying the lower marital adjustment, via a mediating model, indicated that husbands’ PTSD symptoms mediated the association between captivity and the w...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Levin, Yafit; Greene, Talya; Solomon, Zahava Source Type: research

Secondary traumatization of partners of war veterans: The role of boundary ambiguity.
The existing literature has shown that war veterans’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with a higher level of distress in their female partners. However, less agreement exists regarding the sources of this distress and the mechanism by which this process occurs. The current study examined the consequences of Israeli war veterans’ PTSD on their female partners, as manifested by the females’ PTSD symptoms, mental health status, and functioning, while taking into account females’ earlier traumatic events. Using the theory of ambiguous loss, it also suggested boundary ambiguity as a mediating...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dekel, Rachel; Levinstein, Yoav; Siegel, Alana; Fridkin, Shimon; Svetlitzky, Vlad Source Type: research

Changes in parents ’ spanking and reading as mechanisms for Head Start impacts on children.
This study examined whether Head Start, the nation ’s main two-generation program for low-income families, benefits children in part through positive changes in parents’ use of spanking and reading to children. Data were drawn from the 3-year-old cohort of the national evaluation of the Head Start program known as the Head Start Impact Study (N = 2,063). Results indicated that Head Start had small, indirect effects on children’s spelling ability at Age 4 and their aggression at Age 4 through an increase in parents’ reading to their children. Taken together, the results suggest that parents play a role in sustaining...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M.; Sexton, Holly R. Source Type: research

Changes in parents’ spanking and reading as mechanisms for Head Start impacts on children.
This study examined whether Head Start, the nation’s main two-generation program for low-income families, benefits children in part through positive changes in parents’ use of spanking and reading to children. Data were drawn from the 3-year-old cohort of the national evaluation of the Head Start program known as the Head Start Impact Study (N = 2,063). Results indicated that Head Start had small, indirect effects on children’s spelling ability at Age 4 and their aggression at Age 4 through an increase in parents’ reading to their children. Taken together, the results suggest that parents play a role in sustaining ...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M.; Sexton, Holly R. Source Type: research

Direct and indirect effects of commitment on interdependence and satisfaction in married couples.
This study tested the prediction that an individual’s marital commitment would be positively associated with their own and their partner’s marital satisfaction, and that one’s own marital interdependence would be associated with one’s own marital satisfaction. It also tested the prediction that there would be an indirect effect of marital commitment on marital satisfaction through higher marital interdependence for both the individual and the partner. Predictions were tested on 628 married couples. Overall, results were consistent with predictions. Tests of actor–partner interdependence mediation models revealed ...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Givertz, Michelle; Segrin, Chris; Woszidlo, Alesia Source Type: research

The salience and severity of relationship problems among low-income couples.
Developing programs to support low-income married couples requires an accurate understanding of the challenges they face. To address this question, we assessed the salience and severity of relationship problems by asking 862 Black, White, and Latino newlywed spouses (N = 431 couples) living in low-income neighborhoods to (a) free list their 3 biggest sources of disagreement in the marriage, and (b) rate the severity of the problems appearing on a standard relationship problem inventory. Comparing the 2 sources of information revealed that, although relational problems (e.g., communication and moods) were rated as severe on...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jackson, Grace L.; Trail, Thomas E.; Kennedy, David P.; Williamson, Hannah C.; Bradbury, Thomas N.; Karney, Benjamin R. Source Type: research

Coping responses moderate prospective associations between marital conflict and youth adjustment.
Children ’s engaged coping responses to family conflict were examined as moderators of the prospective association between marital conflict in middle childhood and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescence. Youth and their mothers participated in 4 waves of data collection (1-year intervals f rom Time 1 [T1] to Time 3 [T3]; 5-year interval between T3 and Time 4 [T4]). The final analytic sample included 304 participants (51% boys; 66% European American, 34% African American). Participants were approximately 8 and 16 years old at T1 and T4, respectively. A multi-informant, longitudinal des ign was used to add...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona Source Type: research

Relationship types among adolescent parents participating in a home-visiting program: A latent-transition analysis.
Young parents (less than 25 years of age) have been shown to have especially low rates of father involvement and union stability. However, research has also shown that parenting experiences of young fathers may not be uniform. There is a need for more research that assesses both the multidimensionality of relationship typologies and their temporality. Using a large longitudinal sample of low-income, young mothers enrolled in a randomized control study of a home-visitation program (n = 704; 61% program, 39% control), we evaluated how mother–father relationship dynamics changed over time. Ten mother-reported indicators of ...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Raskin, Maryna; Fosse, Nathan E.; Fauth, Rebecca C.; Bumgarner, Erin; Easterbrooks, M. Ann Source Type: research

A longitudinal examination of positive parenting following an acceptance-based couple intervention.
This article explores an innovative approach for increasing positive parenting by targeting specific positive emotional processes within marital relationships. Couple emotional acceptance is a powerful mechanism that has repeatedly been found to improve romantic relationships, but whether these effects extend to the larger family environment is less well understood. The current longitudinal study examined the impact of improved relational acceptance after a couple intervention on mother’s and father’s positive parenting. Participants included 244 parents (122 couples) in the Marriage Checkup (MC) study, a randomized, c...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Morrill, Melinda Ippolito; Hawrilenko, Matt; Córdova, James V. Source Type: research

Effects of economic hardship: Testing the family stress model over time.
The current study evaluated connections between marital distress, harsh parenting, and child externalizing behaviors in line with predictions from the Family Stress Model (FSM). Prospective, longitudinal data came from 273 mothers, fathers, and children participating when the child was 2, between 3 and 5, and between 6 and 10 years old. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic hardship and economic pressure were assessed during toddlerhood, and parental emotional distress, couple conflict, and harsh parenting were collected during early childhood. Child externalizing behav...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Donnellan, M. Brent Source Type: research

Democratic parenting beliefs and observed parental sensitivity: Reciprocal influences between coparents.
Three hundred sixty-five 2-parent families from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were rated by trained observers on their parenting behavior at 6 assessments ranging from 6 months after the child’s birth to when the child was in fifth grade (M = 10.4 years old at fifth grade). Across assessments, parents reported on their parenting beliefs and mothers reported on the child’s externalizing behavior problems. Parenting beliefs predicted change in parenting behavior, and to a lesser degree parenting behavior predicted change in parenting b...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schofield, Thomas J.; Weaver, Jennifer M. Source Type: research

The influence of family unions and parenthood transitions on self-development.
The present study discusses the impact of union and parenthood transitions on individuals’ self-esteem and sense of mastery development from midadolescence to young adulthood by using multilevel analyses with longitudinal data of 7,339 individuals between ages 15 and 38. The results show that, first, individuals in marital unions show significantly greater rates of growth in self-esteem and sense of mastery, compared with singles. Therefore, entering into marriage provides greater protections to individuals’ self-esteem and sense of mastery. Second, the transition to parenthood brings significant decreases in levels an...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Chen, Eva Yi-Ju; Enright, Robert D.; Tung, Eli Yi-Liang Source Type: research

The heart of change: Acceptance and intimacy mediate treatment response in a brief couples intervention.
In this study, we examined mediators of a brief couples intervention. Intimate safety, acceptance, and activation were examined in 2 roles: their contribution to marital satisfaction gains in the first 2 weeks after treatment (contemporaneous effects), and how early changes in the mediators influenced longer term changes in marital satisfaction over 2 years of follow-up (lagged effects). Married couples (N = 215) were randomized to either an intervention group or a wait-list control group and followed for 2 years. Latent change-score models were used to examine contemporaneous and time-lagged mediation. A booster intervent...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - November 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hawrilenko, Matt; Gray, Tatiana D.; Córdova, James V. Source Type: research

Emotional health across the transition to first and second unions among emerging adults.
We examined the change in emotional health across the entrance into first and second unions, including cohabiting unions, direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation), and marriage preceded by cohabitation. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, a nationally representative panel study of youth born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States, pooled fixed-effects regression models indicated that entrance into first cohabiting unions and direct marriages, and all second unions, were significantly associated with reduced emotional distress. Gender differences were found for first unions only; for...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - October 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mernitz, Sara E.; Kamp Dush, Claire Source Type: research

Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.
Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding pu...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - October 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J. Source Type: research

Skip the dishes? Not so fast! Sex and housework revisited.
This study provides a robust counterpoint to recent findings suggesting that men’s participation in housework is harmful to a couple’s sex life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Journal of Family Psychology)
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - October 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Johnson, Matthew D.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Anderson, Jared R. Source Type: research

Relational closeness moderates the association between maternal overcontrol and children’s depressive symptoms.
In this study we examine the association between self-reported maternal OC and child depressive symptoms, as moderated by multiple indicators of closeness within the parent–child relationship. An ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of children (N = 106, Mage = 10.27 years) and their mothers participated in this cross-sectional study. Mothers reported on their overcontrolling parenting and children reported on their depressive symptoms. Children and mothers participated in structured interviews that were analyzed for we-talk, a behavioral measure of closeness; they also self-reported their closeness. Results i...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - October 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sichko, Stassja; Borelli, Jessica L.; Rasmussen, Hannah F.; Smiley, Patricia A. Source Type: research

The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother–infant and father–infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.
In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother–infant and in father–infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent–infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed durin...
Source: Journal of Family Psychology - October 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro Source Type: research