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Switching between internally and externally focused attention in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Abnormal visual cortex activation and connectivity
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by excessive absorption with internally-generated distressing thoughts and urges, with difficulty incorporating external information running counter to their fears and concerns. In the present study, we experimentally probed this core feature of OCD through the use of a novel attention switching task that investigates transitions between internally focused (IF) and externally focused (EF) attentional states. Eighteen OCD patients and 18 controls imagined positive and negative personal event scenarios (IF state) or performed a color-word Stroop task (EF state). (Source: P...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emily R. Stern, Alexandra F. Muratore, Stephan F. Taylor, James L. Abelson, Patrick R. Hof, Wayne K. Goodman Source Type: research

Alterations of the Default Mode Network Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: A pilot study
Obsessive-compulsive personality (OCPD) disorder is characterized by a pattern of excessive self-control, perfectionism and behavioral and cognitive rigidity. Despite the fact that OCPD is the most common personality disorder in the general population, published studies looking at the brain correlates of this disorder are practically nonexistent. The main goal of this study was to analyze the presence of brain alterations in OCPD when compared to healthy controls, specifically at the level of the Default Mode Network (DMN). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joana Coutinho, Oscar Filipe Goncalves, Jos é Miguel Soares, Paulo Marques, Adriana Sampaio Source Type: research

The link between callous-unemotional traits and neural mechanisms of reward processing: An fMRI study
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, i.e., unconcernedness and lack of prosocial feelings, may manifest in Conduct Disorder (CD), but also in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These disorders have been associated with aberrant reward processing, while the influence of CU traits is unclear. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we examined whether CU traits affect the neural circuit for reward. A Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task was administered to 328 adolescents and young adults with varying levels of CU traits: 40 participants with ODD/CD plus ADHD, 101 ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kim Veroude, Daniel von Rhein, Roselyne J.M. Chauvin, Eelco V. van Dongen, Maarten J.J. Mennes, Barbara Franke, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Catharina A. Hartman, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Jeffrey C. Glennon, Jan K. Buitelaar Source Type: research

Odor Identification Deficit in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease is Associated with Hippocampal and Deep Gray Matter Atrophy
Even in early stages, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with olfactory deficit. We assess the association of volumetric differences in subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) structures and odor identification deficit (OID) in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), AD and normal controls (NCs), and relate findings to the current gold standard right sided memory measure, visual reproduction. Eighty subjects (19 aMCI; 42 CE; 19 NC) were included in this study. We obtained olfactory testing and normalized structural brain volumes from 3T T1 MRI scans. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jesper Hagemeier, Matthew R Woodward, Usama A Rafique, Chaitanya V Amrutkar, Niels Bergsland, Michael G Dwyer, Ralph Benedict, Robert Zivadinov, Kinga Szigeti Source Type: research

White Matter Structure in the Uncinate Fasciculus: Implications for Socio-Affective Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder
In this study, we assessed white matter structure in the left and right uncinate fasciculus in 18 high-functioning individuals with ASD and 18 group-matched typically developing (TD) controls using Diffusion Tensor Imaging. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea C. Samson, Robert F. Dougherty, Ihno A. Lee, Jennifer M. Phillips, James J. Gross, Antonio Y. Hardan Source Type: research

Lack of Association Between the Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin 1A Receptor: an in vivo PET Imaging Study in Healthy Adults
The serotonin neurotransmitter system is modulated in part by the uptake of synaptically released serotonin (5-HT) by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), and by specific serotonin autoreceptors such as the somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptor, which can limit serotonin neuron depolarization. However, little is known about how 5-HTT and 5-HT1A are related in vivo. To study this question, we reanalyzed positron emission tomography (PET) data obtained earlier in 40 healthy participants (21 females) using [11C]WAY-100635 for quantification of 5-HT1A binding and [11C](+)-McN-5652 for quantification of 5-HTT binding. (Source: Psychiat...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael Strupp-Levitsky, Jeffrey M. Miller, Harry Rubin-Falcone, Francesca Zanderigo, Matthew S. Milak, Gregory Sullivan, R. Todd Ogden, Maria A. Oquendo, Christine DeLorenzo, Norman Simpson, Ramin V. Parsey, J. John Mann Source Type: research

Differential neural processing of social exclusion in adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury: An fMRI study
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent in adolescence and has been suggested as an autonomous diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). Social rejection is as potential risk-factor for NSSI and depression in adolescence. Objectives of this study were to identify differences in neural processing of social rejection in depressed adolescents with and without co-morbid NSSI and healthy controls. Participants were 28 depressed adolescents (14 with co-morbid NSSI, 79% females) and 15 healthy controls, with an average age of 15.2 years (SD=1.8). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rebecca C. Groschwitz, Paul L. Plener, Georg Groen, Martina Bonenberger, Birgit Abler Source Type: research

Olfactory sulcus morphology in patients with current and past major depression
Olfactory deficits have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains largely unknown whether MDD is associated with abnormalities in olfactory sulcus morphology, a potential marker of olfactory system development. This magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the length and depth of the olfactory sulcus in 29 currently depressed patients, 27 remitted depressed patients, and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Both current and remitted MDD patients had significantly shallower olfactory sulci bilaterally as compared with controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tsutomu Takahashi, Yumiko Nishikawa, Murat Y ücel, Sarah Whittle, Valentina Lorenzetti, Mark Walterfang, Daiki Sasabayashi, Michio Suzuki, Christos Pantelis, Nicholas B. Allen Source Type: research

Abnormal interhemispheric resting state functional connectivity of the insula in heroin users under methadone maintenance treatment
This study aimed to examine 1) the differences in interhemispheric functional connections of the insula with the contralateral insula and other brain regions between heroin users under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and healthy controls, and 2) the association between heroin users ’ interhemispheric insular functional connectivity using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the results of urine heroin analysis. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peng-Wei Wang, Huang-Chi Lin, Gin-Chung Liu, Yi-Hsin Connie Yang, Chih-Hung Ko, Cheng-Fang Yen Source Type: research

Prognostic value of imbalanced interhemispheric functional coordination in early therapeutic efficacy in major depressive disorder
This study aims to explore the early response of antidepressant therapy by measuring the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) in major depressive disorder (MDD). Eighty-two MDD patients [n=42 treatment-responsive depression (RD) and n=40 non-responding depression (NRD)] and n=50 normal controls (NC) underwent clinical measures and a magnetic resonance imaging scan, and the VMHC values were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to determine the capability of altered VMHC to distinguish NRD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhenghua Hou, Xiaopeng Song, Wenhao Jiang, Yingying Yue, Yingying Yin, Yuqun Zhang, Yijun Liu, Yonggui Yuan Source Type: research

Decreased functional connectivity to posterior cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder
In this study, we combined independent component analysis and seed based connectivity analysis to study the posterior default mode network between 20 patients with MDD and 25 normal controls, as well as pre-treatment and post-treatment conditions of the patients. Both correlated and anti-correlated networks centered at posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were examined (PCC+ and PCC-). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 27, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rui Yang, Chengge Gao, Xiaoping Wu, Junle Yang, Shengbin Li, Hu Cheng Source Type: research

Lifetime Use of Cannabis from Longitudinal Assessments, Cannabinoid Receptor (CNR1) Variation, and Reduced Volume of the Right Anterior Cingulate
Lifetime measures of cannabis use and co-occurring exposures were obtained from a longitudinal cohort followed an average of 13 years at the time they received a structural MRI scan. MRI scans were analyzed for 88 participants (mean age = 25.9 years), 34 of whom were regular users of cannabis. Whole brain voxel based morphometry analyses (SPM8) were conducted using 50 voxel clusters at p=0.005. Controlling for age, familial risk, and gender, we found reduced volume in Regular Users compared to Non-Users, in the lingual gyrus, anterior cingulum (right and left), and the rolandic operculum (right). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shirley Y. Hill, Vinod Sharma, Bobby L. Jones Source Type: research

Comparison of Brain Activation Patterns during Executive Function Tasks in Hoarding Disorder and Non-Hoarding OCD
We examined differences in regional brain activation during tests of executive function in individuals with Hoarding Disorder (HD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop and Go/No-Go task. We found that during the conflict monitoring and response inhibition condition in the Go/No-Go task, individuals with HD had significantly greater activity than controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christina M. Hough, Tracy L. Luks, Karen Lai, Ofilio Vigil, Sylvia Guillory, Shiva M. Fekri, Eve Kupferman, Daniel H. Mathalon, Carol A. Mathews Source Type: research

Voxel-based morphometry to detect effect of ApoE on brain gray matter changes in Parkinson's Disease
The goal of the study was to determine association between APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter changes in PD patients, with or without dementia. Twenty-five PD patients with the APOE Ɛ4 (13 with dementia), 24 without Ɛ4 (12 with dementia), and 26 controls were selected. We found no significant differences between PD patients and controls, or between PD patients with and without the APOE Ɛ4 allele, with regard to VBM analysis. Our results provide no evidence of an association of the APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter degenerative changes in patients with PD, either with or without dementia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Giuseppe Nicoletti, David Neil Manners, Fabiana Novellino, Claudia Testa, Monica Gagliardi, Caterina Tonon, Raffaele Lodi, Aldo Quattrone Source Type: research

Comparison of Brain Activation Patterns during Executive Function Tasks in Hoarding Disorder and Non-Hoarding OCD
We examined differences in regional brain activation during tests of executive function in individuals with Hoarding Disorder (HD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop and Go/No-Go task. We found that during the conflict monitoring and response inhibition condition in the Go/No-Go task, individuals with HD had significantly greater activity than controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christina M. Hough, Tracy L. Luks, Karen Lai, Ofilio Vigil, Sylvia Guillory, Shiva M. Fekri, Eve Kupferman, Daniel H. Mathalon, Carol A. Mathews Source Type: research

Voxel-based morphometry to detect effect of ApoE on brain gray matter changes in Parkinson's Disease
The goal of the study was to determine association between APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter changes in PD patients, with or without dementia. Twenty-five PD patients with the APOE Ɛ4 (13 with dementia), 24 without Ɛ4 (12 with dementia), and 26 controls were selected. We found no significant differences between PD patients and controls, or between PD patients with and without the APOE Ɛ4 allele, with regard to VBM analysis. Our results provide no evidence of an association of the APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter degenerative changes in patients with PD, either with or without dementia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Giuseppe Nicoletti, David Neil Manners, Fabiana Novellino, Claudia Testa, Monica Gagliardi, Caterina Tonon, Raffaele Lodi, Aldo Quattrone Source Type: research

Cerebellar volume deficits in medication-na ïve obsessive compulsive disorder
In this study, we examined the cerebellar regional volume in a large sample of medication-na ïve OCD patients compared to matched healthy controls (HC). In 49 medication naïve right handed OCD patients and 39 age and sex matched HC, sub-region wise volume of cerebellum was extracted from the T1 weighted images using Spatially Unbiased Infra tentorial Template (SUIT) toolbox and compared u sing hypothesis driven, region of interest approach after clinical assessment with standard scales. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Dania Jose, Sunil V. Kalmady, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy Source Type: research

Cerebellar Volume deficits in Medication-na ïve Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
In this study, we examined the cerebellar regional volume in a large sample of medication-na ïve OCD patients compared to matched healthy controls (HC). In 49 medication naïve right handed OCD patients and 39 age and sex matched HC, sub-region wise volume of cerebellum was extracted from the T1 weighted images using Spatially Unbiased Infra tentorial Template (SUIT) toolbox and compared u sing hypothesis driven, region of interest approach after clinical assessment with standard scales. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Dania Jose, Sunil V. Kalmady, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy Source Type: research

Cerebellar Volume deficits in Medication-naïve Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
In this study, we examined the cerebellar regional volume in a large sample of medication-naïve OCD patients compared to matched healthy controls (HC). In 49 medication naïve right handed OCD patients and 39 age and sex matched HC, sub-region wise volume of cerebellum was extracted from the T1 weighted images using Spatially Unbiased Infra tentorial Template (SUIT) toolbox and compared using hypothesis driven, region of interest approach after clinical assessment with standard scales. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Dania Jose, Sunil V. Kalmady, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy Source Type: research

Associations between neural correlates of visual stimulus processing and set-shifting in ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa
In this study, we investigated whether brain activation in frontal and parietal regions during visual stimulus processing correlates with SS ability. Women currently ill with AN (AN; N=14), recovered women (REC; N=14) and healthy controls (HC; N=15), viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food pictures during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The Berg's Card Sorting Task was completed outside the scanner to measure SS. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hedvig Sultson, Floor van Meer, Nicole Sanders, Annemarie A. van Elburg, Unna N. Danner, Hans W. Hoek, Roger A.H. Adan, Paul A.M. Smeets Source Type: research

Regional grey matter volume and concentration in at-risk adolescents: Untangling associations with callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial features, or to co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The present study employed voxel-based morphometry to assess both grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter concentration (GMC) in a large representative at-risk sample of adolescents (n=134; mean age 17.7y), characterised by a broad range of CU trait and conduct disorder (...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Moran D. Cohn, Essi Viding, Eamon McCrory, Louise Pape, Wim van den Brink, Theo A.H. Doreleijers, Dick J. Veltman, Arne Popma Source Type: research

Associations between neural correlates of visual stimulus processing and set-shifting in ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa
In this study, we investigated whether brain activation in frontal and parietal regions during visual stimulus processing correlates with SS ability. Women currently ill with AN (AN; N=14), recovered women (REC; N=14) and healthy controls (HC; N=15), viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food pictures during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The Berg's Card Sorting Task was completed outside the scanner to measure SS. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hedvig Sultson, Floor van Meer, Nicole Sanders, Annemarie A. van Elburg, Unna N. Danner, Hans W. Hoek, Roger A.H. Adan, Paul A.M. Smeets Source Type: research

Regional grey matter volume and concentration in at-risk adolescents: Untangling associations with callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial features, or to co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The present study employed voxel-based morphometry to assess both grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter concentration (GMC) in a large representative at-risk sample of adolescents (n=134; mean age 17.7y), characterised by a broad range of CU trait and conduct disorder (...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Moran D. Cohn, Essi Viding, Eamon McCrory, Louise Pape, Wim van den Brink, Theo A.H. Doreleijers, Dick J. Veltman, Arne Popma Source Type: research

Body mass index and brain white matter structure in young adults at risk for psychosis – The Oulu Brain and Mind Study
We examined the effect of BMI on white matter (WM) microstructure in subjects with familial risk for psychosis (FR). We used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to explore the effect of BMI on whole brain FA in 42 (13 males) participants with FR and 46 (16 males) control participants aged 20 –25 years drawn from general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jenni Koivukangas, Lassi Bj örnholm, Osmo Tervonen, Jouko Miettunen, Tanja Nordström, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Sari Mukkala, Irma Moilanen, Jennifer H. Barnett, Peter B. Jones, Juha Nikkinen, Juha Veijola Source Type: research

White matter correlates of episodic memory encoding and retrieval in schizophrenia
Episodic memory (EM) impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are predictive of functional outcome and are a potential endophenotype of the disorder. The current study investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of EM encoding and retrieval in SZ with structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in 22 patients with SZ and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to investigate microstructural alterations in white matter (WM), while FreeSurfer surface-based analysis was used to determine abnormalities in grey matter (GM) and WM volumetrics and cortical...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amity E. Green, Rodney J. Croft, Jerome J. Maller, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Altered brain functional networks in people with Internet gaming disorder: Evidence from resting-state fMRI
In this study, we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the intrinsic topological properties of brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). 37 IGD subjects and 35 matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lingxiao Wang, Lingdan Wu, Xiao Lin, Yifen Zhang, Hongli Zhou, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong Source Type: research

Body mass index and brain white matter structure in young individuals at risk for psychosis – The Oulu Brain and Mind Study
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Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jenni Koivukangas, Lassi Björnholm, Osmo Tervonen, Jouko Miettunen, Tanja Nordström, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Sari Mukkala, Irma Moilanen, Jennifer H. Barnett, Peter B. Jones, Juha Nikkinen, Juha Veijola Source Type: research

White matter correlates of episodic memory encoding and retrieval in schizophrenia
Episodic memory (EM) impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are predictive of functional outcome and are a potential endophenotype of the disorder. The current study investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of EM encoding and retrieval in SZ with structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in 22 patients with SZ and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to investigate microstructural alterations in white matter (WM), while FreeSurfer surface-based analysis was used to determine abnormalities in grey matter (GM) and WM volumetrics and cortical...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amity E. Green, Rodney J. Croft, Jerome J. Maller, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Altered brain functional networks in people with Internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting-state fMRI
In this study, we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the intrinsic topological properties of brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). 37 IGD subjects and 35 matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lingxiao Wang, Lingdan Wu, Xiao Lin, Yifen Zhang, Hongli Zhou, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong Source Type: research

The neurobiology of self-knowledge in depressed and self-injurious youth
There is limited information regarding the neurobiology underlying non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in clinically-referred youth. However, the salience of disturbed interpersonal relationships and disrupted self-processing associated with NSSI suggests the neural basis of social processes as a key area for additional study. Adolescent participants (N=123; M=14.75 years, SD=1.64) were divided into three groups: NSSI plus depression diagnosis (NSSI), depression only (DEP), healthy controls (HC). In the scanner, participants completed an Interpersonal Self-Processing task by taking direct (own) and indirect (mothers', best fri...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karina Quevedo, Jodi Martin, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H. Pfeifer Source Type: research

The Neurobiology of Self-knowledge in Depressed and Self-injuriousYouth
There is limited information regarding the neurobiology underlying non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in clinically-referred youth. However, the salience of disturbed interpersonal relationships and disrupted self-processing associated with NSSI suggests the neural basis of social processes as a key area for additional study. Adolescent participants (N=123; M=14.75 years, SD=1.64) were divided into three groups: NSSI plus depression diagnosis (NSSI), depression only (DEP), healthy controls (HC). In the scanner, participants completed an Interpersonal Self-Processing task by taking direct (own) and indirect (mothers’, best f...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karina Quevedo, Jodi Martin, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H. Pfeifer Source Type: research

Working memory dysfunction associated with brain functional deficits and cellular metabolic changes in patients with generalized anxiety disorder
This study dealt with the neural functional deficits and metabolic abnormalities in working memory (WM) task with emotion-inducing distractors in patients with GAD. Fourteen patients with GAD and 14 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 3T. In response to the emotional distractors in WM tasks, the patients concurrently showed higher activity in the hippocampus and lower activities in the superior occipital gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and precentral gyrus compared to the controls. (Source: Psyc...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chung-Man Moon, Thirunavukkarasu Sundaram, Nam-Gil Choi, Gwang-Woo Jeong Source Type: research

Differential mesolimbic and prefrontal alterations during reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy
Schizotypy is associated with anhedonia. However, previous findings on the neural substrates of anhedonia in schizotypy are mixed. In the present study, we measured the neural substrates associated with reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy using functional MRI. The Monetary Incentive Delay task was administered to 33 individuals with schizotypy (18 positive schizotypy (PS),15 negative schizotypy (NS)) and 22 healthy controls. Comparison between schizotypy individuals and controls were performed using two-sample T tests for contrast images involving gain versus non-gain anticipation condi...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chao Yan, Yi Wang, Li Su, Ting Xu, Da-zhi Yin, Ming-xia Fan, Ci-ping Deng, Zhao-xin Wang, Simon S.Y. Lui, Eric F.C. Cheung, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

Sex differences in the relationship between heavy alcohol use, inhibition and performance monitoring: Disconnect between behavioural and brain functional measures
Previous research has reported mixed evidence of sex differences in the relationship between heavy alcohol use and deficits in behavioural control. Here, we examine sex differences in behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) markers of deficient inhibition. Participants were 71 young adults aged 18 –21, who either drank heavily regularly (i.e., four standard drinks on one occasion, at least once a month, n=33, 20 male) or drank heavily less often than this (including never, n=38, 21 male). They completed a stop-signal task while ERPs were recorded. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janette L. Smith, Jaimi M. Iredale, Richard P. Mattick Source Type: research

Working memory dysfunction associated with brain functional deficits and cellular metabolic changes in patients with generalized anxiety disorder
This study dealt with the neural functional deficits and metabolic abnormalities in working memory (WM) task with emotion-inducing distractors in patients with GAD. Fourteen patients with GAD and 14 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 3 T. In response to the emotional distractors in WM tasks, the patients concurrently showed higher activity in the hippocampus and lower activities in the superior occipital gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and precentral gyrus compared to the controls. (Source: Psy...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chung-Man Moon, Thirunavukkarasu Sundaram, Nam-Gil Choi, Gwang-Woo Jeong Source Type: research

Differential mesolimbic and prefrontal alterations during reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy
Schizotypy is associated with anhedonia. However, previous findings on the neural substrates of anhedonia in schizotypy are mixed. In the present study, we measured the neural substrates associated with reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy using functional MRI. The Monetary Incentive Delay task was administered to 33 individuals with schizotypy (18 positive schizotypy (PS),15 negative schizotypy (NS)) and 22 healthy controls. Comparison between schizotypy individuals and controls were performed using two-sample T tests for contrast images involving gain versus non-gain anticipation condi...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chao Yan, Yi Wang, Li Su, Ting Xu, Da-zhi Yin, Ming-xia Fan, Ci-ping Deng, Zhao-xin Wang, Simon S.Y. Lui, Eric F.C. Cheung, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

Sex differences in the relationship between heavy alcohol use, inhibition and performance monitoring: disconnect between behavioural and brain functional measures
Previous research has reported mixed evidence of sex differences in the relationship between heavy alcohol use and deficits in behavioural control. Here, we examine sex differences in behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) markers of deficient inhibition. Participants were 71 young adults aged 18-21, who either drank heavily regularly (i.e., four standard drinks on one occasion, at least once a month, n = 33, 20 male) or drank heavily less often than this (including never, n = 38, 21 male). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janette L. Smith, Jaimi M. Iredale, Richard P. Mattick Source Type: research

The relationship between self-referential processing-related brain activity and anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia
This study investigated an abnormality in brain activation associated with self-referential processing and its relationship with anhedonia in schizophrenia, specifically in self-related brain regions of interest. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and 25 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while rating the degree of relevance between faces (self, familiar other, or unfamiliar other) and words (positive, negative, or neutral). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jung Suk Lee, Eun Seong Kim, Eun Joo Kim, Joohan Kim, Eosu Kim, Seung-Koo Lee, Jae-Jin Kim Source Type: research

Preliminary differences in resting state MEG functional connectivity pre- and post-ketamine in major depressive disorder
Functional neuroimaging techniques including magnetoencephalography (MEG) have demonstrated that the brain is organized into networks displaying correlated activity. Group connectivity differences between healthy controls and participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) can be detected using temporal independent components analysis (ICA) on beta-bandpass filtered Hilbert envelope MEG data. However, the response of these networks to treatment is unknown. Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Allison C. Nugent, Stephen E. Robinson, Richard Coppola, Carlos A. Zarate Source Type: research

The relationship between self-referential processing-related brain activity and anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia
This study investigated an abnormality in brain activation associated with self-referential processing and its relationship with anhedonia in schizophrenia, specifically in self-related brain regions of interest. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and 25 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while rating the degree of relevance between faces (self, familiar other, or unfamiliar other) and words (positive, negative, or neutral). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jung Suk Lee, Eun Seong Kim, Eun Joo Kim, Joohan Kim, Eosu Kim, Seung-Koo Lee, Jae-Jin Kim Source Type: research

Preliminary Differences in Resting State MEG Functional Connectivity Pre- and Post-Ketamine in Major Depressive Disorder
Functional neuroimaging techniques including magnetoencephalography (MEG) have demonstrated that the brain is organized into networks displaying correlated activity. Group connectivity differences between healthy controls and participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) can be detected using temporal independent components analysis (ICA) on beta-bandpass filtered Hilbert envelope MEG data. However, the response of these networks to treatment is unknown. Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Allison C. Nugent, Stephen E. Robinson, Richard Coppola, Carlos A. Zarate Source Type: research

Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Veronika Vilgis, Li Sun, Jian Chen, Timothy J. Silk, Alasdair Vance Source Type: research

Amygdala response to explicit sad face stimuli at baseline predicts antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder
This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joanna Szczepanik, Allison C. Nugent, Wayne C. Drevets, Ashish Khanna, Carlos A. Zarate, Maura L. Furey Source Type: research

Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Veronika Vilgis, Li Sun, Jian Chen, Timothy J. Silk, Alasdair Vance Source Type: research

Amygdala Response to Explicit Sad Face Stimuli at Baseline Predicts Antidepressant Treatment Response to Scopolamine in Major Depressive Disorder
This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joanna Szczepanik, Allison Nugent, Wayne C. Drevets, Ashish Khanna, Carlos A. Zarate, Maura Furey Source Type: research

Affective lability and difficulties with regulation are differentially associated with amygdala and prefrontal response in women with Borderline Personality Disorder
The present neuroimaging study investigated two aspects of difficulties with emotion associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): affective lability and difficulty regulating emotion. While these two characteristics have been previously linked to BPD symptomology, it remains unknown whether individual differences in affective lability and emotion regulation difficulties are subserved by distinct neural substrates within a BPD sample. To address this issue, sixty women diagnosed with  BPD were scanned while completing a task that assessed baseline emotional reactivity as well as top-down emotion regulation. (Sou...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer A. Silvers, Alexa D. Hubbard, Emily Biggs, Jocelyn Shu, Eric Fertuck, Sadia Chaudhury, Michael F. Grunebaum, Jochen Weber, Hedy Kober, Megan Chesin, Beth S. Brodsky, Harold Koenigsberg, Kevin N. Ochsner, Barbara Stanley Source Type: research

Schizotypy and auditory mismatch negativity in a non-clinical sample of young adults
Schizophrenia may be conceptualised using a dimensional approach to examine trait-like expression such as schizotypy within non-clinical populations to better understand pathophysiology. A candidate psychosis-risk marker, the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is thought to index the functionality of glutamatergic NMDA receptor mediated neurotransmission. Although the MMN is robustly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, the association between MMN and schizotypy in the general population is under-investigated. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Samantha J. Broyd, Patricia T. Michie, Jason Bruggemann, Hendrika H. van Hell, Lisa-marie Greenwood, Rodney J. Croft, Juanita Todd, Rhoshel Lenroot, Nadia Solowij Source Type: research

Affective lability and difficulties with regulation are differentially associated with amygdala and prefrontal response in women with Borderline Personality Disorder
The present neuroimaging study investigated two aspects of difficulties with emotion associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD1): affective lability and difficulty regulating emotion. While these two characteristics have been previously linked to BPD symptomology, it remains unknown whether individual differences in affective lability and emotion regulation difficulties are subserved by distinct neural substrates within a BPD sample. To address this issue, sixty women diagnosed with BPD were scanned while completing a task that assessed baseline emotional reactivity as well as top-down emotion regulation. (Sou...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer A. Silvers, Alexa D. Hubbard, Emily Biggs, Jocelyn Shu, Eric Fertuck, Sadia Chaudhury, Michael F. Grunebaum, Jochen Weber, Hedy Kober, Megan Chesin, Beth S. Brodsky, Harold Koenigsberg, Kevin N. Ochsner, Barbara Stanley Source Type: research