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Predictive Validity of Curriculum-Embedded Measures on Outcomes of Kindergarteners Identified as At Risk for Reading Difficulty.
This study examined the predictive validity of formative assessments embedded in a Tier 2 intervention curriculum for kindergarten students identified as at risk for reading difficulty. We examined when (i.e., months during the school year) measures could predict reading outcomes gathered at the end of kindergarten and whether the predictive validity of measures changed across the kindergarten year. Participants consisted of 137 kindergarten students whose reading development was assessed four times from October to February. Measures aligned with content taught in the curriculum and assessed a range of phonologic, alphabet...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 23, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Oslund EL, Hagan-Burke S, Simmons DC, Clemens NH, Simmons LE, Taylor AB, Kwok OM, Coyne MD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Cross-National Comparison of Attributional Patterns Toward Students With and Without Learning Disabilities.
This article aims to raise awareness of the importance of attributional beliefs in relation to the educational outcomes of students with LD in Australia and China. Australian and Chinese trainee teachers (N = 240) who were at the end of their training were surveyed with vignettes and Likert-scale questions to ascertain their responses to students with and without LD. Overall, the findings suggest that Chinese trainee teachers' attributional pattern is more positive than that of their Australian counterparts. Implications and recommendations for research and practice are also presented. PMID: 27550910 [PubMed - as supp...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 22, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Woodcock S, Jiang H Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Life on the Number Line: Routes to Understanding Fraction Magnitude for Students With Difficulties Learning Mathematics.
Abstract Magnitude understanding is critical for students to develop a deep understanding of fractions and more advanced mathematics curriculum. The research reports in this special issue underscore magnitude understanding for fractions and emphasize number lines as both an assessment and an instructional tool. In this commentary, we discuss how number lines broaden the concept of fractions for students who are tied to the more general part-whole representations of area models. We also discuss how number lines, compared to other representations, are a superior and more mathematically correct way to explain fractio...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 12, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Gersten R, Schumacher RF, Jordan NC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Prevalence of LD From Parental and Professional Perspectives: A Comparison of the Data From the National Survey of Children's Health and the Office of Special Education Programs' Reports to Congress.
Abstract Since the emergence of the field of learning disabilities (LD) in the late 1960s and early 1970s, controversy has surrounded issues regarding methods used for identification. The prevalence of students identified as LD increased steadily from the 1970s until the beginning of the 21st century, at which time it has decreased until at least 2011 (the most current data available from the U.S. Office of Education). In this article, I compare the prevalence rates of children aged 6 to 17 years being served in schools according to the Office of Special Education Programs with the prevalence rates as reported by ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Pullen PC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Series on Fraction Learning.
PMID: 27506550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 9, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Gersten R, Jordan NC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.
Abstract The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measu...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 9, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jordan NC, Resnick I, Rodrigues J, Hansen N, Dyson N Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.
Abstract The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and comp...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 9, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Fennell FS, Karp K Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Fractions Learning in Children With Mathematics Difficulties.
Abstract Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA peers in fraction understanding and fall further behind during middle school. In contrast, Chinese children, who like the MD children in the United States score in the bottom one third of the distribution in their country, possess reasonably good fraction unders...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - August 4, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Tian J, Siegler RS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Improving the Historical Knowledge and Writing of Students With or At Risk for LD.
In this study, we explored the potential of two forms of discussion (disciplinary vs. traditional) for 39 sixth- and seventh-grade students with or at risk for learning disabilities (LD), before writing historical arguments. Nine teachers who led small group discussions in six heterogeneous social studies classrooms implemented the intervention. Students who were involved in disciplinary discussions (n = 19) scored statistically higher than their peers who engaged in traditional discussions (n = 20) on a measure of historical knowledge (partial η(2) = .23); they also wrote essays with better persuasive quality (partial η...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 25, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: De La Paz S, Wissinger DR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Why Learning Common Fractions Is Uncommonly Difficult: Unique Challenges Faced by Students With Mathematical Disabilities.
Abstract In this commentary, I examine some of the distinctive, foundational difficulties in learning fractions and other types of rational numbers encountered by students with a mathematical learning disability and how these differ from the struggles experienced by students classified as low achieving in math. I discuss evidence indicating that students with math disabilities exhibit a significant delay or deficit in the numerical transcoding of decimal fractions, and I further maintain that they may face unique challenges in developing the ability to effectively translate between different types of fractions and...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 18, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Berch DB Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Concept of Magnitude and What It Tells Us About How Struggling Students Learn Fractions.
Abstract This commentary summarizes emerging research into fractions instruction for students who are at risk for failure. Each of the three articles emphasizes a measure conception of fractions. Teaching fractions as measurement helps students learn the magnitude of rational numbers. However, measurement is only part of the way that students should conceptualize fractions. Instruction also needs to emphasize fractions as division. The article also draws attention to the teaching qualifications of those who typically instruct at-risk students in Tier 2 and 3 settings. More often than not, these individuals lack th...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - July 15, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Woodward J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

When Average Is Not Good Enough: Students With Learning Disabilities at Selective, Private Colleges.
We examined the psychoeducational functioning of students receiving accommodations for learning disabilities at a private, selective, liberal arts college. We also determined whether students had objective evidence supporting their disability diagnoses and academic accommodations. Most students showed above-average cognitive abilities, average academic skills, and no evidence of impairment. Although nearly all students reported academic problems, most lacked objective evidence of academic difficulties prior to college as well as relative or normative deficits in broad academic skills or fluency. Results indicate a need for...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 24, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Weis R, Erickson CP, Till CH Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Writing Disabilities in Spanish-Speaking Children: Introduction to the Special Series.
Abstract This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities focuses on studies of writing disabilities in Spanish-speaking children. The World Health Organization (2001) included writing difficulties as one of the problems considered to constitute an impediment to school participation, a significant element in the normal developmental process of the child. In this introduction, I describe the background of a larger project promoted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This special series offers recent findings on writing disabilities in Spanish-Speaking children...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jiménez JE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Modifying a Research-Based Problem-Solving Intervention to Improve the Problem-Solving Performance of Fifth and Sixth Graders With and Without Learning Disabilities.
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a modified cognitive strategy instructional intervention originally developed to improve the mathematical problem solving of middle and high school students with learning disabilities (LD). Fifth and sixth grade general education mathematics teachers and their students of varying ability (i.e., average-achieving [AA] students, low-achieving [LA] students, and students with LD) participated in the research study. Several features of the intervention were modified, including (a) explicitness of instruction, (b) emphasis on meta-cognition, (c) focu...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - May 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Krawec J, Huang J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Spelling Errors of Dyslexic Children in Bosnian Language With Transparent Orthography.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of spelling errors made by children with dyslexia in Bosnian language with transparent orthography. Three main error categories were distinguished: phonological, orthographic, and grammatical errors. An analysis of error type showed 86% of phonological errors,10% of orthographic errors, and 4% of grammatical errors. Furthermore, the majority errors were the omissions and substitutions, followed by the insertions, omission of rules of assimilation by voicing, and errors with utilization of suffix. We can conclude that phonological errors were dominant in ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 22, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Duranović M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Instructional Practices for Spelling by Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Learning Disabilities in Early Grades.
Abstract The main objectives of this study were to examine the type of adaptations made by Grades 1 through 3 primary school teachers working with children who are poor spellers of a transparent language such as Spanish and to analyze whether these adaptations were determined by the grade taught by these teachers. Using the total population of primary school classroom teachers in the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands as a base, the authors took a random sample that was stratified by level, resulting in a representative sample of 300 teachers. For data collection, the authors employed an online questionnai...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 20, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Guzmán R, O'Shanahan I, Camacho J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Relationship Between Implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading and Student Outcomes for Adolescents With Disabilities.
This study examines the interaction between the fidelity of implementation of a set of research-based strategies-Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)-and outcomes for students with mild to moderate disabilities using data from two nonoverlapping studies in middle school language arts and reading classrooms (Study 1) and middle school social studies and science classrooms (Study 2). The authors use a definition of fidelity that includes both the amount of CSR instruction delivered by teachers and the quality of implementation. Although there were no main effects for quality or amount of CSR instruction, in both studies the...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 19, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Boardman AG, Buckley P, Vaughn S, Roberts G, Scornavacco K, Klingner JK Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Alphabet Writing and Allograph Selection as Predictors of Spelling in Sentences Written by Spanish-Speaking Children Who Are Poor or Good Keyboarders.
This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. TheTest Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado("Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test"; Jiménez, 2012) was used as the assessment tool. A sample of 986 children from Grades 1 through 3 were classified according to transcription skills measured by keyboard ability (poor vs. good) across the grades. Results demonstrated that fluency in writing the alphabet ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 19, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Peake C, Diaz A, Artiles C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Handwriting Development in Spanish Children With and Without Learning Disabilities: A Graphonomic Approach.
Abstract The central purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of handwriting movements in real time for Spanish students in early grades with and without learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 120 children from Grades 1 through 3 (primary education), classified into two groups: with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities. The Early Grade Writing Assessment tasks selected for this purpose were writing the alphabet in order from memory, alphabet copying in cursive and manuscript, and allograph selection. The dynamics of these four handwriting tasks were recorded using graphonomic ta...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 18, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Barrientos P Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of Reading Fluency Interventions on the Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension Performance of Elementary Students With Learning Disabilities: A Synthesis of the Research from 2001 to 2014.
Abstract Fluent word reading is hypothesized to facilitate reading comprehension by improving automatic word reading, thus releasing a reader's cognitive resources to focus on meaning. Many students with learning disabilities (LD) struggle to develop reading fluency, which affects reading comprehension. This synthesis extends Chard, Vaughn, and Tyler's (2002) review, synthesizing fluency intervention research from 2001 to 2014. The search yielded 19 studies examining reading fluency and comprehension outcomes of reading fluency interventions for students with LD in kindergarten through 5th grade. Results showed re...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Stevens EA, Walker MA, Vaughn S Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Fluency and Accuracy in Alphabet Writing by Keyboarding: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Learning Disabilities.
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze whether children with and without difficulties in handwriting, spelling, or both differed in alphabet writing when using a keyboard. The total sample consisted of 1,333 children from Grades 1 through 3. Scores on the spelling and handwriting factors from theEarly Grade Writing Assessment(Jiménez, in press) were used to assign the participants to one of four groups with different ability patterns: poor handwriters, poor spellers, a mixed group, and typically achieving students. Groups were equalized by a matching strategy, resulting in a final sample of 352 children. A...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Bisschop E, Morales C, Gil V, Jiménez-Suárez E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Internal Structure and Development of Keyboard Skills in Spanish-Speaking Primary-School Children With and Without LD in Writing.
This study had two purposes: examining the internal structure of theTest Estandarizado para la Evaluación Inicial de la Escritura con Teclado(TEVET; Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test), and analyzing the development of keyboarding skills in Spanish elementary school children with and without learning disabilities (LD) in writing. A group of 1,168 elementary school children carried out the following writing tasks: writing the alphabet in order from memory, allograph selection, word copying, writing dictated words with inconsistent spelling, writing pseudowords from dictation, and independent composition of sentence. For this...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - April 7, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jiménez JE, Marco I, Suárez N, González D Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access From Symbolic Numbers?
Abstract Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a physical number line. However, it remains unclear whether they have a deficit with the mental number line per se or a deficit with accessing it from nonsymbolic and/or symbolic numbers. Quebec French-speaking 8- to 9-year-old children with (24) and without (37) dysca...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 25, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Lafay A, St-Pierre MC, Macoir J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Early Grade Writing Assessment: An Instrument Model.
Abstract The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization promoted the creation of a model instrument for individual assessment of students' foundational writing skills in the Spanish language that was based on a literature review and existing writing tools and assessments. The purpose of the Early Grade Writing Assessment (EGWA) is to document learners' basic writing skills, mapped in composing units of increasing complexity to communicate meaning. Validation and standardization of EGWA was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain) in 12 schools using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 1...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 17, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jiménez JE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Predicting Handwriting Difficulties Through Spelling Processes.
This study examined whether spelling tasks contribute to the prediction of the handwriting status of children with poor and good handwriting skills in a cross-sectional study with 276 Spanish children from Grades 1 and 3. The main hypothesis was that the spelling tasks would predict the handwriting status of the children, although this influence would decrease with age due to a gradual automatization of handwriting skills. The results confirmed this hypothesis. Another interesting result was that the pattern of pseudoword and irregular word spellings as predictors of handwriting status changed from Grade 1 to Grade 3. In G...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 14, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Rodríguez C, Villarroel R Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of the Effects of Schema-Based Instruction on Proportional Problem-Solving for Students With Mathematics Problem-Solving Difficulties.
This article reports results from a study investigating the efficacy of a proportional problem-solving intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), in seventh grade. Participants included 806 students with mathematical difficulties in problem solving (MD-PS) from an initial pool of 1,999 seventh grade students in a larger study. Teachers and their students in the larger study were randomly assigned to an SBI or control condition and teachers in both conditions then provided instruction on the topics of ratio, proportion, and percent. We found that students with MD-PS in SBI classrooms scored on average higher than their c...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jitendra AK, Harwell MR, Dupuis DN, Karl SR Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Writing an Independently Composed Sentence by Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Poor Transcription Skills: A Writing-Level Match Design.
Abstract The main objective of this research was to analyze the impact of transcription skills of Spanish writers when writing an independently composed sentence within a writing-level design. The free-writing sentence task from the Early Grade Writing Assessment (Jiménez, in press) was used to examine the production, accuracy, speed, syntactic complexity, quality, and fluency of children with poor transcription skills (PTS). The results showed that there were significant differences between children with PTS and peers who had good transcription skills. The PTS group members were less accurate, slower, and less f...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: García E, Crespo P, Bermúdez I Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Error Patterns in Ordering Fractions Among At-Risk Fourth-Grade Students.
Abstract The three purposes of this study were to (a) describe fraction ordering errors among at-risk fourth grade students, (b) assess the effect of part-whole understanding and accuracy of fraction magnitude estimation on the probability of committing errors, and (c) examine the effect of students' ability to explain comparing problems on the probability of committing errors. Students (N = 227) completed a nine-item ordering test. A high proportion (81%) of problems were completed incorrectly. Most (65%) errors were due to students misapplying whole number logic to fractions. Fraction-magnitude estimation skill,...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - March 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Malone AS, Fuchs LS Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Role of Trait Anxiety and Preoccupation With Reading Disabilities of Children and Their Mothers in Predicting Children's Reading Comprehension.
This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension (RC), trait anxiety, and preoccupation with reading disability (RD) in 88 school children in Grades 3 through 5 and in their mothers. Children's trait anxiety had a significant direct negative relationship with RC and also mediated the association between preoccupation with RD and RC. Mothers' preoccupation with their children's RDs had a direct negative association with their children's RC. This association was also mediated through children's trait anxiety. No association was found between mothers' trait anxiety and children's RC. In a final model, RC...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - February 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Blicher S, Feingold L, Shany M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Cognitive Prediction of Reading, Math, and Attention: Shared and Unique Influences.
The objective was to identify cognitive predictors unique to each skill domain as well as cognitive predictors shared among skills that could help explain their overlap and thus help illuminate the basis for comorbidity of related disorders (reading disability, math disability, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Results indicated that processing speed contributes to the overlap between reading and attention as well as math and attention, whereas verbal comprehension contributes to the overlap between reading and math. There was no evidence that executive functioning skills help account for covariation among the...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 29, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Peterson RL, Boada R, McGrath LM, Willcutt EG, Olson RK, Pennington BF Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Comorbidity of Arithmetic and Reading Disorder: Basic Number Processing and Calculation in Children With Learning Impairments.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive profiles of primary school children (age 82-133 months) on a battery of basic number processing and calculation tasks. The sample consisted of four groups matched for age and IQ: arithmetic disorder only (AD; n = 20), reading disorder only (RD; n = 40), a comorbid group (n = 27), and an unimpaired control group (n = 40). Multiple 2 (RD vs. No RD) × 2 (AD vs. No AD) factorial ANCOVAs showed that children with RD had selective impairments in counting and number transcoding efficiency. In contrast, children with AD performed poorly in most tasks,...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 15, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Raddatz J, Kuhn JT, Holling H, Moll K, Dobel C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Perceived Close Relationships With Parents, Teachers, and Peers: Predictors of Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Features in Adolescents With LD or Comorbid LD and ADHD.
This study examined the role of adolescents' perceived close relationships with significant others (attachment relationships with mothers/fathers, appraisal of homeroom teacher as secure base, and quality of peer friendship) in explaining differences in their socioemotional and behavioral functioning (peer-network/peer-dyadic loneliness, positive/negative affect, and externalizing/internalizing problems), among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), with comorbid LD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or with typical development (TD). Participants were 280 adolescents in Grades 10 through 11 in three...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 13, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Al-Yagon M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Eye Movements and Articulations During a Letter Naming Speed Task: Children With and Without Dyslexia.
Abstract Naming speed (NS) refers to how quickly and accurately participants name a set of familiar stimuli (e.g., letters). NS is an established predictor of reading ability, but controversy remains over why it is related to reading. We used three techniques (stimulus manipulations to emphasize phonological and/or visual aspects, decomposition of NS times into pause and articulation components, and analysis of eye movements during task performance) with three groups of participants (children with dyslexia, ages 9-10; chronological-age [CA] controls, ages 9-10; reading-level [RL] controls, ages 6-7) to examine NS ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 13, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Al Dahhan NZ, Kirby JR, Brien DC, Munoz DP Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth.
This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be espec...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Jacobson LA, Koriakin T, Lipkin P, Boada R, Frijters JC, Lovett MW, Hill D, Willcutt E, Gottwald S, Wolf M, Bosson-Heenan J, Gruen JR, Mahone EM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Developmental Delays in Executive Function from 3 to 5 Years of Age Predict Kindergarten Academic Readiness.
Abstract Substantial evidence has established that individual differences in executive function (EF) in early childhood are uniquely predictive of children's academic readiness at school entry. The current study tested whether growth trajectories of EF across the early childhood period could be used to identify a subset of children who were at pronounced risk for academic impairment in kindergarten. Using data that were collected at the age 3, 4, and 5 home assessments in the Family Life Project (N = 1,120), growth mixture models were used to identify 9% of children who exhibited impaired EF performance (i.e., per...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Willoughby MT, Magnus B, Vernon-Feagans L, Blair CB, Family Life Project Investigators Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Interaction of Learning Disability Status and Student Demographic Characteristics on Mathematics Growth.
This study examined mathematics achievement growth of students without disabilities (SWoD) and students with learning disabilities (LD) and tested whether growth and LD status interacted with student demographic characteristics. Growth was estimated in a statewide sample of 79,554 students over Grades 3 to 7. The LD group was significantly lower in achievement in each grade and had less growth than the SWoD group. We also found that student demographic characteristics were significantly related to mathematics growth, but only three demographic characteristics were statistically significant as interactions. We found that LD...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Stevens JJ, Schulte AC Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Executive Function, Self-Regulated Learning, and Reading Comprehension: A Training Study.
We report an experiment (N = 75 fourth graders) that contrasted two researcher-implemented conditions (text-based reading [TB] and text-based reading plus executive function [TB+EF]) to a control. We also evaluated relationships among measures of SRL, EF, and reading. Both the TB and TB+EF groups outperformed the control group for proximal text comprehension (where the topic was similar to that covered in training) and background knowledge related to it, but the two researcher-led groups performed similarly. There were no significant differences for less proximal text, and again similar performance for both TB and TB+EF. C...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Cirino PT, Miciak J, Gerst E, Barnes MA, Vaughn S, Child A, Huston-Warren E Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.
Abstract Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis was correlated only with impaired handwriting. Parental ratings of inattention, but not hyperactivity, correlated with measures of written language but not oral language. Sustaining switching attention correlated with writing...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 8, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Berninger V, Abbott R, Cook CR, Nagy W Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

A Synthesis of Reading and Spelling Interventions and Their Effects on Spelling Outcomes for Students With Learning Disabilities.
Abstract Spelling is one of the most challenging areas for students with learning disabilities (LD), and improving spelling outcomes for these students is of high importance. In this synthesis, we examined the effects of spelling and reading interventions on spelling outcomes for students with LD in Grades K through 12. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature published between 2004 and 2014 was conducted using electronic databases and hand searches of relevant journals. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to meet the following criteria: (a) Participants were identified with LD and were in Grades K th...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - January 5, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Williams KJ, Walker MA, Vaughn S, Wanzek J Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Empirical Implications of Matching Children With Specific Language Impairment to Children With Typical Development on Nonverbal IQ.
This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized into those that matched and did not match children with SLI and TD on nonverbal IQ. We then compared the nonverbal IQ scores across matching criterions within each diagnostic category. In studies that matched children on nonverbal IQ, children with SLI scored significantly higher o...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Earle FS, Gallinat EL, Grela BG, Lehto A, Spaulding TJ Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of a Comprehensive Reading Program on Reading Outcomes for Middle School Students With Disabilities.
Abstract Reading achievement scores for adolescents with disabilities are markedly lower than the scores of adolescents without disabilities. For example, 62% of students with disabilities read below the basic level on the NAEP Reading assessment, compared to 19% of their nondisabled peers. This achievement gap has been a continuing challenge for more than 35 years. In this article, we report on the promise of a comprehensive 2-year reading program called Fusion Reading. Fusion Reading is designed to significantly narrow the reading achievement gap of middle school students with reading disabilities. Using a quasi...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 31, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Hock MF, Brasseur-Hock IF, Hock AJ, Duvel B Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

First-Year College Students With ADHD and/or LD: Differences in Engagement, Positive Core Self-Evaluation, School Preparation, and College Expectations.
This study examined the ways first-year college students with ADHD, LD, ADHD+LD, and comparison peers differ in engagement, core self-evaluation, high school preparation behaviors, and goals/expectations. Participants were from the 2010 Cooperative Institutional Research Program Freshman Survey, including students with ADHD (n = 5,511), LD (n = 2,626), ADHD+LD (n = 1,399), or neither disability (n = 5,737). Controlling for SAT/ACT scores, family income, and parent education, students with ADHD, LD, or ADHD+LD differed from peers on self-ratings of academic and creative abilities and psychosocial functioning; school disenga...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: DuPaul GJ, Pinho TD, Pollack BL, Gormley MJ, Laracy SD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does Growth in the Executive System of Working Memory Underlie Growth in Literacy for Bilingual Children With and Without Reading Disabilities?
Abstract This cohort-sequential study explored the components of working memory (WM) that underlie second language (L2) reading growth in 450 children at risk and not at risk for reading disabilities (RD) whose first language is Spanish. English language learners designated as balanced and nonbalanced bilinguals with and without risk for RD in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory, WM, naming speed, and inhibition), vocabulary, and reading measures in Spanish and English. These same measures were administered 1 and 2 years later. Two important findings occurred: F...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Swanson HL, Orosco MJ, Kudo M Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Impact of Intensive Summer Reading Intervention for Children With Reading Disabilities and Difficulties in Early Elementary School.
Abstract Efficacy of an intensive reading intervention implemented during the nonacademic summer was evaluated in children with reading disabilities or difficulties (RD). Students (ages 6-9) were randomly assigned to receive Lindamood-Bell's Seeing Stars program (n = 23) as an intervention or to a waiting-list control group (n = 24). Analysis of pre- and posttesting revealed significant interactions in favor of the intervention group for untimed word and pseudoword reading, timed pseudoword reading, oral reading fluency, and symbol imagery. The interactions mostly reflected (a) significant declines in the noninter...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Christodoulou JA, Cyr A, Murtagh J, Chang P, Lin J, Guarino AJ, Hook P, Gabrieli JD Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Inhibitory Control of Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Preschool Children: Measurement and Association With Language, Literacy, and Math Skills.
We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores o...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - December 2, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Lonigan CJ, Allan DM, Goodrich JM, Farrington AL, Phillips BM Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Linguistic and Cognitive Profiles of 8- to 15-Year-Old Children With Specific Reading Comprehension Difficulties: The Role of Executive Functions.
This article presents two studies investigating the role of executive functioning in written text comprehension in children and adolescents. In a first study, the involvement of executive functions in reading comprehension performance was examined in normally developing children in fifth grade. Two aspects of text comprehension were differentiated: literal and inferential processes. The results demonstrated that while three aspects of executive functioning (working memory, planning, and inhibition processes) were significantly predictive of the performance on the inferential questions of the comprehension test, these facto...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 28, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Potocki A, Sanchez M, Ecalle J, Magnan A Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Readers in Adult Basic Education: Component Skills, Eye Movements, and Fluency.
In this study, reading component skills including decoding, language comprehension, and reading fluency are reported, as are eye movement variables for connected-text oral reading. Eye movement comparisons between individuals with higher and lower oral reading fluency revealed within- and between-subject effects for word frequency and word length as well as group and word frequency interactions. Bivariate correlations indicated strong relations between component skills of reading, eye movement measures, and both the Test of Adult Basic Education (Reading subtest) and the Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Reading Battery Pass...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 27, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Barnes AE, Kim YS, Tighe EL, Vorstius C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children With or Without Reading Disabilities and/or ADHD.
Abstract Employing a large sample of children from Dutch regular elementary schools, this study assessed the contributing and discriminating values of reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to two types of phonological processing skills, phonemic awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). A second objective was to investigate whether comorbidity of RD and ADHD should be considered as an additive phenomenon as to RAN and PA. A total of 1,262 children, aged 8 to 13 years, were classified as RD (n = 121), ADHD (n = 17), comorbid (RD+ADHD; n = 16), or control (n = 1,108). P...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 16, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: De Groot BJ, Van den Bos KP, Van der Meulen BF, Minnaert AE Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

Does a Dynamic Test of Phonological Awareness Predict Early Reading Difficulties? A Longitudinal Study From Kindergarten Through Grade 1.
Abstract A few studies have indicated that dynamic measures of phonological awareness may contribute uniquely to the prediction of early reading development. However, standard control measures have been few and limited by floor effects, thus limiting their predictive value. The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive value of a dynamic test of phonological awareness while controlling for both letter knowledge and standard phonological awareness using measures with no floor effect. We administered a dynamic test of phonological awareness along with traditional tests of phonological awareness and ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - October 14, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Gellert AS, Elbro C Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research

The Effects of Repeated Reading on Reading Fluency for Students With Reading Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis.
Abstract The purpose of this research was to systematically review the effects of repeated reading (RR) interventions on reading fluency to provide instructional strategies for students with reading disabilities (RD). Correct words per minute were coded as an outcome variable in a search that yielded 34 RR intervention studies from 1990 to 2014 for students with RD in K-12. The estimated overall Hedges' g of the 39 independent effect sizes indicated the positive effects of RR on gains in reading fluency for students with RD, especially at the elementary grade level. The current findings also suggested that a combi...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - September 25, 2015 Category: Disability Authors: Lee J, Yoon SY Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research